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CHAPTER 1

GLOSSARY

Abacus: The earliest device where addition and subtraction can be carried out
rapidly and efficiently by positioning the beads appropriately.
ALU: The unit of a computing system which performs all mathematical and
logical operations.
Analog computer: A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuously
variable physical quantities such as electrical current.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute - A U.S. based national
organization that establishes uniform standards in several fields.
Application Any computer program used to create or process data, such as
software: text documents, spreadsheets, graphics, and so on.
BASIC: Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
Booting: Starting a computer. The term comes from the expression pulling
oneself up by ones own bootstraps.
Byte: The amount of memory required to store a single character. A byte is
comprised of eight bits.
CAD: Computer Aided Design-Use of computers to automate design operations.
CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing-Use of computers to automate
manufacturing operations.
CBT: Computer Based Training-The use of customized, interactive computer
tools (such as multimedia presentations displayed from CD-ROM or
online) for training purposes.
CPU: Central Processing Unit-The control unit and the logic unit of a computer
system are jointly known as the CPU. It is the brain of any computer
system.
Chip: A thin wafer of silicon on which integrated electronic components are
deposited.
COBOL: COmmon Business Oriented Language-A high-level programming
language developed for business data processing applications.
Computer: An electronic device used to process data, converting the data into
information that is useful to people.
Console: The part of a computer system that enables human operators to
communicate with the computer.
Control Unit: The part of the central processor which directs sequence of operations,
interprets the coded instruction, sees to the execution of program
instructions.
Data: A collection of facts in raw form that become information after proper
organization or processing.
Digital Computer: A computer that works with discrete quantities.
EDVAC: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer - An electronic
computing device similar to the ENIAC although smaller, faster, and
having greater capability. It was built in 1952.
ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator-The first all-electronic
digital computer developed by Mauchly and Eckert around 1946.
Fifth generation They will use a large number of processors working concurrently
computers: and independently.
First generation Computers built between 1949 and 1955 which used vacuum tubes.
computers:
First-generation A term applied to machine languages, which were the earliest
language: and crudest programming languages used with personal computers.
FORTRAN: FORmula TRANslation-A high-level, mathematically oriented
programming language used for scientific and engineering applications.
Fourth generation Computers built between 1975 and now. They use large scale
computers: integrated circuits, semiconductor memories and powerful high-level
languages and operating systems.
General purpose A computer capable of performing a variety of business and
computer: scientific applications.
Generation: In computer talk, it is a step in technology. It provides a framework for
the growth of the computer industry.
Hardware: The physical components of a computer system such as electronic,
magnetic, and mechanical devices.
Hertz (Hz): The frequency of electrical vibrations, or cycles, per second.
Higher-level A language designed to make programming easier through
language: the use of familiar English words and symbols.
Hybrid computer: A combination of an analog and a digital computer. Such a computer
system utilizes the measuring capability of an analog computer and the
counting capability of a digital computer.
Information: The result of data processing which can be used to help people make
decision.
Integrated circuit: IC-Refers to the miniaturization of electronic circuits such that thousands of components are formed on a small
chip of silicon or wafer.


K (Kilo): Used to represent 2
10
= 1024 in computers.

Leibnizs mechanical Caluculator: Developed by Gottfried Wilhem von Leibniz, which is an improved version of
the Pascaline by creating a machine that could also multiply.
Low-level languages: Programming languages that normally translate from one source
instruction to one object instruction. These languages are machine
dependent.
Machine language: A low-level language that is directly understandable by the computer
system.
Mainframe computer:A large, multiuser computer system designed to handle massive
amounts of input, output, and storage.
Megahertz (MHz): Equivalent to millions of cycles per second; a common measure of clock
speed.
Memory: A device or medium that can accept data, hold them, and deliver them on
demand at a later time.
Microcomputer: The smallest category of computer fabricated using a microprocessor,
and other integrated circuits, namely a ROM, RAM, and I/O interface
chips.

Microprocessor: A LSI chip which contains the entire CPU of a computer.
Microsecond: One-millionth of a second.
Millisecond: One-thousandth of a second.
Minicomputer: A relatively fast but small and inexpensive computer with somewhat
limited input/output capabilities.

Napier's bones It was invented ted by John Napier contains 9 different 'bones' or strips with
numbers marked to do multiplication.

Notebook computer: A small, portable computer with an attached flat screen, typically battery
or AC powered and weighing less than 10 pounds.
Pascal: A high-level programming language named after Blaise Pascal that
facilitates the use of structured programming techniques.
Personal computer: A small and inexpensive computer (usually a microcomputer) used by
individuals for carrying out personal jobs or for applications such as
entertainment, home management, and hobbies.
Processor: A unit of a computer system that interprets instructions and executes
them.
Register: High speed memory locations built directly into the ALU and used to
hold instructions and data currently being processed.
Second generation Computers built during the period 1955-64 which used transistors
computers: in CPU, magnetic core main memories, and high-level languages like
FORTRAN and COBOL for programming.
Second-generation Refers to assembly language, which is slightly more advanced and
language: English-like than machine languages (which are considered first-
generation languages).
Slide Rule The slide rule was based on Napier's ideas about logarithms to do
multiplications quickly and easily.
Software: The set of computer programs, procedures, and associated.
documentation related to the effective operation of a computer system.
Supercomputer: The largest, fastest, and most powerful type of computer.
Third generation Computers built between 1964 and 1975 that used integrated
computer: circuits in CPU.
Transistor: A controlled electronic switch fabricated using a semiconductor. It is
extensively used in the design of various electronic equipments.
UNIVAC: An acronym for Universal Automatic Computer. It was the first
commercially available computer.


CHAPTER 1 EXAMINATION TOOL KIT

PART A ONE mark questions & answers Very Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. What is a computer?
An electronic device used to process data, converting the data into information that
What are the important characteristics of a computer?
The important characteristics of a computer are Speed, Accuracy, Reliability and
Storage Capability.
is useful to people.

Q
2
. Which is the earliest computing machine?
Abacus is the earliest computing machine which emerged about 5000 years ago.
Q
3
. What are Napiers bones?
It is a set of 11 marked rods which are used for calculations by pacing rods side
by side.
Who invented the Pascaline?
Blaise Pascal
Q
4
. What is the advantage of the machine developed by Leibnizt over the Pascaline?
Pascaline designed by Bliase Pascal could only do addition, while Leibniz added an
extra feature to the same machine that could also multiply.
What is a slide rule?
It is a device invented William ougtread used to calculations.
Whre exactly weaving pattern stored in Jaquard loom?
It is stored in punched cards.


Q
5
. What is Charles Babbage known as?
Charles Babbage is known as father of computers.
Q
6
. What is the machine proposed by Babbage, to perform differential equations called
as?
Difference Engine.
Q
7
. Who is the father of computers?
Charles Babbage is the father of computers.
Q
8
. What concept of computing did Herman Hollerith use to find a faster way to
compute U.S. census?
Loom concept of computing was used by Herman Hollerith to find a faster way to
compute U.S. census.
Q
9
. What is the new name of the Tabulating Machine Company?
International Business Machine(IBM).
Q
10
. Who developed the first all-electronic computer?
John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly developed the first all electronic
computer.
Q
11
. What is the electronic relay computer Mark-I also called as?
It is also called as all electronic calculator.
Q
12
. Expand the term ENIAC.
ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
Q
13
. Expand the term EDVAC.
EDVAC- Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer.
Q
14
. What is the Von Neumann concept also called as?
Von Neumann concept is also called as stored program concept and conditional
control transfer.
Q
15
. Expand the term UNIVAC.
UNIVAC- UNIVersal Automatic Computer.
Q
16
. Which is the basic electronic component of the first generation systems?
Vaccum tubes.
Q
17
. Which is the basic electronic component of the second generation system?
Transistors.
Q
18
. Name some languages supported by second generation systems.
COBOL, FORTRAN.
Q
19
. What does IC stand for?
IC stands for Integrated Circuits
Q
20
. Who developed the IC?
Jack Kilby devloped the IC.
Q
21
. Expand the terms LSI and VLSI.
LSI - Large Scale Integration.
VLSI- Very Large Scale Integration.
Q
22
. Where are PCs used?
PCs (Personal Computers) are used for personal purpose and in home.
Q
26
. What are the components of the CPU?
The components of CPU are
a) Control Unit
b) Arithmetic and Logic Unit
c) Registers

Q
24
. What is a microcomputer?
The smallest category of computer fabricated using a microprocessor, and other
integrated circuits.
Q
25
. How are personal computers classified?
Personal Computers can be classified to two types
a) Desktops b) Portables

