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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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Inventory Number: 002846
4
th
Edition
HFSS Release: 12.1
Designer/Nexxim Release: 5.0.1
Published Date: January 31, 2010
Registered Trademarks:
ANSYS

is a registered trademark of SAS IP Inc.


All other product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective manufacturers.
Disclaimer Notice:
This document has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the ANSYS, Inc.
Documentation Review and Approval Procedures. This ANSYS Inc. software product (the
Program) and program documentation (Documentation) are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an
ANSYS Software License Agreement that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying,
length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and remedies, and other provisions. The
Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that
License Agreement.
Copyright 2008 SAS IP, Inc.
Proprietary data. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited.
All Rights Reserved.
Training Manual
Ansoft HFSS for Antenna/RF User Guide
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Table of Contents
Lectures
1. Introduction
2. Simulation Overview
3. Boundary Conditions
4. Mesh Operations/Advanced Solver Settings
5. Phased Array Design
6. Antenna Post Processing
7. Complex Geometry Modeling
8. An Introduction to Optimetrics
9. Field Calculator
10. Radar Cross Section (RCS)
11. An Introduction to HFSS-IE
Workshops
1. Examples Phased Array
HFSS: Waveguide Array 1-1
2. Examples Optimetrics
HFSS: Shorted Patch 2-1
Ansoft Designer: Dual-Band WLAN Antenna 2-2
3. Examples Push Excitations
Ansoft Designer: Active Antenna Array 3-1
4. Examples RCS
HFSS: RCS of a PEC Cube 4-1
5. Examples HFSS-IE
HFSS-IE: RCS of a PEC Cube 5-1
HFSS-IE: Reflector (HFSS DataLink) 5-2
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Welcome to Ansoft HFSS
What is HFSS?
HFSS is a high-performance full-wave electromagnetic(EM) field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device
modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. It integrates simulation,
visualization, solid modeling, and automation in an easy-to-learn environment where solutions to your 3D EM problems
are quickly and accurately obtained. Ansoft HFSS employs the Finite Element Method (FEM), adaptive meshing, and
brilliant graphics to give you unparalleled performance and insight to all of your 3D EM problems. Ansoft HFSS can be
used to calculate parameters such as S-Parameters, Resonant Frequency, and Fields. Typical uses include:
Antennas/Mobile Communications Patches, Dipoles, Horns, Conformal Cell Phone Antennas, Quadrafilar Helix, Specific
Absorption Rate (SAR), Infinite Arrays, Radar Cross Section (RCS), Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS)
Waveguide Filters, Resonators, Transitions, Couplers
Filters Cavity Filters, Microstrip, Dielectric Package Modeling BGA, QFP, Flip-Chip
EMC/EMI Shield Enclosures, Coupling, Near- or Far-Field Radiation
PCB Board Modeling Power/Ground planes, Mesh Grid Grounds, Backplanes
Silicon/GaAs - Spiral Inductors, Transformers
Connectors Coax, SFP/XFP, Backplane, Transitions
HFSS is an interactive simulation system whose basic mesh element is a tetrahedron. This allows you to solve any
arbitrary 3D geometry, especially those with complex curves and shapes, in a fraction of the time it would take using
other techniques.
The name HFSS stands for High Frequency Structure Simulator. Ansoft pioneered the use of the Finite Element
Method (FEM) for EM simulation by developing/implementing technologies such as tangential vector finite elements,
adaptive meshing, and Adaptive Lanczos-Pade Sweep (ALPS). Today, HFSS continues to lead the industry with
innovations such as Modes-to-Nodes and Full-Wave Spice.
Ansoft HFSS has evolved over a period of years with input from many users and industries. In industry, Ansoft HFSS
is the tool of choice for high-productivity research, development, and virtual prototyping.
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Installing the Ansoft HFSS software
System Requirements
For up-to-date information, refer to the HFSS Installation Guide
Installing the Ansoft HFSS Software
For up-to-date information, refer to the HFSS Installation Guide
Starting Ansoft HFSS
Click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program group. Click HFSS 12.
Or Double click on the HFSS 12 icon on the Windows Desktop
NOTE:YoushouldmakebackupcopiesofallHFSSprojectscreatedwitha
previousversionofthesoftwarebeforeopeningtheminHFSS12
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Web Update
WebUpdate
This feature allows you to update any existing Ansoft software from the WebUpdate window. This feature automatically
scans your system to find any Ansoft software, and then allows you to download any updates if they are available.
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Getting Help
Getting Help
If you have any questions while you are using Ansoft HFSS you can find answers in several ways:
Ansoft HFSS Online Help provides assistance while you are working.
To get help about a specific, active dialog box, click the Help button in the dialog box or press the F1 key.
Select the menu item Help > Contents to access the online help system.
Tooltips are available to provide information about tools on the toolbars or dialog boxes. When you hold the
pointer over a tool for a brief time, a tooltip appears to display the name of the tool.
