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Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 01. - Units, Unit Conversion, Symbols
Units are important. You will learn the names oI lots oI
units this year. Each unit has a standard one or two-
letter abbreviation. You must learn the abbreviations
(The unit oI time is the second s)
(The unit oI distance or displacement is the meter m)
(The unit oI velocity is meters per second m/s)
(The unit oI acceleration is meters per second squared m/s
2
)

Symbols are important. They stand in Ior known and
unknown quantities in the equations you will derive to
solve Physics problems. Many oI these symbols are
considered so standard that everyone everywhere uses
the same symbol. This actually simpliIies matters is
many cases. We will use the standard symbols
whenever possible. You will have to learn these as we
(The symbol oI time is t)
(The symbol oI distance is d)
(The symbol oI speed is v or s)
(The symbol oI displacement is ! or # !" \$)
(The symbol oI velocity is %)
(The symbol oI acceleration is &)

Subscripts are important. Subscripts add essential
inIormation that must be taken into account. For
example, v
0
usually indicates the velocity at time zero,
while v
i
and v
f
usually indicate the initial and Iinal
velocities, and v
AVE
is the average velocity. These are
all diIIerent velocities. Always read the subscripts.

Time is important. Time started 14 billion years ago
when the universe appeared. We will not be studying
processes that began at the beginning oI time. All times
that we measure are thereIore time intervals, or time
diIIerences, iI you like. For us time zero always means
that time when the clock started. And time t always
means the time interval since the clock started. In light
oI this Iact, is it never wrong to replace t with a At in
any equation. II the time interval does not start at time
zero on the clock, then the time must be written as At.

Standard Units: The standard units we use are known
as SI units. For now, learn these Iirst Iew.

Measure oI length meters m
Measure oI area meters
2
m
2
mm
Measure oI volume meters
3
m
3
mmm
Measure oI time seconds s
Measure oI velocity meters per second m/s
Measure oI acceleration meters per second
2
m/s
2

Chapter 01. - continued
Error and Precision are not the same thing. Error tells
us how Iar the measurement is Irom the true answer. We

Error100[MeasuredTrue[/True

Precision tells us only how consistently a given
measuring device can measure values ACCORDING TO
ITS MANUFACTURER`S SPECIFICATION.
Precision is a measure oI the reproducibility and
consistency oI the results. The measurements can be
very consistent and still be consistently wrong, however.

Typically, the speciIication Ior the precision oI a device
might be reported something like one oI the Iollowing,
0.002
1
3 digits

Fine precision is no guarantee oI high accuracy,
however. Usually the two go together, but sometimes,
probably by mistake, they do not. (Hubble Telescope!)

Unit Conversion Factors Remember that all unit
conversion Iactors only change the numerical answer
because they change the units in which it is reported.
These deIined relationships always have very high
accuracy, and practically an unlimited number oI
signiIicant digits (even iI the terminal zeroes are not written out).
100 cm 1 meter
Example:
Suppose you want to convert 35.0 miles per hour to
meters per second. You would need conversion Iactors
based on the Iollowing equalities.
1 mile 5,280 Ieet
1 Ioot 12 inches
1 inch 2.54 centimeters
100 centimeters 1 meter
1 hour 60 minutes
1 minute 60 seconds

s
m
s
hr
cm
m
in
cm
ft
in
mi
ft
hr
mi
7 . 15
60
min 1
min 60
1

100
1
1
54 . 2
1
12
1
5280
0 . 35
=

From each equality, choose the ratio that eliminates an
the desired direction.
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 2 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 02. - Motion Along one Axis
Physical quantities Ior which the direction oI their
motion or action is an important characteristic must be
treated mathematically using vectors, not simple
numerical values. Quantities that do not require
directional inIormation are called scalars. We begin our
study oI vectors by studying motion in one direction.
This type oI vector behaves much like a scalar quantity;
only the notation is a little diIIerent at this point.
Vectors are symbolized with very '()! letters. The
most important quantities in this section are the
instantaneous quantities listed here.
Instantaneous position: *
Instantaneous position at time zero: *
+

Instantaneous velocity: %
Instantaneous velocity at time zero: %
+

Instantaneous acceleration: &
(Ior now, acceleration is assumed to be constant.)

BeIore we can rigorously deIine what we mean by
instantaneous, we need to deIine some simpler
quantities. The Iirst oI these are distance and
displacement. In one dimension these might have the
same numeric value.
II the object starts at *
+

and moves back and Iorth
beIore settling at its Iinal position, *, then the distance
could be much longer than the shortest path between the
starting and ending points. On the other hand, the
minimum distance is closely related to the displacement.
d
MIN
,* *
+
, ,*
+
*, ,!,
The minimum distance does not include inIormation
about the direction oI travel; that is the meaning oI those
absolute value markers. The starting and ending
positions are *
+
and *, but the scalar quantity called
'minimum distance does not care which is which.
Subtraction in either order is permitted.
! displacement * *
+
!
The vector quantity called 'displacement, on the other
hand, must be calculated as the Iinal position vector
minus the initial position vector. That result always
gives us the minimum distance and the direction oI the
motion. For motion along the x-axis, as one example, a
positive displacement indicates motion to the right. A
negative displacement indicates motion to the leIt.

