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Industrial Training module is a main component in the learning curriculum for
Polytechnic of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). Industrial training is one of
the compulsory courses for every polytechnic student under the Ministry of Higher
Education (MOHE) Malaysia. Every student bounds to be involved in industrial
training for one whole semester in order for him or her to get his or her diploma
1.1 Preliminary
The industrial training was carried out at a firm or an organization whether the
students choose it or it is given to them for one whole semester. The main purpose of
the industrial training is to produce graduates who are ready and capable to face their
profession academically or non-academically with a high professionalism appearance.
Other than that, the industrial training exposes the students about the real situation of
the working class citizen. The industrial training also helps in developing social skills in
the students.
1.2 Industrial Training Objective
1.2.1 To expose the students to the real life working experience and expanding the
knowledge in their specific field.
Students will further learn about their real life profession. They will also
learn what they need to do in order to finish their works. This will
prepare the students so that they will easily fit in and fulfil the demands
of their profession after they finish their course.
1.2.2 To make use of the theory and learned in the polytechnic.
Students are only exposed to the basic theory and needed in the fields of
their own. These theory and were mainly according to the books. With
the industrial training in place, students will experience real life situation

in the field. This will make the students use their knowledge in order to
get their works done.
1.2.3 To produce trustworthy workers with high responsibility and able to cooperate
with other staffs.
All tasks given by the supervisor must be completed with a sense of
trustworthy and full responsibility. This attitude very important to ensure
all business entrusted to students were carried out flawlessly. Also, it
trains the students to be honest not only to themselves but others as well.
1.2.4. Enhance students confidence at end of the training.
When the industrial training students are exposed to a variety of
problems and had to face it. With the experience learned through
industrial training, the students will be more confidence both in learning
and working. High spirit and skills to overcome the problems faced
certainly create a strong confidence in the students.
1.2.5. Learn to interact with superior officers.
In this training, students get the opportunity to interact with upper
management such as engineer, director and consultant and others. With
this opportunity, student will be able to associate and discuss with them
in a closer way. This opportunity will not come without the implication
of industrial training. This opportunity should be used well by the
students to learn more.
1.2.6 Increase the interest and curiosity.
There will be many new things that students will face during the period
of the industrial training. These events will enhance the curiosity in the
students. Other than that, the real life exposure given to the students will
also increase the interest of the students towards their fields of studies.


1.3 Report Objectives
1.3.1 The objectives of the report enable the students:
To provide a work document effectively.
To produce students that are responsible for their work by providing
enough evidential documents that related to work.
To expose the students on how to provide a proper document.
To build self-confidence in the student while providing the document.
To complete the prerequisite for the student to pass industrial training
Polytechnic KPTM.
1.4 Importance of Industrial Training
1.4.1 Industrial training are important to the students in many aspects. This is
because this module was created to give benefit to students, especially
students who take up studies in polytechnic KPTM. Among the
importance is:
To produce employees that are fully disciplined after they have
graduated from the polytechnic KPTM. This can be seen through
the students who take part in the industrial training, they are not
only bound to the rules set by the polytechnic but also rules fixed
by the organization that students take their industrial training at.
To produce employees that are skillful and ready to work when
they take their first step to the working world. This is because by
involving in certain industrial training at the organization given to
them, student will be more skillful in carrying out a job after they
were explained on how to do the job by a more experienced
Student who went through industrial training will be more mature
in conducting the works given to them.
Students will also be more knowledgeable and understanding
about matters related to their field of study.


2.1 Introduction of Firm

Organization names : KZ MotorService

Business Address : KZ Motor Service
No. 52, Jalan PJU 1A/11,
Taman Perindustrian Jaya
46050 Petaling Jaya
Selangor Darul Ehsan
Telephone No : 603-78454025
Fax No : 603-78474119


2.2 Company Background
KZ MotorService is a workshop established way back in 20 Mac 2001 and was
opened officially in 11 july 2001. The workshop is located in Ara Damansara and
opened more than 10 years and still open for business as commitment to customers is a
top priority of this company. This workshop is one of the company capable of handling
repair and sale of such vehicles, Land Rover, BMW, Mercedes-Benz and many more.
Apart from repair and sale the continental cars, KZ MotorService also repair and
maintainance of national vehicles such as Proton and Perodua. Futhermore, this
workshop have experience staff that come from various big company and not forgetting
the owner of KZ MotorService Khidzir Zakaria who has over 30 years experience in
automotive field. In a nutshell, KZ MotorService is a well known workshop of doing
repair and maintanance for continental cars,

2.3 Equipment & Facilities

Among the facilities provided by KZ MotorService is surau with air-conditioner, rest
room for staff and customers, store for spare parts, toilets and many more.



KZ motor service have various equipment and tools such as two post hoist ramps, full
set of wrench, engine titler, padded garage creeper, car jacks, complete set of wrench
and special tools, compressed machine and many more.




2.4 Type of car

KZ Motor Service is a workshop which specializes in repair and maintain for Land
Rover and BMW. This workshop also capable maintaining and repair other continental
cars and national cars.

The following picture shows of usual vehicle repaired at KZ MotorService:

Second Generation (19942002)
Range Rover (P38A)


Range Rover "Classic"
Third generation (20022012)
Range Rover (L322)


BMW 325 1987 E30
BMW 635 CSi



In undergoing industrial training, students are disclosed with a whole lot of new things.
Apart from practicing what we had learnt in polytechnic, students also get the chance to
experience it themselves by doing the assignments given to them according to their
respective course. By doing so, students are able to further increase their confidence
upon entering the working world. On the other hand, student had to obey every rule of
the firm and need to on time. This could educate the students to be more disciplined and
make the students to be familiar with working hours when they go for work later.
3.1 Following is the summary of all the activity carried out during training period
Week 1 (17
June 23
June 2013)
1. Reporting in for industrial training, KZ Motor Service at 9.00 am.
2. Meet & greet with Encik Mohd Khidzir, who is the owner of the KZ
Motor Service
3. He explains about KZ Motor Service and explain on some of the
vehicle that the workshop repaired.
4. Introduced to all of the KZ Motor Service Staff
5. I was requested to see the clerk, Encik Sinni. He explains on the
rules that need to be obeyed in the workshop including the dress
6. Identify the place of tools, spare parts, office, and surau
7. Assigned to the first task which is to follow & help Encik Azman
Idris on the vehicle that he were repairing.
8. I were requested to do minor service on the BMW 3 Series E30 with
Encik Azman Idris as guidance.