PART B TWO marks questions & answers Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. What are the fields where computers are used today?
Computers are used in Industries, Education Institutions, Business, Entertainment
and Multimedia, Science and Engineering.
Q
2
. Write a note on Pascaline.
Pascaline is the first mechanical adding machine invented by Bliase Pascal in 1642.
This machine uses a base of ten to perform calculations. But this machine was
limited to perform only addition.
Q
3
. Explain the important features of the difference engine.
The important features of difference engine are:
a) Difference engine was designed by Charles Babbage.
b) This machine was built to perform differential equations.
c) This machine was powered by steam, big as locomotive, which could
perform calculations and print results automatically.
Q
4
. Explain Charles Babbages role in the history of modern computers. Charles
Babbage is known as Father of Computers. Charles Babbage gave the idea of
modern computers. He developed machine to perform differential equations, called
as Difference Engine. He also initiated another machine called as Analytical Engine,
which used punch cards to encode the instructions.
Q
5
. Mention any two features of ENIAC.
The important features of ENIAC are:
a) It is the first electronic computer.
b) It consisted 18,000 vaccum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million
soldered joints.
Q
6
. Mention any two features of first generation computers.
The important features of first generation computers are:
a) Vaccum tubes were used.
b) Magentic drums were used as memory devices.
c) Low-level languages were used as programming languages.
Q
7
. What are the important features of the second generation systems?
The important features of second generation computers are
a) Transistors were used.
b) Magentic core was used as main memory devices.
c) High level languages were used as programming languages.
Q
8
. What are the important features of the third generation systems?
The important features of third generation computers are
a) Integrated circuits were used.
b) Operating Systems were introduced
c) They were faster, cheaper, smaller in size, portable.
Q
9
. What are the important features of the fourth generation systems?
The important features of fourth generation computers are
a) Circuits were builit on a small processor using LSI, VLSI, ULSI.
b) Introduction of microprocessors.
c) The concept of network, internet came to existence.
Q
10
. What are the important features of the fifth generation systems?
The important features of fifth generation computers are
a) Artificial intelligence methodology is used, where computers think
and act as humans.
b) Advancement in network technology.
c) Supercomputers were developed.
Q
11
. Explain the role of computers in education.
Computers are used in Education.
a) To teach students online
b) Students can work on different projects.
c) Presentations can be arranged that can be used for teaching.
Q
12
. Why are computers used in the industry? (any two)
Computers are used in industry
a) Products are designed using the software CAD and CAM.
b) Computers are used to generate bills, receipts.
c) The stock and inventory of the products can be computerised.
d) Computer Based Training is used to train people in the industry.
Q
13
. What are the applications of computers in business?
The applications of computers in business are
a) On-line shopping can be done on the web.
b) Home shopping and internet banking can be done through internet.
c) Share transaction can be done.
Q
14
. How are computers important in communication?
The importance of computers in communication are
a) Interaction from remote place can be done through internet called as
teleconfrencing.
b) Email
c) Used in satellite communication, which helps in internet, weather
forecasting, radio and television broadcasting.
Q
15
. Why is the computer called as a universal information manipulator?
Computer is called as universal information manipulator, because computers are
used to manipulate any kind of information to get their work done. Computers are
used store any kind of data such as voice, text, images.
Q
16
. Compare the features of micro and mini computers.
Micro Computers Minicomputers
a) Micro computers are personal Minicomputers are used
computers, which are used for for real-time applications.
general purpose.
b) Microcomputers are single processor Mini computers are
systems time-sharing systems.
Q
17
. Compare the features of mainframe and super computer.
Mainframce Computers Super Computers
Mainframe computers are Supercomputers are specially
computers that have huge storage designed computers that are used
capacity, high processing speed. for weather analysis, encryption
Mainframes are used in banks cracking, creation of animated
to process cheques or high pictures, parallel-processing
volumes of transaction applications.
They are multi-processor systems
Q
18
. What is the role of a control unit?
Control unit controls the input/output devices. It directs the input unit to input
data and the output unit to display data. It performs four basic operations.
a) Fetches an instrunction b) Decode the instruction
c) Executes the instruction d) Stores the result.
Q
19
. What are the functions of primary memory?
The functions of primary memory are:
a) The current application program being executed is stored.
b) Temporarily store the input data and the output data.
Q
20
. What is RAM?
The users can write information to RAM and read information from it. It has
random access property in which any memory location can be accessed in a
random manner. RAM stores the programs and data, which are currently required
by the CPU. RAM is volatile in nature, which means the information written to it is
retained, as long as power is on. As soon the power is off, data is lost. Data has to
be again reloaded when the power is on.
Q
21
. What is the difference between volatile and non-volatile memory.
Volatile memory : The information written into it is retained as long as the power
is on.
Nonvolatile memory : The information stored in it is not lost even when the
power supply is off.
Q
22
. Compare static and dynamic RAM.
Static RAM Dynamic RAM
a) Stores information as long as the Dynamic RAM loses data in a
power supply is on which requires very short time(a few milliseconds)
reloading of data, generally
every 2 milliseconds
b) Expensive, consumes more power Inexpensive, consumes less power.
c) Does not required to be refereshed Has to be refreshed periodically
Q
23
. Mention different types of ROM.
There are three types of ROM.
a) PROM - Programmable Read Only Memory
b) EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
c) EEPROM - Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Q
24
. What is the need for secondary storage devices?
Primary storage devices storage capacity is smaller. It cannot hold programs, data
of very huge capacity. So Secondary storage devices are required to store data
permanently.
Q
25
. Define track and sector.
Track : The surace of the plate in the hard disk is organized as a number of
concentric circles called as tracks.
Sectors : Each track is divided into sectors, where a sector is the basic unit of data
storage on a hard disk.
Q
26
. Explain the structure of a CD-ROM.
CD-ROM - Compact Disk Read Only Memory is a read only optical storage medium
capable of holding upto 682 MB of data. It is circularly shaped, which is coated
with a highly reflective material. Data recording on the disk is done by focusing a
laser beam on the surface of the spinning disk.
Q
27
. What is the difference between primary and secondary memory.(any two)
Primary memory Secondary memory
a) The size of the primary memory is The size of the secondary memory
small is larger
b) Stores the programs and data It is used to store large amount
currently needed by the CPU. of data and programs.
c) Processing is fast Processing is slow
d) Expensive Inexpensive
e) Volatile in nature Non-volatile in nature.
Q
28
. Explain the need for input and output.
Data must be input to the computer, inorder to execute a program in a computer.
When the data is input, the computer executes the data, produces the output. This
output must be produced either as a softcopy (as a file) or hardcopy(print outs). To
do this interaction, input and output unit is required. They are also called as
peripheral devices..
Q
29
. Write a note on keyboard.
Keyboard is an input device, used to give input to the computer. Keyboard has a set
of keys,where the keys can be used to give the input data. The arrangement of keys
is similar to that of typewriter, but keyboard has additional keys. There are three
categories of keys. They are:
a) Alphanumeric keys
b) Special keys
c) Function keys
Q
30
. Mention different types of mouse.
There are different types of mouse.
a) Mechanical Mouse
b) Optomechanical Mouse
c) Optical Mouse
Q
31
. Give the usage of trackball and joystick.
Trackballs are used in computerised workstations, such as radar consoles in an air
traffic control room, or sonar equipment on a ship or submarine. They are used in
CAD applicaitons. They are also used to play games.

Joysticks are often used to play video games. Joysticks are also used in cockpit of
aircraft, controlling machines like cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles. They
are also used in CAD applications.
Q
32
. Write a note on scanner.
When large amount of data has to be transferred onto computer, and typing the
data takes much time, then scanners are used. Scanner is a direct entry input
device, that converts data that has been scanned into digital format. The scanned
document can then be used for any kind of work.
Q
33
. Where are voice recognition systems used?
Voice recognition systems are used in Medical Transcription companies, aircrafts,
call centers, and so on.
Q
34
. What is the difference between hard copy and soft copy?
Hard copy-Printed or filmed output from a computer device in human readable
form.
Soft copy-Computer output which is displayed on the screen of a terminal and
provides no permanent copy.
Q
35
. Mention different types of printers.
The different types of printers are
a) Impact b) Nonimpact printers
Q
36
. Explain the working of a dot matrix printer.
Dot matrix printer belongs to Impact printers. This printer creates an image by
using a mechanism called a print head which contains a cluster of short pins
arranged in one or more columns. On receiving instructions from the computer, the
printer can push any of the pins out in any combination. When pushed out from
the cluster, the pins strike
Q
37
. Write a short note on plotters.
Plotters are special kind of printers. It produces images on the paper, which are
used to print large images, such as construction and engineering drawings, created
in a CAD system. Different types of plotters are pen plotters, ink jet plotters,
electrostatic plotters and thermal potters.
Q
38
. Write a note on monitor.
Monitor or Visual Display Unit are devices used to display both text and graphic
images from the computer. Monitors come in various sizes like 14 inch, 15 inch and
so on. Resolution is the number of dots displayed in the X and Y coordinates.
Larger screens are required for higher resolutions.
Q
39
. Write a note on light pen.
The light pen consists of a photoelectric cell, which is packed into a slender tube
having the dimension of a pen. It can detect light incident upon the display, when
held perpendicularly aganist the tube. A detect by the light pen can either be used
to cause an immediate interrupt to the computer through an interface. The time of
defect by the light pen determines the part of the memory that is being accessed at
the moment by the computer.
Q
40
. Write a note on touch pannel.
Touch panel are the devices the allow screen positions to be selected with the touch
of a finger. A touch panel is a transparent plate that fits over the CRT screen. When
the plate is touched the contact position is recorded by an optical, electrical or
acoustical method.

