0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

50 Aufrufe18 Seitenspring problems in design of machine elements

Sep 17, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

spring problems in design of machine elements

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

50 Aufrufe

spring problems in design of machine elements

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- Seveneves: A Novel
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Right Stuff
- The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914
- The Wright Brothers
- The Wright Brothers
- The Last Second
- Life in a Medieval Castle
- Fault Lines
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- Elevator Pitch: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Springs are elastic bodies (generally metal) that can be twisted, pulled, or stretched by some

force. They can return to their original shape when the force is released. In other words it is also

termed as a resilient member.

CLASSIFICATION OF SPRINGS:

Based on the shape behavior obtained by some applied force, springs are classified into the

following ways:

SPRINGS

HELICAL SPRINGS LEAF SPRINGS

SPIRAL SPRINGS

TORSION SPRING

TENSION HELICAL

SPRING COMPRESSION HELICAL

SPRING

I. HELICAL SPRINGS:

DEFINITON:

It is made of wire coiled in the form of helix.

CROSS-SECTION:

Circular, square or rectangular

CLASSIFICATION:

1) Open coil springs (or) Compression helical springs

2) Closed coil springs (or) Tension helical springs

1) HELICAL TENSION SPRINGS:

CHARACTERISTICS:

Figure1 shows a helical tension spring. It has some means of transferring the load

from the support to the body by means of some arrangement.

It stretches apart to create load.

The gap between the successive coils is small.

The wire is coiled in a sequence that the turn is at right angles to the axis of the

spring.

The spring is loaded along the axis.

By applying load the spring elongates in action as it mainly depends upon the end

hooks as shown in figure.

FIGURE1.TENSION HELICAL SPRING

FIGURE2.TYPES OF END HOOKS OF A HELICAL EXTENSION SPRING

APPLICATIONS:

1) Garage door assemblies

2) Vise-grip pilers

3) carburetors

2) HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS:

CHARACTERISTICS:

The gap between the successive coils is larger.

It is made of round wire and wrapped in cylindrical shape with a constant pitch

between the coils.

By applying the load the spring contracts in action.

There are mainly four forms of compression springs as shown in figure

. They are as follows:

1) Plain end

2) Plain and ground end

3) Squared end

4) Squared and ground end

Among the four types, the plain end type is less expensive to manufacture. It

tends to bow sideways when applying a compressive load.

FIGURE.COMPRESSION HELICAL SPRING

APPLICATIONS:

1) Ball point pens

2) Pogo sticks

3) Valve assemblies in engines

3) TORSION SPRINGS:

CHARACTERISTICS:

It is also a form of helical spring, but it rotates about an axis to create load.

It releases the load in an arc around the axis as shown in figure.

Mainly used for torque transmission

The ends of the spring are attached to other application objects, so that if the

object rotates around the center of the spring, it tends to push the spring to retrieve

its normal position.

FIGURE.TORSION SPRING

APPLICATIONS:

Mouse tracks

Rocker switches

Door hinges

Clipboards

Automobile starters

4) SPIRAL SPRINGS:

CHARACTERISTICS:

It is made of a band of steel wrapped around itself a number of times to create a

geometric shape as shown in figure.

Its inner end is attached to an arbor and outer end is attached to a retaining drum.

It has a few rotations and also contains a thicker band of steel.

It releases power when it unwinds.

APPLICATIONS:

Alarm timepiece

Watch

Automotive seat recliners

FIGURE. SPIRAL SPRING

LEAF SPRING:

DEFINITION:

A Leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used in the suspension vehicles.

FIGURE6.LEAF SPRING

APPLICATIONS:

Mainly in automobiles suspension systems.

ADVANTAGES:

It can carry lateral loads.

It provides braking torque.

It takes driving torque and withstand the shocks provided by the vehicles.

SPRING MATERIALS:

The mainly used material for manufacturing the springs are as follows:

1. Hard drawn high carbon steel.

2. Oil tempered high carbon steel.

3. Stainless steel

4. Copper or nickel based alloys.

5. Phosphor bronze.

6. Iconel.

7. Monel

8. Titanium.

9. Chrome vanadium.

10. Chrome silicon.

Depending upon the strength of the material,The material is Selected for the design of the spring

as shown in figure.