Week 2 (24
June 29
June 2013)
1. Analyse the problem on the steering rack & replace it with the new one
2. Replacing the radiator of the vehicle
3. Try to co-op with the environment and how the staff work
4. Watching En Ramzan changing the timing belt
5. Replacing the fuel pump with En Azman Idris as guidance
6. Help En Sani to do the bleeding brakes on the Range Rover Vogue 4.6
7. Replacing oil sump engine gasket with En Khidzir as guidance
Week 3 (1
July 6
July 2013)
1. Replacing the thermostat with En Lan as guidance
2. Replace starter motor
3. Service the brake pads on BMW E30
4. Replace brake disc & brake pads
5. Changing the power window motor
6. Adjusting the timing of the vehicle with En Azman Idris
Week 4 (8
July 14
July 2013)
1. Adjust a carburettor & idling timing with En Zahfri
2. Replace a tie rod ends
3. Watching En Sani replace a water pump
4. Replace a starter motor
5. Adjust handbrake cable
6. Major service


Week 5 (15
July 21
July 2013)
1. Replace a brake disc
2. Replace a brake light switch
3. Replace a Mass Air Flow Sensor with En Zahfri as guidance
4. Watching En Azman replace a power steering pump
5. Change a steering box with En Azman
6. Major service
Week 6 (22
July 28
July 2013)
1. Change a drive shaft with En Khidzir as guidance
2. Replace a headlight
3. Change oil pan gasket
4. Watching En Sani replace a wheel cylinder & brake hose
5. Adjust handbrake cable
Week 7 (29
July 4
August 2013)
1. Watching En Zahfri change a hydraulic tappets
2. Replace a head gasket with En Zahfri as guidance
3. Replace a thermostat on Perodua Kancil
4. Replace a brake disc
5. Replace a radiator
6. Change a drive shaft with En Boy
Week 8 (5
August 11
August 2013)
1. Replace a Mass Air Flow Sensor
2. Changing Engine oil

Holiday from 7
of August to 18
August 2013



Week 10 (19
August 25
August 2013)
1. Change automatic transmission fluid
2. Replace a rear differential with En Zahfri
3. Watching En Azman replace a power steering hose
4. Major service
5. Replace oil pan gasket
6. Replace brake pads
Week 11 (26
August 1
September 2013)
1. Replace a radiator
2. Replace tie rod ends
3. Changing engine oil
4. Change a timing belt with En Sani
5. Replace shock absorber
Week 12 (2
September 8
September 2013)
1. Change automatic transmission fluid
2. Change engine oil
3. Replace a brake light switch
4. Change a fuel filter
5. Replace a steering rack with En Azman
6. Replace a starter motor
Week 13 (9
September 15
September 2013)
1. Learn how to jump start a car
2. Replace a transmission pan gasket
3. Change a steering damper
4. Change a steering gear
5. Change automatic transmission fluid
6. Replace a brake pads


Week 14 (16
September 22
September 2013)
1. Change an engine oil
2. Replace shock absorber with En Azman Idris
3. Change a cars drive shaft with En Zahfri
4. Replace a rear differential
5. Replace a fuel filter
Week 15 (23
September 29
September 2013)
1. Replace a headlight
2. Watching En Azman replace a power steering pump
3. Replace power steering hose
4. Replace oil pan gasket
5. Major Service
6. Change an automatic transmission fluid

Week 16 (30
September 6
October 2013)
1. Change an automatic transmission fluid
2. Housekeeping
3. Major service
4. Changing engine oil
5. Replace MAF
Week 17 (7
October 13
October 2013)
1. Major Service
2. Replace brake pads
3. Replace engine oil
4. Replace Shock absorber
5. Housekeeping



Week 18 (14
October 20
October 2013)
1. Housekeeping
2. Replace oil pan gasket
3. Replace automatic fluid pan gasket
4. Major service
5. Replace automatic fluid
Week 19 (21
October 27
October 2013)
1. Housekeeping
2. Replace brake pads
3. Change drive shaft
4. Change steering box
5. Change power steering hose
Week 20 (27
October 1
November 2013)
1. House keeping
2. Change steering rack
3. Major service
4. Change engine oil & oil filter
5. Replace oil pan gasket


4.1 Introduction
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system,
which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster
defines transmission as an assembly of parts including the speed-changing
gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an
engine to a live axle. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that
uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a
rotating power source to another device.
The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts
the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such
engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is
inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission
reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque
in the process. Transmissions are also used on pedal bicycles, fixed
machines, and anywhere rotational speed and torque must be adapted.
Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios (or simply "gears"), with the
ability to switch between them as speed varies. This switching may be done
manually (by the operator), or automatically. Directional (forward and
reverse) control may also be provided. Single-ratio transmissions also exist,
which simply change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of
motor output.
Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in
windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of
pumping, milling, and hoisting.


Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed
of a prime mover output shaft (e.g. a motor crankshaft). This means that the
output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, and this
reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A
gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft
speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely
change the physical direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of
several different gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios (often
simply called "gears") are used to slow down the output speed of the engine
and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types
that increase the output speed.
The transmission in automobile is a device that is connected to the back of
the engine and sends the power from the engine to the drive wheels. An
automobile engine runs at its best at a certain RPM range and it is the
transmission's job to make sure that the power is delivered to the wheels
while keeping the engine within that range. It does this through various gear
4.1.1 The Functions of transmissions:
To multiply engine torque according to road condition and load.
To enable the vehicle to be reversed.
To provide a ready means of disconnecting the engine power from the
transmission system


4.1.2 Rear wheel drive layout

The transmission usually mounted to the back of the engine and is located under
the hump in the centre of the floorboard alongside the gas pedal position. A
drive shaft connects the rear of the transmission to the final drive which is
located in the rear axle and is used to send power to the rear wheels
4.1.3 Front wheel drive layout

the transmission is usually combined with the final drive to form what is called a
transaxle. The engine on a front wheel drive car is usually mounted sideways in
the car with the transaxle tucked under it on the side of the engine facing the
rear of the car. Front axles are connected directly to the transaxle and provide
power to the front wheels.


4.2 Manual Transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, or
standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle
applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a
foot pedal (automobile) or hand lever (motorcycle), for regulating torque
transfer from the engine to the transmission; and a gear stick operated by
foot (motorcycle) or by hand (automobile).
Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable
gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select
any forward gear ratio ("gear") at any time, but some, such as those
commonly mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only
allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear. This type of
transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission. The way
a manual transmission works is that the flywheel is attached to the engine,
the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel. When
running, the clutch disk is spinning with the flywheel and when pressure is
applied to the clutch pedal the throw out bearing is pushed in and it makes
the pressure plate stop applying pressure to the clutch disk and making it
stop receiving power from the engine so the gear can be shifted without any
problems and when pressure stops being applied to the clutch pedal the
clutch disk is allowed to start receiving power from the engine.
A floor-mounted gear stick in a
modern passenger car with a
manual transmission


Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking
selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most
automatic transmissions feature epicyclic (planetary) gearing controlled by brake bands
and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio. Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to
manually select the current gear are called Manumatics. A manual-style transmission
operated by computer is often called an automated transmission rather than an
Contemporary automobile manual transmissions typically use four to six forward gears
and one reverse gear, although automobile manual transmissions have been built with
as few as two and as many as eight gears. Transmission for heavy trucks and other
heavy equipment usually have at least 9 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide
range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Some
heavy vehicle transmissions have dozens of gears, but many are duplicates, introduced
as an accident of combining gear sets, or introduced to simplify shifting. Some manuals
are referred to by the number of forward gears they offer (e.g., 5-speed) as a way of
distinguishing between automatic or other available manual transmissions. Similarly, a
5-speed automatic transmission is referred to as a "5-speed automatic."

The Anatomy of transmissions

4.2.1 Manual Transmission Components

Flywheel and Pressure Plate
The flywheel is attached to the crankshaft, which is in turn attached to the engine. It
is connected to the clutch with a pressure plate, which pushes it firmly against the
clutch to ensure that the energy generated by the engine is transferred to the clutch
and subsequently to the transmission.
The clutch is the actual connection between the engine and transmission. When it is
engaged, it turns the gears attached to the transmission. However, its key feature is
that it can be disengaged. When the driver presses the clutch peddle, the clutch
moves, disconnecting the engine from the transmission. This allows the driver to
shift gears. Otherwise, he would be shifting against a moving flywheel, which
would damage them.



Most transmissions have six gears of differing ratios, five of which go forward and one
that goes in reverse. The higher the ratio, the more power is being transferred to the
The gear ratios are how the engine's power is reduced. If a gear has twice as many teeth
as the driving gear, then it is going to need to spin twice for every one time the driving
gear spins. By changing gears (using the shifting knob), the driver can direct the amount
of power he needs to his engine depending on the conditions.
The gears are identified by numbers on the gearshift inside the vehicle. The lower gears
(starting with 1) are for driving slow speeds, while higher gears (such as 5) are for
faster speeds.
Dog Clutch
Among many different types of clutches, a dog clutch provides non-slip coupling of two
rotating members. It is not at all suited to intentional slipping, in contrast with the foot-
operated friction clutch of a manual-transmission car.
The gear selector does not engage or disengage the actual gear teeth which are

permanently meshed. Rather, the action of the gear selector is to lock one of the freely
spinning gears to the shaft that runs through its hub. The shaft then spins together with
that gear. The output shaft's speed relative to the countershaft is determined by the ratio
of the two gears: the one permanently attached to the countershaft, and that gear's mate
which is now locked to the output shaft.
Locking the output shaft with a gear is achieved by means of a dog clutch selector. The
dog clutch is a sliding selector mechanism which is splined to the output shaft, meaning
that its hub has teeth that fit into slots (splines) on the shaft, forcing that shaft to rotate
with it. However, the splines allow the selector to move back and forth on the shaft,
which happens when it is pushed by a selector fork that is linked to the gear lever. The
fork does not rotate, so it is attached to a collar bearing on the selector. The selector is
typically symmetric: it slides between two gears and has a synchromesh and teeth on
each side in order to lock either gear to the shaft.

Dog Clutch

4.2.2 Power Flow in manual transmissions
Neutral Position
In the neutral position the engine and engaged clutch drive the input shaft to
rotate the counter gear assembly. The synchronizer assemblies do not lock any
gears to the output shaft in neutral. The output shaft gears rotate without
transmitting torque. The transmission output shaft and vehicle drive shaft
remain stationary.

3-Speed Gear Box
5-Speed Gear Box

First Gear Position

To engage first gear, the first and second shift rail and shift fork move the first
and reverse synchronizer sleeve toward the rear. Clock wise rotation of the input
shaft and gear drives the counter gear assembly counter clock wise.
The counter clock-wise rotation of the small first gear drives the large first
speed gear clockwise. First speed gear drives the first and reverse synchronizer,
output shaft, and drives shaft clockwise.