PART C FIVE marks questions Long Answer Questions

1. Briefly explain the history of computers.
2. Give the features of the first generation systems along with some important
computers of this generation.
3. Explain the importance and usage of computers in education and industry.
4. Explain the role of computers in science and engineering.
5. Discuss the characteristics of a computer in detail.
6. Discuss the classification of computers in detail.
7. Explain the functional units of a computer with a neat block diagram.
8. Write short notes on RAM and ROM.
9. Explain the working of any two input devices with suitable illustrations.
10. Explain the working of a touch panel and a light pen.
11. What are the applications of OCR, OMR, MICR and barcode readers?
12. Write a short note on digital cameras and smart cards as input devices.
13. Explain the working of impact printer.
14. Explain the working of any two non-impact printers.
15. Explain the working of joystick and trackball.
16. Explain the following :
a) plotter
b speaker


GLOSSARY

Auxiliary storage: A storage that supplements the primary internal storage of a computer.
Often referred to as secondary storage.
Bar code reader: An input device that converts a pattern of printed bars (called a bar code)
into a number that a computer can read.
Byte: The amount of memory required to store a single character. A byte is
comprised of eight bits.
Cache memory: A small high speed memory which is used to increase the speed of
processing by making current programs and data available to the CPU at
a rapid rate.
Cathode Ray Tube: An electronic tube with a TV screen that uses a vaccum tube as display
screen.
CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read-Only-Memory -The most common type of optical
storage medium. In CD-ROM, data is written in a series of lands and pits
on the surface of a compact disk (CD), which can be read by a laser in a
CD-ROM drive. A standard CD stores approximately 650 MB, but data
on a standard compact disk cannot be altered.
CD-ROM drive: A specialized type of disk drive, which enables a computer to read data
from a compact disk. Using a standard CD-ROM drive and compact disk,
the computer can only read data from the disk and cannot write data to
the disk.
Console: The part of a computer system that enables human operators to
communicate with the computer.
Cylinder: In a disk pack, a set of corresponding tracks in all the surfaces is called
a cylinder. All tracks of a cylinder are accessible by a single movement of
the access mechanism.
Disk: A flat, circular plate coated with a magnetic material on which data can
be stored by magnetization of portions of the flat surface.
Disk drive: A storage device that holds, spins, reads data from, and writes data to
disks.
Diskette: A low-cost; thin, flexible magnetic disk storage device used on small
computer systems. Also called a floppy disk.
Diskette drive: A device that holds a removable floppy disk when in use; read/write
heads read and write data to the diskette.
Dot matrix printer: A type of impact printer that creates characters on a page by using small
pins to strike an inked ribbon, pressing ink onto the paper. The
arrangement of pins in the print head creates a matrix of dots-hence the
devices name.
Dots per inch (dpi): A measure of resolution commonly applied to printers, scanners, and
other devices that input or output text or images. The more dots per inch, the higher
the resolution. For example, a printer with a resolution of 600 dpi, it can print 600
dots across and 600 down in a one-inch square, for a total of 360,000 dots in one
square inch.
Drum printer: A line printer that uses a solid, rotating, cylindrical drum on which the
characters to be printed are embossed.
DVD: Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk-A high- density optical
medium capable of storing a full-length movie on a single disk the size of
a standard compact disk (CD). DVDs can store several gigabytes of data.
Dynamic RAM: DRAM- The most common type of random access memory (RAM) used in
personal computers. While dynamic RAM is less expensive than static
RAM (SRAM), it must be recharged with electricity many times each
second in order to retain its contents. Dynamic RAM supports access
times of about 60 nanoseconds.
EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory-A semiconductor memory in
case of which it is possible to erase information stored in it by exposing it
to ultraviolet light. Later new information can be stored in it.
Flash memory: A type of nonvolatile memory, like ROM, which stores data even when the
systems power is off. Flash memory is commonly used in digital
cameras.
Flat-panel display: A thin, lightweight monitor used in laptop and notebook computers. Most
flat-panel displays use LCD techonology.
Giga Byte: GB-Equivalent to approximately one billion bytes; a typical measurement
of data storage.
Hard copy: Printed or filmed output from a computer device in human readable
form.
Hard disk: A non removable magnetic storage device included in most PCs. A stack
of aluminum or glass platters, each coated with iron oxide, enclosed in a
hard disk drive.
Impact printer: A printer which prints characters by causing hammers to strike against
the paper on which information is to be printed.
Ink jet printer: A type of nonimpact printer that produces images by spraying ink onto
the page.
Input device: A device used to bring information into a computer or other data
processing devices; -for example, a card reader.
Input/Output (I/O): Communications between the user and the computer or between
hardware components that result in the transfer of data.
Joystick: An input device used to control the movement of on-screen components;
typically used in video games.
K (Kilo): Used to represent 2
10
= 1024 in computers.
Keyboard: The most common input device, used to enter letters, numbers, symbols,
punctuation, and commands into the computer.
Kilo Byte: KB-Equivalent to 1,024 bytes; a common measure of data storage.
Laser printer: A very high speed printer that uses a combination of laser-beam and
electrophotographic techniques to create printed outputs at speeds in
excess of 13,000 lines per minute.
LCD monitor: Liquid Crystal Display - A flat-panel monitor on which an image is
created when the liquid crystal becomes charged; used primarily in
notebook and laptop computers.
Light pen: A pen shaped device that is used as an input device to computers by
writing or sketching on the screen of a cathode ray tube.
Line printer: A printer that appears to print one line at a time.
MICR: Magnetic Ink Character Recognition-An input device that can read cards
and paper documents printed with a special magnetic ink.

Megahertz (MHz): Equivalent to millions of cycles per second; a common measure of clock
speed.
Memory: A device or medium that can accept data, hold them, and deliver them on
demand at a later time.
Monitor: A display screen used to provide computer output to the user.
Mouse: An input device operated by rolling across a flat surface.
Nonimpact printer: A printer which performs some type of operation to the paper instead of
physically striking it (as in the case of an impact printer).
Nonvolatile: The tendency for memory to retain data even when the computer is
turned off (as is the case with ROM).
OCR: Optical Character Reader-An input device which can read characters
directly from an ordinary piece of paper by use of a scanning mechanism.
OMR: Optical Mark Reader-An input device that is able to interpret pencil
marks on paper media.
Output device: A hardware component, such as a monitor or printer, that returns
processed data to the user.
Output unit: The unit of a computer system that supplies information and results of
computation to the outside.
Peripherals: The various input/output devices and auxiliary storage units. of a
computer system.
Plotter: An output device used to create large-format hard copy; generally used
with CAD and design systems.
Pointing device: A device that enables the user to freely move an on-screen pointer and to
select text, menu options, icons, and other on-screen objects.
Primary memory: A section of the CPU that holds program instructions, input data,
intermediate results, and the output information produced during
processing.
PROM: Programming Read Only Memory-Similar to read only memory with the
exception that these chips can be reprogrammed by using special
external equipments.
RAM: Random Access Memory-A computers volatile or temporary memory,
which exists as chips on the motherboard near the CPU.
Register: High speed memory locations built directly into the ALU and used to
hold instructions and data currently being processed.
Resolution: The degree of sharpness of an image, determined by the number of pixels
on a screen, expressed as a matrix.
ROM: Read Only Memory-Special memory chips containing instructions which
can be read only.
Scanner: An input device used to copy a printed page into the computers memory
and transform the image into digital data.
Sector: A segment or division of a track on a disk.
Soft copy: Computer output which is displayed on the screen of a terminal and
provides no permanent copy.
System software: A computer program that controls the system hardware and interacts
with application software. The designation includes the operating system
and the network operating system.
Touch screen: An input/output device that accepts input directly from the monitor. The
user touches words, graphical icons, or symbols displayed on screen to
activate commands.
Track: In case of magnetic disk storage, one of many circular concentric rings
used for storing data.
Trackball: An input device that functions like an upside-down mouse, consisting of
a stationary casing containing a movable ball that is operated by hand.
Trackballs are used frequently with laptop computers.
.
Word Length: A measure of the size of a word, usually specified in units such as
character or bits.