As you move the pointer over a tool or click a menu item, the Status Bar at the bottom of the Ansoft HFSS
window provides a brief description of the function of the tool or menu item.
The Ansoft HFSS Getting Started guide provides detailed information about using HFSS to create and solve
3D EM projects.
Ansoft Technical Support
To contact Ansoft technical support staff in your geographical area, please log on to the Ansoft corporate
website, www.ansoft.com and select Contact.
Your Ansoft sales engineer may also be contacted in order to obtain this information.
Visiting the Ansoft Web Site
If your computer is connected to the Internet, you can visit the Ansoft Web site to learn more about the Ansoft company
and products.
From the Ansoft Desktop
Select the menu item Help > Ansoft Corporate Website to access the Online Technical Support (OTS)
system.
From your Internet browser
Visit www.ansoft.com
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Technical Support
For Technical Support
The following link will direct you to the Ansoft Support Page. The Ansoft Support Pages provide additional
documentation, training, and application notes. Web Site: http://www.ansoft.com/support.cfm
University Support
Email Support: univsup@ansoft.com
North America Commercial Support
Email Support:
techsupport@ansoft.com
The names and numbers in this list may change without notice
Technical Support:
9-4 EST:
Pittsburgh, PA
(412) 261-3200 x199
Burlington, MA
(781) 229-8900 x199
9-4 PST:
San Jose, CA
(408) 261-9095 x199
Irvine, CA
(714) 417-9311 x199
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Ansoft Desktop Terms
Ansoft Desktop Terms
The Ansoft HFSS Desktop has several optional panels:
A Project Manager which contains a design tree which lists the structure of the project.
A Message Manager that allows you to view any errors or warnings that occur before you begin a simulation.
A Property Window that displays and allows you to change model parameters or attributes.
A Progress Window that displays solution progress.
A 3D Modeler Window which contains the model and model tree for the active design.
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Ansoft HFSS Desktop
Menu
bar
Progress
Window
PropertyWindow
Message
Manager
Project
Manager
withproject
tree
Status
bar
3DModeler
Window
Toolbars
CoordinateEntryFields
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Ansoft Desktop Terms
Project Manager
Project
Design
DesignResults
DesignSetup
DesignAutomation
Parametric
Optimization
Sensitivity
Statistical
ProjectManagerWindow
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Ansoft Desktop Terms
Property Window
PropertyWindow
Propertytabs
Property
buttons
Property
table
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Ansoft Desktop Terms
Ansoft 3D Modeler
Edge
Vertex
Plane
CoordinateSystem(CS)
Origin
Face
Model
3DModelerWindow
Graphics
area
Model
3DModeler
designtree
Contextmenu
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Ansoft Desktop Terms
3D Modeler Design Tree
GroupedbyMaterial
ObjectView
Material
Object
ObjectCommand
History
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Design Windows
Design Windows
In the Ansoft HFSS Desktop, each project can have multiple designs and each design is displayed in a separate
window.
You can have multiple projects and design windows open at the same time. Also, you can have multiple views of the
same design visible at the same time.
To arrange the windows, you can drag them by the title bar, and resize them by dragging a corner or border. Also, you
can select one of the following menu options: Window >Cascade, Window >Tile Vertically, or Window > Tile
Horizontally.
To organize your Ansoft HFSS window, you can iconize open designs. Click the Iconize ** symbol in the upper right
corner of the document border. An icon appears in the lower part of the Ansoft HFSS window. If the icon is not visible,
it may be behind another open document. Resize any open documents as necessary. Select the menu item Window
> Arrange Icons to arrange them at the bottom of the Ansoft HFSS window.
Select the menu item Window > Close All to close all open design. You are prompted to Save unsaved designs.
Designicons
Iconize
Symbol
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Toolbars
Toolbars
The toolbar buttons are shortcuts for frequently used commands. Most of the available toolbars are displayed in this
illustration of the Ansoft HFSS initial screen, but your Ansoft HFSS window probably will not be arranged this way. You
can customize your toolbar display in a way that is convenient for you.
Some toolbars are always displayed; other toolbars display automatically when you select a document of the related
type. For example, when you select a 2D report from the project tree, the 2D report toolbar displays.
To display or hide individual toolbars:
Right-click the Ansoft HFSS window frame.
A list of all the toolbars is displayed. The toolbars with a check mark beside them are visible; the toolbars without
a check mark are hidden. Click the toolbar name to turn its display on or off
To make changes to the toolbars, select the menu item Tools > Customize. See Customize and Arrange Toolbars on
the next page.
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Toolbars
Customize and Arrange Toolbars
Select the menu item Tools > Customize, or right-click the Ansoft HFSS window frame and click Customize at the
bottom of the toolbar list.
