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PSY213: INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Carlos Diego A. Rozul Class Number 37


3PSY4 W 10:00-11:00 F 10:00-11:00; 4:00-5:00 August 27, 2014


Job Analysis
With the number careers a psychology major can pursue, there is a lot of
confusion about the differences of each. Some jobs seem to overlap with others leading
to a generalized perception in what a psychology student can do when he/she
graduates. A popular view of some of my high school batchmates when I tell them Im
taking up B.S. Psychology is that Im automatically going to be a guidance counselor,
when in fact there are a lot of jobs I can apply for in the school setting such as
educational counselor, school psychologist, and educational psychologist. When my
friends and I talk about future, they ask me about the differences of some psychology-
related job titles, and sometimes I dont even know what to say. In this paper, Ill discuss
the differences and similarities among counseling psychologists, school psychologists,
and educational counselors.
My impression of a counseling psychologist is pretty much the same with a
clinical psychologist, except that a counseling psychologist deals more with everyday
personal and social problems affecting their lifestyle. According to O*NET OnLine
(2012), counseling psychologists make treatment plans, and gives counseling services
to individuals, groups, and families. Although not all counseling psychologists may
provide these services for all three (maybe because of specializations and areas of
expertise), but these three are people a counseling psychologist would generally
handle. It seems that a counseling psychologists work is very intense, so they would
only have a number of clients relatively less than how many a school psychologist or
educational counselor would have. A counseling psychologist may work in a social
services institution, but they may also have a clinic, either way they may also have
duties to supervise interns (in the Philippine setting, these interns would include
psychometricians), and make appropriate referrals.
According to the Psychological Association of the Philippines (n.d), (PAP) a
counseling psychologist can get involved in teaching, research, psychotherapy and
counseling, psychological assessment, supervision, and referrals. In the Philippines,
they could work in a broad range of settings like schools, companies, and social
services institutions. The functions of a counseling psychologist here in the Philippines
slightly differ from that of in the U.S. An example of which is in the U.S., counseling
psychologists would also use biofeedback tools like an electromyography. This may be
because of the advancement in technology and research of western countries.
Likewise, economic differences between the two countries would contribute to what a
counseling psychologist can do. A peculiar task of a counseling psychologist in the
Philippines according to the PAP however, is that they would only use intelligence,
aptitude, ability, and interest tests. I find it odd that here in the Philippines they would
not use personality tests.
A school psychologist is commonly confused with other psychology-related
professions in the school setting. According to O*NET OnLine (2010), a school
psychologist would contribute to the assessment of a student with special needs and
make intervention programs for them. They would coordinate with parents or guardians,
and school administration and faculty about the mode of instruction with the child.
These special needs would include intellectual incapacity, bilingualism, etc. School
psychologists are also tasked to evaluate the effectiveness of school programs and
relate child development to learning and behavior. I would imagine that my Educational
Psychology, Psychology of Exceptional Children, and Human Development classes
would come in handy here. A school psychologist would also learn if a child is
experiencing domestic violence, and facilitate and form a students social support
system. Unlike counseling psychologists, school psychologists cater their services to
students especially, but not exclusively students in basic education (pre-school to high
school) Now, with that said, I feel like all schools should have a school psychologists or
at least a program that would entertain these cases. Although here in the Philippines,
we have DepEd, CHED, PAASCU, and PCUCOA to regulate school curriculum,
programs, and facilities, it would be hard for them to really be hands on with each
school. Yes, this is also one of the duties of the school administration, but most would
have training on management in the educational setting, and not much on psychology.
I found a job advertisement on the internet. Ateneo de Manila (n.d) grade school
is looking for a school psychologist. Their job description of a school psychologist is
very similar to O*NETs summarized version except for a few things. First is that they
ask that the hired school psychologist to be a liaison officer, or be a facilitator or
speaker when needed. Second is that they will be a substitute for absent guidance
counselors and would assist the guidance counselors in handling the students. Third,
like other psychologists in the Philippines, will certify a psychometricians work.It brings
a smile to my face that I found that an institution thats looking for a school psychologist.
