Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

PLAYING ALONG WITH

MIDDLE EASTERN

RHYTHMS



COMPANION BOOK


2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PUZZLE DRUMMING .................................................................................................................... 3
RHYTHM DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................................... 4
DRUMS AND PLAYING STYLES................................................................................................ 4
LANGUAGE OF DRUMMING ...................................................................................................... 4
TIME SIGNATURES ...................................................................................................................... 6
COUNTING ..................................................................................................................................... 6
RHYTHM SECTION ...................................................................................................................... 7
BELEDI 4/4 - (EGYPTIAN / TURKISH) ......................................................................................... 7
AYUB 2/4 (TURKISH) AKA: ZAR (EGYPTIAN) ........................................................................... 7
CHIFTITELLI 8/4 (TURKISH / EGYPTIAN) ................................................................................... 8
MASMOUDI 8/4 (EGYPTIAN / MOROCO) .................................................................................. 8
MAQSUUM OR MAKSUM (EGYPTIAN) 2/4..................................................................................... 9
KARSILAMA 9/8 TURKISH / GREEK ............................................................................................ 9
SAIDI 4/4 EGYPT ................................................................................................................... 10
MALFUF 2/4 EGYPTIAN ......................................................................................................... 10
KHALEEGY 2/4 SAUDI ARABIA ................................................................................................ 10
SAMAI 10/8 TURKISH .............................................................................................................. 11
PLAYING RHYTHMS TOGETHER ........................................................................................... 11
BELEDI AND MAQSUM ................................................................................................................ 11
MAQSUM AND AYUB .................................................................................................................. 11
MAQSUM AND MALFUF .............................................................................................................. 11
MASMOUDI AND CHIFTITELLI .................................................................................................... 12
BELEDI AND AYUB ..................................................................................................................... 12
BELEDI AND SAIDI ...................................................................................................................... 12
MORE RHYTHMS ....................................................................................................................... 12
BOLERO 4/4 (SPAIN / MIDDLE EAST) ....................................................................................... 12
KARATCHI 2/4 (EGYPT / NORTH AFRICA) ............................................................................. 13
SERTO 4/4 (GREEK) ............................................................................................................... 13
SLOW FIVE (TURKISH) ............................................................................................................. 13
FAST FIVE (TURKISH) .............................................................................................................. 13
MOROCCAN 6/8 .......................................................................................................................... 14
PERSIAN 6/8 ................................................................................................................................ 14
CHAKA 6/8 .................................................................................................................................. 14
ZAFFAH 4/4 (EGYPT) ................................................................................................................ 15
SUFI 4/4 ...................................................................................................................................... 15
FALAHI 2/4 (EGYPT) ................................................................................................................ 16
SAUDI 2/4 (SAUDI ARABIA / PERSIAN GULF) .......................................................................... 16
LAZ 7/8 (TURKISH / GREECE) .................................................................................................. 16
SHEELTO 7/8 ............................................................................................................................... 17
ZENKOV 21/8 (RUSSIAN) ......................................................................................................... 17
DANCING DRUMS ....................................................................................................................... 18
3

Puzzle Drumming

Skin so taut it makes a sound
Energy from it flows all around.
A beat of bass a slap of tone
Makes me feel so not alone.

I start off slow and increase the pace
I feel a pull from a distant place
Where people sing and dance in time
To a beat of sound and a tap of rhyme.

I hear the others who have come to play
Who drum beside me here this day.
I feel them weave their drums to me
Within my rhythm their thoughts I see.

A puzzle of sound is what we become
A piece added with each beat of the drum.
And then a story begins to unfold
As the dancer tells of tales of old.

Hear the bells upon their feet
The faeries come to hear our beat.
They play along within our sound
Within our circle their energy is found.

And soon our song it begins to end
And strangers before now are friends.
We brought a piece to play as one
And though it has ended, the song has just begun.

Talisen ~2001






4
Rhythm Disclaimer

There are countless rhythms that exist and many of these cross cultural boundaries. People may
recognize the same rhythm by different names. In addition, the same name may be used for two
entirely different rhythms. This also applies to the spelling of the rhythm names. The author
has attempted to use the most common names and spellings. However, the reader may know the
rhythm by a different spelling or name. The reader should also know that the rhythms as they
are presented here are but a few and there may be many variations.