Chapter 02. - continued
With the deIinition oI distance in hand we can deIine the
scalar quantity known at the average speed.
v
AVG
average speed distance/Atime d/At

Where At is the time interval between the moment when
the object was at the initial position and the moment
when it was at the Iinal position. The time interval is
oIten writing simply as t, but this is only true iI the time
interval begins at the moment when the clock reads zero.
(Think oI the clock as a stopwatch.)

With the deIinition oI the displacement in hand we can
deIine the vector quantity known as the average velocity
%
,-.
average velocity displacement/Atime !/At

Instantaneous Position - * - the position oI a moving
object at one moment in time; also known as an instant
oI time. Position is always assumed to be instantaneous.

Instantaneous Velocity - % - is average velocity over
an inIinitesimal displacement in an inIinitesimal time
interval. It is the velocity at one instant. As a practical
matter it is usually good enough to measure the average
velocity over a short displacement in a brieI time interval
and then take the ratio oI those two measurements to
estimate the instantaneous velocity.

Constant-Acceleration Linear Motion
Once our Iinal deIinitions Ior instantaneous position and
instantaneous velocity are completed, the Iollowing
equations oI motion apply to all systems that have a
constant acceleration. (When the acceleration is constant, the
instantaneous and average accelerations have the same magnitude and
direction.)
% %
+
&t no *
(* *
+
) %
+
t &t no %
% %
+
2&(* *
+
) no t
(* *
+
) (%
+

%)t no &
(* *
+
) %t &t no %
o

Average velocity can be obtained Irom the initial and
Iinal instantaneous velocities, iI and only iI the
acceleration is constant.

velocity average
2
0
=
+
=
% %
%
,-/
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 3 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 02. - continued
Constant Acceleration is rare in nature but common in
the problems we will be working. Constant acceleration
gives the equations oI motion their simplest Iorm and
makes them easier to solve. Gravity provides a ready
source oI objects moving with constant acceleration.

Strictly speaking, we cannot deIine average acceleration
until we have a deIinition Ior instantaneous velocity.
Then the average acceleration is
&
,-.
average acceleration
velocity change/Atime A%/At

When the acceleration is constant, the instantaneous and
average acceleration have the same magnitude and
direction. Since the instantaneous acceleration is the
same at all moments, the average acceleration must have
the same magnitude and direction.

One dimensional vectors
To this point, we`ve used only vectors that behave
exactly like signed numerical values, where the sign
indicates the direction along the axis oI motion.

Vectors can also be thought oI as arrows with pointed
ends showing the direction oI the motion. We could
even use these arrows to describe the one-dimensional
vectors discussed in this chapter.

In the next chapter, where objects are Iree to move in
two dimensions, we will use the arrow representation
Iirst. There is also a method that allows us to reuse the
vector concepts Irom this chapter; the signed numbers.
We will separate the vectors into what are call their
components. Components are independent one-
dimensional sub-sets oI the motion.

Chapter 03. -
Components of a Vector and Vector Addition
- v Zu 34.0 m/s Z48.0
v
x
v cos u 34 m/s(cos 48) 22.8 m/s
v
y
v sin u 34 m/s(sin 48) 25.3 m/s
- v
x
% ( v
y
) 22.8 % ( 25.3 ) m/s

0 w Zu 52.0 m/s Z113.0
w
x
w cos u 52 m/s(cos 113) 20.3 m/s
w
y
w sin u 52 m/s(sin 113) 47.9 m/s
1 w
x
% ( w
y
) 20.3 % ( 47.9 ) m/s

Chapter 03. - continued
- + 1 (22.820.3) % ( (25.347.9) ) m/s
- + 1 2.5 % ( 73.2 ) m/s 1 + -

- 1 (22.8(20.3)) % ( (25.347.9) ) m/s
43.1 % 22.6 ) m/s

1 - (20.322.8) % ( (47.925.3) ) m/s
43.1 % ( 22.6 ) m/s
- 1 and 1 -, point in opposite directions and
both are perpendicular to - + 1 1 + -.

Projectile Motion - working with components
Horizontal position: xx
o
v
x
t
Vertical position: yy
o
v
y0
t gt

Horizontal velocity: v
x
v
0
cos u
Vertical velocity: v
y
v
0
sin u - gt
2

Horizontal acceleration: a
x
0
Vertical acceleration: a
y
g constant

Chapter 04. -
Newton`s First Law Law oI Inertia. Forces make
objects move. No Iorce means no change in the motion.

Newton's Second Law - Forces cause acceleration.
2
net
E2
/*3
m
sys
&
\$4\$

Newton`s Third Law Forces are created in pairs.

