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Submitted By:
AL-Fahadz A. Asaral
Alomair I. Andihad
Adzhar K. Quisai
Omar A. Alpasain
Al-Rashidin A. Buddin
Mohammad Ishmael J. Jamiri

Submitted To:
Engr. Erlanda T. Velez

June 30, 2014


What is a pier?
A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways,
typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars. The lighter structure of a pier allows tides
and currents to flow almost unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the
closely spaced piles of a wharf can act as a breakwater, and are consequently more liable to
silting. Piers can range in size and complexity from a simple lightweight wooden structure to
major structures extended over 1600 metres. In American English, pier may be synonymous
with dock.
Piers have been built for several purposes, and because these different purposes have
distinct regional variances, the term pier tends to have different nuances of meaning in
different parts of the world. Thus in North America and Australia, where many ports were, until
recently, built on the multiple pier model, the term tends to imply a current or former cargo-
handling facility. In Europe in contrast, where ports more often use basins and river-side quays
than piers, the term is principally associated with the image of a Victorian cast iron pleasure
pier. However, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age.
Types of pier
Piers can be categorized into different groupings according to the principal
purpose. However there is considerable overlap between these categories. For example,
pleasure piers often also allow for the docking of pleasure steamers and other similar craft,
whilst working piers have often been converted to leisure use after being rendered obsolete by
advanced developments in cargo-handling technology. Many piers are floating piers, to ensure
that the piers raise and lower with the tide along with the boats tied to them.
This prevents a situation where lines become overly taught or loose by rising or lowering
tides. An overly taught or loose tie-line can damage boats by pulling them out of the water or
allowing them so much leeway that they bang forcefully against the sides of the pier.
1. Working piers
Working piers were built for the handling of passengers and cargo onto and off ships or canal
boats. Working piers themselves fall into two different groups. Longer individual piers are often
found at ports with large tidal ranges, with the pier stretching far enough off shore to reach
deep water at low tide. Such piers provided an economical alternative to impounded
docks where cargo volumes were low, or where specialist bulk cargo was handled, such as
at coal piers. The other form of working pier, often called the finger pier, was built at ports with
smaller tidal ranges. Here the principal advantage was to give a greater available quay length
for ships to berth against compared to a linear littoral quayside, and such piers are usually
much shorter. Typically each pier would carry a single transit shed the length of the pier, with
ships berthing bow or stern in to the shore. Some major ports consisted of large numbers of
such piers lining the foreshore, classic examples being the Hudson River frontage of New York,
or the Embarcadero in San Francisco.

2. Pleasure piers

Print of Victorian pier in Margate, 1897
Pleasure piers were first built in England, during the 19th
century. The earliest structures wereRyde Pier, built in
1813/4, Leith Trinity Chain Pier, built in 1821, and Brighton
Chain Pier, built in 1823. Only the oldest of these piers still
remains. At that time the introduction of the railways for
the first time permitted mass tourism to dedicated seaside
resorts. However, the large tidal ranges at many such
resorts meant that for much of the day, the sea was not
visible from dry land. The pleasure pier was the resorts' answer, permitting holiday makers to
promenade over and alongside the sea at all times. The longest Pleasure pier in the world is
at Southend-on-sea,Essex, and extends 2,158 metres (1.34 mi) into the Thames estuary. With a
length of 2,745 feet (836.68 m), the longest pier on the West Coast of the United States is
the Santa Cruz Wharf.[2]
Pleasure piers often include other amusements and theatres as part of the attraction. Such a
pier may be open air, closed, or partly open, partly closed. Sometimes a pier has two decks.
Early pleasure piers were of wooden construction, with iron structures being introduced with
the construction in 1855 of Margate Jetty, in Margate, England. Margate was wrecked in storms
in 1978 and was never repaired. The oldest iron pleasure pier still remaining is in Southport,
England, and dates from 1860 - however the world's oldest iron pier[3] dates from 1834 and is
inGravesend, Kent. Gravesham council have recently purchased and refurbished this passenger
A pier, in architecture, is an upright support for a structure or super structure, such as
an arch or bridge. Sections of structural walls between openings (bays) can function as piers.

The simplest cross section of the pier is square, or rectangular, although other shapes are also
common. In medieval architecture, massive circular supports called drum
piers, cruciform (cross-shaped) piers, and compound piers are common architectural elements.
Columns are a similar upright support, but stand on a round base. In buildings with sequence of
bays between piers, each opening (window or door) between two piers is considered a single
Bridge piers
Single-span bridges have abutments at each end that support the weight of the bridge and
serve as retaining walls to resist lateral movement of the earthen fill of the bridge approach.
Multi-span bridges require piers to support the ends of spans between these abutments. In cold
climates the upstream edge of a pier may include a starkwater to prevent accumulation of
broken ice during peak snowmelt flows. The starkwater has a sharpened upstream edge
sometimes called a cutwater. The cutwater edge may be of concrete or masonry, but is often
capped with a steel angle to resist abrasion and focus force at a single point to fracture floating
pieces of ice striking the pier. In cold climates the starling is typically sloped at an angle of about
45 so current pushing against the ice tends to lift the downstream edge of the ice translating
horizontal force of the current to vertical force against a thinner cross-section of ice until
unsupported weight of ice fractures the piece of ice allowing it to pass on either side of the

Data Gathering Procedures
1. Site Investigation
A. Soil Tests
1. Grain Size
2. Moisture Lotion
3. Liquid Limit
4. Specific Gravity
5. Plastic Limit
6. Shrinkage Limit
7. Compaction
8. Direct Shear
9. Permeability
B. Surveying Tests
1. Shoreline Mapping
2. Hydrography
3. Discrete Tidal Zoning
C. Current Meter
2. Tapping Local Agencies and Authorities (ZCPA)
3. Hydraulic Design For Foundations
A. Riprap Size
B. Velocity Test
C. Wake Vortex
4. Reinforced Concrete Design
A. Laying of Foundations
B. Pouring Of Concrete
C. Dimensions for Beams