Historical Information:

The origins of hand drumming rhythms, whether referring to African or Middle Eastern rhythms,
were influenced by nature, the movement of animals, and activities in daily life. Furthermore,
many rhythms were mixed together as different cultures came in to contact with each other,
either from nomadic tribes or conquering nations.


Drums and Playing Styles

The rhythms in this book are predominantly played on a Goblet Style drum which is referred to
as a doumbek, although it can be called by other names. Other drums that can easily use this
drum notation would be the African style drums such as the djembe or the ashiko. The two
playing styles that can be used for the doumbek would be the traditional style where the drum is
oriented across the lap while sitting or across the body from the side while standing. The second
method, freestyle, is to placing the drum between the knees either sitting or standing with a drum
strap. Either way is acceptable for the rhythms presented here.

All of the rhythms in this book can be played on pretty much any drum but the playing technique
would vary according to the drum and method of play.


Language of drumming

Drum speak, usually in the form of one syllable vocalizations, identifies how the rhythms are
played, what part of the drum is used, and which hand is striking the drum. This oral tradition
was the means by which rhythms were passed down from generation to generation. Therefore,
the most effective way to learn a rhythm is to speak it. By absorbing the rhythm into the
brain, it becomes familiar and instructions to the hands to execute it are more easily
communicated. This all gets translated into a simple sentence.

If you can say it, you can play it

5
Common African Middle Eastern
Bass Gun or Dun Doum
Tone Go or Do Tek or Ka
Slap Pa or Ta Pop

There is also what is known as a Grab which sounds like a muted pop to a certain extent and will
be referred to as a g.

The term dominant hand would refer to the hand most likely used to write or do other tasks.
So a right-handed persons dominant hand would be the right. The non-dominant hand would
be the left. This obviously is reversed for those that are naturally left-handed. For traditional
style of playing the doumbek, the drum should be placed across the hip opposite from the
dominant hand. The notation used in this book is a very common and simple form of writing out
the sounds that are made from the instrument. An accented stroke would be played with slightly
more force/volume.

D = Doum = accented bass **
d = doum = regular bass

T = Tek = accented tone dominant hand **
t = tek = regular tone dominant hand

K = Ka = accented tone non-dominant hand **
k = ka = regular tone non-dominant hand

P = Pop = accented slap or pop **
p = pop = regular slap or pop

g = Grab = This is similar to a doum but the hand is slightly cupped so the finger tips are
grabbing and sticking onto the drum skin.


For example, Beledi would be written out like this

D D t k t D t k t

And would be spoken like this:

Doum Doum tek ka tek Doum tek ka tek

Additionally, there are two other terms describing how the rhythm can be played - OPEN or
CLOSED. OPEN is the most simplistic variation of a rhythm, consisting of the most open
spaces between beats / strokes, usually by playing the accented beats only. CLOSED refers to
the rhythm as it becomes more filled with strokes filling the spaces.

Example:
Beledi played open: D D - - t D - - t or D D - - - D - - -
Beledi played closed: D D t k t D t k t
6
Time Signatures

Time Signatures are denoted by two numbers displayed as what we recognize mathematically as
a "fraction". The top number denotes how many beats are to a measure and the bottom note
identifies the note that receives one beat, or one count. For example: In 4/4 time, there are 4
beats to a measure, and each quarter note gets one beat. In a 9/8, there are 9 beats to the measure
and each eighth note gets one beat...and so on.

Counting


Counting is very important to understand the flow and spaces in a rhythm. The chart above
represents the standard counting that is used when playing the rhythms. The X represents when
the hand would strike the drum. To play this exercise, count the numbers going line by line, and
when the X appears under the number being spoken, strike the drum. For this exercise, play a
Doum on the whole numbers, and a tek or ka on the other letters and symbols. This counting
scheme will be used throughout this book

1
st
Row = Whole Notes
2
nd
Row = Half Notes
3
rd
Row = Quarter Notes
4
th
Row = Eighth Notes
5
th
Row = Sixteenth Note




1 2 3 4
X

1 2 3 4
X X

1 2 3 4
X X X X

1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &
X X X X X X X X

1 e & a 2 E & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
7
Rhythm Section

Beledi 4/4 - (Egyptian)

This is a 4/4 Rhythm that is widely known throughout the Middle East. Beledi means of the
country. This rhythm is sometimes also referred to as Masmoudi Saghiir.