Weight 0 m5
5 9.80m/s near the surIace oI the Earth
9.795 m/s in Fort Worth, TX

Friction Force 2
2
2
6

II the object is not moving, you are dealing with static
Iriction and it can have any value Irom zero up to
S
F
N

II the object is sliding, then you are dealing with kinetic
Iriction and it will be constant and equal to
K
F
N

Free-Body Diagram Show all the Iorces acting on and
object. Components must be dashed to distinguish them
Irom Iorces. You cannot use a Iorce and its components
in the same problem.
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 4 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 05. -
Uniform Circular Motion - Centripetal Acceleration

Uniform Circular Motion - Period, Frequency and V

Centripetal Force

Minimum Speed at the top of a Vertical Loop
rg v =

Circular Unbanked Track - Car Rounding a Curve.
R C
ma
r
mv
mg F = = =
2

Banked Circular Track
v
2
rgtan u, without Iriction

Universal Gravitation - Conservative Force
2
2 1
r
m m
G F =

where G 6.67 10
11
Nm / kg 6.67 E11 Nm / kg

Chapter 06. -
Work done by a constant force 27cos u
Where 7 is the displacement oI the mass and
u is the angle between 2 and 7. unit : Nm J

Work done by a varying force
On a graph oI Force vs displacement the work is the
area between the curve and the x-axis. Later on we
will evaluate this are by taking the anti-derivative oI
the Iunction that describes the Iorce in terms oI
position.

Mechanical Energy -Kinetic Energy
KE
Linear
K mv

Chapter 06 - continued
Mechanical Energy - The Work-Energy Theorem
The net work done on a body equals the change in
the kinetic energy oI the body.
W
net
AKE KE
f
KE
i

mv
f
mv
i

Mechanical Energy - Gravitational Potential Energy
PE
Grav
PE
g
mgh
mgy

Hooke's Law - a non-constant force
2 k*
* displacement Irom equilibrium
k the spring constant
proportionality constant between
the restoring Iorce and the
displacement.

Potential Energy of a spring - Conservative Force
Work done on a spring PE W kx

Power rate of work done, unit J/s W watts
Chapter 07. -
Linear Momentum
momentum p mv mass velocity

Newton's Second Law
ma
t
v v m
t
mv mv
t
p
F F
Ext net
=
A

=
A

=
A
A
= E =
) (
0 0

Impulse Change in Momentum
FAt Ap A(mv)

Conservation of Momentum in Collisions
m
A
v
A
+ m
B
v
B
m
A
v
A
! + m
B
v
B
!

Sum oI Momenta beIore the Collision Sum oI Momenta aIter the Collision

Center of Mass point masses on a line (x only), on a
plane (x and y only), or Iilling space (x, y, and z)
x
cm
E(m
%
x
%
) / M
total

y
cm
E(m
%
y
%
) / M
total

z
cm
E(m
%
z
%
) / M
total

r
v
a
R
2
=
T
r
v
T
f
f
T
t 2
and
1
and
1
= = =
r m
r
mv
F
C
2
2
e = =
Fv
t
Fd
time
Work
P =
A
=
A
= = power average
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 5 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006
Chapter 08. -
u
arc length
/

!
/
r

"
/
r

Angular Speed vs. Linear Speed
Linear speed v re radius angular speed

Constant Angular-Acceleration in Circular Motion
e = e
o
+ ot no u
uu
o
= e
o
t ot no e
e
2

= e
o
2

2o(uu
o
) no t
uu
o
= (e
o
+ e)t no o
uu
o
= et - ot no e
o

Torque t 28sin u
Where u is the angle between 2 and 8; unit: Nm

Newton's Second Law for Rotation
#orque t ! Io
moment oI inertia I
CM
mr (Ior a point mass)

Rotational Kinetic Energy (See LEM on last page)
KE
rotational
Ie
2

I (v / r)
2

KE
rolling w/o slipping
mv
2
+ Ie
2

Moment of Inertia - I
CM

point mass I
CM
mr
2

cylindrical hoop I
CM
mr
2

solid cylinder or disk I
CM
mr
2

solid sphere I
CM

2
/
5
mr
2

hollow sphere I
CM
mr
2

thin rod (center) I
CM

1
/
12
mL
2

When the thin rod is rotated about its end rather than
about is center oI mass, the moment oI inertia becomes
thin rod (end) I
End
mL
2

Angular Momentum L Ie mvrsin u

Angular Impulse equals CHANGE IN Angular
Momentum
AL t
Average
At A(Ie)

Chapter 09. -
Elasticity; Stress and Strain
(Assumes objects stretch according to Hooke`s Law as long as
they
are not stretched passed the proportional limit.)