In the Customize dialog, you can do the following:
View a Description of the toolbar commands
Select an item from the Component pull-down list
Select an item from the Category list
Using the mouse click on the Buttons to display the Description
Click the Close button when you are finished
Toggle the visibility of toolbars
From the Toolbar list, toggle the check boxes to control the visibility of the toolbars
Click the Close button when you are finished
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Overview
Ansoft HFSS Desktop
The Ansoft HFSS Desktop provides an intuitive, easy-to-use interface for developing passive RF device models.
Creating designs, involves the following:
Parametric Model Generation creating the geometry, boundaries and excitations
Analysis Setup defining solution setup and frequency sweeps
Results creating 2D/3D reports and field plots
Solve Loop - the solution process is fully automated
To understand how these processes co-exist, examine the illustration shown on the next page.
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Overview
Design
SolutionType
Boundaries
Excitations
Mesh
Operations
Analysis
SolutionSetup
FrequencySweep
ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
Results
2DReports
Fields
Mesh
Refinement
Solve
Update
Converged
Analyze
Finished
SolveLoop
NO
YES
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Opening a Design
Opening a HFSS project
Opening a New project
In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > New.
Select the menu Project > Insert HFSS Design.
Opening an Existing HFSS project
In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu File > Open.
Use the Open dialog to select the project.
Click Open to open the project
Opening an Existing Project from Explorer
You can open a project directly from the Microsoft Windows Explorer.
To open a project from Windows Explorer, do one of the following:
Double-click on the name of the project in Windows Explorer.
Right-click the name of the project in Windows Explorer and select Open from the shortcut menu.
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Set Solution Type
Set Solution Type
This section describes how to set the Solution Type. The Solution Type defines the type of results, how the excitations
are defined, and the convergence. The following Solution Types are available:
Driven Modal - calculates the modal-based S-parameters. The S-matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of
the incident and reflected powers of waveguide modes.
Driven Terminal - calculates the terminal-based S-parameters of multi-conductor transmission line ports. The S-
matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of terminal voltages and currents.
Eignemode calculate the eigenmodes, or resonances, of a structure. The Eigenmode solver finds the resonant
frequencies of the structure and the fields at those resonant frequencies.
Convergence
Driven Modal Delta S for modal S-Parameters. This was the only convergence method available for Driven
Solutions in previous versions.
Driven Terminal Delta S for the single-ended or differential nodal S-Parameters.
Eigenmode - Delta F
To set the solution type:
Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type
Choose one of the following:
Driven Modal
Driven Terminal
Eigenmode
Click the OK button
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Converting older files
Converting Older HFSS file to HFSS 12
Because of changes to the HFSS files with the development of HFSS 12, opening a HFSS project from an earlier
release may take more time than you are used to experiencing. However, once the file has been opened and saved,
subsequent opening time will return to normal
Ansoft HFSS 12 provides a way for you to automatically convert your HFSS projects from an earlier version to the
HFSS 12 format.
To access HFSS projects in an earlier version.
Select the menu item File > Open
Files of Type: Ansoft HFSS Project Files (.hfss)
Browse to the existing project and select the .hfss file
Click the Open button
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Chapter 2 Simulation Basics
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
Introduction
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Introduction
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Core Technology
HFSS High Frequency Structure Simulator
Arbitrary 3D Volumetric Full-Wave Field Solver
Ansoft Desktop
Advanced ACIS based Modeling
True Parametric Technology Dynamic Editing
Powerful Report Generation
Dynamic Field Visualization
Design Flow Automation
Optimetrics/Ansoft Designer/AnsoftLinks
Advanced Material Types
Frequency Dependent Materials
Non-linear Materials
Anisotropic Materials
Advanced Boundary Conditions
Radiation and Perfectly Matched Layers
Symmetry, Finite Conductivity, Infinite Planes, RLC, and Layered Impedance
Master/Slave Unit Cells
Advanced Solver Technology
Automatic Conformal Mesh Generation
Adaptive Mesh Generation
Internal/External Excitations Includes Loss
ALPS Fast Frequency Sweep
Eigenmode
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Common HFSS Applications
Antenna
Planar Antennas - Patches, Dipoles, Horns, Conformal Cell Phone Antennas, Spirals
Waveguide Circular/Square Horns
Wire Dipole, Helix
Arrays - Infinite Arrays, Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) & Photonic Band Gaps (PBG)
Radar Cross Section (RCS)
Microwave
Filters Cavity Filters, Microstrip, Dielectric
EMC/EMI Shield Enclosures, Coupling, Near- or Far-Field Radiation
Connectors Coax, SFP/XFP, Backplane, Transitions
Waveguide Filters, Resonators, Transitions, Couplers
Silicon/GaSa - Spiral Inductors, Transformers
Signal Integrity/High-Speed Digital
Package Modeling BGA, QFP, Flip-Chip
PCB Board Modeling Power/Ground planes, Mesh Grid Grounds, Backplanes
Connectors SFP/XFP, VHDM, GBX, NexLev, Coax
Transitions Differential/Single-ended Vias
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HFSS - Results
Matrix Data
Modal/Terminal/Differential
S-, Y-, and Z-Parameters
VSWR
Excitations
Complex Propagation Constant (Gamma)
Zo
Full-Wave Spice
Full-Wave Spice Broadband Model
Lumped RLC Low Frequency Model
Partial Fraction - Matlab
Export Formats HSPICE, PSPICE, Cadence Spectre, and Maxwell SPICE
Common Display Formats:
Rectangular, Polar
Smith Chart
Data Tables
Common Output Formats:
Neutral Models Files (NMF) (Optimetrics only)
Parametric Results
Touchstone, Data Tables, Matlab, Citifile
Graphics Windows Clipboard
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HFSS - Results
Fields
Modal/Terminal/Differential
Electric Field
Magnetic Field
Current (Volume/Surface)
Power
Specific Absorption Rate
Radiation
2D/3D Far-/Near-Fields
Arrays Regular and Custom Setups
RCS
Field Calculator
User Defined Field Calculations
Common Display Formats
Volume
Surface
Vector
2D Reports Rectangular, Polar, Radiation Patterns
Common Output Formats:
Animations AVI, GIF
Data Tables
Graphics Windows Clipboard, BMP, GIF, JPG, TIFF, VRML
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What is HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator)?