3-Speed Gear Box
5-Speed Gear Box

Power Flow in 2nd Gear Position

The engaged clutch and input shaft continue to rotate clockwise. The
first and third synchronizer sleeve is moved backward by the shift rail
and shift fork to lock second speed gear to the output shaft.
The input shaft drives the counter gear assembly, including second gear,
counterclockwise. Second gear drives second speed gear, the first and
second synchronizer assembly, the output shaft, and drive shaft

3-Speed Gear Box
5-Speed Gear Box

Power Flow in 3rd Gear Position

The third and fourth shift rail and shift fork move the synchronizer
sleeve rearward to lock third speed gear to the output shaft.
The clockwise rotating input shaft drives the counter gear and its third
gear counterclockwise. Third gear drives third speed gear, the
synchronizer assembly, the output shaft, and vehicle drive shaft

Power Flow in fourth Gear Position

Power Flow in fifth Gear Position

4-Speed Gear Box
5-Speed Gear Box


Power Flow in Reverse Gear Position

The first and reverse synchronizer locks reverse gear to the output shaft. The
clockwise rotation of the input shaft drives the counter gear reverse gear counter
clockwise. Reverse gear is enmeshed with the with the reverse idler gear, which
rotate clockwise. The reverse idler gear drives the reverse speed gear,
synchronizer assembly, output shaft, and drive shaft counterclockwise. The
vehicle backs up because of the counterclockwise rotation of the transmission
output shaft


Power Flow all gear


4.2.3 Synchronized transmission
Most modern manual-transmission vehicles are fitted with a synchronized
gear box. Transmission gears are always in mesh and rotating, but gears on
one shaft can freely rotate or be locked to the shaft. The locking mechanism
for a gear consists of a collar (or dog collar) on the shaft which is able to
slide sideways so that teeth (or dogs) on its inner surface bridge two circular
rings with teeth on their outer circumference: one attached to the gear, one to
the shaft. When the rings are bridged by the collar, that particular gear is
rotationally locked to the shaft and determines the output speed of the
transmission. The gearshift lever manipulates the collars using a set of
linkages, so arranged so that one collar may be permitted to lock only one
gear at any one time; when "shifting gears", the locking collar from one gear
is disengaged before that of another is engaged. One collar often serves for
two gears; sliding in one direction selects one transmission speed, in the
other direction selects another.
In a synchromesh gearbox, to correctly match the speed of the gear to that of
the shaft as the gear is engaged the collar initially applies a force to a cone-

shaped brass clutch attached to the gear, which brings the speeds to match
prior to the collar locking into place. The collar is prevented from bridging
the locking rings when the speeds are mismatched by synchro rings. The
synchro ring rotates slightly due to the frictional torque from the cone
clutch. In this position, the dog clutch is prevented from engaging. The brass
clutch ring gradually causes parts to spin at the same speed. When they do
spin the same speed, there is no more torque from the cone clutch and the
dog clutch is allowed to fall into engagement. In a modern gearbox, the
action of all of these components is so smooth and fast it is hardly noticed.

Function of Synchronizer
To Prevent the gears from grinding or clashing during engagement.
To Lock the output gear to the output shaft.



Synchronizer Operation
When the driver shifts gears, the synchronizer sleeve slides on its splined hub
towards the main drive gear (blue). First, the blocking ring cone rubs on the side
of the gear cone, setting up friction between the two. This causes the gear,
synchronizer, and output shaft to begin to spin at the same speed.
As soon as the speed is equalized or synchronized, the sleeve can slide
completely over the blocking ring and over the small, spur gear teeth on the
drive gear.
This locks the output gear to the synchronizer hub and to the shaft. Power then
flows through that gear.

Synchronizer Anatomy

Synchronization Gear Ratio
Gear speed is based on the input shaft rpm and transmission gear ratios

During a shift, engine torque is disengaged from the transmission by the clutch.
The synchronizer will cause the rpm of the speed gear to match the rpm of the
This will cause a rpm change to the input shaft.
4.3 Automatic Transmissions
An automatic transmission (also called automatic gearbox) is a type of motor vehicle
transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the
driver from having to shift gears manually. Most automatic transmissions have a
defined set of gear ranges, often with a parking pawl feature that locks the output shaft
of the transmission stroke face to keep the vehicle from rolling either forward or
Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial
vehicles and equipment. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine
speeds, such as some forklifts and lawn mowers, only use a torque converter to provide

a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels.
Besides automatics, there are also other types of automated transmissions such as a
continuously variable transmission (CVT) and semi-automatic transmissions, that free
the driver from having to shift gears manually, by using the transmission's computer to
change gear, if for example the driver were redlining the engine. Despite superficial
similarity to other transmissions, automatic transmissions differ significantly in internal
operation and driver's feel from semi-automatics and CVTs. An automatic uses a torque
converter instead of a clutch to manage the connection between the transmission
gearing and the engine. In contrast, a CVT uses a belt or other torque transmission
scheme to allow an "infinite" number of gear ratios instead of a fixed number of gear
ratios. A semi-automatic retains a clutch like a manual transmission, but controls the
clutch through electrohydraulic means.
The first automatic transmission was invented in 1921 by Alfred Horner Munro of
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and patented under Canadian patent CA 235757 in
1923. (Munro obtained UK patent GB215669 215,669 for his invention in 1924 and US
patent 1,613,525 on 4 January 1927). Being a steam engineer, Munro designed his
device to use compressed air rather than hydraulic fluid, and so it lacked power and
never found commercial application. The first automatic transmissions using hydraulic
fluid were developed by General Motors during the 1930s and introduced in the 1940
Oldsmobile as the "Hydra-Matic" transmission. They were incorporated into GM-built
tanks during World War II and, after the war, GM marketed them as being "battle-

