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This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2005 SPE Technical Symposiumof Saudi Arabia

Sectionheldin Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 14-16May 2005.


Copyright 2005 Society of PetroleumEngineers
This paper was selected for presentation by the Technical SymposiumProgramCommittee following
review of information contained in full manuscript submitted by theauthor(s). Contents of thepaper, as
presented, havenot beenreviewed by theSociety of PetroleumEngineers and aresubject to correction
by theauthor(s). Thematerial, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of theSociety of
PetroleumEngineers, its officers, or members.
ABSTRACT
The influence of fluid viscosity on flow is especially important
in petroleum reservoirs. Gas is now a highly desirable
hydrocarbon resource. An accurate prediction of transport
properties of natural gases is very important in the design and
operation of fluid transportation, production, and processing.
Viscosity is one of these properties. Many viscosity
correlations are available but each has limitations in the range
of applicability
1-7
. Only the Carr et al
8-12
. charts include the
correction for gas impurities and reservoir pressure and
temperature. Using Carr et al. charts you have to follow five
steps to find the natural gas viscosity at any condition. As a
results, some errors and inaccurated will occur and more time
will be consumed. Standing
13,14
proposed a convenient
mathematical expressing for calculation the viscosity of the
natural gas at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature,

1
. Standing also presented equations for describing the effects
of impurities on
1.
Dempsey
15
expressed the viscosity ratio
(the viscosity at high pressure to the viscosity at 1 atm), by
using reduced pressure and temperature.
Using the Standing equation and the slightly revised Dempsey
equation, the natural gas viscosity at high pressure can be
found by one step only. It includes all corrections for gas
impurities. Its also includes any condition at the reservoir
pressure and temperature.
Background
Natural gas is a homogeneous fluid of low density and
viscosity. The high pressure and temperature cause a decrease
in viscosity even at temperatures above the critical. The
variation in viscosity with molecular weight of gases at
atmospheric pressure is opposite to the variation for liquids,
the viscosity decreases with increase in molecular weight of
gases. The natural gas properties may be obtained from
laboratory measurements. The rolling ball viscosimeter is used
for measuring viscosity, with the ball forcing the fluid through
the crescent between the ball and tube wall. The rolling ball
viscosimeter can give erroneous results when used with low
density fluids, because of turbulent flow through the crescent.
The Rolling-ball viscosimeter may give viscocities as much as
30% higher when measurment of gas viscosity is taken under
pressure. The preferred instrument for gases is the Rankine
viscosimeter in which the pressure gradient for the fluid
flowing through the capillary can be very small. The natural
gas viscosity is described by the following function,
( )
i g
Y T P f , , = 1
This relationship simply states that the viscosity of a pure gas
is function of pressure and temperature, but for gas mixture, it
is also a function of the gas composition. Gas viscosity can be
predicated from generalized mathematical expressions.
Herning and Zipperer


Herning and Zipperer
16
method proposed the following
equation to calculate the viscosity of a mixture of gaseous
components.
( )

=
i
i i
i i gi
g
M y
M y
) (

2
Where the analysis of the gas mixture is known and the
viscosities of the components are known at the pressure and
temperature of interest.

Dean and Stiel Method
Dean and Stiel
17
proposed the following mathematical
expressions for calculating the viscosity of natural gases at
atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature.
m
r
T

9
8
5
1
) (
* ) 10 ( 34

=
, for T
r
=<1.5 3
m
r
T

9
5
5
1
] 0932 . 0 1338 . 0 )[ 10 ( 8 . 166
=

, for T
r
>1.5 4
Where the
m
is the viscosity parameter of the gas mixture and
defined by the following equation.

3
2
5 . 0
6
1
) ( ) (
) (
4402 . 5
c a
c
m
P MW
T
=
5
Dean and Stiel recommended the following equation for
calculating the natural gas viscosity at reservoir condations.

m
r r
g
EXP EXP



)] ) ( 111 . 1 ( ) 439 . 1 ( )[ 10 ( 8 . 10
888 . 1 5
1

+ =

6

SPE 106326
State of the Art - Natural Gases Viscosity under Reservoir Conditions
Ahmed Gawish and Emad Al-Homadhi
King Saud University
2

Where:
r
r
r
ZT
P 27 . 0
=
7
The Lee-Gonzalez Eakin Method
Lee et al
8,19
presented a semi-empirical relationship for
calculating the natural gases viscosity. The authors expressed
the gas viscosity in terms of reservoir temperature, gas gravity,
and molecular weight of the gases. Their proposed equation is
given by:

Y
g
g
X K
4 . 62
* exp * * 10
4

8
where:
( )
T M
T M
K
a
a
+ +
+
=
* 19 209
02 . 0 4 . 9
5 . 1
9

a
M
T
X 01 . 0
986
5 . 3 + + =
10
X Y 02 . 4 . 2 = 11

The proposed above correlation can predict viscosity values
with a standard deviation of 2.7% and a maximum deviation
of 8.99%. This correlation is valid for 10 <P <8000 psia , 100
<T <340
o
F, and 0.9 <CO
2
<3.2 mol.%.
Bicker and Katz
20
presented a plot of the viscosity of paraffin
gases at 1 atm as a function of molecular weight. This plot was
slightly revised by Carr, Kobayashi, and Burrows
1
. It provides
a rapid and reliable method for obtaining the viscosity of
natural gases at 1 atm pressure from knowledge of the gas
gravity and temperature alone. This viscosity must be
corrected for the presence of non-hydrocarbon fractions tends
to increase the viscosity of the gas. Insert plots on Carr et al
viscosity charts show corrections for the non-hydrocarbon, the
presence of low concentration of non-hydrocarbon gases, such
as hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. The effect
of the presence of each of the non-hydrocarbons is to increase
the viscosity of the hydrocarbon gas mixture.
Carr, Kobayashi, and Burrows
1
extended the correlation of
Comings et al
21
to higher pressures and to complex mixtures
of gases. For natural gases, the widely used Carr et al
correlations take the forms:
) . ... , (
1
GasGravity or T M f
g
=

and,
) , (
1
r r
g
g
T P f =


In 1954 Carr et
8
developed graphical correlations for
estimating the viscosity of natural gas as a function of
temperature, pressure and gas gravity or molecular weight.
The ratio (
g

1
) of the viscosity at high pressure to the
viscosity at 1 atm is shown as a function of the reduced
pressure P
r
and the reduced temperature T
r
.
Where: T
r
= T/T
c
and P
r
= P/P
c

When mixtures are involved, the pseudocritical pressures and
temperatures of typical natural gases may be estimated from
gas gravity alone. For gases with appreciable concentrations of
gas impurities, the pseudo critical conditions may be
computed from compositions. The gas viscosities can be
obtained from the charts of Carr et al. when gas gravity and
concentration of the non-hydrocarbon constituent are known.
Both pseudo-critical pressure and temperature are required
parameters for gas calculations. Available publications have
reported multi-equations to calculate these values for natural
gases. A new correlation was developed with wide
applications and efficient for gas specific gravities varyied
from 0.55 to 1.2.
22,23

The critical pressure and temperature equations are:

SG T
SG P
c
c
* 0864 . 308 7 . 173
* 541243 . 50 194514 . 703
+ =
=
12
The corrected pseudo-critical temperature and pressure are
presented below:

) 1 (
2 2
'
'
'
S H S H C
C C
C
C C
y y T
T P
P
T T
+
=
=
13
) ( 15 ) ) ( ) (( 120
4
2
5 . 0
2
6 . 1
2 2
9 . 0
2 2 S H S H S H CO S H CO
y y y y y y + + + =
14
Standing (1977)
6,7
proposed a convenient mathematical
expression for calculation the viscosity of the natural gas at
atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature,
1
. Standing
also presented equations for describing effect of impurities on

1.
The proposed relationships are:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
S H N co d uncorrecte
2 2 2
1 1
+ + + = 15
) log( * 10 * 15 . 6 10 * 188 . 8 ) 460 (
* ) * 10 * 062 . 2 10 * 709 . 1 ( ) (
3 3
6 5
1
g
g
T
d uncorrecte




+
=
16
] 59 . 9 ) log( * 48 . 8 [ 10 * ), (
3
2 2
+ =

g N
y N
17
] 24 . 6 ) log( * 08 . 9 [ 10 * ), (
3
2 2
+ =

g CO
y CO 18
] 73 . 3 ) log( * 49 . 8 [ 10 * ), (
3
2 2
+ =

g S H
y S H 19
Dempsey
8
1965 expressed the viscosity ratio by the following
relationship.
) ( ) (
) (
3
15
2
14 13 12
3 3
11
2
10 9 8
2
3
7
2
6 5 4
3
3
2
2 1 0
1
r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r
g
r
P a P a P a a T P a P a P a a T
P a P a P a a T P a P a P a a T Ln
+ + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + =

20
A spread sheet program was designed in this study, to
calculate gas viscosity at reservoir conditions with one step
only using Standing equation after slightly and revising
Dempsey equation. It includes all corrections for gas
impurities.
3
X Ln
g
=


Where:
(X)=

+ + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + +
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
3
15
2
14 13 12
3 3
11
2
10 9 8
2
3
7
2
6 5 4
3
3
2
2 1 0
r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r
T Ln P a P a P a a T P a P a P a a T
P a P a P a a T P a P a P a a

21

) (
1
X
e
g
=

22

) (
* 1 1
X
g
e = 23
Results and discussion
The natural gas viscosity is computed from this program easily
by using the Standing and the revised Dempsey equations. The
natural gas viscosity is calculated at one atmospheric pressure
using the Standing equation, and all the corrections for gas
impurities are done by using equation (16). The natural gas
viscosity is corrected for any pressure value by using the
revised Dempsey equation (equation 23).
Figure (1) shows the natural gas viscosity at 1 atm for
different specific gas gravities (0.55-3.75) and temperature
(50-400
0
F) of the reservoir without impurties while figure (2)
shows the gas viscosity with corrections taking into
consideration the non-hydrocarbon impurities effects on gas
viscosity. The figures are the same as Carr et al. chart. Figure
(3) shows the ratio of gas viscosity at reservoir pressure to the
viscosity at 1 atm pressure as a function of the reduced
pressure and temperature. This figure is also the same as Carr
et al. chart. Figure (4) shows the gas viscosity for different
pressure values as a function in temperature. This chart is the
result of the spread sheet program in table (1). Figure (5)
shows the natural gas viscosity as a function of reduced
pressure and temperature for any gas gravity or molecular
weight. Fig. (5) is plotted at semi-log scale.
Table (1) represents a spread sheet program for all calculations
in order to find the natural gas viscosity with and without any
presence of impurities and at any pressure and temperature
values. By interring the values for impurities, gas gravity,
pressure, and temperature in overshadow cells (input data), the
critical pressure and temperature, and corrected critical
pressure and temperature for impurities, reduced pressure and
temperature are calculated. The natural gas viscosity at
reservoir conditions can be calculated directly without using
any charts.
Designing and evaluating existing correlations for gas
viscosity
In table (2) the spreed sheet program for calculating gas
viscosity by using different gas viscosity correlations includes
micros for solving z-factor. The figures (6 to 13) show the gas
viscosity as a function of pressure, temperature, and the gas
gravity. The gas gravity is studed from (0.7) to (1.4) by using
Dempsey, Lee, and Dean & Stiel correlations. All the
correlations are close but the Dempsey correlation gives good
results and is very close to the Carr et at chart.

The gas viscosity increase in a linear relation with increasing
reservoir pressure at a low gas gravity, but not a linear for a
higher gas gravity during the test pressure periods.
Conclusions
1. Many errors will be eliminated and time will be saved by
using the new charts and the spread sheet program.
2. The results become very important and will help to
calculate the value of the natural gas viscosity at any
condition.
3. This program can easily respond to the changes in the gas
fluid properties and impurities for producing tables and
charts, which can be used for the prediction of the natural
gas viscosity.
4. For any gas at different values of pressure and temperature,
and with any kind of impurities, it is easy to find the
natural gas viscosity from spread sheet program.
5. The design and evaluation of most gas correlations in one
sheet program become easy.
Nomenclatures
g=Gas viscosity at reservoir pressure and temperature, cp
1=Gas viscosity at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature, cp
r =Reduced gas density as defined by:
g =Ib/ft
3
, =cp, Ma=molecular weight of gas, and T= R
o
.
' '
,
c c
P T
are corrected critical temperature (
o
R) and pressure (psia).
T Rreservoir temperature,
o
R,
g Gas gravity, and, and
yN2, yCO2, and yH2S mole fraction of N2, CO2, and H2S.

Table (4 ) for constant used in gas correlations.

a0 -2.46211820 a8 -0.793385648
a1 2.970547414 a9 1.39643306
a2 -0.286264054 a10 -0.149144925
a3 0.00805420522 a11 0.00441015512
a4 2.080860949 a12 0.0839387178
a5 -3.49803305 a13 -0.18648848
a6 0.3603702 a14 0.0203367881
a7 -0.01044324 a15 -0.000609579263


References:
1. Kumar Sanjay,:"Gas Production Engineering" volume (4) Chapter
(1) Gulf Publication Company, Houston, Texas 1987.