For tensile stress
F kAL (EA/L
0
)AL

F applied Iorce
E elastic (or Young`s) modulus
A cross-sectional area
perpendicular to the Iorce
L
0
the original length
AL change in the length

AL/L
0
(1/E)(F/A)
strain (1/E)(stress)
E (stress / strain)

Compressive stress is the exact opposite oI tensile
stress. Objects are compressed rather than
stretched. As Ior springs the equations are the same
Ior both tensile and compressive stress and the same
elastic modulus is used Ior both calculations.
AL/L
0
(1/E)(F/A)
strain (1/E)(stress)
E (stress / strain)
There is a negative sign because the length
decreases as the Iorce increases (AL is negative).

Shear stress is the application oI two Iorces that distort
an object (like deIorming a rectangle into a parallelogram).
The Iorces are equal and opposite (parallel, but not
oriented to directly oppose each other). (A second pair oI
matched Iorces is also required to maintain equilibrium while the
stress is applied.)
AL /L
0
(1/G)(F/A)
strain (1/G)(stress)
G (stress / strain)

G shear modulus
A area Parallel to the Iorce.
L
0
original length oI object
AL change in length due to Iorce
Note that AL is perpendicular to L
0
.

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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 6 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 09. - continued
Bulk Stress - When the Iorce is applied uniIormly all
over an object, we expect its volume to shrink. When
applied this way, the ratio oI Iorce to area is called
'pressure, and AP is the change in pressure that induces
a corresponding change in the volume.
AV/V
0
(1/B)(AP)
strain (1/B)(stress)
B (stress / strain)

B bulk modulus
V
0
initial volume oI the material
AV Change in the volume
AP change in pressure

when the pressure increases. When AP is positive, AV is
negative, and vice versa. One oI the two is always
negative.

Chapter 10. -
Pressure under Water (or immersed in any liquid)
P gh

P Pressure at depth
h depth below the surIace
density oI the Iluid

Density mass / volume

Buoyant Force - Buoyancy
F
B
Vg
m
Displaced fluid
g
weight
Displaced fluid

density oI the Iluid
V volume oI Iluid displaced

Continuity of Fluid Flow
Q
Volume Flow Rate
A
in
v
in
A
out
v
out

A Cross-sectional Area
v velocity oI the Iluid

Chapter 10. - continued
Poiseuille's Equation (Laminar Ilow in horizontal tubular pipes.)
Q volume Ilow rate oI Iluid m
3
/s
Q (tr
4
)
AP / (8qL)

r inside radius oI pipe m
AP P
1
- P
2
Pressure change Pa
q coeIIicient oI viscosity Pas
L length oI pipe m

Bernoulli's Equation
P + gh + v constant
Q
Volume Flow Rate
A
1
v
1
A
2
v
2
constant

Chapter 11. -
Period of Simple Harmonic Motion - Ideal Spring

also * 1/ T

where k spring constant, and m is the mass.

Simple Pendulum

also * 1/ T

where L is the length oI the pendulum and g is
the local acceleration due to gravity.

Velocity of Periodic Waves
* 1 / T
v * = /T
where T the period oI the wave

Speed of a Wave on a String

+ tension in string
m mass oI string
L length oI string
Sinusoidal motion
x Acos(t) Acos(2t* t)
angular Irequency
f Irequency
m/L
v , thereIore ;
v
2
T
L
m
T = =
( )
3
/ : m kg unit
J
m
=
k
m
t 2 T =
g
L
t 2 T =
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 7 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 12. -
Doppler Effect

,
o
velocity oI observer:
,
s
velocity oI source
v
SOUND
343 m/s
Decibel Scale
dB (Decibel level) 10 log ( I / I
o
)
I intensity oI sound
I
o
intensity oI soItest audible sound

Chapter 13. -

Ideal Gas Law
PV nRT
n # oI moles oI gas
R gas law constant
8.31 J/molK.

Thermal Expansion of Solids
Linear: AL L
o
oAT
Volume: AV V
o
|AT

Chapter 14. -
Heating a Solid, Liquid or Gas
Q mcAT (no phase changes!)

c speciIic heat.
AT temperature change, K or C

Heat required for a Phase Change
Q mL
m mass oI material
L Latent Heat oI phase change

Flow of Heat through a Solid
AQ / At kAAT / L
k thermal conductivity
A area oI solid
AT Temperature diIIerence
L thickness oI solid

Chapter 15. -
First Law of Thermodynamics
AU Q
Net
+ W
Net

Change in Internal Energy oI a system
Net Heat added to the system
Net Work done on the system
Work done on a gas or by a gas
W PAV
2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
The change in internal energy oI a system is
AU Q
+ W
DoneOn
- Q
lost
- W
DoneBy

Maximum Efficiency of a Heat Engine (Carnot Cycle)
(Temperatures in Kelvin)

Efficiency Work
out
/ Energy
in

Mechanical Advantage force out / force in
M.A. F
out
/ F
in

Entropy change at constant T
AS Q / T
(Applies to phase changes only: melting, boiling, Ireezing, etc)

