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Introduction to Information networks Introduction to Information networks

Information networks are networks that transmit information in versatile human and
technical networks to enhance knowledge, business or social aims. Often they use
information technology in contrast to biological neural networks or social networks
research. They may use information portals or other types of collaborative networking for
sharing information.
Information networks refer to using the contemporary networking technologies such as
Internet and wireless communication for distributing and sharing information among
these different technical networks that any human network can benefit of. Essentially,
information network is linked to exchanging information between interest groups within
and between human institutions such as companies, universities, research organizations,
and communities.
computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers
and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communications
among users and allows users to share resources with other users. !etworks may be
classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. This article provides a general
overview of types and categories and also presents the basic components of a network.
"omputer networks can be used for several purposes#
Facilitating communications. $sing a network, people can communicate
efficiently and easily via e%mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video
telephone calls, and video conferencing.
Sharing hardware. In a networked environment, each computer on a network can
access and use hardware on the network. &uppose several personal computers on
a network each re'uire the use of a laser printer. If the personal computers and a
laser printer are connected to a network, each user can then access the laser
printer on the network, as they need it.
Sharing files, data, and information. In a network environment, any authorized
user can access data and information stored on other computers on the network.
The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage
devices is an important feature of many networks.
Sharing software. $sers connected to a network can access application programs
on the network.
Connecting two or More Computers makes a Computer Network to Share Connecting two or More Computers makes a Computer Network to Share
Resources. Resources.
In I Information T Technology, a Network Network is a series of points or a series of points or node nodes interconnected s interconnected
by communication paths by communication paths. !etworks can interconnect with other networks and contain
subnetworks. !etworks classified according to Topology and rea or scope of use.
Topology Topology
topology )from *reek topos meaning place+ is a description of any kind of locality in
terms of its layout. In communication networks, a topology is a usually schematic
description of the arrangement of a network the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines.
There are two ways of defining network geometry# the Physical topology Physical topology and the
ogical !or signal" topology ogical !or signal" topology.
The physical topology of a network is the actual geometric layout of workstations. There
are several common physical topologies, as described below and as shown in the
illustration. )These what are used in ,!s+.

(% In the bus network topology# e$ery workstation is connected to a main cable called
the bus. Therefore, in effect, each workstation is directly connected to every other
workstation in the network.
-% In the star network topology# there is a central computer or ser$er to which all the
workstations are directly connected. Every workstation is indirectly connected to every
other through the central computer.
.% In the ring network topology# the workstations are connected in a closed loop
configuration. d/acent pairs of workstations are directly connected. Other pairs of
workstations are indirectly connected, the data passing through one or more intermediate
0% variation of the ring network topology is known as the Token Ring. In this scheme#
the signal tra$els in only one direction or senses around the ring# carried by a so%
called token from node to node.
1% The mesh network topology employs either of two schemes, called full mesh and
partial mesh. In the full mesh topology# each workstation is connected directly to
each of the others. In the partial mesh topology# some workstations are connected to
all the others# and some are connected only to those other nodes with which they
e&change the most data.
2% The tree network topology uses two or more star networks connected together.
The central computers of the star networks are connected to a main bus. Thus, a tree
network is a bus network of star networks.
ogical !or signal" topology refers to the nature of the paths the signals follow from
node to node. In many instances, the logical topology is the same as the physical
topology. 3ut this is not always the case. 4or example, some networks are physically laid
out in a star configuration, but they operate logically as bus or ring networks.
Important note' !Read the (d$antages and disad$antages of each Topology
*ui+ !,"' Test yourself Here)
Network Types !(rea"'
,%(N -%M(N .%/(N 0%Internet 1%Intranet 2%3&tranet
,% ,% ocal ocal ( ( rea rea N N etwork etwork ! ! (N (N " " # #
local area network )(N+ is a group of computers and associated de$ices that share
a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of
a single processor or ser$er within a small geographic area )for example, within an
office building+. $sually, the server has applications and data storage that are shared in
common by multiple computer users. local area network may serve as few as two or
three users )for example, in a home network+ or as many as thousands of users )for
example, in an 455I network+.