An 8-gear automatic

4.2.4 Benefits of Manual Transmissions
Fuel economy - The manual transmission couples the engine to the transmission with a
rigid clutch instead of the torque converter on an automatic transmission or the v-belt of
a continuously variable transmission, which slip by nature. Manual transmissions also
lack the parasitic power consumption of the automatic transmission's hydraulic pump.
Because of this, manual transmissions generally offer better fuel economy than
automatic or continuously variable transmissions; however the disparity has been
somewhat offset with the introduction of locking torque converters on automatic
transmissions. Increased fuel economy with a properly operated manual transmission
vehicle versus an equivalent automatic transmission vehicle can range from 5% to about
15% depending on driving conditions and style of driving.
The lack of control over downshifting under load in an automatic transmission, coupled
with a typical vehicle engine's greater efficiency under higher load, can enable
additional fuel gains from a manual transmission by allowing the operator to keep the
engine performing under a more efficient load/RPM combination. This is especially
true for older models, as advances like variable valve timing allow better performance
over a broader RPM range. In recognition of this, many current models (2010 and on)
come with manual modes, or overrides on automatic models, although the degree of
control varies greatly by the manufacturer. Also, manual transmissions do not require
active cooling and because they are, mechanically, much simpler than automatic
transmissions, they generally weigh less than comparable automatics, which can
improve economy in stop-and-go traffic.
However this gap in economy is being rapidly closed, and many mid to higher end
model automatic cars now get better economy than their standard spec counterparts.
This is in part due to the increasing impact of computers co-ordinating multiple
systems, particularly in hybrid models in which the engine and drive motors must be
Durability - Because manual transmissions are mechanically simpler, are more easily
manufactured, and have fewer moving parts than automatic transmissions, they require
less maintenance and are easier as well as cheaper to repair. Due to their mechanical
simplicity, they often last longer than automatic transmissions when used by a skilled

driver. Typically, there are no electrical components, pumps and cooling mechanisms
(in the manual transmission), other than an internal switch to activate reversing lighting.
These attributes become extremely vital with a vehicle stuck in mud, snow, etc. The
back and forth rocking motion of the vehicle drivers use to dislodge a stuck vehicle can
prove fatal to automatic transmissions. The vast majority of automatic transmission
hydraulics are not designed to be shifted between drive and reverse multiple times in
rapid sequence.
Cost - The price of a new car with a manual transmission will commonly be lower than
the same car with an automatic transmission. Clutches are a wear item which may need
to be replaced at some point in the vehicle's lifespan, however the service life of the
clutch depends on the skill of the driver and the operating conditions that it is subjected
Performance and control - Manual transmissions generally offer a wider selection of
gear ratios. Many vehicles offer a 5-speed or 6-speed manual, whereas the automatic
option would typically be a 4-speed. This is generally due to the increased space
available inside a manual transmission compared with an automatic, since the latter
requires extra components for self-shifting, such as torque converters and pumps.
However, automatic transmissions are now adding more speeds as the technology
matures. ZF currently manufactures 7- and 8-speed automatic transmissions. ZF is also
planning a 9-speed automatic for use in front-wheel drive vehicles.
The increased number gears allows for better use of the engine's power band, allowing
increased fuel economy, by staying in the most fuel-efficient part of the power band, or
higher performance, by staying closer to the engine's peak power. However, a manual
transmission has more space to put in more speeds, as the 991 Generation of the
Porsche 911 and the 2014 Chevy Corvette has a 7- speed manual transmission.
Engine braking - In contrast to most manual gearboxes, most automatic transmissions
have far less effective engine braking. This means that the engine does not slow the car
as effectively when the automatic transmission driver releases the engine speed control.
This leads to more usage of the brakes in cars with automatic transmissions, bringing
shorter brake life. Brakes are also more likely to overheat in hilly or mountainous areas,
causing reduced braking ability brake fade and the potential for complete failure with

the automatic transmission vehicle.
4.3.1 Automatic transmission modes
Conventionally, in order to select the transmission operating mode, the driver moves a
selection lever located either on the steering column or on the floor (as with a manual
on the floor, except that most automatic selectors on the floor do not move in the same
type of pattern as a manual lever; most automatic levers only move vertically). In order
to select modes, or to manually select specific gear ratios, the driver must push a button
in (called the shift lock button) or pull the handle (only on column mounted shifters)
out. Some vehicles position selector buttons for each mode on the cockpit instead,
freeing up space on the central console. Vehicles conforming to US Government
standards must have the modes ordered P-R-N-D-L (left to right, top to bottom, or
clockwise). Prior to this, quadrant-selected automatic transmissions often used a P-N-D-
L-R layout, or similar. Such a pattern led to a number of deaths and injuries owing to
driver error causing unintentional gear selection, as well as the danger of having a
selector (when worn) jump into Reverse from Low gear during engine braking
Automatic transmissions have various modes depending on the model and make of the
transmission. Some of the common modes include:
Park (P)
This selection mechanically locks the output shaft of transmission, restricting the
vehicle from moving in any direction. A parking pawl prevents the transmission from
rotating, and therefore the vehicle from moving, but the vehicle's driven wheels may
still rotate individually (because of the differential), as well as the non-driven
roadwheels may still rotate freely. For this reason, it is recommended to use the hand
brake (parking brake) because this actually locks (in most cases) the wheels and
prevents them from moving. This also increases the life of the transmission and the park
pin mechanism, because parking on an incline with the transmission in park without the
parking brake engaged will cause undue stress on the parking pin. A hand brake should
also prevent the car from moving if a worn selector accidentally drops into reverse gear
while idleing.