CHAPTER 2 EXAMINATION TOOL KIT

PART A ONE mark questions & answers Very Short Answer Questions

Q
27
. What are the different kinds of memories?
There are two kinds of memories.
a) Primary memory and
b) Secondary memory.
Q
28
. Why is cache memory used?
A small high speed memory which is used to increase the speed of processing by
making current programs and data available to the CPU at a rapid rate.
Q
29
. How are primary memory classified?
Primary memory can be classified into two types.
a) RAM (Random Access Memory)
b) ROM (Read Only Memory)
Q
30
. What is the main memory of the computer called as?
Main memory of the computer is called as RAM.
Q
31
. Why is ROM used?
ROM is used to store firmware instructions that are used to check the functionality
of the hardware components and to load the operating system to the primary
memory. These instructions are stored permanently in ROM.
Q
32
. Abbreviate PROM.
PROM : Programmable Read Only Memory
Q
33
. Abbreviate EPROM.
EPROM : Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
Q
34
. What does CD-ROM stand for?
CD-ROM-Compact Disk Read Only Memory.
Q
35
. Name the device, which reads and writes information on a hard disk.
Magnetic Disk.
Q
36
. How are input and output devices classified?
Input and Output devices are classified as
a) Hard copy devices and
b) Non-hard-copy devices.
Q
37
. Name any two input devices.
Two input devices are Keyboard, Mouse.
Q
38
. Name any two output devices.
Two output devices are Monitor, Scanner.
Q
39
. What does mouse stand for?
Mouse - Mechanically Operated User Serial Engine.
Q
40
. Expand OCR.
OCR - Optical Character Recognition.
Q
41
. Expand OMR.
OMR - Optical Mark Reader
Q
42
. Expand MICR.
MICR - Magnetic Ink Character Recognition.
Q
43
. Expand Pixel.
Pixel-Picture element.
Q
44
. Define resolution of a monitor.
Resolution of a monitor refers to the number of dots displayed in the X (across) and
Y (down) coordinates.
Q
45
. Why are speakers used?
Speakers are used to listen music, voice data.

PART B TWO marks questions & answers Short Answer Questions

Q
19
. What are the functions of primary memory?
The functions of primary memory are:
a) The current application program being executed is stored.
b) Temporarily store the input data and the output data.
Q
20
. What is RAM?
The users can write information to RAM and read information from it. It has
random access property in which any memory location can be accessed in a
random manner. RAM stores the programs and data, which are currently required
by the CPU. RAM is volatile in nature, which means the information written to it is
retained, as long as power is on. As soon the power is off, data is lost. Data has to
be again reloaded when the power is on.
Q
21
. What is the difference between volatile and non-volatile memory.
Volatile memory : The information written into it is retained as long as the power
is on.
Nonvolatile memory : The information stored in it is not lost even when the
power supply is off.
Q
22
. Compare static and dynamic RAM.
Static RAM Dynamic RAM
a) Stores information as long as the Dynamic RAM loses data in a
power supply is on which requires very short time(a few milliseconds)
reloading of data, generally
every 2 milliseconds
b) Expensive, consumes more power Inexpensive, consumes less power.
c) Does not required to be refereshed Has to be refreshed periodically
Q
23
. Mention different types of ROM.
There are three types of ROM.
a) PROM - Programmable Read Only Memory
b) EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
c) EEPROM - Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Q
24
. What is the need for secondary storage devices?
Primary storage devices storage capacity is smaller. It cannot hold programs, data
of very huge capacity. So Secondary storage devices are required to store data
permanently.
Q
25
. Define track and sector.
Track : The surace of the plate in the hard disk is organized as a number of
concentric circles called as tracks.
Sectors : Each track is divided into sectors, where a sector is the basic unit of data
storage on a hard disk.
Q
26
. Explain the structure of a CD-ROM.
CD-ROM - Compact Disk Read Only Memory is a read only optical storage medium
capable of holding upto 682 MB of data. It is circularly shaped, which is coated
with a highly reflective material. Data recording on the disk is done by focusing a
laser beam on the surface of the spinning disk.
Q
27
. What is the difference between primary and secondary memory.(any two)
Primary memory Secondary memory
a) The size of the primary memory is The size of the secondary memory
small is larger
b) Stores the programs and data It is used to store large amount
currently needed by the CPU. of data and programs.
c) Processing is fast Processing is slow
d) Expensive Inexpensive
e) Volatile in nature Non-volatile in nature.
Q
28
. Explain the need for input and output.
Data must be input to the computer, inorder to execute a program in a computer.
When the data is input, the computer executes the data, produces the output. This
output must be produced either as a softcopy (as a file) or hardcopy(print outs). To
do this interaction, input and output unit is required. They are also called as
peripheral devices..
Q
29
. Write a note on keyboard.
Keyboard is an input device, used to give input to the computer. Keyboard has a set
of keys,where the keys can be used to give the input data. The arrangement of keys
is similar to that of typewriter, but keyboard has additional keys. There are three
categories of keys. They are:
a) Alphanumeric keys
b) Special keys
c) Function keys
Q
30
. Mention different types of mouse.
There are different types of mouse.
a) Mechanical Mouse
b) Optomechanical Mouse
c) Optical Mouse
Q
31
. Give the usage of trackball and joystick.
Trackballs are used in computerised workstations, such as radar consoles in an air
traffic control room, or sonar equipment on a ship or submarine. They are used in
CAD applicaitons. They are also used to play games.

Joysticks are often used to play video games. Joysticks are also used in cockpit of
aircraft, controlling machines like cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles. They
are also used in CAD applications.
Q
32
. Write a note on scanner.
When large amount of data has to be transferred onto computer, and typing the
data takes much time, then scanners are used. Scanner is a direct entry input
device, that converts data that has been scanned into digital format. The scanned
document can then be used for any kind of work.
Q
33
. Where are voice recognition systems used?
Voice recognition systems are used in Medical Transcription companies, aircrafts,
call centers, and so on.
Q
34
. What is the difference between hard copy and soft copy?
Hard copy-Printed or filmed output from a computer device in human readable
form.
Soft copy-Computer output which is displayed on the screen of a terminal and
provides no permanent copy.
Q
35
. Mention different types of printers.
The different types of printers are
a) Impact b) Nonimpact printers
Q
36
. Explain the working of a dot matrix printer.
Dot matrix printer belongs to Impact printers. This printer creates an image by
using a mechanism called a print head which contains a cluster of short pins
arranged in one or more columns. On receiving instructions from the computer, the
printer can push any of the pins out in any combination. When pushed out from
the cluster, the pins strike
Q
37
. Write a short note on plotters.
Plotters are special kind of printers. It produces images on the paper, which are
used to print large images, such as construction and engineering drawings, created
in a CAD system. Different types of plotters are pen plotters, ink jet plotters,
electrostatic plotters and thermal potters.
Q
38
. Write a note on monitor.
Monitor or Visual Display Unit are devices used to display both text and graphic
images from the computer. Monitors come in various sizes like 14 inch, 15 inch and
so on. Resolution is the number of dots displayed in the X and Y coordinates.
Larger screens are required for higher resolutions.
Q
39
. Write a note on light pen.
The light pen consists of a photoelectric cell, which is packed into a slender tube
having the dimension of a pen. It can detect light incident upon the display, when
held perpendicularly aganist the tube. A detect by the light pen can either be used
to cause an immediate interrupt to the computer through an interface. The time of
defect by the light pen determines the part of the memory that is being accessed at
the moment by the computer.
Q
40
. Write a note on touch pannel.
Touch panel are the devices the allow screen positions to be selected with the touch
of a finger. A touch panel is a transparent plate that fits over the CRT screen. When
the plate is touched the contact position is recorded by an optical, electrical or
acoustical method.