Chapter 16. -
Coulomb's Law

Electric Field around a point charge

s
Toward
Awav
o
Toward
Awav
v
v
f f
343
343
= '
100 ) 1 ( =
h
c
T
T
Eff
2
2 1
r
q q
k F =
2
r
q
k E =
2
2
2
2
9 9 10 85 . 8
4
1
9
C
m N
E
C
m N
k
o

= =
+
tc
2
2
2
2
9 9 10 85 . 8
4
1
9
C
m N
E
C
m N
k
o

= =
+
tc
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 8 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 17. -
Capacitors and Capacitance
Q
c
CV
c

Q
c
charge on capacitor
(The unit oI electric charge is the coulomb C)
C capacitance oI the capacitor
(The unit oI capacitance is the Iarad F C/V)
V
c
voltage across the plates
(The unit oI voltage is the volt V J/C)

Potential Energy stored in a Capacitor
P CV

Chapter 18. -
Ohm's Law
V IR
V voltage across the resistor
(The unit oI voltage is the volt V J/C)
I current through the resistor
(The unit oI current is the ampere A C/s)
R resistance oI the resistor
(The unit oI resistance is the ohm O V/A)

Resistance of a resistor (or any resistive material)
R L / A
x

= resistivity oI the material
(The unit oI resistivity is the ohmmeter Om)
L length oI the material
(The unit oI length is the meter m)
A
x
cross-sectional area oI the
Material or resistor
(The unit oI cross-sectional area is meter
2
m
2
)

Electric Power (The unit oI power is the watt W J/s)
P IR
P V / R
P IV

Chapter 19. -
Resistor Combinations
SERIES
R
eq
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+. . .

PARALLEL

Capacitor Combinations
SERIES

PARALLEL
C
eq
C
1
C
2
C
3
.

Kirchhoff`s Laws
Node Rule: E
node
I
i
0
Loop Rule: E
loop
AV
i
0

Capacitance, C, of a Capacitor
C kc
o
A / d
k dielectric constant
A area oI plates
d distance between plates
c
o
8.85 10
12
) F/m
(Capital 'C is also used as the abbreviation Ior the unit oI electric
charge; the coulomb C. Do not conIuse the two uses oI capital 'C.
The unit oI capacitance is the Iarad F. The capital 'F is Irequently
used as the symbol Ior Iorce. Do not conIuse the two used oI the
capital 'F.)

RC Circuit formula (Charging with one battery, one
resistor and one capacitor)

V
Battery
V
capacitor
IR 0
RC Circuits (Charging) - RC t time constant
V
c
V
MAX
1 - e
t/RC
]

But V
c
IR 0 (Irom Ohm`s Law), thereIore,
I (V
MAX
/R)e
t/RC

I
MAX
e
t/RC

And Q
c
CV
c
(Irom the deIinition oI capacitance), so
Q
c
CV
MAX
1 e
t/RC
]

Q
MAX
1 e
t/RC
]

= + + + =
=
n
i 1
1 1 1 1 1
i n 2 1 eq
R R R R R

= + + + =
=
n
i
i n eq
C C C C C
1
2 1
1 1 1 1 1

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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 9 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 19. - continued
RC Circuits (Discharging) - RC t time constant
V
c
V
MAX
e
t/RC

But V
c
IR 0 (Irom Ohm`s Law), thereIore,
I (V
MAX
/R)e
t/RC

I
MAX
e
t/RC

And Q
c
CV
c
(Irom the deIinition oI capacitance), so
Q
c
CV
MAX
e
t/RC

Q
MAX
e
t/RC

Chapter 20. -
Magnetic Field around a wire

Magnetic Flux
u BAcos u

Force caused by a magnetic field acting on a
moving charge
F qvBsin u

Chapter 21. -
Induced Voltage

N # oI loops

Lenz`s Law - induced current Ilows to create a B-Iield
opposing the change in magnetic Ilux.

Inductors during an increase in current
V
L
V
cell
e
t / (L / R)

I (V
cell
/R) 1 - e
t / (L / R)

]
L / R time constant
Transformers
N
1
/ N
2
V
1
/ V
2

I
1
V
1
I
2
V
2

Chapter 22. -
Energy of a Photon or a Particle
E h* mc
2

h Planck's constant
6.63 10
34
Js
* Irequency oI the photon

Chapter 23. -
Snell's Law
n
1
sin u
1
= n
2
sin u
2

Index of Refraction - definition
n c / v
c speed oI light in a vacuum
3 10
8
m/s 3 E8 m/s
v speed oI light in the medium
less than 3 10
8
m/s

Thin Lens Equation

* Iocal length
% image distance
- object distance

Magnification Equation
M .
i
/ .
o
% / - /
i
/ /
o

HelpIul reminders Ior mirrors and lenses
Focal Length oI: positive negative
mirror concave convex
lens converging diverging
Object distance o all objects
Object height H
o
all objects
Image distance i real virtual
Image height H
i
virtual, upright real, inverted
MagniIication virtual, upright real, inverted

Chapter 24. -

Chapter 25. -

i o d d f
i o
1 1 1 1 1
+ = + =
r
I
B
o
t

2
=
t
N Emf
A
Au
=
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 10 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 26. -
The Lorentz transformation factor, |, is given by

Relativistic Time Dilation
At At
o
/ |

Relativistic Length Contraction
Ax |Ax
o

Relativistic Mass Increase
It is usually expressed in terms oI the momentum oI
the object
p m
v
v m
o
v / |

where | is the Lorentz transIormation Iactor.