HFSS is the industry-standard software for S-parameter, full-wave SPICE extraction and
electromagnetic simulation of high-frequency and high-speed components. HFSS is widely used for
the design of on-chip embedded passives, PCB interconnects, antennas, RF/microwave components,
and high-frequency IC packages.
HFSS improves engineering productivity, reduces development time, and better assures first-pass
design success. The latest release of HFSS delivers significant productivity gains to Microwave/RF
engineers and expands electromagnetic co-design to a new segment of engineers working in the
areas of RF/analog IC and multi-gigabit designs as well as EMI/EMC.
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HFSS Methodology
HFSS uses the Finite Element Method (FEM) to solve Maxwells equations.
The primary advantage of the FEM for solving partial differential equations lies in the ability of the basic building blocks
used to discretize the model to confrom to arbitrary geometry.
The arbitrary shape of the basic building block (tetrahedron) also allows HFSS to generate a coarse mesh where fewer
cells are needed to yield an accuate solution, while creating a finely discretized mesh where the field is rapidly varying
or higher accuaracy is needed to obtain an accurate global solution.
The FEM has been a standard for solving electromagnetic problems since the
inception of HFSS in 1990.
The FEM has been a standard for solving problems in structure mechanics since the mid 1950s.
Tetrahedron
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HFSS - Technology
Tangential Vector Finite Elements
Transfinite Element Method
Adaptive Meshing
Vertex:Explicitly
Solved
Edge:Explicitly
Solved
Face:
Interpolated
Initial Converged
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Create Initial
Mesh
Solve fields using the
Finite Element Method
Max(|DS|)<goal?
Calculate local
Solution error
Generate New Mesh
Calculate broad band
s-parameters (if desired)
no
yes
Start
HFSS Automated solution process
The Solve
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1D FEM Example
1D FEM Example
The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
The model is first discretized into cells (1, 2, 5).
Each cell is sampled to create a polynomial basis function which describes the function along the entire line.
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1D FEM Example
The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
The basis functions try to describe the fields in between the sampled points.
A key feature of the FEM, as it is implemented in HFSS, is the ability to locally determine the error.
Recall that F(x) is not known, but the ERROR can be determined
1
1
D. K. Sun, Z. Cendes, J.-Fa Lee, Adaptive Mesh Refinement, h-Version, for Solving Multiport Microwave Devices in Three Dimensions, IEEE Trans Magnetics, pp 1596-1599,
Vol. 36, N.4, July 2000
Error
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The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
One method of decreasing the error is to make the mesh denser in areas of high error.
The FEM, with tetrahedral elements, allows for local control of the mesh density so a uniform mesh is not required.
1D FEM Example
Cell 1 Is Divided to
Reduce the Error
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The key to success
Finite elements and adaptive meshing
Geometrically conforming, tetrahedral mesh automatically generated and refined below a user defined electrical length.
Iterative algorithm solves the fields of the model and intelligently refines the mesh until S-parameters converge below a
user defined threshold, Max Delta S.
User defines frequency or frequencies at which adaptive meshing is performed.
After each solution tetrahedral elements are graded for their accuracy to Maxwell's Equations.
User defines percentage of bad tetrahedral elements to be refined after each pass (30% Default).
Vertex:ExplicitlySolved
Edge:ExplicitlySolved
Face:Interpolated
Geometrically conforming,
tetrahedral mesh
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The Solve
HFSS Automated solution process
Initial Mesh Refinement
Adaptive Port
Refinement
Solve
Quantify Mesh
Accuracy
Mesh Refinement
Frequency Sweep
Yes
No
Max(|DS|)<goal?