It should be noted that locking the transmission output shaft with park does not
definitivly lock the driving wheels. If one driving wheel has little vertical load it will
tend to slip, and will rotate in the opposite direction to the more heavily loaded non-
slipping wheel. Only a parking brake can be relied upon to positively lock both of the
parking-braked wheels.
Most automobiles require P or N to be set on the selector lever before the engine can be
started. This is typically achieved via a normally open inhibitor switch (sometimes
called a "neutral safety switch") wired in series with the starter motor engagement
circuit, which is closed when P or N is selected, completing the circuit (when the key is
turned to the start position), along with any other safety devices which may be present
on newer cars (such as a foot-brake application).
Reverse (R)
This engages reverse gear within the transmission, permitting the vehicle to be driven
backward, and operates a switch to turn on the backup lights for improved visibility (the
switch may also activate a beeper on delivery trucks or other large vehicles to warn
other drivers and nearby pedestrians of the driver's reverse movement). To select
reverse in most transmissions, the driver must come to a complete stop, depress the shift
lock button (or move the shift lever toward the driver in a column shifter, or move the
shifter sideways along a notched channel in a console shifter) and select reverse. Not
coming to a complete stop may cause severe damage to the transmission
Some modern automatic transmissions have a safety mechanism in place, which does,
to some extent, prevent (but not completely avoid) inadvertently putting the car in
reverse when the vehicle is moving forward; such a mechanism may consist of a
solenoid-controlled physical barrier on either side of the Reverse position,
electronically engaged by a switch on the brake pedal. Therefore, the brake pedal needs
to be depressed in order to allow the selection of reverse. Some electronic transmissions
prevent or delay engagement of reverse gear altogether while the car is moving.
Some shifters with a shift button allow the driver to freely move the shifter from R to N
or D, or simply moving the shifter to N or D without actually depressing the button.
However, the driver cannot shift back to R without depressing the shift button, to

prevent accidental shifting, especially at high speeds, which could damage the
Neutral / No gear (N)
This disengages all gear trains within the transmission, effectively disconnecting the
transmission from the driven wheels, allowing the vehicle to coast freely under its own
weight and gain momentum without the motive force from the engine. Coasting in idle
down long grades (where law permits) should be avoided, though, as the transmission's
lubrication pump is driven by non-idle engine RPMs. Similarly, emergency towing with
an automatic transmission in neutral should be a last resort. Manufacturers understand
emergency situations and list limitations of towing a vehicle in neutral (usually not to
exceed 55 mph and 50 miles). This is the only other selection in which the vehicle's
engine may be started.
Drive (D)
This position allows the transmission to engage the full range of available forward gear
ratios, allowing the vehicle to move forward and accelerate through its range of gears.
The number of gear ratios within the transmission depends on the model, but they
initially ranged from three (predominant before the 1990s), to four and five speeds
(losing popularity to six-speed autos, though still favored by Chrysler and
Honda/Acura). Six-speed automatic transmissions are probably the most common
offering in cars and trucks from 2010 in carmakers as Toyota, GM and Ford. However,
seven-speed automatics are becoming available in some high-performance production
luxury cars (found in Mercedes 7G gearbox, Infiniti), as are eight-speed autos in models
from 2006 introduced by Aisin Seiki Co. in Lexus, ZF and Hyundai Motor Company.
From 2013 are available nine speeds transmissions produced by ZF and Mercedes 9G.
Overdrive ('D', 'OD', or a boxed [D] or the absence of an illuminated 'O/D OFF')
This mode is used in some transmissions to allow early computer-controlled
transmissions to engage the automatic overdrive. In these transmissions, Drive (D)
locks the automatic overdrive off, but is identical otherwise. OD (Overdrive) in these
cars is engaged under steady speeds or low acceleration at approximately 3545 mph
(5672 km/h). Under hard acceleration or below 3545 mph (5672 km/h), the

transmission will automatically downshift. Other vehicles with this selector (example
light trucks) will not only disable up-shift to the overdrive gear, but keep the remaining
available gears continuously engaged to the engine for use of compression braking.
Verify the behavior of this switch and consider the benefits of reduced friction brake
use when city driving where speeds typically do not necessitate the overdrive gear.
Third (3)
This mode limits the transmission to the first three gear ratios, or sometimes locks the
transmission in third gear. This can be used to climb or going down hill. Some vehicles
will automatically shift up out of third gear in this mode if a certain revolutions per
minute (RPM) range is reached in order to prevent engine damage. This gear is also
recommended while towing a trailer.
Second (2 or S)
This mode limits the transmission to the first two gear ratios, or locks the transmission
in second gear on Ford, Kia, and Honda models. This can be used to drive in adverse
conditions such as snow and ice, as well as climbing or going down hills in winter. It is
usually recommended to use second gear for starting on snow and ice, and use of this
position enables this with an automatic transmission. Some vehicles will automatically
shift up out of second gear in this mode if a certain RPM range is reached in order to
prevent engine damage.
First (1 or L [Low])
This mode locks the transmission in first gear only. In older vehicles, it will not change
to any other gear range. Some vehicles will automatically shift up out of first gear in
this mode if a certain RPM range is reached in order to prevent engine damage. This,
like second, can be used during the winter season, for towing, or for downhill driving to
increase the engine braking effect.
S or Sport
This is commonly described as Sport mode. It operates in an identical manner as "D"
mode, except that the upshifts change much higher up the engine's rev range. This has
the effect on maximising all the available engine output, and therefore enhances the

performance of the vehicle, particularly during acceleration. This mode will also
downchange much higher up the rev range compared to "D" mode, maximising the
effects of engine braking. This mode will have a detrimental effect on fuel economy.
Hyundai has a Norm/Power switch next to the gearshift for this purpose on the Tiburon.

4.3.2 Parts and operation
A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts:
Torque converter: A type of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine to the
transmission. It takes the place of a mechanical clutch, allowing the transmission to stay
in gear and the engine to remain running while the vehicle is stationary, without
stalling. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling, in that it provides a variable
amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, increasing breakaway
acceleration. This is accomplished with a third member in the coupling assembly
known as the stator, and by altering the shapes of the vanes inside the coupling in such
a way as to curve the fluid's path into the stator. The stator captures the kinetic energy
of the transmission fluid, in effect using the leftover force of it to enhance torque



Role Of Torque Converter
Torque converters transmit driving power between engine and transmission in
motor vehicles under widely varying driving conditions.
Serve as automatic clutch to transmit engine torque to the transmission.
Absorbs torsion vibration of the engine drive train.
Pump Impeller - An impeller is like a fan blade. The housing is filled with fluid. The
first impeller is connected directly to the input shaft of the clutch or likewise to the
output shaft of the engine. This impeller always spins at the same speed as the engine.
The fluid in the engine is sprayed to the outside of the impeller due to centrifugal force.
The fins at the circumference of the first impeller direct the fluid from the fins of the
first impeller to the fins at the circumference of the second impeller. The fins of the first
impeller direct it toward the center of the clutch. The fins that are on the second
impeller are positioned at such an angle so that when the fluid is forced to the center, it
also forces the impeller to turn. The second impeller is connected directly to thenoutput
shaft of the clutch or likewise to the input shaft of the transmission. The pump in the
center of the second impeller pumps the fluid back along the shaft to the center of the
first impeller.