Mass-Energy Equivalence
m
v
m
o
/ |

Total Energy KE + m
o
c
2
m
o
c
2
/ |

Usually written as E m c
2

Postulates of Special Relativity
1. The laws of Physics have the same form
in all inertial reference frames.
(Absolute, uniIorm motion cannot be detected by
examining the equations oI motion.)
2. Light propagates through empty space
with a definite speed, &, independent of
the speed of the source or the observer.
(No energy or mass transIer can occur at speeds Iaster
than the speed oI light in a vacuum.)

Chapter 27. -
Blackbody Radiation and the Photoelectric Effect
E h*

h Planck's constant

Early Quantum Physics
Rutherford-Bohr Hydrogen-like Atoms

or

R Rydberg's Constant
1.097373143 E7 m
-1

n
s
series integer (2 Balmer Series)
n an integer ~ n
s

de Broglie Matter Waves
For light:
E
p
h* hc / pc
ThereIore:
p h /

By analogy, Ior particles, we expect to Iind that
p mv h / ,

Thus, matter`s wavelength should be

h / m v

Chapter 28. -

Chapter 29. -
Energy Released or Consumed by a Nuclear Fission
or Nuclear Fusion Reaction
E mc
2

Where Am is the diIIerence between the sum oI the
masses oI all the reactants and the sum oI the
masses oI all the products.
2
2
1
c
v
= |
H:
n n
cR
c
f
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2 2
1 1

1
2 2
1 1 1

|
|
.
|

\
|
= meters
n n
R
s

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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 11 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Chapter 30. -
N N
o
e
k t

(1/2
n
)N
0

A A
o
e
k t

(1/2
n
)A
0

k (ln 2) / halI-liIe
N
0
initial number oI atoms
A
0
initial activity
n number oI halI-lives

Chapter 31. -

Chapter 32. -

Chapter 33. -

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E
Lorentz Transformation Factor
2
2
1
c
v
= |

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Appendix 1

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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 12 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

MISCELLANEOUS FORMULAS

iI ax

bx c 0
then

a
ac b b
x
2
4
2

=

Trigonometric Definitions
sin opposite / hypotenuse

sec 1 / cos hyp / adj
csc 1 / sin hyp / opp
cot 1 / tan adj / opp

Inverse Trigonometric Definitions
sin
-1
(opp / hyp)
cos
-1
tan
-1

Law of Sines
a / sin A b / sin B c / sin C
or
sin A / a sin B / b sin C / c

Law of Cosines
a
2
b
2
c
2
- 2 b c cos A
b
2
c
2
a
2
- 2 c a cos B
c a b - 2 a b cos C

Trigonometric Identities

sin
2
u cos
2
u 1
sin 2u 2 sin u cos u
tan u
sin u
/
cos u

sin (u 180) sin u
cos (u 180) cos u

sin (180 u) sin u
cos (180 u) cos u

sin (90 u) cos u
cos (90 u) sin u

Fundamental SI Units
Unit Base Unit Symbol
.........
Length meter m

Mass kilogram kg

Time second s
Electric
Current ampere A
Thermodynamic
Temperature kelvin K
Luminous
Intensity candela cd
Quantity oI
Substance moles mol

Solid Angle steradian sr or str

Some Derived SI Units
Symbol/Unit Quantity Base Units
.........
C coulomb Electric Charge As

2
s
4
/(kgm
2
)

H henry Inductance kgm
2
/(A
2
s
2
)

Hz hertz Frequency s
-1

1 joule Energy & Work kgm
2
/s
2
Nm

N newton Force kgm/s
2

ohm Elec Resistance kgm
2
/(A
2
s
2
)

Pa pascal Pressure kg/(ms
2
)

T tesla Magnetic Field kg/(As
2
)

V volt Elec Potential kgm
2
/(As
2
)

W watt Power kgm
2
/s
3

Non-SI Units
o
C degree Celsius Temperature

eV electron-volt Energy, Work
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 13 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006
Latin Symbols for Quantities and Units
Aa acceleration, Area, A
x
Cross-sectional Area,
Amperes, Amplitude oI a Wave, Angle,
Bb Magnetic Field, Bel (sound intensity), Angle,