Beledi 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D D t k t D t k t

Beledi with Bridge 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D D t k t D t k t t k


Ayub 2/4 (Turkish) aka: Zar (Egyptian)

This is a 2/4 rhythm that was used in exorcism ceremonies as well as in whirling dervish dances.
This is a rhythm that can be played very slowly for trance-like effect or can be played very fast.
Ayub is very similar to the African rhythm Jengo.

Ayub 2/4
1 e & a 2 e & a
D k D k

Ayub Variation 2/4
1 e & a 2 e & a
D k t k D k

















8

Chiftitelli 8/4 (Turkish / Egyptian)

This is an 8/4 rhythm, that, it is usually played at a slow to moderate speed. There are a lot of
spaces in the rhythm to put little fills especially at the end. A group of drummers can pass
around that open space around the circle giving everyone a chance to fill it in.

Chiftitelli Open 8/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D t k t k D D T

Chiftitelli Variation 1 8/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D t k t t t k d t t k D D T

Chiftitelli Variation 2 Closed 8/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D t k t k t t k t k t t k D D T

Masmoudi 8/4 (Egyptian / Morocco)

This is an 8/4 rhythm, often referred to as Masmoudi Kabir or Big Masmoudi, as opposed to
Beledi which is often thought of as Small Masmoudi. Notice how similar it is to chiftitelli. The
two Doums are in the front of the rhythm as opposed to the end of the rhythm.

Masmoudi 8/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D D t k t k t D t k t k t t k t k t t k


Masmoudi Variation 1 8/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D t k D t k T t k T t k D t k t k t t k t k t t k

Masmoudi Variation 2 8/4 (Walking Masmoudi)
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D D D t k t D t k t k t t k t k t t k
9

Maqsuum or Maksum (Egyptian) 4/4

This is a 4/4 rhythm and is often thought of as the foundation of most all other rhythms. This is a
good rhythm to practice soloing techniques as the open version leaves a lot of room to play
against it.


Maqsuum 4/4 Open
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D T T D T

Maqsuum 4/4 with Bridge Closed
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D T t k T D t k T t k



Karsilama 9/8 Turkish / Greek

This 9/8 rhythm means face to face. It is a popular rhythm in Turkish and Greek folk music.
The open version presents the opportunity to experience and practice odd meter rhythms before
filling it in. Odd meter rhythms will feel very different for western ears accustomed to even
meter rhythms.

Karsilama 9/8 Open
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a 9 e & a

D T D T T T

Karsilama 9/8 Closed
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a 9 e & a

D t k T t k D t k T T T




10

Saidi 4/4 Egypt

This is a 4/4 from Upper Egypt, sometimes it is referred to as Beledis cousin. The two doums
are played in the middle of rhythm rather than at the beginning.

Saidi 4/4 - Open
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D T D D t k T t k


Saidi 4/4 Closed
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D t k T D D t k T t k



Malfuf 2/4 Egyptian

This is a 2/4 from Egypt, the word itself means Cabbage. This rhythm is found throughout the
Middle East.

Malfuf 2/4
1 e & a 2 e & a

D k T k T k

Khaleegy 2/4 Saudi Arabia

This 2/4 rhythm is very similar to Malfuf and found throughout the Gulf Region.

1 e & a 2 e & a

D k D k t k




11


Samai 10/8 Turkish

Samai is a 10/8 and is usually considered a Classical Arabic composition.

Samai 10/8
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a 9 e & a 10 e & a

D t k t k t t t k t k D D t t k t k t k



Playing Rhythms Together

In the first CD, Playing Along with Middle Eastern Rhythms, a section is devoted to playing
some of the rhythms at the same time demonstrating how these rhythms could fit together. A
good exercise for two drummers playing together is to play a specific number of cycles and then
swap the rhythm. Below are just a few to try. Experiment with these and other rhythms.

Beledi and Maqsum


Maqsum

Beledi



Maqsum and Ayub


Maqsum

Ayub



Maqsum and Malfuf


Maqsum

Malfuf

1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D T T D T

D D t k T D t k T t k
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D T T D T

D k D k D k D k
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D T T D T

D k T k T k D k T k T k
12


Masmoudi and Chiftitelli



M

C


Beledi and Ayub

Beledi

Ayub



Beledi and Saidi


Beledi

Saidi


More Rhythms

These rhythms are on the Playing Along with Middle Eastern Rhythms Volume II disk

Bolero 4/4 (Spain / Middle East)

This is a 4/4 rhythm and is played throughout the Middle East. It is usually played at a slow
tempo. It is thought that the Gypsies may have brought this rhythm to Spain where it is very
popular.