NOMENCLATURE OF SPRING:

Active Coils

Those coils which are free to deflect under load.

Angular relationship of ends

The relative position of the plane of the hooks or loops of extension spring to each other.

Buckling

Bowing or lateral deflection of compression springs when compressed, related to the slenderness

ration (L/D).

Closed ends

Ends of compression springs where the pitch of the end coils is reduced so that the end coils

touch.

Closed and ground ends

As with closed ends, except that the end is ground to provide a flat plane.

Close-wound

Coiled with adjacent coils touching.

Deflection

Motion of the spring ends or arms under the application or removal of an external load.

Elastic limit

Maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without permanent set.

Endurance limit

Maximum stress at which any given material may operate indefinitely without failure for a given

minimum stress.

Free angle

Angle between the arms of a torsion spring when the spring is not loaded.

Free length

The overall length of a spring in the unloaded position.

Frequency (natural)

The lowest inherent rate of free vibration of a spring itself (usually in cycles per second) with

ends restrained.

Hysteresis

The mechanical energy loss that always occurs under cyclical loading and unloading of a spring,

proportional to the are between the loading and unloading load-deflection curves within the

elastic range of a spring.

Initial tension

The force that tends to keep the coils of an extension spring closed and which must be overcome

before the coil starts to open.

Loops

Coil-like wire shapes at the ends of extension springs that provide for attachment and force

application.

Mean coil diameter

Outside wire diameter minus one wire diameter.

Modulus in shear or torsion

Coefficient of stiffness for extension and compression springs.

Modulus in tension or bending

Coefficient of stiffness used for torsion and flat springs. (Young's modulus).

Open ends, not ground

End of a compression spring with a constant pitch for each coil.

Open ends ground

"Opens ends, not ground" followed by an end grinding operation.

Permanent set

A material that is deflected so far that its elastic properties have been exceeded and it does not

return to its original condition upon release of load is said to have taken a "permanent set".

Pitch

The distance from center to center of the wire in adjacent active coils.

Spring Rate (or) Stiffness (or) spring constant

Changes in load per unit of deflection, generally given in Kilo Newton per meter. (KN/m).

Remove set

The process of closing to a solid height a compression spring which has been coiled longer than

the desired finished length, so as to increase the elastic limit.

Set

Permanent distortion which occurs when a spring is stressed beyond the elastic limit of the

material.

Slenderness ratio

Ratio of spring length to mean coil diameter.

Solid height

Length of a compression spring when under sufficient load to bring all coils into contact with

adjacent coils.

Spring index

Ratio of mean coil diameter to wire diameter.

Stress range

The difference in operating stresses at minimum and maximum loads.

Squareness of ends

Angular deviation between the axis o a compression spring and a normal to the plane of the other

ends.

Squareness under load

As in squareness of ends, except with the spring under load.

Torque

A twisting action in torsion springs which tends to produce rotation, equal to the load multiplied

by the distance (or moment arm) from the load to the axis of the spring body. Usually expressed

in inch-oz, inch-pounds or in foot-pounds.

Total number of coils

Number of active coils plus the coils forming the ends.

Spring index: The ratio between Mean diameter of coil to the diameter of the wire.

Solid length: It is the product of total number of coils and the diameter of the wire when the

spring is in the compressed state. It is otherwise called as Solid height also.

Length of leaf spring

2L

1

= Length span of overall length of spring

l Width band (or) distance between centres of U- bolts. It is ineffective length of the spring.

n

Number of full length leaves.

n = Number of Graduated length leaves.

n Total number of leaves = n

F

+n

G

let n be number of leaves including master leaf. The number of leaves not having eyes

are (n-1)

Length smallest leaf =

Length of next leaf =

Similarly for (n-1)th leaf.