Initial
Converged
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Example Circular Waveguide Horn HFSS High Frequency Structure Simulator
Full-Wave 3D field solver
Solves for the fields in an arbitrary volume
WaveguidePlug
Radome
DielectricWaveguide
Circular Waveguide Horn Example
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HFSS Start to Finish
The Process
Design
SolutionType
Boundaries
Excitations
Mesh
Operations
Analysis
SolutionSetup
FrequencySweep
ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
Results
2DReports
Fields
Mesh
Refinement
Solve
Update
Converged
Analyze
Finished
SolveLoop
NO
YES
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An Introduction to HFSS
Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a New Project
If a new project and new design are not already opened, then:
In HFSS Desktop, click the On the Standard toolbar, or
select the menu item File > New.
From the Project menu, select Insert HFSS Design.
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Ansoft Desktop
Menu
bar
Progress
Window
Property
Window
Message
Manager
Project
Manager
withproject
tree
Status
bar
3DModeler
Window
Toolbars
CoordinateEntryFields
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Project Manager
Ansoft Desktop Project Manager
Multiple Designs per Project
Multiple Projects per Desktop
Integrated Optimetrics Setup
Requires License for Analysis
Project
Design
DesignResults
DesignSetup
DesignAutomation
Parametric
Optimization
Sensitivity
Statistical
ProjectManagerWindow
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3D Modeler
Edge
Vertex
Plane
CoordinateSystem(CS)
Origin
Face
Model
ModelerWindow
Graphics
area
Model
Modeler
designtree
Contextmenu
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Solution Type
Set Solution Type
Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type
Choose Driven Modal
Click the OK button
HFSS - Solution Types
Driven Modal - calculates the modal-based S-parameters. The S-matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of the
incident and reflected powers of waveguide modes.
Generalized S-parameters
Driven Terminal - calculates the terminal-based S-parameters of multi-conductor transmission line ports. The S-matrix
solutions will be expressed in terms of terminal voltages and currents.
Eigenmode calculate the eigenmodes, or resonances, of a structure. The Eigenmode solver finds the resonant
frequencies of the structure and the fields at those resonant frequencies.
Convergence
Driven Modal Delta S for modal S-Parameters.
Driven Terminal Delta S for the single-ended or differential nodal S-Parameters.
Eigenmode - Delta F
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Unit and Material Setup
Set Model Units
Select the menu item Modeler > Units
Select Units: mil
Click the OK button
Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select
From the Select Definition window, click the Add Material button
For the Material Name type: WGPlug
For the Value of Relative Permittivity type: 1.9
Click the OK button
Click the OK button
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3D Modeler Create a Primitive
TheCoordinateEntryfieldsallowequationstobeenteredforpositionvalues.
Examples:2*5,2+6+8,2*cos(10*(pi/180)).
VariablesarenotallowedintheCoordinateEntryField
Note:Trigfunctionsareinradians
Point2
Point3
Point1
GridPlane
BaseRectangle
Point1
Point2
Point3
CoordinateEntryFields
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3D Modeler Object Properties
Attributes
Commands
Attributes
Commands
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3D Modeler - Attributes
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Set Grid Plane
Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XY
Create Waveguide Plug
Select the menu item Draw > Cylinder
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position
X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the cylinder
dX: 284.0, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height of the cylinder
dX: 0.0, dY: 0.0 dZ: -250.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: WG_Plug
Click the OK button
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View. Or press the CTRL+D key
Create Waveguide Plug
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Modeler - Views
View > Modify Attributes >
Orientation Predefined/Custom View Angles
Lighting Control angle, intensity, and color of light
Projection Control camera and perspective
Background Color Control color of 3D Modeler background
View > Active View Visibility - Controls the display of: 3D Modeler
Objects, Color Keys, Boundaries, Excitations, Field Plots
View > Options Stereo Mode, Drag Optimization, Color Key Defaults,
Default Rotation
View > Render > Wire Frame or Smooth Shaded (Default)
View > Coordinate System > Hide or Small (Large)
View > Grid Setting Controls the grid display
Toolbar:ToggleGridVisibility
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Changing the View
Context Menu
Shortcuts
Since changing the view is a frequently used operation, some useful shortcut keys exist. Press the appropriate
keys and drag the mouse with the left button pressed:
ALT + Drag Rotate
In addition, there are 9 pre-defined view angles that can be selected by holding the ALT key and double clicking on the
locations shown on the next page.