PART C FIVE marks questions Long Answer Questions

8. Write short notes on RAM and ROM.
9. Explain the working of any two input devices with suitable illustrations.
10. Explain the working of a touch panel and a light pen.
11. What are the applications of OCR, OMR, MICR and barcode readers?
12. Write a short note on digital cameras and smart cards as input devices.
13. Explain the working of impact printer.
14. Explain the working of any two non-impact printers.
15. Explain the working of joystick and trackball.
16. Explain the following :
a) plotter
b speaker



CHAPTER 3
GLOSSARY

Adder: A logic circuit capable of performing the sum of two or more quantities.
ASCII: A 7-bit binary code developed by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) to represent symbolic, numeric, and alphanumeric
characters.
Base: The total number of digits (symbols) available to represent numbers in a
positional number system.
BCD: Binary Coded Decimal-One of the early coding systems used by
computers which is based on the idea of converting each digit of a
decimal number into its binary equivalent rather than converting the
entire decimal value into a pure binary form.
Binary: A characteristic or property involving a selection, choice, or condition in
which there are two possibilities.
Binary number The binary number system gets its name from the fact that it
system: includes only two numbers: 0 and 1. In computer storage and memory systems, the
numeral 0 represents off, and a 1 represents on.
Bit: Acronym for binary digit which stands for one binary piece of
information. This can be either 0 and 1.
Complement: For a number which has n digits in it, a complement is defined as the
difference between the number and the base raised to the nth power
minus one.
Decimal number The system that uses 10 digits to represent numbers, also called
system: base 10.
EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Inter-change Code-An 8-bit binary code
developed by IBM to represent symbols and numeric and alphanumeric
characters; most commonly used on IBM mainframe computers
Hexadecimal A number system using a base of 16. Its digits range from 0 to F.
number system: It is commonly used as a shortcut notation for groups of four binary
digits.

CHAPTER 2 EXAMINATION TOOL KIT


PART A ONE mark questions & answers Very Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. Give an example for non-positional number system.
Roman number system is an example for non-positional number system
Q
2
. What is the drawback of non-positional number system?
In a non-positional number system it is very difficult to represent a large numbers,
because there is no definite positional value defined for each digit in a number.
Q
3
. Give an example for positional number system.
Decimal number system is an example for positional number system.
Q
4
. Define the base of the number system.
The base of the number system defines the total number of different symbols
available in the number system.
Q
5
. What is the expansion of bit?
The expansion of bit is Binary DigIT.
Q
6
. Define MSB.
MSB stands for Most Significant Bit, it is the bit that has the largest weight in the
number. It can also be defined as leftmost bit in the number.
Q
7
. Define LSB.
LSB stands for Least Significant Bit, it is the bit that has the least weight in the
number. It can also be defined as rightmost bit in the number.
Q
8
. Convert 1010011.110
(2)
to decimal.
1010011.110
(2)
=
1 2
6
+0 2
5
+1 2
4
+ 0 2
3
+ 0 2
2

+ 1 2
1

+1 2
0

+ 1 2
-1
+ 1 2
-2
+ 0 2
-3

= 164 + 032 + 116+ 08+ 04 + 12 + 11 + 11/2 + 11/4 + 01/8
= 64 + 16 + 2 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/4+0
= 83 + 0.5+0.25+0
= 83.75
(10)

Q
9
. Convert 27
10
to binary.

2 27
2 13 remainder 1
2 6 remainder 1
2 3 remainder 0
2 1 remainder 1
0 remainder 1
Thus 27
(8)
= 11011
(2)

Q
10
. Convert 27
8
to decimal.
27
(8)
= 2 8
1
+ 7 8
0

= 2 8 + 7 1
= 23
(10)

Q
11
. Convert 79
10
to octal.

8 79
8 9 remainder 7
8 1 remainder 1
0 remainder 1
Thus 79
(10)
= 117
(8)


Q
12
. Convert AD16 to decimal.

AD
(16)
= A 16
1
+ D 16
0

= A 16 + D 1
= 10 16 + 13 1
= 160 + 13
= 173
(10)
.
Q
13
. Convert 17110 to hexadecimal.

16 171
16 10 remainder 11 - B
16 0 remainder 10 - A
Thus 171
(16)
= AB
(16)

Q
14
. What is the weight of the LSB of a 8-bit number?
The weight of of the LSB of an 8 bit number is 0.
Q
15
. What is the weight of the MSB of a 16-bit number?
The weight of the MSB of an 16 bit number is 15.
Q
16
. What is the expansion of ASCII?
The expansion of ASCII is American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Q
17
. What is the expansion of EBCDIC?
The expansion of EBCDIC is Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
Q
18
. How do you represent a signed data?
Signed data is represented by adding another bit to the number in the MSB. If 0 is
added to MSB, then it is a positive number, if 1 is added to to LSB, then it is a
negative number.
Q
19
. Write 1s complement of 10100101
(2)
.
1s complement of 10100101
(2)
is 01011010
(2)
.
Q
20
. Write 2s complement of 11010111
(2)
.
2s complement of 11010111
(2)
=
1s complement of 11010111
(2)
is 00101000
(2)

By adding 1 to LSB of 00101000+1
(2)
= 00101001
(2)-


PART B TWO marks questions & answers Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. Mention different types of number systems.
Different types of number systems are :
a) Decimal number system b) Binary number system
c) Octal number system and d) Hexadecimal number system.
Q
2
. What is meant by positional number system?
A number system in which each symbol has a weight is called positional number
system. For example in a positional number system, positional weight is allotted to
each digit in the number.
Q
3
. What is the use of binary number system over decimal number system?
The decimal number system contains 10 numbers. It is difficult to design electronic
device which can work with 10 different voltage levels (each one representing one
decimal number). In case of binary system, there are 2 numbers. It is easy to
represent in an electronic device since it works with 2 numbers 1 and 0 which can
be represented with two voltage levels.
Q
4
. Convert 1673
(10)
to binary, octal number systems
2 1673
2 836 remainder 1
2 418 remainder 0
2 209 remainder 0
2 104 remainder 1
2 52 remainder 0
2 26 remainder 0
2 13 remainder 0
2 6 remainder 1
2 3 remainder 0
2 1 remainder 1
2 0 remainder 1
Thus 1673
(10)
= 11010001001
(2)


= 11010001001
(2
To Octal.
Group the binary number 11010001001
(2)
as group of three bits starting at the LSB.

Thus 11010001001
(2)
= 3211
(8)
.
Q
5
. Convert (1673)10 to hexadecimal.
(1673)
10
to hexadecimal.

16 1673
16 104 remainder 9
16 6 remainder 8

Thus 1673
(16)
= 689
(10)

Q
6
. Convert (1111.111)2 to decimal.
1 2
3

+ 1 2
2
+ 1 2
1
+ 1 2
0
+ 1 2
-1
+ 1 2
-2
+ 1 2
-3

= 1 8 + 1 4 + 1 2 + 1 1 + 1 1/2 + 1 1/4 + 1 1/8
= 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 + 1 0.5 + 1 0.25 + 1 0.125
= 15+0.875.
= 15.875
(10)
.
Q
7
. Convert (79.35)16 to decimal.
(79.35)
16
to decimal.
= 7 16
1
+ 9 16
0
+ 3 16
-1
+ 5 16
-2

= 7 16 + 9 1 + 3 1/16 + 5 1/256
= 112 + 9 + 0.1875 + 0.01953
= 121. 207
(10)
.
Q
8
. Write a note on ASCII code.
Computer handles numeric and alphanumeric data. Alphanumeric data is a
combination of numeric and text values. To represent alphanumeric data in the
computer, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is used.
ASCII is used in most microcomputers and minicomputers. ASCII code is a 7 bit
code, which means it can store 2
7
= 128 code groups, which is sufficient to
represent all the characters on keyboard.
Q
9
. Write a note on EBCDIC.

ASCII can represent 128 characters. So to represent 256 characters in the keyboard
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange) is used. This coding scheme
was developed by IBM, used in mainframes. This coding scheme follows 8 bit code.
Q
10
. Explain the use of 2s complement.
2s complement is used to represent signed numbers. If the number is positive, the
magnitude is represented in its binary form, and a sign bit of 0 is added to the
MSB.

If the number is negative, the magnitude is represented in binary form, and a sign
bit of 1 is added to the MSB. Also using 2s complement subtraction of binary
numbers can be done by addition of binary numbers. Therefore, a digital computer
can have only one circuit that performs both addition and subtraction, which saves
hardware resource.
Q
11
. Write 2s complement of 10100101.
2s complement of 10100101
(2)
.
Convert 10100101
(2)
to 1s complement. 1s complement of 10100101
(2)
is
01011010
(2)
. Add 1 to LSB.
= 01011010 +1
= 01011011
(2)

Therefore 2s complement of 10100101
(2)
is 01011011
(2)
.
Q
12
. Add 11010111 and 10101011.
11010111
(2)
+ 10101011
(2)
.

= 11010111
10101011

110000010

Q
13
. Subtract (12)10 - (5)10 using 1s complement.
(12)
10
(5)
10
using 1s complement

Binary equivalent of minuend, i.e.,12 is 1100
(2)
.

Binary equivalent of subtrahend, i.e., 5 is 0101
(2)
.

1s complement of subtrahend = 1010
Add minuend and 1s complement of subtrahend
1100
+ 1010
10110
1
0111 which is +7.
Q
14
. Subtract (13)10 - (7)10 using 2s complement.
(13)
10
(7)
10
using 2s complement.

Binary equivalent of minuend, i.e., 13 is 1101
(2)
.
Binary equivalent of subtrahend, i.e., 7 is 0111
(2)
.