2. Ikoku Chi U.,:"Natural Gas Production Engineering", Jone Wiley
& Sons Inc., Canada, Toronto, 1984.

3. Katz D. et al "Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering", 1959 by
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Printed in the USA, New
York, Toronto, and London.

4. Yaws C., Lin X., and Li Bu: "Calculate Viscosities for 335
liquids Using the Temperature and A starting Point", Chemical
Engineering, April 1994.

5. Awuy A.L., Bretz R.E.: "An Improved Viscosity Model for
Natural Gases: Application of the Free Volume Concept", SPE
4
68
th
Annual Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans,
LA, USA., 25-28 September 1994, SPE paper (28636).

6. Awuy A.I., and Bretz R.E.,:An Improved Viscosity Model for
Natural Gases: Application of the Free Volume Concept,SPE
paper number (28636) presented at the SPE 69th Technical
Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleana, LA, U.S.A.,
25-28 Septemper 1994.

7. Erdogmus M. and Adewumi M.A.,:Viscosity Prediction of
Natural Gases, SPE paper number (39219) presented at the SPE
Eastern Regional Meeting held in Lexington, Kantucky. 22-24
October 1997.

8. Carr, N., Kobayashi, Ri, and Burrown, D., Viscosity of
hydrocarbon Bases under pressure, Trans.,
AIME,1954,VoL.201, PP., 270-275.


9. Tarek Ahmed,: "Reservoir Engineering Handbook)" Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. 2000.

10. Tarek Ahmed,: "Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior" Gulf Publishing
Company, Houston, Texas. 1989.

11. WilliamD. McCain, J r.,: "PetroleumFluids", Second Edition,
PennWell Publishing Books Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1990.

12. Charles R. Smith, G.W. Tracy, R. Lance Farrar,: "Applied
Reservoir Engineering", Volume 1, OGCI Publications, 1992.

13. Standing, M. B., "Volumetric and phase behavior of oil field
Hydrocarbon system", PP. 125-126. Dallas: SPE 1977.

14. Standing, M. B. and Katz, D.L., Density of Natural Gases, Trans.
AIME, 1942, Vol. 146, PP. 140-149.

15. Dempsey, J . R.,Computer Routine Treats Gas Viscosity as a variable.
Oil and Gas Journal, Aug. 16, 1965, PP. 141-143.

16. Herning and Zipperer, L.:Calculations of the Viscosity of Technical
Gas Mixtures from the Viscosity of Individual Gases. Gas and
Wasserfach (1936) 79, 49-69.

17. Dean, D.E. and Stiel. L. I., the Viscosity of non-polar Gas Mixtures at
Moderate and high pressure, AICHE J our., 1958, Vol.4, PP. 430-436.


18. Lee, A.L., Gonzalez, M.H., and Eakin, B.E.:The Viscosity of Natural
Gases, JPT (Aug. 1966) 997-1000, Trans., AMIE, 37.

19. Lee, J., and Wattenburger, R.A., Gas Reservoir Enginerring, SPE,
Richardson, TX, 1996.

20. Bicker, L.A., and Katz, D.L.,:Viscosity of Natural Gases, Trans.
AMIE, 155: 754 (1943).

21. Comings, E. W. , and Egly, R. S., :The Viscosity of Gases and Vapors
at High Pressure Ind. Eng. Chem., 32: 714 (1940)

22. Abd-El-Fattah Kh. A.,: "A New Equations computers the
Pseudo-Critical Temperature and Pressure for Natural Gases",
J ournal of Engineering and Applied Science, Vol. 45. NO. 5,
Oct. 1998. PP 857-864, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo
University.

23. Abd-El-Fattah Kh. A.: "Analysis Shows Magnitude of Z-Factor
error", Oil & Gas J ournal, Nov. 27, 1995


































0.000
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0 20 40 60 80 100
Molecular Weight
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

a
t

1

a
t
m
,

c
p
50 oF 100 oF 150 oF 200 oF
250 oF 300 oF 350 oF 400 oF


Fig. (1) Viscosity of the Sweet Natural Gases at 1.0 atm.