Shift + Drag - Pan
ALT + Shift + Drag Dynamic Zoom
Pan
RotateAround
ModelCenter
DynamicZoom
ZoomIn/Out
Top
Bottom
Right
PredefinedViewAngles
Left
RotateAround
CurrentAxis
RotateAround
ScreenCenter
FitAll
FitSelected
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Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select
From the Select Definition window, click the Add Material button
For the Material Name type: WG
For the Value of Relative Permittivity type: 2.1
Click the OK button
Click the OK button
Create Waveguide
Select the menu item Draw > Cylinder
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position
X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: -250.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the cylinder
dX: 284.0, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height of the cylinder
dX: 0.0, dY: 0.0 dZ: -740.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: WG
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View
Create Waveguide
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Port Setup
Create Excitation
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
By moving the mouse, graphically highlight the bottom face of the WG object
Click the left mouse button to select the face (use the B key to select Next Behind)
Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port
Wave Port : General
Name: p1,
Click the Next button
Wave Port : Modes
Number of Modes: 2,
For mode 1, click the None column and select New Line
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vector position
X: 284.0, Y: 0.0, Z: -990.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vertex
dX: -568.0, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
For mode 2, click the None column and select New Line
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vector position
X: 0.0, Y: 284.0, Z: -990.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vertex
dX: 0.0, dY: -568.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Select Align modes using integration lines
Click the Next button
Click the Finish button
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Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select
Type aluminum in the Search by Name field
Click the OK button
Create Waveguide Body
Select the menu item Draw > Cylinder
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position
X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the cylinder
dX: 290.0, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height of the cylinder
dX: 0.0, dY: 0.0 dZ: -996.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: WG_Body
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Objects
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select the objects named: WG_Body, WG_Plug, WG
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Subtract
Blank Parts: WG_Body
Tool Parts: WG_Plug, WG
Clone tool objects before subtract: Checked
Click the OK button
Create Waveguide Body
Theresultingobjectshouldlooklikeacup
Note:ThevisibilityoftheWG_Plugand
WGhavebeenturnedofftoshowthe
resultingWG_Bodyobjectafterthe
subtraction.
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Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select
From the Select Definition window, click the Add Material button
For the Material Name type: Radome
For the Value of Relative Permittivity type: 4.1
Click the OK button
Click the OK button
Create Radome
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the Position
X: -550.0, Y: -550.0, Z: 0.0 Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle
dX: 1100.0, dY: 1100.0, dZ: 23.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: Radome
Click the OK button
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View
Create Radome
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Create Air Box
Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum
Create Air box
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the Position
X: -600.0, Y: -600.0, Z: -1050.0 Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle
dX: 1200.0, dY: 1200.0, dZ: 1225.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: Air
Click the OK button
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View
AirBox
Approx./8
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Boundary Setup
Select the faces of the Air object
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select the objects named: Air
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Edit > Select > All Object Faces
Add Perfectly Matched Layer (PML)
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > PML Setup Wizard
PML Setup Wizard: Cover Objects.
Uniform Layer Thickness: 600mil (Approx. /2)
Click the Next button
PML Setup Wizard: Material Properties.
Minimum Frequency: 9GHz
Minimum Radiating Distance: 150mil
Click the Next button
PML Setup Wizard: Summary
Show Objects in Groups: Checked
Click the Finish button
Create a Radiation Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite Sphere
Name: ff_2d
Phi: (Start: 0, Stop: 90, Step Size: 90)
Theta: (Start: -180, Stop: 180, Step Size: 2)
Click the OK button
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Creating an Analysis Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Solution Frequency: 10.8 GHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 20
Click the Options tab:
Order of Basis Functions: Second Order
Enable Iterative Solver: Checked
Click the OK button
Analysis Setup
AdaptFrequency
AddSolutionSetup
BasisOrder
IterativeSolver
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Adding a Frequency Sweep
Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Sweep
Select Solution Setup: Setup1
Click the OK button
Edit Sweep Window:
Sweep Type: Discrete
Frequency Setup Type: Linear Step
Start: 10.2 GHz
Stop: 10.8 GHz
Step: 0.1 GHz
Save Fields: Checked
Click the OK button
HFSS Frequency Sweep
Discrete Solves using adaptive mesh at every frequency
Matrix Data and Fields at every frequency in sweep
Fast - ALPS
Matrix Data and Fields at every frequency in sweep
Interpolating Adaptively determines discrete solve
points using the adaptive mesh
Matrix Data at every frequency in sweeps
Fields at last adaptive solution
AddSweep
Analysis Setup
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Analyze
Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As
Filename: hfss_wg_ant
Click the Save button
Model Validation
Select the menu item HFSS > Validation Check
Click the Close button
Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.
Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze All
Validate AnalyzeAll
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Post Processing
Create Reports
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report> Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1: Sweep1
Domain: Sweep
Category: Modal S Parameter
Quantity: S(p1:1, p1:1), S(p1:1,p1:2), S(p1:2,p1:2) Note: Hold Ctrl key to select multiple traces
Function: dB
Click New Report button
Click Close button
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Set Mode Field Excitation
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Edit Sources
Edit Sources Window:
For p1:1: Scaling Factor: 1, Offset Phase: 0 deg
For p1:2: Scaling Factor: 1, Offset Phase: 90 deg
Click the OK button
Note:TheEditSourcesonlyimpactsthefielddisplay
anddatabasedonthefields(Far/NearField).The
defaultforaDrivenModalsolutionistoexcitePort1
Mode1with1W.Theremainingmodalportsare
perfectlymatched.ForaDrivenTerminalsolution,Port1
terminal1isexcitedwith1V.Theremainingterminals
areopens.Inaterminalsetuptheusercanalsocontrol
theloadateachterminal.