1s complement of subtrahend is 1000
(2)
.
2s complement of subtrahend = 1000
(2)
+ 1
= 1001
(2)
.

Add minuend to the 2s complement of subtrahend.
1101
1001

10110
Remove the carry, i.e., 1 and the answer is 0110
(2)
which is 4.


PART C FIVE marks questions Long Answer Questions

1. (11001001.1011)
2
= ( ? )
10
= ( ? )
8
= ( ? )
16
2. (3452)
10
= ( ? )
2
= ( ? )
8
= ( ? )
16
3. (FACE)
16
= ( ? )
2
= ( ? )
8
= ( ? )
10

4. Explain different types of computer codes.
5. Explain subtraction using 1's complement with an example.
6. Explain subtraction using 2's complement with an example.

PART D TEN marks questions Essay type questions

1. Evaluate : (i) BEAD
(16)
= ( )
10
= ( )
2
= ( )
8

(ii) 23
(10)
+ 34
(10)
using binary addition.
(iii) 25
(10)
- 14
(10)
using 1's and 2's complement.















CHAPTER 3
GLOSSARY
Bottom-up design: A design method in which system details are developed first, followed by
major functions or process.
Branch: A control structure that selects one of possibly several options or paths
in the flow of control, based upon the value of some expression.
Condition: A Boolean expression used to determine the action of a selection or
looping control structure.
Conditional A feature of selection structure programming that directs
statement: program flow by branching to one part of the program or another
depending on the results of a comparison.
Control structure : A construct that determines the flow of control in part of a program and
is usually represented by a statement.
Design phase: A phase in the life-cycle of a software system during which the detailed
design of the system selected in the study phase occurs.
Development phase: A phase in the life-cycle of a software system during which a system is
constructed to meet the requirements specified in the design phase.
Documentation: Written descriptions, specifications, design, code, and components
internal and external to a program.
Exit condition: In programming, a condition that must be met in order for a loop to stop
repeating.
Flowline: In a flowchart, flow lines with arrowheads are used to indicate the flow of
operation, that is, the exact sequence in which the instructions are to be
executed.
Jump: A jump is used to alter the normal sequence control of the program.
Logical error: An error that occurs when the actual logic of a program is different from
the desired logic.
Loop: A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a terminal
condition occurs.
Modular approach: Dividing a project into segments and smaller units in order to simplify
the analysis, design and programming efforts.
Module: A self-contained collection of steps that solves a problem or subproblem.
Procedure: In programming, a term referring to blocks of reusable code. Also called a
subroutine or a routine.
Sequence structure: A type of control structure in which a computer executes lines of code in
the order in which they are written.
Structured design: A system design approach in which a difficult problem is broken into
smaller problems that are small enough to mange but independent
enough to solve separately.
System analysis: A detailed step-by-step investigation of related procedures to see what
must be done and the best way of doing it.
System design: Pertains to a detailed description of the new system that has been
selected during study phase.
Top-down approach:A disciplined approach to system design or program design in which top-
level functions are decomposed into a hierarchy of understandable
lower-level modules for better management and easy handling.
Unconditional A program instruction that causes the program control to flow out
transfer: of normal sequence unconditionally.

CHAPTER 3 QUESTIONS DATABASE
PART A ONE mark questions & answers Very Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. Define problem solving.
Problem solving can be defined as the task of expressing the solution of complex
problems in terms of simple operations understood by the computer.
Q
2
. What do we analyze in the stage of problem definition?
In the stage of problem definition, the problem has to be analyzed to decide whether
the problem can be solved or not. In this stage, what to be done has to be analyzed,
not how to do it.
Q
3
. What is the end result of the problem analysis stage?
The end result of problem analysis is the selection of a method, that can be
implemented on a computer or the solution can be obtained by improving the
current solution.
Q
4
. Why are design tools important in designing a solution?
To represent solution as a sequence of well-defined steps that will input and
manipulate the data, and produce the desired output, design tools are important in
designing a solution.
Q
5
. What is the approach of dividing a problem into sub-problems called as?
The approach of dividing a problem into sub-problems called as Top-down
design.
Q
6
. Define top-down design.
Top-down design is the task of dividing a problem into sub-problems, and then
dividing the sub-problems further, until it can be implemented.
Q
7
. Define stepwise refinement.
Stepwise refinement is the process of refining the solution of a problem at each
stage, in order to get efficient solution.
Q
8
. What is a module?
A self-contained collection of steps that solves a problem or subproblem is called as
module.
Q
9
. What is an algorithm?
An algorithm is a step by step representation of a solution to a problem or a
sequence of precise and unambiguous instructions for solving a problem in a finite
number of operations.
Q
10
. Define a flowchart.
A flowchart is a pictorial or graphical representation of a solution to a given
problem.
Q
11
. How are flowcharts classified?
Flowcharts are classified into two types
a) Program Flowchart
b) System Flowchart
Q
12
. Define coding.
The process of converting the representation of a solution (either algorithm or
flowchart) into a set of instructions in a programming language is called as coding.
Q
13
. What do we mean by debugging?
The process of detecting and correcting errors in a program is called as debugging.
Q
14
. What is the function of a compiler?
Compiler is a software that checks the program for errors, and if it is error free, it
converts the source program written in a high level language into machine
language.
Q
15
. Define source program.
Source program is the program written in high level language.
Q
16
. Define object program.
The machine language program generated by the compiler is referred to as object
program.
Q
17
. What does syntax refer to?
Syntax refers to the set of rules, which should be followed while creating every
statement and structure in a program.
Q
18
. What are syntax errors?
An error that occurs due to the wrong usage of syntax is called as syntax error.
Q
19
. What does semantics refer to?
Semantics refers to logic, which is followed in developing a solution.
Q
20
. What are semantic errors?
An error, which occurs, due the incorrect logic in a solution is called as semantic
error.
Q
21
. What are logical errors?
If the correct translation of an algorithm or flowchart causes the program to
produce wrong results, such error is called as logical errors.
Q
22
. What do we mean by runtime errors?
Errors, which occurs during the execution of a program is called as run time errors.
Q
23
. Define testing.
The process of checking whether the program works as per the requirements of the
user is called testing. It is also defined as the process, whether the program is
producing correct results.
Q
24
. What is the difference between verification and validation?
Verification is the process of checking whether the logic implemented to find the
solution is correct or not.
Validation is the process of checking inputs given are correct and proper outputs
are generated.
Q
25
. What is program maintenance?
The process of updating or providing new versions of the program, so that the
program meets the present day requirements of the user.
Q
26
. What are the different basic programming constructs?
The three basic programming constructs include
a) Sequence b) Selection c) Iteration
Q
27
. Define sequence.
Sequence is the ability of a programming language to execute the statements or
modules of a program one after the other from the beginning to the end.
Q
28
. Define selection.
Selection is the ability of a programming language to allow the user to decide on the
execution of a certain set of statements based on a requirement or condition.
Q
29
. Define iteration.
Iteration is the ability of a programming language to allow the user to repeat the
execution of a certain set of statements again and again until a requirement or
condition is satisfied.
Q
30
. What is the if-else construct also called as?
If-else construct is also called as Two-way branch construct.
Q
31
. Which construct is also called as the multiple-way branch construct?
If-else-if statement is also called as multiple-way branch construct.
Q
32
. What statements can be used to implement iteration?
The statements that can be used to implement iteration are:
a) while b) do-while c) for
Q
33
. What is the use of the control variable in for statement?
Control variable is used to initialize the value, and to keep track the number of
times for loop is executing.

PART B TWO marks questions & answers Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. What are the stages in problem solving?
The different stages in problem solving are:
a) Problem definition
b) Problem analysis
c) Design of a solution
d) Coding
e) Testing and Debugging
f) Documentation of program
g) Program enhancement or maintenance.
Q
2
. What should we try to do in the stage of problem definition?
The problem has to be understood by the user. Without understanding the problem
thoroughly, it is not wise to proceed to the design of solution. User must also
analyze what must be done rather how to do it. User has to get exact specification
of the problem, and the tasks to be performed.
Q
3
. What are the considerations of proper input specifications?
The considerations of proper input specifications are
a) What values should be provided to the program?
b) In which order the input values have to be provided?
c) In what format the input values have to be provided?
d) What is the accuracy of the input data?
e) What is the input device and what are the range of values that have to be
provided?
Q
4
. What are the questions to be answered for generating a proper output?
The questions to be answered to generate a proper output are:
a) What are the outputs generated by the program?
b) What is the format of the outputs?
c) What is the output device?
d) How the outputs are displayed?
Q
5
. What are the essential characteristics of an algorithm?
The essential characteristics of algorithm are:
a) Every step of algorithm should perform a definite task.
b) Ambiguity should not occur at any step.
c) There should be finite number of steps.
d) Simple statements and structures have to be used.
e) Every algorithm should lead to a unique solution of the problem.
f) An algorithm should be able to handle unexpected errors.
Q
6
. What are the steps involved in developing algorithms?
The steps involved in developing algorithms are:
a) Clearly understand the problem statement so that proper algorithm can be
evolved.
b) Study the outputs to be generated so that the input can be specified.
c) Design the process, which will produce the desired result after taking the input.
d) Refine the process.
e) Test the algorithm, by giving the test data and check whether proper output is
obtained. If not, modify the algorithm and recheck the algorithm.
Q
7
. What are the symbols used in flowcharts?
The symbols used in flowchart are:

SYMBOLS PURPOSE
TERMINAL:The beginning, end, or a point of interruption in a
program.

