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Interjections

Hi! That's an interjection. :-)


Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations
like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite
often, usually more in speaking than in writing.
When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection
to the sentence.
An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.
interjection meaning example
ah expressing pleasure "Ah, that feels good."
expressing realization "Ah, now I understand."
expressing resignation "Ah well, it can't be heped."
expressing surprise "Ah! I've won!"
alas expressing grief or pity "Alas, she's dead now."
dear expressing pity "Oh dear! Does it hurt?"
expressing surprise "Dear me! That's a surprise!"
eh asking for repetition "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot
today."
expressing enquiry "What do you think of that, eh?"
expressing surprise "Eh! Really?"
inviting agreement "Let's go, eh?"
er expressing hesitation "Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."
hello, hullo expressing greeting "Hello John. How are you today?"
expressing surprise "Hello! My car's gone!"
hey calling attention "Hey! look at that!"
expressing surprise, joy etc "Hey! What a good idea!"
hi expressing greeting "Hi! What's new?"
hmm expressing hesitation, doubt
or disagreement
"Hmm. I'm not so sure."
oh, o expressing surprise "Oh! You're here!"
expressing pain "Oh! I've got a toothache."
expressing pleading "Oh, please say 'yes'!"
ouch expressing pain "Ouch! That hurts!"
uh expressing hesitation "Uh...I don't know the answer to that."
uh-huh expressing agreement "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."
um, umm expressing hesitation "85 divided by 5 is...um...17."
well expressing surprise "Well I never!"
introducing a remark "Well, what did he say?"


Conjunctions
A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.
Here are some example conjunctions:
Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions
and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so although, because, since, unless
We can consider conjunctions from three aspects.
1. Form
Conjunctions have three basic forms:
Single Word
for example: and, but, because, although
Compound (often ending with as or that)
for example: provided that, as long as, in order that
Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)
for example: so...that
2. Function
Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":
Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are
grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for
example:
- Jack and Jill went up the hill.
- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.
Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause
to a main clause, for example:
- I went swimming although it was cold.
3. Position
Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that
they join.
Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate
clause.
Coordinating Conjunctions
The short, simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions":
and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so
A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or
independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar.
examples - the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in
square brackets [ ]:
I like [tea] and [coffee].
[Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].
Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses, it is always correct to
place a comma before the conjunction:
I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at
university.
However, if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is not
really essential:
She is kind so she helps people.
When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a comma is optional:
He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.
He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.
The 7 coordinating conjunctions are short, simple words. They have only two or three
letters. There's an easy way to remember them - their initials spell:
F A N B O Y S
For And Nor But Or Yet So

Subordinating Conjunctions
The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". Common subordinating
conjunctions are:
after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till,
until, when, where, whether, while
A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main
(independent) clause
Look at this example:
main or
independent clause
subordinate or
dependent clause
Ram went swimming although it was raining.
subordinating
conjunction


A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. It
"introduces" a subordinate clause. However, a subordinate clause can sometimes
come after and sometimes before a main clause. Thus, two structures are possible:
Ram went swimming although it was raining.

Although it was raining, Ram went swimming.

Prepositions
A preposition is a word governing, and usually coming in front of, a noun or
pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element, as in:
She left before breakfast.
What did you come for?
(For what did you come?)
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions of place describe the position of a person or thing in relation to another
person or thing.
Look at this picture:

Now look at these example sentences based on the prepositions in the picture:
There is a cup on the table.
The helicopter hovered above the house.
The police placed a sheet over the body.
He stood in front of the door and rang the bell.
Ram sat beside Tara.
A small stream runs below that bridge.
He put the key under the doormat.
He put his hands behind his back.
Prepositions of Time: at, in, on
We use:
at for a PRECISE TIME
in for MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS
on for DAYS and DATES
at in on
PRECISE
TIME
MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG
PERIODS
DAYS and DATES
at 3 o'clock in May on Sunday
at 10.30am in summer on Tuesdays
at noon in the summer on 6 March
at dinnertime in 1990 on 25 Dec. 2010
at bedtime in the 1990s on Christmas Day
at sunrise in the next century on Independence
Day
at sunset in the Ice Age on my birthday
at the moment in the past/future on New Year's Eve
Look at these examples:
I have a meeting at 9am.
The shop closes at midnight.
Jane went home at lunchtime.
In England, it often snows in December.
Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future?
There should be a lot of progress in the next century.
Do you work on Mondays?
Her birthday is on 20 November.
Where will you be on New Year's Day?
Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions:
Expression Example
at night The stars shine at night.
at the weekend* I don't usually work at the weekend.
at Christmas*/Easter I stay with my family at Christmas.
at the same time We finished the test at the same time.
at present He's not home at present. Try later.
Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions:
in on
in the morning on Tuesday morning
in the mornings on Saturday mornings
in the afternoon(s) on Sunday afternoons
in the evening(s) on Monday evening
When we say last, next, every, this we do not also use at, in, on.
I went to London last June. (not in last June)
He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)