6a/or local area network technologies are#
Token 7ing

3thernet is by far the most commonly used (N technology. number of
corporations use the Token 7ing technology. 455I is sometimes used as a backbone
,! interconnecting Ethernet or Token 7ing ,!s. nother ,! technology,
7"!ET, once the most commonly installed ,! technology, is still used in the
industrial automation industry.
Typically, a suite of application programs can be kept on the ,! server. $sers who need
an application fre'uently can download it once and then run it from their local hard disk.
$sers can order printing and other services as needed through applications run on the
,! server. user can share files with others at the ,! server8 read and write access is
maintained by a ,! administrator. ,! server may also be used as a 9eb server if
safeguards are taken to secure internal applications and data from outside access.
In some situations, a wireless ,! may be preferable to a wired ,! because it is
cheaper to install and maintain.
- - % % M M etropolitan etropolitan ( ( rea rea N N etwork etwork ! ! M(N M(N "' "'
metropolitan area network )M(N+ is a network that interconnects users with computer
resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local
area network ),!+ but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network )9!+.
The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger
network )which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network+. It is
also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them
with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.
Examples of metropolitan area networks of various sizes can be found in the metropolitan
areas of ,ondon, England8 ,odz, :oland8 and *eneva, &witzerland. ,arge universities
also sometimes use the term to describe their networks. recent trend is the installation
of wireless 6!s.
. . % % / / ide ide ( ( rea rea N N etwork etwork ! ! /(N /(N "' "'
wide area network )9!+ is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network
;Network that connecting Networks between countries of large cities.
0 0 % % Internet Internet ' The Internet, sometimes called simply <the !et,< is a worldwide system
of computer networks % a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if
they have permission, get information from any other computer )and sometimes talk
directly to users at other computers+. It was conceived by the (dvanced Research
Pro/ects (gency )7:+ of the $.&. government )rmy+ in (=2= and was first known as
the (RP(N3T. The original aim was to create a network that would allow users of a
research computer at one university to be able to <talk to< research computers at other
universities. side benefit of 7:!et>s design was that, because messages could be
routed or rerouted in more than one direction, the network could continue to function
even if parts of it were destroyed in the event of a military attack or other disaster.
Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self%sustaining facility accessible to
hundreds of millions of people worldwide. :hysically, the Internet uses a portion of the
total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically,
what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called T":?I: )for
Transmission "ontrol :rotocol?Internet :rotocol+. Two recent adaptations of Internet
technology, the intranet and the extranet, also make use of the T":?I: protocol.
4or many Internet users, electronic mail )e%mail+ has practically replaced the :ostal
&ervice for short written transactions. Electronic mail is the most widely used application
on the !et. @ou can also carry on live <conversations< with other computer users, using
Internet 7elay "hat )I7"+. 6ore recently, Internet telephony hardware and software
allows real%time voice conversations.
The most widely used part of the Internet is the 9orld 9ide 9eb )often abbreviated
<999< or called <the 9eb<+. Its outstanding feature is hypertext, a method of instant
cross%referencing. In most 9eb sites, certain words or phrases appear in text of a different
color than the rest8 often this text is also underlined. 9hen you select one of these words
or phrases, you will be transferred to the site or page that is relevant to this word or
phrase. &ometimes there are buttons, images, or portions of images that are <clickable.< If
you move the pointer over a spot on a 9eb site and the pointer changes into a hand, this
indicates that you can click and be transferred to another site.
$sing the 9eb, you have access to millions of pages of information. 9eb browsing is
done with a 9eb browser, the most popular of which are 6icrosoft Internet Explorer and
!etscape !avigator. The appearance of a particular 9eb site may vary slightly depending
on the browser you use. lso, later versions of a particular browser are able to render
more <bells and whistles< such as animation, virtual reality, sound, and music files, than
earlier versions.
1% Intranet 1% Intranet ' n intranet is a pri$ate network that is contained within an enterprise. It
may consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the wide
area network. Typically, an intranet includes connections through one or more gateway
computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company
information and computing resources among employees. (n intranet can also be
used to facilitate working in groups and for teleconferences.