Bolero 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D t k t k t k D k

Bolero Variation 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D k k t k k t k t k D t

1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a

D D t k t k t D t k t k t t k t k t t k

D t k t k T t k t k T t k D D T
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D D t k T D t k T t k

D k D k D k D k
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
D D t k T D t k T t k

D t k T D D t k T t k
13

Karatchi 2/4 (Egypt / North Africa/Pakistan)

This is a 2/4 rhythm with many variations. Some variations begin with a Tek instead of a Doum.

Karatchi 2/4
1 e & a 2 e & a

D k k T D
Serto 4/4 (Greek)

This is a 4/4 the rhythm commonly used to accompany line dancing. Easy to remember if
thought of as the combination of Malfuf and Khaleegy.

Serto 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D k D k t k D k T k t k


Slow Five (Turkish)

Slow Five
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 +

D k t k t k D

Fast Five (Turkish)

Fast Five
1 2 3 4 5

D k T k t

Fast Five Variation
1 2 3 4 5

D k D k k



14
Moroccan 6/8

The Moroccan 6/8 has a swaying or waltz feel to it. Again, there are many variations. Pay
attention to the spaces in this rhythm.

Moroccan 6/8
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a

D k k D k D k k D k k


Persian 6/8

The Persian 6/8 fits very nicely with the Moroccan 6/8. An interesting sound for two drummers
playing together.

Persian 6/8
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a

D t t k D t k D t t k D t k


Chaka 6/8

Chaka 6/8
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a

D t k t k T t k t k D t k T t k D T
















15


Zaffah 4/4 (Egypt)

This rhythm is traditionally played as a wedding processional.

Zaffah 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D t k t t D t D


Zaffah with Bridge 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D t k t t D t D t k






Sufi 4/4 (Pakistan)

This is a great rhythm to that can easily supports the bottom in a drum circle

Sufi 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D D D D t k t

Sufi with Bridge 4/4
1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a

D D D D t k t t k






16
Falahi 2/4 (Egypt)

This is a 2/4 and sounds very similar to Maqsum. There again a number of variations of it and is
usually played quite fast and is kept evenly spaced. Remember the gs represent a grab. The
fingertips strike and stick to the drum head in same place where a Doum would be played.

Falahi 2/4
1 e & a 2 e & a

D g k g D k g k



Saudi 2/4 (Saudi Arabia / Persian Gulf)

This is a 2/4 and has been identified with the Bedouin tribes. There are a number of variations of
this rhythm from the Gulf region. This is a common variation and the authors favorite.



Saudi 2/4
1 e & a 2 e & a

D k k D k k S k


Laz 7/8 (Turkish / Greece)

This is a 7/8 rhythm that is generally used for various folk dances and songs. Also the authors
favorite!

Laz 7/8
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 +

D t K k D t k t t

Laz Variation 7/8
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 +

D D t t k D t t k t


17
Sheelto 7/8

Sheelto 7/8
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 +

D t k t k D t k t

Sheelto with Bridge 7/8
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 +

D t k t k D t k t t k


Zenkov 21/8 (Russian)
While a rhythm like 21/8 may seem intimidating at first, a closer look shows smaller phrases
put together that make up the bigger phrases. Break this one down into 9 + 7 + 5.



DkDkDkTkk = 9
DkDkTkk = 7
DkTkk = 5
-----
21

Zenkov
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

D k D k D k T k k D k D k T k k D k T k k














18
Dancing Drums

With owners sleeping on the ground,
No one sees them dance around.
The sleeping drummers do not know
Where their drums do sometimes go.

For in the night when the air is clear,
And the masters hands are not so near,
They find a place where they can play
A secret place not far away.

Where Djembes lead a jaunting tune,
With Riqs and Tars, they call the moon.
The Ashikos play a simple bass,
As the Djun Djun comes to take his place.

The Doumbek enters the circle last,
Going slow but then moving fast.
With a pop that could wake the dead,
Then silence comes from every head.

The drums peek around the trees to see
That the masters are still sleeping peacefully.
Back to the circle to romp and play
Until the night turns into another day.

Talisen ~ 2001














19
Try making up some rhythms in 4/4 and 8/4 time


1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a







1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a





Try making up an odd metered rhythm.

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 +





1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a 9 e & a





1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a 5 e & a 6 e & a 7 e & a 8 e & a 9 e & a







20





Email: jesserogers01@gmail.com

www.tribal-soup.com