Length of (n-1) leaf =

( )

The nth leaf is master leaf with eyes

= 2L

1

d- inside diameter of eye

t- Thickness of master leaf.

Procedure

1. From the problem the loads to be supported, number of springs required, space available

and other working conditions are noted.

2. Then suitable material is chosen for leaf spring & design yield stress in bending is

selected, usually Silicon steel and Chromium manganese steel is taken.

3. Generally among all the leaves, two leaves including master leaf are adopted as full

length leaves & other leaves as graduated leaves.

4. Stress induced in corresponding leaves are determined and the deflection produced is also

found out. Similarly width & thickness of leaves are also evaluated,

5. The length of leaves, camber, clipping load, radius of curvature are found out.

Problem

1. A truck spring has 10 leaves & is supported at a span length of 100cm, with a central band of

80mm wide. A load of 6KN is applied at the centre of spring whose permissible stress is

300N/mm

2

. The spring has a ratio of total depth to width of about 2.5. Determine width,

thickness & length of all leaves.

Given

Central load = 2P = 6 KN = 6000N P = 3000N

Span length 2 l

1

= 100cm = 1000 mm

Central band width, a = 80mm

Effective length, 2l = 2l

1

-a = 1000-80 =920 mm

L=920/2 = 460 mm.

Total number of leaves, n=10

Let n

F

= 2 n

G = 8

S

S

= 300 N/mm

2

t Thickness, b Width of each leaf

()

[( ) ( )]

[

]

B=4Xt = 40mm

[( ) ( )]

Length of leaf

Length of last leaf,

()

()

Length of 2

nd

leaf

()

Length of 3

rd

leaf

()

Length of 4

th

leaf

()

Length of 5

th

leaf

()

Length of 6

th

leaf

()

Length of 7

th

leaf

()

Length of 8

th

leaf

()

Length of 9

th

leaf

()

Length of 10

th

leaf

( )

= 1190 mm

D=20mm inside of eye

2. A truck spring has 12 number of leaves, two of which are full length leves. The spring

supports are 1.05m apart and the central band is 85mm wide. The central band is 85mm wide.

The central load is to be 5.4 KN with a permissible stress of 280 N/mm

2

.

Determine the thickness

& width of the steel spring leaves. The ratio of total depth to width of the spring is 3. Also

determine the deflection of the spring.

Given

N = 12 2L

1

= 1.05 m = 1050 mm l = 85mm

N

F

= 2 2 = 5.4 KN = 5400 N = 2700 N

N

G

= 10

b

= 280N/mm

2

.

Solution

b =4t

Effective length of the spring

2L = 2L

1

-l = 1050-85 = 965 mm

L = 482.5 mm

From data

( )

Deflection spring

()

( )

= 16.7 mm

3. A locomotive semi-elliptical laminated spring has an overall length of 1m & sustains a load of

70KN atits center. The spring has 3 full length leaves and 15 graduated leaves with a central

band of 100mm width. All the leaves are to be stressed to 400 N/

mm2

.

When fully loaded. The

ratio of the total spring depth to that of width is 2. E = 0.2 X10

6

N/mm

2

. Determine

(i) The thickness & width of the leaves.

(ii) The initial gap that should be provided between the full length & graduated leaves before the

band load is applied.

(iii) The load exerted on the band after the spring is assembled.

Given

2L

1

= lm = 1000mm

2P = 70KN = 70X10

3

NP=35X10

3

N.

N

e

= 3 n

g

= 15

L = 100mm

b

= 400N/mm

2

E = 0.2x10

6

N/mm

2

Solution

Effective length 2L = 2L

1

-l =1000-100

2L = 900 L = 450 mm

N= 3+15=18

b =9t

Since all leaves are equally stressed

t = 11.3412mm

Initial gap

C = 9.5mm

Load exerted on the band after spring is assembled

( )

( )

W

b

= 4487 N

4. A semi elliptic leaf spring consist of two extra full-length leaves & six graduated length

leaves, including master leaf. Each leaf is 7.5mm thick & 50 mm wide. The centre centre

distance between the two eyes is 1m. the leaves are pre-stressed in such a way that when load is

maximum, stresses induced in all the leaves are equal to m50N/mm

2

. Determine the maximum

force that the spring can withand, and also find Take E = 2X 10

5

N/mm

2

.