2% 3&tranet 2% 3&tranet ' n extranet is a private network that uses Internet technology and the
public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business>s information or
operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. (n e&tranet
can be $iewed as part of a company4s intranet that is e&tended to users outside the
company. It has also been described as a <state of mind< in which the Internet is
perceived as a way to do business with other companies as well as to sell products to
Networks 5ardware Networks 5ardware
67S' 67S'
In general, the term is used in two somewhat different contexts#
)(+ bus is a network topology or circuit arrangement in which all devices are attached
to a line directly and all signals pass through each of the devices. Each device has a
uni'ue identity and can recognize those signals intended for it.
)-+ In a computer, a bus is the data path on the computer>s motherboard that interconnects
the microprocessor with attachments to the motherboard in expansion slots )such as hard
disk drives, "5%7O6 drives, and graphics adapters+.
backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that
interconnect with it.
(+ t the local level, a backbone is a line or set of lines that local area networks connect
to for a wide area network connection or within a local area network to span distances
efficiently )for example, between buildings+.
-+ On the Internet or other wide area network, a backbone is a set of paths that local or
regional networks connect to for long%distance interconnection. The connection points are
known as network nodes or telecommunication data switching exchanges )5&Es+.
In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area
network !(N" to another local area network that uses the same protocol !for
e&ample# 3thernet or Token Ring". @ou can envision a bridge as being a device that
decides whether a message from you to someone else is going to the local area network in
your building or to someone on the local area network in the building across the street.
bridge examines each message on a ,!, <passing< those known to be within the same
,!, and forwarding those known to be on the other interconnected ,! )or ,!s+.
In bridging networks, computer or node addresses have no specific relationship to
location. 4or this reason, messages are sent out to every address on the network and
accepted only by the intended destination node. 3ridges learn which addresses are on
which network and develop a learning table so that subse'uent messages can be
forwarded to the right network.
3ridging networks are generally always interconnected local area networks since
broadcasting every message to all possible destinations would flood a larger network with
unnecessary traffic.
4or this reason, router networks such as the Internet use a scheme that assigns addresses
to nodes so that a message or packet can be forwarded only in one general direction
rather than forwarded in all directions.
bridge works at the data%link )physical network+ level of a network, copying a data
frame from one network to the next network along the communications path.
bridge is sometimes combined with a router in a product called a router.
Coa&ial Cable'
"oaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable TA companies between the
community antenna and user homes and businesses. "oaxial cable is sometimes used by
telephone companies from their central office to the telephone poles near users. It is also
widely installed for use in business and corporation Ethernet and other types of local area
"oaxial cable is called <coaxial< because it includes one physical
channel that carries the signal surrounded )after a layer of insulation+
by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same
axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. 6any of these cables or
pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can
carry information for a great distance.
"oaxial cable was invented in (=-= and first used commercially in (=0(. TCT
established its first cross%continental coaxial transmission system in (=0D. 5epending on
the carrier technology used and other factors, twisted pair copper wire and optical fiber
are alternatives to coaxial cable.
8ptical 9iber Cable'
Twisted Pairs Cable !7TP and STP":
Important Note' Read all Cables Details Here!
*ui+ !-"' Test yourself Here)
3thernet Card'
3thernet is the most widely%installed local area
network ! (N" technology. &pecified in a standard,
IEEE ED-.., Ethernet was originally developed by
Ferox from an earlier specification called Alohanet
)for the :alo lto 7esearch "enter loha network+
and then developed further by Ferox, 5E", and Intel.
n Ethernet ,! typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires.
Ethernet is also used in wireless ,!s. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems
are called (D3&E%T and provide transmission speeds up to (D 6bps. 5evices are
connected to the cable and compete for access using a "arrier &ense 6ultiple ccess with
"ollision 5etection )"&6?"5 + protocol.
4ast Ethernet or (DD3&E%T provides transmission speeds up to (DD megabits per second
and is typically used for ,! backbone systems, supporting workstations with (D3&E%
T cards. *igabit Ethernet provides an even higher level of backbone support at (DDD
megabits per second )( gigabit or ( billion bits per second+. (D%*igabit Ethernet provides
up to (D billion bits per second.
Ethernet was named by 7obert 6etcalfe, one of its developers, for the passive substance
called <luminiferous )light%transmitting+ ether< that was once thought to pervade the
universe, carrying light throughout.