INPUT/OUTPUT Input or output data or information

PROCESSING Represents calculations, data manipulations or
information processing.

PREPARATION [ Looping ] An Instruction or group of
instructions which changes the program.

DECISION Represents a comparison, a question or a decision
that determines alternative paths to be followed.

CONNECTOR An entry from, or an exit to, another part of the
program flowchart.

FLOW DIRECTION The direction of processing or data flow.

Q
8
. How does algorithms and flowcharts help a computer programmer?
By the use of algorithms, programmer can express his logic in step-by-step and
which is easy to understand. Once the algorithm is developed, this algorithm can
be translated into any language. Algorithm is independent of any programming
language, so it is very easy to understand.

Flowchart is the pictorial representation of algorithm. Flowcharts provide an
excellent means of communication, which is easy to understand. It is independent
of programming language, which can be easily converted to program.
Q
9
. What is the difference between program and system flowcharts?
Program flowchart represents a diagrammatic representation of a sequence of
instructions for solving a problem. System flowchart indicates the flow of data
throughout a data processing system, as well as the flow into and out of the
system.
Q
10
. What are the steps involved in developing flowcharts?
The steps involved in developing flowcharts are:
a) Clearly understand the problem statement so that a proper flowchart can be
evolved.
b) Study the outputs to be generated so that the input can be specified.
c) Design the process, which will produce the desired result after taking the input.
d) Refine the process.
e) Test the flowchart with the input data, and check whether the desired output is
obtained. If not, modify the process and recheck the process.
Q
11
. What is the sequence of steps followed in debugging a program?
The steps followed in debugging a program are:
a) The program is first compiled. During the process of compilation the compiler
detects certain types of errors called as syntax errors.
b) All the detected errors are corrected and the program is recompiled. The process
is repeated till no errors are detected.
c) The program is then executed. During the execution of a program certain errors
called as semantic errors are detected. Semantic errors normally occur due the
wrong use of logic.
d) Once all the errors are corrected the program is recompiled again and executed.
Q
12
. What is the difference between a source and object program?
Source program is the program created by the user in high level language.
The compiler converts this source program into machine language. This program is
called as object program.
Q
13
. What are the different types of errors?
The different types of errors are:
a) Syntax error
b) Semantic error
Q
14
. Compare between syntax and semantic errors.
Semantic errors are the errors, which occurs due to the wrong use of logic.
Compiler does not detect these errors.
Syntax errors are the errors, which occurs due to the wrong use of syntax.
Compiler detects the errors, and indicates the error, in which line the error is
occurring.
Q
15
. Explain the importance of program documentation.
Program documentation is the process of explaining the logic that is used in the
program. This helps the users, to easily use the program, understand and maintain
it. If the program is well documented, other programmers may modify the program
to meet the current requirements of the user.
Q
16
. What are the reasons for which we will have to perform program
maintenance?
Program maintenance may be required for the following reasons:
a) New errors or bugs, which were not detected during development and testing
were detected during the usage of the program.
b) The user requirements have changed over a period of time, and the program has
to be modified to suite the current user requirements.
c) The existing program is not functioning to the user requirements, because the
user business have expanded.
d) The user has purchased a new computer or hardware and the program is not
functioning properly in the new system.
e) The user wants his program to be changed as per the current technology.
Q
17
. Explain the sequence construct with a suitable example.
Sequence construct is the ability of a programming language to execute the
statements or modules of a program, one after the other from the beginning to the
end.
Example : Block A

Block B

Block C

First Block A is executed, followed by Block B and then by Block C, There is always
one entry point and one exit point. The flow is one direction.
Q
18
. What are the statements, which can be used to implement selection, construct.
Selection construct can be implied to the following statements.
a) Simple-if
b) If-else
c) If-else-if
d) Multiple selection
Q
19
. Explain the working of the simple-if construct.
Simple-if structure is also called as one-way branch. The structure helps the
programmer to decide whether a particular set of statements should be executed or
not. The syntax of simple-if statement is
If (test condition)
{
Statements A;
}
Statements B;
The blocks of statements A is executed only when the test condition is true, after
which blocks of statements B is executed. If the condition is false, Statements B is
executed.
Q
20
. Explain the working of the if-else construct.
If-else construct is called as Two-way branch. The syntax of the construct is
If (condition)
{
Statements A;
}
else
{
Statements B;
}

The blocks of statements A is executed only when the test condition is true, else
blocks of statements B is executed.
Q
21
. When do we use the nested-if construct?
Nested if construct is used when the statements has to be executed based on a set
of conditions. If the condition is true, statements are executed.
Q
22
. Explain the working of the multiple selection construct.
When there are too many if constructs used, complexity of the program increases.
To avoid this, multiple selection statement is used. The statement tests the value of
a variable against a list of values and when a match is found the corresponding
block of statement is executed.

PART C FIVE marks questions Long Answer Questions

1. Explain the problem definition step with a suitable example.
2. Explain the process of problem analysis with a suitable example.
3. Write an algorithm to swap the values of two numbers.
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of algorithms?
5. Write an algorithm to convert temperature in Fahrenheit to Celsius
( C = (F-32) 5/9).
6. Write an algorithm to swap the values of two variables using a temporary
variable.
7. Write an algorithm to swap the values of two variables without using a
temporary variable.
8. Write an algorithm to input amount in total paise and find the number of
rupees and paise in the input.
9. Write an algorithm to input total days and find the number of years, months
and days in the input.
10. Write an algorithm to calculate the total commission of a salesman given
that if the sale is more than Rs 1000/- he gets a commission of 15%
otherwise a commission of 10%.
11. Write an algorithm to find the GCD and LCM of two numbers.
12. Write an algorithm to find the largest and smallest of 10 numbers.
13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of flowcharts?
14. Draw a flowchart to find the largest of three numbers.
15. Draw a flowchart to calculate simple interest.
16. Draw a flowchart to add all integers from 1 to 100.
17. Draw a flowchart to find the factorial of a number.
18. Draw a flowchart to reverse a number.
19. Explain the working of the simple-if and if-else construct with a suitable
example.
20. Explain the working of the various iteration constructs with a suitable
example.

PART D TEN marks questions Essay type questions

1. Explain the stages in problem solving with suitable examples.
2. What are algorithms and flowcharts?What are the characteristics and steps
involved in developing algorithms.
3. Write an algorithm and flowchart to reverse a number.Explain the steps
involved.
4. Write an algorithm and flowchart to generate the fibonacci series. Explain
the steps involved.
5. Define a) Coding
b) Debugging
c) Syntax error
d) Semantic error
e) Compiler
6. Explain the statements used to implement selection construct with suitable
illustrations.
7. Explain the statements used to implement iteration construct with suitable
illustrations.




CHAPTER 8
SOFTWARE
GLOSSARY
Application software:Any computer program used to create or process data, such as text
documents, spreadsheets, graphics, and so on.
Assembler: A computer program which translates an assembly language program to
its machine language equivalent.
Batch processing: The running of several computer programs one after another without the
need of a human operator to run each program individually.
Booting: Loading of MD-DOS files in main memory.
Directory A tool for organizing a disk. A directory contains a list of files and other
directories stored on the disk.
DOS: Disk Operating System - An operating system which contains the disk-
oriented commands and that uses disk devices for permanent storage.
Kernel: A routine responsible for hardware control.
Linux: A freely available version of the UNIX operating system on a desktop
environment.
Low-level languages:Programming language that normally translates from one source
instruction to one object instruction. This language is machine
dependent.
MS-DOS: Acronym for Microsoft-Disk Operating System. The command-line
interface operating system developed by Microsoft for PCs.
Multiprocessing: A term used to describe interconnected computer configurations or
computers with two or more independent CPUs that have the ability to
simultaneously execute several programs.
Multiprocessor: A computer system consisting of two or more CPUs under a common
control.
Multiprogramming: The name given to the interleavea execution of two or more different and
independent programs by the same computer.
Multitasking: The capability of an operating system to load multiple programs into
memory at one time and to perform two or more processes concurrently,
such as printing a document while editing another.
Object code: The executable file in machine language that is the output of a compiler.
Operating system: An integrated set of programs that is used to manage the various
resources and overall operations of a computer system.
Real-time systems: Pertains to online computer processing systems which receive and
process data quickly enough to produce output to control, direct, or
affect the outcome of an ongoing activity or process.
Shell: It is a command interpreter which allows the interaction between the
user and the kernel.
Source code: Program statements created with a programming language.
Spooling Simultaneous Peripherials Operations Onlining-A technique that has
been successfully used on a number of computer systems to reduce the
speed mismatch between slow speed I/O devices and fast CPU.
Time sharing: Refers to the allocation of computer resources in a time-dependent
fashion to several programs simultaneously. It facilitates a large number
of users to simultaneously use a computer for processing their jobs
which may be of different nature.
UNIX: A popular operating system for 16-bit mini and micro computers that
was designed by Bell Telephone Laboratories, USA.