Pump Impeller

Characteristics of Pump Impeller :
Integrated with t/converter case.
Have many CURVED VANE.
Impeller driven by engine crankshaft and fluid in impeller rotates with it.
When speed of impeller is increase, centrifugal force cause the fluid to outward
toward the impeller (out side vane).
Planetary gearset: A compound epicyclic planetary gearset, whose bands and clutches
are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled by the valve body, providing two or more
gear ratios.
Automatic transmissions contain many gears in various combinations. In a manual
transmission, gears slide along shafts as you move the shift lever from one position to
another, engaging various sized gears as required in order to provide the correct gear
ratio. In an automatic transmission, however, the gears are never physically moved and
are always engaged to the same gears. This is accomplished through the use of
planetary gear sets.
The basic planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, a ring gear and two or more planet
gears, all remaining in constant mesh. The planet gears are connected to each other
through a common carrier which allows the gears to spin on shafts called "pinions"
which are attached to the carrier.



When the gearbox is take apart and we look inside an automatic transmission, you find
an amazing assortment of parts in a fairly small space. Among other things you see:
An extremely ingenious planetary gearset
A set of bands that lock parts of a gearset
A set of 3 wet-plate clutches to lock other parts of the gearset
An incredibly odd hydraulic control system that controls the clutches and bands
A large gear pump to move transmission fluid around
The center of attention is the planetary gearset. About the size of a cantelope, this
one part creates all of the different gear ratios that the transmission can produce.
Everything else in the transmission is there to help the planetary gearset do its thing.

Any planetary gearset has three main components:
the sun gear
the planet gears and the planet gears' carrier
the ring gear.

From left to right: the ring gear, planet
carrier, and two sun gears.

Each of these three components can be the input, the output or can be held stationary.
Choosing which piece plays which role determines the gear ratio for the gearset. Let's
take a look at a single planetary gearset.
One of the planetary gearsets from our transmission has a ring gear with 72 teeth and a
sun gear with 30 teeth. We can get lots of different gear ratios out of this gearset.

Input Output Stationary Calculation
A Sun (S)
Planet Carrier
Ring (R) 1 + R/S 3.4:1
Planet Carrier
Ring (R) Sun (S)
1 / (1 +
C Sun (S) Ring (R)
Planet Carrier
-R/S -2.4:1

Also, locking any two of the three components together will lock up the whole device at
a 1:1 gear reduction. Notice that the first gear ratio listed above is a reduction -- the
output speed is slower than the input speed. The second is an overdrive -- the output
speed is faster than the input speed. The last is a reduction again, but the output
direction is reversed. There are several other ratios that can be gotten out of this
planetary gear set, but these are the ones that are relevant to our automatic transmission.

Figure 4 Planet carrier: Note the two sets of

Figure 4 shows the planets in the planet carrier. Notice how the planet on the right sits
lower than the planet on the left. The planet on the right does not engage the ring gear --
it engages the other planet. Only the planet on the left engages the ring gear.

Figure 5 shows the inside of the planet carrier. The shorter gears are engaged only by
the smaller sun gear. The longer planets are engaged by the bigger sun gear and by the
smaller planets.
First Gear
In first gear, the smaller sun gear is driven clockwise by the turbine in the torque
converter. The planet carrier tries to spin counterclockwise, but is held still by the one-
way clutch (which only allows rotation in the clockwise direction) and the ring gear
turns the output. The small gear has 30 teeth and the ring gear has 72, so referring to the
chart on the previous page, the gear ratio is:
Ratio = -R/S = - 72/30 = -2.4:1
So the rotation is negative 2.4:1, which means that the output direction would be
opposite the input direction. But the output direction is really the same as the input
direction -- this is where the trick with the two sets of planets comes in. The first set of
planets engages the second set, and the second set turns the ring gear; this combination
Figure 5

reverses the direction. You can see that this would also cause the bigger sun gear to
spin; but because that clutch is released, the bigger sun gear is free to spin in the
opposite direction of the turbine (counterclockwise).
Second Gear
This transmission does something really neat in order to get the ratio needed for second
gear. It acts like two planetary gearsets connected to each other with a common planet
The first stage of the planet carrier actually uses the larger sun gear as the ring gear. So
the first stage consists of the sun (the smaller sun gear), the planet carrier, and the ring
(the larger sun gear).
The input is the small sun gear; the ring gear (large sun gear) is held stationary by the
band, and the output is the planet carrier. For this stage, with the sun as input, planet
carrier as output, and the ring gear fixed, the formula is:
1 + R/S = 1 + 36/30 = 2.2:1
The planet carrier turns 2.2 times for each rotation of the sun gear. At the second stage,
the planet carrier acts as the input for the second planetary gear set, the larger sun gear
(which is held stationary) acts as the sun, and the ring gear acts as the output, so the
gear ratio is:
1 / (1 + S/R) = 1 / (1 + 36/72) = 0.67:1
To get the overall reduction for second gear, we multiply the first stage by the second,
2.2 x 0.67, to get a 1.47:1 reduction.
Third Gear
Most automatic transmissions have a 1:1 ratio in third gear. You'll remember from the
previous section that all we have to do to get a 1:1 output is lock together any two of the
three parts of the planetary gear. With the arrangement in this gearset it is even easier --
all we have to do is engage the clutches that lock each of the sun gears to the turbine.