Post Processing
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Create Field Overlay
From the 3D Model tree, expand the Planes
From the tree, select the Global YZ
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Mag_E
Solution: Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Quantity: Mag_E
Click the Done button
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Modify Plot Attributes
Select Plot Folder Window, Click the OK button
E-Field Window:
Click the Scale tab
Scale: Log
If real time mode is not checked, click the Apply button.
Click the Close button
To Animate the field plot:
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields> Animate
Click the OK button
Post Processing
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Create Reports
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report> Radiation Pattern
New Report Window:
Solution: Setup1: Last Adaptive
Geometry: ff_2d
Category: Realized Gain
Quantity: RealizedGainLHCP, RealizedGainRHCP, Note: Hold Ctrl key to select multiple traces
Function: dB
Click New Report button
Click Close button
Post Processing
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Mesh
GUI
Solver
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Preview in File Open dialog
New
User Definable Keyboard Shortcuts
New
Define, load or save shortcut keys to common commands
Desktop Enhancements
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Modeler Primitives
2D Draw Objects
The following 2D Draw objects are available:
Line, Spline, Arc, Equation Based Curve,
Rectangle, Ellipse, Circle, Regular Polygon,
Equation Based Surface
3D Draw Objects
The following 3D Draw objects are available:
Box, Cylinder, Regular Polyhedron, Cone,
Sphere, Torus, Helix, Spiral, Bond Wire
Toolbar:2DObjects
Toolbar:3DObjects
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Modeler Boolean Operations/Transformations
Modeler > Boolean >
Unite combine multiple primitives
Unite disjoint objects (Separate Bodies to separate)
Subtract remove part of a primitive from another
Intersect keep only the parts of primitives that overlap
Split break primitives into multiple parts along a plane (XY, YZ, XZ)
Split Crossing Objects splits objects along a plane (XY, YZ, XZ) only where they intersect
Separate Bodies separates objects which are united but not physically connected into individual objects
Modeler > Surfaces > Move Faces Resize or Reposition an objects face along a normal or vector.
Edit > Arrange >
Move Translates the structure along a vector
Rotate Rotates the shape around a coordinate axis by an angle
Mirror Mirrors the shape around a specified plane
Offset Performs a uniform scale in x, y, and z.
Edit > Duplicate >
Along Line Create multiple copies of an object along a vector
Around Axis Create multiple copies of an object rotated by a fixed angle around the x, y, or z axis
Mirror - Mirrors the shape around a specified plane and creates a duplicate
Edit > Scale Allows non-uniform scaling in the x, y, or z direction
Toolbar:Boolean
Toolbar:Arrange
Toolbar:Duplicate
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Polyline Cross Section
New
Choose Cross Section Type and Size
Type: Line, Rectangle, Circle
Size can be a variable
Section is automatically swept along the polyline
1. Create a Polyline 2. Set Cross Section Property 3. Polyline with Cross Section Property
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Chamfers and Fillets
Create Chamfers and Fillets on 3D or 2D Objects
Select a vertex graphically and choose the menu item:
Fillet or Chamfer
Chamfer - 45 degree cut
Fillet- Rounded edge
Original
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Imprint/Imprint Projection
Imprint
New
Projection
Patch Antenna Array Imprinted on a Nosecone
Results in Faces of original object imprinted
Make sure that the distance selected is greater than the distance between the antenna and nosecone
Face created from
imprint
Face created from
Imprint projection
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Geometry Wrap
New
Wrap a 2D sheet on an arbitrary geometry
Slot Coupled Patch Array wrapped on a
cylinder
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(Overlapbetweentwocylinders)
Overlapping Geometry
Definition: When an object occupies volume in multiple 3D objects. This does not apply to sheet objects
Solution:
Resolution: Set Material Override
Menu item: HFSS > Design Settings
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Modeler - Selection
Selection Types
Object (Default)
Face
Edge
Vertex
Selection Modes
All Objects
All Visible Object
By Name
Highlight Selection Dynamically By default, moving the mouse pointer over an object will dynamically highlight
the object for selection. To select the object simply click the left mouse button.
Multiple Object Selection Hold the CTRL key down to graphically select multiple objects
Next Behind To select an object located behind another object, select the front object, press the b key to get
the next behind. Note: The mouse pointer must be located such that the next behind object is under the mouse
pointer.