CHAPTER 8 EXAMINATION TOOL KIT

PART A ONE mark questions & answers Very Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. What is meant by programming language?
Programming language is a set of rules which user has to follow to instruct the
computer what operations are to be performed.
Q
2
. What are low-level languages?
Low level languages are the languages where the instructions in a program are
expressed in strings of 0s and 1s. These languages are machine dependent.
Q
3
. What are high-level languages?
High level languages are the languages where the instructions in a program are
expressed in English statements. These languages are machine independent.
Q
4
. What is machine language?
A low-level language that is directly understandable by the computer system.
Q
5
. What is assembly language?
A low-level programming language in which mnemonics are used to code operations
and alphanumeric symbols are used for addresses.
Q
6
. Give an example for high-level language.
C is an example of high level language.
Q
7
. What is meant by machine dependent language?
The languages that run on a particular processor are called machine dependent
languages.
Q
8
. What is meant by machine independent language?
The languages that run on different processors are called machine independent
languages.
Q
9
. Define opcode.
An OPCODE is one of the divisions of an instruction written in machine language.
OPCODE (Operation Code) denotes the operation, which is to be performed.
Q
10
. What is an assembler?
Assembler is a translation software program that translates an assembly program
into its equivalent machine language code.
Q
11
. What is a compiler?
Compiler is a translation software program that translates a high level language
program into its equivalent machine language code.
Q
12
. What is an interpreter?
A language processor that translates a statement of a high level language and
immediately executes it before translating the next source language statement.
Q
13
. Give the function of linker.
Linker is software that loads all the library segments to the modules and links the
modules, so that the modules executes properly.
Q
14
. Give the function of a loader.
Loader is software that loads the program into the main memory of computer, so
that it can be executed.
Q
15
. What is system software?
System software is a set of programs that control and support the computer system
and its data processing systems
Q
16
. What is an application software?
Application software is a program written by a user to perform a particular task.
Q
17
. Define an operating system.
An operating system is a computer program, which acts as an intermediary
between the user of the computer and the computer hardware.
Q
18
. Write any two functions of operating system.
The functions of operating system are:
a) Loads and calls application programs utilities and translators.
b) Schedules and controls input output operations and jobs.
Q
19
. What is a directory in DOS?
A directory is a way of organizing and grouping files, it works as catalog for
filenames and other directories stored on a disk.
Q
20
. What is meant by root directory in DOS?
A root directory is the starting point where all other directories are stored.
Q
21
. What is meant by internal command in DOS?
The commands that are loaded into the memory when the computer is started and
executes directly are called as internal commands.

Q
22
. Write any two internal commands.
Two internal commands are:
a) DIR
b) MD
Q
23
. What is meant by external command in DOS?
The commands that are not loaded into the memory when the computer starts are
called external commands. These commands are given as separate programs and
have to be executed by typing the program name at the prompt.
Q
24
. Write any two external commands.
Two internal commands are:
a) CHKDSK
b) FORMAT
Q
25
. Name any one multiuser operating system.
UNIX.
Q
26
. Name any one single user operating system.
DOS
Q
27
. Write any two UNIX commands.
Two UNIX commands are:
a) ls
b) mkdir
Q
28
. What is the function of shell in UNIX?
Shell acts as intermediate program between user and the UNIX operating system. It
accepts commands from the user, analyzes and interprets these commands.
Q
29
. Name any two UNIX shells.
Two UNIX shells are:
a) Bourne Shell
b) C Shell

PART B TWO marks questions & answers Short Answer Questions

Q
1
. Explain object code and source code.
Source code is the code written by user in high level language. Object code is the
converted source code to its equivalent machine language.
Q
2
. Give the merits of low-level language.
The merits of low level language are:
a) The instructions of a program are in a form where the computer can
understand. So, the execution time taken by instructions is less.
b) Machine languages make efficient use of storage.
c) Machine language instructions can be used to manipulate the
individual bits in a byte of computer storage.
Q
3
. What are the disadvantages of low-level languages?
The disadvantages of machine language are:
a) Machine languages are machine dependent.
b) Machine language is difficult to program. It is difficult for the
programmer to remember the dozens of operation code numbers.
c) Debugging of program is very difficult.
Q
4
. Give the merits of assembly language.
The merits of assembly language are:
a) Assembly language is easier to understand, because mnemonics are
used instead of numeric op-codes.
b) Assembly language programs are easier to modify than machine
language programs.
c) It is not required to keep track of memory locations.
Q
5
. Give the merits of high level language.
The merits of high level language are:
a) They are machine independent.
b) Errors are less.
c) Documentation of the program can be easily done.
d) The programmer need not know the internal details of the processor.
Q
6
. Write any two demerits of high-level languages.
The two demerits of high level language are:
a) High level languages require a translation program, which is
expensive and also occupies more memory space.
b) Programs written in a high level language take more time to run and
require more main storage, which results in less efficient.
Q
7
. Differentiate between interpreter and compiler.
Compiler is a translator that translates and executes after scanning all the program
instructions, where interpreter scans the current line and executes before
proceeding to the next instruction.
Q
8
. Write any four functions of operating system.
The four functions of operating system are:
a) Loads and calls application programs utilities and translators.
b) Schedules and controls input/output operations and jobs.
c) Controls the flow of jobs by loading and unloading of programs.
d) Performs functions of spooling, virtual memory linkage editing,
multi programming, communications and so on.
Q
9
. Explain operating system as a resource manager.
The modern computer consists various components such as processors, memory
devices, printers and so on. Operating system allocates the available sources
equally to all the programs that are trying to capture the available sources. It acts
as a manager, which sees that all the processes get equal time and equal resource
to execute.
Q
10
. Explain the role of operating system as an extended machine.
The user need not know how the files are being stored, the internal structure of the
processor. The Operating system hides the internal details of the processor thus
helping the user to get his work done in an easier manner.
Q
11
. Explain real time operating system.
Real time operating systems are used in situation where the results have to be
calculated immediately. The operating system has to process the results within the
specified time. The input is obtained from the real world. Examples include
automatic radar in defense control.
Q
12
. Explain the structure of DOS.
DOS is structured in three ways:
a) BIOS (Basic Input Output System) - The collection of low level device
drivers which isolates MS-DOS from details of the hardware.
b) Kernel It handles process management, memory management, file
system and interpretation of all system calls.
c) The Shell, COMMAND.COM- It is a command interpreter, which
receives the commands given by the user, checks for errors.
Q
13
. Explain how MS-DOS organises information.
The information organised in DOS are:
a) File: A file is a named collection of program, where the user can save
his data in a file. This file is stored in secondary storage device.
b) Directory: A directory is a way of organizing and grouping files, it
works as catalog for filenames and other directories stored on a disk.
c) Drive: A drive is a way of grouping directories and files on a disk.
Q
14
. List any four internal commands.
Four internal commands are:
a) DIR
b) DATE
c) VER
d) DEL
Q
15
. What are the differences between a directory and a file in DOS?
A file is collection of data, whereas directory is a collection of files under a single
name.
Q
16
. Write any four external commands.
Four external commands are:
a) CHKDSK
b) FORMAT
c) SCANDISK
d) ATTRIB
Q
17
. What is meant by portability in UNIX?
The ability of adapting to different computers is called as portability. UNIX can be
worked in any processor. It adjusts automatically according to the processor
instruction set without any major changes.
Q
18
. Write any four UNIX commands.
Four UNIX commands are:
a) pwd
b) ls
c) date
d) who

PART C FIVE marks questions Long Answer Questions

1. Write a note on Programming Languages.
2. Explain different types of operating system.
3. Explain different views of operating system.
4. Explain batch processing operating system.
5. Explain multiuser operating system.
6. Write a note on DOS commands.
7. Explain the structure of UNIX operating system.