Given

n

e

= 2, n

g

= 6 n=8

t = 7.5mm, b =50mm.

2L = 1m = 1000mm. L = 500mm

Solution

All the leaves are equally stressed

P = 2625N

2P = 5250N.

Design procedure for Helical springs static loading

1. From given problem

Type of spring needed

Spring Material

Supplied load

Other working condition place working, space available etc. are noted.

2. The design shear stress for spring material is selected.

3. Design the principal dimensions like wire diameter (d), Mean coil diameter (D), Number

of turns (N), free length of spring L

f

, pitch (P) etc by expression.

()

Where k, wahls shear stress.

4. Next standard diameter of wire is selected and mean coil diameter is found out.

5. Then using relationship

()

G-modulus of rigidity may be selected.

6. Based on end conditions total number of turns is selected.

7. Free length is calculated from

L

s

Solid length =ND

max

Max permissible compression

8. The pitch of the spring found out by

Pitch =

()

1. A coil spring is used for the front suspension of an automobile. The spring has a stiffness of

90N/mm with squared & groundends. The material used is oil tempered chrome vanadium steel

for which the permissible shear stress may be taken as 500pa. The load on the spring causes a

total deflection of 8.5mm. Find the spring wire diameter & free length of the spring using a

spring index of 6.(G=0.84X10

5

N/mm

2

)

Given

Stiffness K = 90 N/mm

End condition squared & ground.

Material oil tempered chrome vanadium steel. Permissible shear stress

Deflection = 8.5mm

Spring index C = 6.

To find

D& L

f

Solution

Stiffness

P = 90X8.5 = 765 N

From PSG data book page 7.100

K = 1.2525

Rounding off 5.6mm

Free length L

f

= ns+

max

.

From page 7.100

For squared & ground ends

N = N+2 = 5

L

f

= 37.775mm.

2. Design a close coiled helical spring for a maximum load of 500N & a deflection of 200 mm.

The permissible shear stress = 500MPa & spring index =6 (G = 0.84X10

5

N/mm

2

)

Givrn

P

max

= 500n

= 200m

= 500 N/mm

2

C = 6

G = 0.84X10

5

N/mm

2

.

Solution

From Data book

Sub in 1

From page 7.20

D = 4.50mm

Mean diameter D = Cxd = 27 mm

Deflection

N = 87.5 88

Let the ends be squared & ground

L

f

= N x d +

max

+0.15

max

= 90x4.5+200+0.15x200

= 635mm

- 2.12 Under Sanding ElasticityHochgeladen vonped
- Hooke's Law (4Hochgeladen vonClark Harold Balido
- Hooke's Law Lab Report 1 SunealHochgeladen vonMonari Perera
- worksheet_08.docHochgeladen vonVijay Bhaskar
- efficiencyHochgeladen vonchekgu_2007
- BC pdfHochgeladen vonromeo
- D11669-010-1-EJMAHochgeladen vonIr_sedi
- worksheet_08.pdfHochgeladen vonVijay Bhaskar
- IPhO 2010 Exp Problem 1Hochgeladen vonJack Paul Donayre Garcia
- Elasticity (True)Hochgeladen vonSiti Nur Dalila
- Form 4 Physics Chapter 2.10-2.12 - Teacher's CopyHochgeladen vonPavithiran
- AnsPhysics Ex-42 Hooke's LawHochgeladen vonLiuJiewChuan
- t5 Me218s1 Sde ReportHochgeladen vonAdit Daftary
- Engineering Mechanics Lab Manual (Repaired)Hochgeladen vonsher shah
- DESIGN_OF_MACHINE_ELEMENTS-I_ME-304.pdfHochgeladen vonKTMO
- Energi Usaha Dan Daya l17Hochgeladen vonMahmasoni Masdar
- Think About SpringsHochgeladen vonKavi Arasu
- 2.12 Understanding ElasticityHochgeladen vonBid Hassan
- As 2.3 Hooke's LawHochgeladen vonange haduca
- Hooke's_Law-FAD-04Hochgeladen vonnettoor
- Design of SpringsHochgeladen vonJayadev E
- Design and Construction of a Spring Stiffness Testing MachineHochgeladen vonAJER JOURNAL
- Hooke's LawHochgeladen vonDee Dada
- Energi Usaha Dan Daya l17Hochgeladen vonAnang Surya
- Spring Design 101Hochgeladen vonLokesh Gulati
- Discussion of TheoryHochgeladen vonSheldon Kyle Kairuz Abasolo
- Pi is 088954069970329 xHochgeladen vonElla Golik
- 211_ElasticitydocHochgeladen vonclement_seth
- Kuantum-Teorisi-Felsefe-ve-Tanr-Hochgeladen vonmayilmaz
- Lesson 2.1(a)ElasticityHochgeladen vonRais Rahimi