Ethernet was so% named to describe the way that cabling, also a passive medium, could
similarly carry data everywhere throughout the network.
/ireless (N'
wireless ,! )or 9,!, for wireless local area network, sometimes referred to as
,9!, for local area wireless network+ is one in which a mobile user can connect to a
local area network ),!+ through a wireless )radio+ connection.
Gigh%bandwidth allocation for wireless will make possible a relatively low%cost wiring of
classrooms in the $nited &tates. similar fre'uency allocation has been made in Europe.
Gospitals and businesses are also expected to install wireless ,! systems where
existing ,!s are not already in place.
( gateway is a network point that acts as an
entrance to another network that uses different
protocols. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a
host )end%point+ node. 3oth the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve
pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within your company>s
network or at your local Internet service provider )I&:+ are gateway nodes.
In the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also
acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. gateway is often associated with both a
router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway,
and a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given
7sed as a Repeater# to imitate a Star
network using a 6us network.
router is a device that forwards data packets
between telecommunications networks, creating
an overlay internet.
9hen data comes in on one of the lines, the router
reads the address information in the packet to
determine its ultimate destination. Then, using
information in its routing table or routing policy,
it directs the packet to the next network on its /ourney or drops the packet. data
packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through networks that
constitute the internetwork until it gets to its destination node.
3nables to send and recei$e data through Telephone
"omputerHs 5igital data are converted to nalog signals to
be transmitted through Telephone lines, then again turned to
digital when reached to other side computer.
<ata Transmission <ata Transmission' ' 5ata are transmitted as 5ata are transmitted as :ackets :ackets. .
packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the
network. the file is di$ided into =chunks= of an efficient si+e for routing. Each of
these packets is separately numbered and includes the Internet address of the destination.
The individual packets for a given file may travel different routes through the Internet.
9hen they have all arrived, they are reassembled into the original file.
Geader Geader 4ileHs 5T 4ileHs 5T Trailer Trailer
:acket )"hunk+ of 4ileHs 5ata :acket )"hunk+ of 4ileHs 5ata
:acket I, &ender C 7eceiver ddress :acket I, &ender C 7eceiver ddress (ctual <ata (ctual <ata checking e'uation checking e'uation
The &tructure of a :acket )"hunk+ of a 4ileHs data The &tructure of a :acket )"hunk+ of a 4ileHs data
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Network Network
>,>>,>>,,>,,,>,>>>,> Network Network
Card Card Communication ine Communication ine Card Card
:arallel Transmission &erial Transmission :arallel Transmission :arallel Transmission &erial Transmission :arallel Transmission
Sender Computer Sender Computer Receiver Computer Receiver Computer
The Process of data Transmission The Process of data Transmission
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
??? !Calculation 3&amples about Networks Transmitting speed" ???
a- Internet $pload or 5ownload Speed is normally measured by @b)Kilo Bit+
or @6)Kilo Byte+ :er Second, 4or Example when transmitting date via a
network line with a speed of -12Jb?s , and another line with a speed of
12J3?s, Then the &econd line is considered 4aster than the 4irst line because #
-12K(D-0 L -2-(00 3it?s
&ince the 3yteL E3its, Then# 12K(D-0KEL 01EB1- 3it?s, which is Faster...
b- To find approximately, the number of text Characters to be transmitted via a
network line )for instance 12J3?s+ 5uring a period of time )Two Gours for
example+, 9e do the following#
)12K(D-0K(-DK2D+ L 0(-,EB2,EDD "haracters to be transmitted
9hile, if we considered the speed of -12Jb?s, and assuming a "haracter
L(3yte L A3its , Then we get#
)-12K(D-0K(-DK2D+?E L -.1,=-=,2DD "haracters.
c% To 4ind approximately the !umber of 3its to be transmitted during a period of time ,
)for instance, .-J3?s and .-Jb?s during .6inutes+, then all what we have to do is#
.-K(D-0KEK2DK. L 0B,(E1,=-D 3its
9hile for the second case#
.-K(D-0K2DK. L 1,E=E,-0D 3its...
ote! Click Here to "et a brief steps in connectin" #$Cs%
Post Test Post Test' ' &nswer the 'uestions in &nswer the 'uestions in Here Here)
(ecture $repared by!
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