0.000
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0 20 40 60 80 100
Mol ecul ar Wei ght
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

a
t

1

a
t
m
,

c
p
50 oF 100 oF 150 oF 200 oF
250 oF 300 oF 350 oF 400 oF

Fig. (2) Viscosity of the Natural Gases at 1.0 atm. with Impurities Corrections.

1
10
0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3
Pseudo Reduced Temperature
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

R
a
t
i
o
1 2 3 4 5
6 8 10 15 20


Fig. (3) Viscosity Ratio versus Pseudo Reduced Temperature.


0.01
0.10
1.00
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Pseudo Reduced Temperature
N
.

G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
1 2 3 4 5
6 8 10 15


Fig. (4) Viscosity versus Pseudo Redued Temperature.

Pr
6

0.01
0.10
1.00
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Temper ature, oF
N
.

g
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
612 1225 1837 2450 3062 3675
4900 6125 9187
Pressure, psi


Fig. (5) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Pressures .



Sp.Gr.=0.7
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel


Fig. (6) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Preesures at 0.7 Sp.Gr.
Sp.Gr.= 0.8
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
N
.

G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel


Fig. (7) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Pressures at 0.8 Sp.Gr.


Sp.Gr.=0.9
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
N
.

G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel

Fig. (8) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Pressures at 0.9 Sp.Gr



7

Sp.Gr.=1.0
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080
0.090
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel


Fig. (9) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Preesures at 1.0 Sp.Gr.

Sp. Gr. 1.1
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080
0.090
0.100
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, pai
N
.

G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel


Fig. (10) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Preesures at 1.1 Sp.Gr.


Sp.Gr.=1.2
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel

Fig. (11) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Preesures at 1.2 Sp.Gr.


Sp.Gr.=1.3
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel

Fig. (12) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Preesures at 1.3 Sp.Gr.





8


Sp.Gr=1.4
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Pressure, psi
G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
Dempsey
Lee
Dean & Stiel

Fig. (13) Viscosity versus Temperature for Different Preesures at 1.4 Sp.Gr.





































































9



Table (1) Spread Sheet Program for Calculate Natural Gas Viscosity by Dempsey Correlation.
Step 1 Enter the values of impurties in overshadow cells
Y
N2
0.05 Y
CO2
0.05 Y
H2S
0.2 28.09
Step 2 Enter the value of gas sp. Gr.
SG 0.6 or Mw 17.4
Tc 358.55
Pc 672.87
T'c 330.46
P'c 612.48
Step 3 Enter pseudo reduced pressure and temperature
P 612 1225 1837 2450 3062 3675 4900 6125 9187 12250
Pr 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
T Tr ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1) ln(g/g1)
330 1 0.27 0.79 1.23 1.58 1.86 2.07 2.32 2.40 2.33 2.70
397 1.2 0.16 0.52 0.83 1.09 1.30 1.47 1.70 1.82 1.89 2.14
463 1.4 0.09 0.34 0.55 0.74 0.90 1.03 1.24 1.38 1.55 1.72
529 1.6 0.05 0.21 0.36 0.49 0.61 0.72 0.90 1.05 1.28 1.41
595 1.8 0.03 0.14 0.24 0.33 0.42 0.51 0.67 0.81 1.06 1.19
661 2 0.03 0.10 0.17 0.24 0.31 0.38 0.51 0.64 0.90 1.03
727 2.2 0.03 0.08 0.14 0.19 0.25 0.30 0.42 0.53 0.77 0.92
793 2.4 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.17 0.22 0.26 0.35 0.45 0.66 0.84
859 2.6 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.31 0.38 0.57 0.76
925 2.8 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.19 0.25 0.31 0.48 0.66
991 3 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.23 0.39 0.53
Step 4 Natural gas viscosity ratio will be calculated
P 612 1225 1837 2450 3062 3675 4900 6125 9187 12250
Pr 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
T Tr (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1)
330 1 1.31 2.21 3.42 4.87 6.42 7.91 10.17 11.07 10.30 2.70
397 1.2 1.17 1.69 2.30 2.98 3.68 4.36 5.48 6.17 6.65 2.14
463 1.4 1.09 1.40 1.74 2.09 2.45 2.81 3.45 3.96 4.70 1.72
529 1.6 1.05 1.24 1.43 1.64 1.84 2.05 2.46 2.84 3.58 1.41
595 1.8 1.03 1.15 1.27 1.40 1.53 1.67 1.95 2.24 2.90 1.19
661 2 1.03 1.10 1.19 1.27 1.36 1.46 1.67 1.90 2.45 1.03
10
Continues Table (1) Spread Sheet Program for Calculate Natural Gas Viscosity by Dempsey Correlation.