If both sun gears turn in the same direction, the planet gears lockup because they can
only spin in opposite directions. This locks the ring gear to the planets and causes
everything to spin as a unit, producing a 1:1 ratio.
By definition, an overdrive has a faster output speed than input speed. It's a speed
increase -- the opposite of a reduction. In this transmission, engaging the overdrive
accomplishes two things at once. In order to improve efficiency, some cars have a
mechanism that locks up the torque converter so that the output of the engine goes
straight to the transmission.
In this transmission, when overdrive is engaged, a shaft that is attached to the housing
of the torque converter (which is bolted to the flywheel of the engine) is connected by
clutch to the planet carrier. The small sun gear freewheels, and the larger sun gear is
held by the overdrive band. Nothing is connected to the turbine; the only input comes
from the converter housing.
Reverse is very similar to first gear, except that instead of the small sun gear being
driven by the torque converter turbine, the bigger sun gear is driven, and the small one
freewheels in the opposite direction. The planet carrier is held by the reverse band to the
Gear Ratios
Gear Input Output Fixed Gear Ratio
1st 30 tooth sun 72 tooth ring Planet Carrier 2.4:1
30 tooth sun Planet Carrier 36 tooth ring 2.2:1
Planet Carrier 72 tooth ring 36 tooth sun 0.67:1

Total 2nd gear 1.47:1
3rd 30 and 36 tooth suns 72 tooth ring

OD Planet Carrier 72 tooth ring 36 tooth sun 0.67:1
Reverse 36 tooth sun 72 tooth ring Planet Carrier -2.0:1


One-Way Clutch : A one-way clutch (also known as a "sprag" clutch) is a device that
will allow a component such as ring gear to turn freely in one direction but not in the
other. This effect is just like that of a bicycle, where the pedals will turn the wheel when
pedaling forward, but will spin free when pedaling backward.
Clutch Packs : A clutch pack consists of alternating disks that fit inside a clutch drum.
Half of the disks are steel and have splines that fit into groves on the inside of the drum.
The other half have a friction material bonded to their surface and have splines on the
inside edge that fit groves on the outer surface of the adjoining hub. There is a piston
inside the drum that is activated by oil pressure at the appropriate time to squeeze the
clutch pack together so that the two components become locked and turn as one.

Clutch Packs



While undergoing a 20 weeks of industrial training at KZ MOTORSPORTS., there are
a lot of new knowledge that I have learnt, regardless of the knowledge which related to
our respective course or the knowledge for office management itself. With the
implication of industrial training, students get to experience the real nature of working
environment. This enable students to instill certain a certain quality in them and can
reduce nervousness. Other than that, by implementing industrial training, students were
able to adapt oneself with problems that often faced by every employee, this will enable
students to become more mature and can carry out the duty that was given to them with
the best efforts. Everything that has been learned by the students while undergoing the
industrial training will be useful to them when they reach their working days later in
their life.
Apart from that, there are also a few matters that need to be improved by either the
Polytechnic or the firm or the company itself. Among the improvements that can be
suggested are :
1. Implement the usage of English Language during lecture in class. The
usage of English language is very important when working in the field
that revolved around development because most of the business deals
were carried out using English language. Most of the Polytechnic
students are unskilled in speaking in English. For example, business
meetings were usually carried out by using English language. So, to
student that less skilled in that particular language, the matter of
discussions in the meetings will not be understood by the students. This
will affect the students learning experience. I hope that the management
of the Polytechnic will stress more on the English language usage among

2. The managements of Polytechnic especially UPLI (Unit Perhubungan
Dan Latihan Industri ) should hold more visits to the place where
trainees who were undergoing the industrial training as often as 2 or 3
times along the 20 weeks of training to monitor their development and to
ensure that students are always on the watch and monitored at all time.
3. The firm were supposed to understand students more. What does it mean
by understand students more is that the firm should not give the student
any work that they do not know without giving any guidance on how to
do the work correctly and leave the students to figure it out by
him/herself. This is because sometimes, the work that had been given
was yet to be learned by the students, so, they need some guidance first
before they can start working on the task that were given to them.
Generally, by undergoing industrial training, students has been given a valuable
experience and the understanding on the relationship between what they had learned
theoretically with what they need to do practically. However, during this industrial
training period also, the students had been given the opportunity to adapt themself with
new discovery that usually are not learnt at polytechnic.



After undergoing a 20 weeks of industrial training at KZ Motor Service, there are a lot
of new knowledge that can be learned and I get to understand altogether on how this
firm plays an important role in industrial field, especially in service and maintain some
vehicle. Exposure that have been given to me by KZ Motor Service staff about the
working and technical aspect is a very meaningful knowledge to me in order to prepare
myself before stepping into the real work environment on the upcoming days. I hope
with the implication of the Industrial Training, there will be no more anomalous
feelings when the students started working after they have finished their course later.
The staff at KZ Motor Service are very helpful. They gave me a lot of exposure on the
terms of reference and procedures related to the process of preparing tender, contract
document, variation order and etc. Other than that, the exposure on site visit, meeting
atmosphere and so on also give a useful knowledge to me.
Exposures that were given to me at this firm can provide the picture on a real life
situation, the task and responsibility that would be carried by some people on the field.
Lastly, students involvement in industrial training like this can prove and further
strengthen student's identity in undergoing training in technical field, in the same time
making Polytechnic as practical platform of education. Apart from that, the format
report that needs to be done by students after undergoing industrial training also can
train each of the students in preparing a technical report that is complete, compact and
in a right order that can be made as an important knowledge when they face a real
situation later. This is fit with the Polytechnic objective that is to produce workforces
that are high in quality and partially professional in this country.




Staff of KZ Motor Service in action

Install the Gearbox

Pictures of repair and maintenance of some vehicles