Cc speciIic heat, speed oI light, Capacitance, Angle,
Coulomb,
o
Cdegrees Celsius, candela,
Dd displacement, diIIerential change in a variable,
Distance, Distance Moved, degrees,
o
F,
o
C,
Ee base oI the natural logarithms, charge on the
electron, eVelectron volt, Energy,
Ff Force, frequencv of a wave or periodic motion,
o
Fdegrees Fahrenheit,
Gg Universal Gravitational Constant, acceleration
due to gravity, Gauss, grams, Giga-,
Hh depth oI a Iluid, height, vertical distance,
Henry, HzHertz,
Ii Current, Moment oI Inertia, image distance,
Intensity oI Light or Sound,
1j Joule,
Kk K or KE Kinetic Energy, Iorce constant oI a
spring, thermal conductivity, coulomb'slaw
constant, kgkilogram, Kelvin, kilo-, rate
constant Ior Radioactive decay 1/tln2 / halI-
liIe,
Ll Length, Length oI a wire, Latent Heat oI Fusion or
Vaporization, Angular Momentum, Thickness,
Inductance,
Mm mass, Total Mass, meter, milli-, Mega-,
m
o
rest mass, molmoles,
Nn index oI reIraction, moles oI a gas, Newton,
Number oI Loops, nano-, Newtonmeter,
Oo Ohm(O),
Pp Power, Pressure oI a Gas or Fluid, Potential Energy,
momentum, PaPascal,
Qq Heat gained or lost, Charge on a capacitor, charge
on a particle, object distance, Flow Rate,
Rr radius, Ideal Gas Law Constant, Resistance,
Ss speed, second, Entropy, length along an arc,
Tt time, Temperature, Period oI a Wave, Tension,
Tesla, t
1/2
halI-liIe,
Uu Potential Energy,
Vv velocity, Velocity, Volume oI a Gas, velocity oI
wave, Volume oI Fluid Displaced, Voltage,
Volt,
Ww weight, Work, Watt, WbWeber,
Xx distance, horizontal distance, x-coordinate
east-and-west coordinate,
Yy vertical distance, y-coordinate,
north-and-south coordinate,
Zz z-coordinate, up-and-down coordinate,
Greek Symbols for Quantities and Units
a-Ao Alpha angular acceleration, coeIIicient oI
linear expansion,
b-B| Beta coeIIicient oI volume expansion,
lorentz transIormation Iactor,
c-X_ Chi

d-Ao Delta AChange in a variable,

e-Ec Epsilon c
o
permittivity oI Iree space,

f-u|(j) Phi Magnetic Flux, angle,

g-I Gamma surIace tension F / L,
1 / Lorentz transIormation Iactor,
h-Hq Eta

i-Ii Iota

k-Kk Kappa dielectric constant,

l-A Lambda wavelength oI a wave, rate constant

m-M Mu Iriction,
o
permeability oI Iree space,
micro-,
n-Nv Nu alternate symbol Ior Irequency,

o-Oo Omicron
p-Ht Pi 3.1415926536.,

q-Ou0(J) Theta angle between two vectors,

r-P Rho density oI a solid or liquid, resistivity,

s-Eo Sigma Summation, standard deviation,
t-Tt Tau torque, time constant Ior any exponential
process; eg tRC or tL/R or t1/k1/,
u-Yu Upsilon

w-Oe=(v) Omega angular speed or angular velocity,
Ohms,
x- Xi

y-+ Psi
z-Z,(V) Zeta
(Four Greek letters have alternate lower-case Iorms. Use the letter in ()
and change its Iont to Symbol to get the alternate version oI the letter.)
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 14 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Values of Trigonometric Functions
for 1
st
(simple, mostly-rational approximations)
u sin u cos u tan u
0
o
0 1 0
10
o
1/6 65/66 11/65
15
o
1/4 28/29 29/108
20
o
1/3 16/17 17/47
29
o
15
1/2
/8 7/8 15
1/2
/7
30
o
1/2 3
1/2
/2 1/3
1/2

37
o
3/5 4/5 3/4
42
o
2/3 3/4 8/9
45
o
2
1/2
/2 2
1/2
/2 1
49
o
3/4 2/3 9/8
53
o
4/5 3/5 4/3
60
o
3
1/2
/2 1/2 3
1/2
61
o
7/8 15
1/2
/8 7/15
1/2
70
o
16/17 1/3 47/17
75
o
28/29 1/4 108/29
80
o
65/66 1/6 65/11
90
o
1 0
(Memori:e the Bold rows for future reference.)

Derivatives of Polynomials

For polynomials, with individual terms oI the Iorm Ax
n
,
we deIine the derivative oI each term as

To Iind the derivative oI the polynomial, simply add the
derivatives Ior the individual terms:

Integrals of Polynomials

For polynomials, with individual terms oI the Iorm Ax
n
,
we deIine the indeIinite integral oI each term as

To Iind the indeIinite
integral oI the polynomial, simply add the integrals Ior
the individual terms and the constant oI integration, C.