T Tr (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1) (g/g1)
727 2.2 1.03 1.09 1.15 1.21 1.28 1.36 1.52 1.69 2.15 0.92
793 2.4 1.04 1.08 1.13 1.18 1.24 1.30 1.43 1.56 1.94 0.84
859 2.6 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.21 1.26 1.36 1.47 1.77 0.76
925 2.8 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.13 1.17 1.20 1.28 1.37 1.62 0.66
991 3 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.18 1.25 1.47 0.53
Step 5 Natural gas viscosity at any pressure will be calculated
P 612 1225 1837 2450 3062 3675 4900 6125 9187 12250
Pr 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
T Tr g g g g g g g g g g
330 1 0.0206 0.0349 0.0539 0.0767 0.1011 0.1246 0.1602 0.1744 0.1622 0.0426
397 1.2 0.0197 0.0284 0.0387 0.0501 0.0619 0.0732 0.0921 0.1037 0.1118 0.0360
463 1.4 0.0195 0.0250 0.0310 0.0373 0.0438 0.0501 0.0616 0.0706 0.0840 0.0307
529 1.6 0.0199 0.0234 0.0271 0.0309 0.0349 0.0388 0.0466 0.0537 0.0677 0.0266
595 1.8 0.0206 0.0229 0.0253 0.0279 0.0305 0.0333 0.0389 0.0447 0.0578 0.0237
661 2 0.0216 0.0232 0.0249 0.0267 0.0287 0.0307 0.0351 0.0398 0.0515 0.0216
727 2.2 0.0228 0.0240 0.0253 0.0267 0.0283 0.0299 0.0335 0.0373 0.0475 0.0203
793 2.4 0.0239 0.0250 0.0261 0.0274 0.0286 0.0300 0.0329 0.0361 0.0448 0.0193
859 2.6 0.0250 0.0260 0.0270 0.0281 0.0292 0.0304 0.0328 0.0354 0.0427 0.0182
925 2.8 0.0259 0.0267 0.0276 0.0285 0.0294 0.0303 0.0323 0.0345 0.0408 0.0166
991 3 0.0263 0.0268 0.0273 0.0279 0.0285 0.0292 0.0309 0.0329 0.0386 0.0140



































Table (2) Spread Sheet Program for Calculate of the Existing Correlations for Natural Gas Viscosity
Y
N2
0.05 Y
CO2
0.05 Y
H2S
0.2 28.09

Sp. Gr. 0.6 T
ABS.
600 T oF = 140
Tc 358.55
1
0.0127

Standing
Pc 672.87
1
0.0121

Dean & Stiel when Tr<=1.5
T'c 330.46
1
0.0122

Dean & Stiel when Tr>1.5
T
r
1.82
P'c 612.48
m 0.047581 Micro Dempsey Lee Dean & Stiel
K 125.760 P P
r

r
Program Z LN(mg) g(Dempsey) g g(Lee) g(Dean)
X 5.317 2000 3.265 0.681 1.000 0.713 -4.107 0.016 7.574 0.017 0.017
Y 1.337 2500 4.082 0.876 1.000 0.693 -4.031 0.018 9.736 0.020 0.019
3000 4.898 1.178 0.999 0.618 -3.958 0.019 13.096 0.024 0.024
3500 5.714 1.320 1.000 0.644 -3.889 0.020 14.677 0.027 0.027
4000 6.531 1.411 1.000 0.688 -3.822 0.022 15.687 0.029 0.029
4500 7.347 1.482 0.999 0.737 -3.758 0.023 16.478 0.031 0.031
5000 8.163 1.540 0.999 0.788 -3.697 0.025 17.123 0.032 0.033
5500 8.980 1.590 1.000 0.840 -3.639 0.026 17.676 0.034 0.034
6000 9.796 1.634 1.000 0.892 -3.585 0.028 18.160 0.035 0.036
6500 10.613 1.672 1.000 0.944 -3.533 0.029 18.592 0.036 0.037
7000 11.429 1.708 1.000 0.995 -3.485 0.031 18.982 0.037 0.039
7500 12.245 1.740 1.000 1.047 -3.440 0.032 19.339 0.038 0.040
8000 13.062 1.769 1.000 1.098 -3.399 0.033 19.667 0.039 0.041