When I was in high school, our guidance office only had checklists to identify
behavioral, developmental, or intellectual problems. Maybe when they identified some
students with special needs, they would make referrals, I havent gotten news of anyone
getting referred when I was still there. Then again, I think Ateneo is trying to maximize
the school psychologist too much by adapting the role of the guidance office head.
Like school psychologists, educational counselors are misconstrued as other
psychology professionals. When I was reading the O*NET OnLine (2010) summary, it
seemed to me that educational counselors and counseling psychologists are very
similar with an exception in setting. Educational counselors can mostly be found either
in assessment centers or a school setting. They handle personal, behavioral and social
problems affecting ones education or vocation. Like a school psychologist, they also
report to authorities when their client is experiencing domestic abuse. In contrast with
school psychologists however, educational counselors make guidance programs for the
whole student body, and not just the students with special needs.
In the Philippine setting, educational counselors are commonly referred to as
guidance counselors. I found a job advertisement from De La Salle University website;
The Beacon School (2012) was looking for a counselor. According to the advertisement,
the hired counselor would conduct classroom guidance sessions (like what we have in
the UST-College of Science, whenever maam Marose comes to our classroom to
discuss an area of concern), coordinates with the faculty to integrate guidance in their
lessons, make referrals, keep student files, administer psychological assessment, and
develop student leadership. Besides that, like a school psychologist, they will be
responsible for crisis intervention (maybe for suicidal cases and domestic abuse).
When I was in grade school, I was really close with the guidance office. They
always helped me with my interpersonal conflicts with my classmates. They were sort of
my only friends early on, I made friends later on. In the school setting, guidance
counselors are really essential. I think it is even more important to have in our public
schools because the students who attend there come from lower socioeconomic
classes. I feel like the guidance office (if there is one) should reach out to the students
more. With that said, the government should put more money into these services so that
they can be given properly. Yes, teachers and class advisers can serve as a listening
ear to students, but they do not have training in psychology. Without educational
counselors, the students may be misguided when the teacher does not have enough
insight to the situation, considering that they also have to attend to primary educator
duties such as creating visual aids, computing grades, checking papers, and the like. It
can lead to the teacher feeling burnout from their job which can lead to increased
turnover.
Counseling psychologists, school psychologists, and educational counselors all
serve a singular purpose; to help individuals struggling with their problems cope. They
help them to adjust to the situations they face, and at times provide intervention. In the
Philippine setting, all of them would require a license. For counseling and school
psychologists, they must have attained their masters degree and passed the board
exams for psychologists. To be recognized as a counseling psychologist however, one
must be certified by the PAP. Currently, there is no certification for school psychologists,
maybe in the future when the field of psychology in the Philippines has further
expanded. To be a guidance counselor in the Philippines, one must have a masters
degree in guidance and counseling, and pass the board exams for guidance counselors
(Hicarte, 2009). Now that this is clear, will you stop stereotyping us as counselors?
References:
Ateneo de Manila University. (n.d.). School Psychologist (Grade School). Retrieved
from Ateneo de Manila University: http://www.ateneo.edu/school-psychologist-
grade-school
Hicarte, F. (2009, December 16). Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004. Retrieved from
Philippine Guidance and Counseling Association, Inc.:
http://www.pgca.org.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1&Itemi
d=3
O*NET OnLine. (2010). Summary Report for 19-3031.01. Retrieved from O*NET
OnLine: http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/19-3031.01
O*NET OnLine. (2010). Summary Report for: 21-1012.00. Retrieved from O*NET
OnLine: http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1012.00
O*NET OnLine. (2012). Summary Report for: 19-3031.03. Retrieved from O*NET
OnLine: http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/19-3031.03
Psychological Association of the Philippines. (n.d.). Certification of Psychology
Sepcialists Primer. Retrieved from Psychological Association of the Philippines:
http://pap.org.ph/includes/view/default/uploads/pap_certification_of_psychology_
specialists_primer_with_faqs.pdf
The Beacon School. (2012, March 22). Job Posting for March 22, 2012. Retrieved from
De La Salle University:
http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/offices/osa/occs/jobpostings/2012_0322.asp