- Model Fea QpHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- CAD QBHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- Me2037 Maintenance Engineering l t p cHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- ic engineHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- Pg Project Format2014Hochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- 304 1 tankHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- Cad Lab ManualHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth
- syllabus R2013.pdfHochgeladen vonlogeshboy007
- II CIA FEA QPHochgeladen vonamanpurushoth

- Recycling Paper Industry Efﬂuent Sludge for Use in Mortars a Sustainability PerspectiveHochgeladen vonMJundi
- Rru Huawei Rru 3826Hochgeladen vonDavid Nigra
- BSIT Time Table Fall 2018 v-2.12Hochgeladen vonMalik Fuzail Awan
- Aspeninfoplus21db2006 5 UsrHochgeladen vonbenvenutocl
- function varargout.pdfHochgeladen vonJulian Riveros
- otinHochgeladen vonTed Anthony Tarona
- How to Update and Delete Using Excel VBA Userform _ _ VBA Userform - Yodalearning.pdfHochgeladen vonArif Febrianto
- 256354331-Thermal-Engineering-Lab-I-Manual-R-2013.pdfHochgeladen vonKeerthi
- Vivado Design MethodologyHochgeladen vonKrishnakumar Somanpillai
- Block Diagram Representation2Hochgeladen vonChernet Tuge
- 01-An Overview of Operations ManagementHochgeladen vonVito Borromeo
- Chapt 12 Solid Rockets(1)Hochgeladen vonAlireza Ab
- EHSOP 06- Procedure for Working at HeightHochgeladen vonSachein Anand
- Optical Density and Light SpeedHochgeladen vonJonathan Majaw
- b. Inggris Presentasi OkHochgeladen vonLia Nurbaeti
- Data Structures TestHochgeladen vonMosomi Machoka Selvon
- ATPL Inst 8.3.pdfHochgeladen vonKoustubh Vadalkar
- MONDS TOXICITY INDEX.pptHochgeladen vonArun Kumar
- 3rd,5th,7th Course OutlineHochgeladen vonSamiullah Ilyas
- Cons Guidelines SingaporeHochgeladen vonSol Ji Lee
- Mjolner600 EnHochgeladen vonspakumaran
- The Shockley Diode 1Hochgeladen vonHaries Garcia
- Report 2 Measuremnt Exercises Phyisc 211Hochgeladen vonrodneyperu
- MTP Multiphase Transfer Pump Brochure LFHochgeladen vonDeddy Irawan
- 3VL6780 1AA36 0AA0 Datasheet EnHochgeladen vonpuchana
- a4-20 - Roof DetailsHochgeladen vonBleri
- Aircraft Operating Cost EquationsHochgeladen vonGengm4
- ITI ApprenticeHochgeladen vonSanjay Rathod
- Ssheer_Duoyuan Global Water Inc OTCPK DGWI Y Competitors.xlsHochgeladen vonasfaf
- A Sample SWOT Analysis ExampleHochgeladen vonmeghna15094589

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.