Prefixes

Factor Prefix Symbol Example
10
18
exa- E 38 Es (Age oI
the Universe
in Seconds)
10
15
peta- P

10
12
tera- T 0.3 TW (Peak
power oI a
1 ps pulse
Irom a typical
Nd-glass laser)

10
9
giga- G 22 G\$ (Size oI
Bill & Melissa
Gates` Trust)

10
6
mega- M 6.37 Mm (The
Earth)

10
3
kilo- k 1 kg (SI unit
oI mass)

10
-1
deci- d 10 cm

10
-2
centi- c 2.54 cm (1 in)

10
-3
milli- m 1 mm (The
smallest
division on a
meter stick)
10
-6
micro-

10
-9
nano- n 510 nm (Wave-
length oI green
light)

10
-12
pico- p 1 pg (Typical
mass oI a DNA
sample used in
genome
studies)
10
-15
Iemto- I

10
-18
atto- a 600 as (Time
duration oI the
shortest laser
pulses)
( )
1
=
n n
nAx Ax
dx
d
( ) 6 6 3 6 3
2
+ = + x x x
dx
d
( )
1
1
1
+
+
=
}
n n
Ax
n
dx Ax
( ) | |
}
+ + = + C x x dx x 6 3 6 6
2
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Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 15 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

Linear Equivalent Mass

Rotating systems can be handled using the linear Iorms
oI the equations oI motion. To do so, however, you must
use a mass equivalent to the mass oI a non-rotating
object. We call this the Linear Equivalent Mass (LEM).
(See Example I)

For objects that are both rotating and moving linearly,
you must include them twice; once as a linearly moving
object (using m) and once more as a rotating object
(using LEM). (See Example II)

The LEM oI a rotating mass is easily deIined in terms oI
its moment oI inertia, I.

LEM I/r
2

For example, using a standard table oI Moments oI
Inertia, we can calculate the LEM oI some standard
rotating objects as Iollows:

I LEM

Cylindrical hoop mr
2
m

Solid disk mr
2
m

Hollow sphere
2
!
5
mr
2

2
!
5
m

Solid sphere mr
2
m

Example I

A Ilywheel, M 4.80 kg and r 0.44 m, is wrapped
with a string. A hanging mass, m, is attached to the end
oI the string.

When the
hanging mass is
released, it
accelerates
downward at
1.00 m/s
2
. Find
the hanging
mass.

To handle this problem using the linear Iorm oI
Newton`s Second Law oI Motion, all we have to do is
use the LEM oI the Ilywheel. We will assume, here, that
it can be treated as a uniIorm solid disk.

The only external Iorce on this system is the weight oI
the hanging mass. The mass oI the system consists oI
the hanging mass plus the linear equivalent mass oI the
Ily-wheel. From Newton`s 2
nd
Law we have

F
EXT
m
SYS
a
SYS
, so, mg |(m (LEMM)| a
SYS

mg |m M| a
SYS

(mg ma
SYS
) M a
SYS

m(g a
SYS
) Ma
SYS

m M a
SYS
/ (g a
SYS
)

m 4.8 1.00 / (9.80 1)

m 0.273 kg

II a
SYS
g/2 4.90 m/s
2
, m 2.40 kg

II a
SYS
g 7.3575 m/s
2
, m 7.23 kg

Note, too, that we do not need to know the radius unless
the angular acceleration oI the Ily-wheel is requested. II
you need o, and you have r, then o a/r.

Example II

Find the kinetic energy oI a disk, m 6.7 kg, that is
moving at 3.2 m/s while rolling without slipping along a
Ilat, horizontal surIace.

The total kinetic energy consists oI the linear kinetic
energy, mv
2
, plus the rotational kinetic energy,
(m)v
2
.

KE mv
2
(LEMm)v
2

KE 6.73.2
2
(6.7)3.2
2

KE 34.304 17.152 51 J

Final Note:

This method oI incorporating rotating objects into the
linear equations oI motion works in every situation I`ve
tried; even very complex problems. Work your problem
the classic way and this way to compare the two. Once
you`ve veriIied that the LEM method works Ior a
particular type oI problem, you can conIidently use it Ior
solving other problems oI the same type.
!"#"\$"%&" ()*+" , -.\$/)01 23""4 #.\$ 5367*&7
Dr. Mitchell A. Hoselton !"#\$%&\$ Douglas C. Giancoli Page 16 oI 16
Version 6/5/2006

T-Pots
For the Iunctional Iorm
C B A
1 1 1
+ =

You may use The Product over the Sum rule.
C B
C B
A
+

=

For the Alternate Functional Iorm
C B A
1 1 1
=

You may substitute T-Pot-d
C B
C B
B C
C B
A

=

Three kinds of strain: unit-less ratios
I. Linear: strain AL / L
II. Shear: strain Ax / L
III. Volume: strain AV / V