To Disable: Select the menu item Tools > Options > 3D Modeler Options
From the Display Tab, uncheck Highlight selection dynamically
DynamicallyHighlighted
(Onlyframeofobject)
Selected
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Enhanced Selection Options
New
Select By Area
Click and drag to rubber-band select
Right-to-left selects all objects in passing through bounding box
Left-to-right select all objects enclosed by bounding box
Select By Variable
Helps find objects tied to variables
Select Variable and Click OK to highlight geometry
Select By Area
By default, only items with external surfaces are selected
Material filters
Enable the Include and Exclude radio buttons
Object name filters
Enable the Exclude and Include check boxes
Object type filters
Enable the check boxes for including Solids, Sheets,
and/or Lines
Hide unfiltered objects
Makes unfiltered objects transparent after selection
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Modeler Moving Around
Step1:StartPoint Step2:HoldXkeyandselectvertexpoint
Step3:CTRL+EnterKeyssetalocalreference Step4:HoldZkeyandsetheight
EdgeCenterSnap
Toolbar:SnapMode
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Measure
Modeler > Measure >
Position Points and Distance
Length Edge Length
Area Surface Area
Volume Object Volume
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Step1:SelectFace
Step2:SelectOrigin
Step3:SetX-Axis
NewWorkingCS
Modeler Coordinate System
Can be Parameterized
Working Coordinate System
Currently selected CS. This can be a local or global CS
Global CS
The default fixed coordinate system
Relative CS
User defined local coordinate system.
Offset
Rotated
Both
Face CS (setting available to automatically switch to face coordinate system in the 3D Modeler Options)
ConecreatedwithFaceCS
ChangeBoxSizeandConeis
automaticallypositionedwith
thetopfaceofthebox
Toolbar:CoordinateSystem
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Modeler Model Tree
Select menu item Modeler > Group by Material
GroupedbyMaterial ObjectView
Material
Object
ObjectCommand
History
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Modeler Commands
Parametric Technology
Dynamic Edits - Change Dimensions
Add Variables
Project Variables (Global), Design Variables (Local), or Post Processing Variables
Animate Geometry
Include Units Default Unit is meters
Supports mixed Units
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Post-Processing Variables
Post Processing Variables
New
Can be modified without re-simulating the model
Can optimize complex weights of antenna elements in phased array
Optimization of Phased Array Excitations
Synthesized Far-field Pattern
Specify Desired Scan Angle and
Maximum Sidelobe Level
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Automatic Feature Removal
Holes
Blends
Step1:EnterFeatureDetectionOptions
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Automatic Feature Removal
Removed
Note: There are two modes of operation for the feature removal: Healing
and Model Analysis. Model Analysis was used here and allows the user to
manually select which geometry features are removed. For healing, all
features that meet the user defined criteria are automatically removed.
Both options are found in the menu item Modeler > Model Analysis
Step2:SelectFeaturestoRemove
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HFSS Matrix Data
HFSS > Results > Solution Data
Export
NMF, Touchstone, Data Tables, Citifile, MATLAB (*.m)
NOTE: Make sure the Simulation is set to a Sweep before exporting. The Adaptive Passes will only export a
single frequency point.
Equivalent Circuit Export
HSPICE, PSPICE, Spectre, Maxwell SPICE
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Convergence Based on Multiple Output Variables
Evaluate and save multiple expressions vs. adaptive pass
New
Includes SYZ parameters, local, near and far field
Fully integrated with reporter and Optimetrics
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Results Data Management
HFSS > Results > Browse Solutions
Solved model variations are retained.
Unless otherwise notified by HFSS.
HFSS > Results > Clean Up Solutions
HFSS > Results > Import Solutions
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Results Create Reports
HFSS > Results > Create Report
Show: Create Differential and/or Terminal plots
Output Variables
User Defined Equations
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New Plot Type
Rectangular Stacked Plot
New
Plot all variations in stacked format
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50
Freq [GHz]
-25.00
-15.00
-5.00
-12.00
-7.00
-2.00
-22.50
-12.50
-2.50
-30.00
-20.00
-10.00
0.00
-0.50
-0.30
-0.10
-25.00
-15.00
-5.00
Curve Info
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
feed_xpos='-0.5cm' feed_ypos='-0.5cm'
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
feed_xpos='0cm' feed_ypos='-0.5cm'
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
feed_xpos='0.5cm' feed_ypos='-0.5cm'
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
feed_xpos='-0.5cm' feed_ypos='0cm'
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
feed_xpos='0cm' feed_ypos='0cm'
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
feed_xpos='0.5cm' feed_ypos='0cm'
Ansoft LLC HFSSDesign1
XY Stacked Plot 1
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Fields
Select Object Volume, Surface, or Line to display fields
Menu item: HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields >
Modify Plot Solution/Frequency/Qty
Plot Attributes
Edit Sources Change Excitation without resolving
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Edit Sources with Port Post-Processing
Option for port post-processing to affect sources for field plots
New
Original Including Post Processing Effects
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Streamline Plot
New plot type for field quantities
New
Pick source face, choose Poynting Vector, tick Streamline option
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Mesh Display
Field Overlay
Select an object
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Mesh
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GUI
Mesh Solver
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Initial Mesh Overview
Ansoft TAU Mesh
New
Strict or Tolerant
Effective on imported geometries
Automatic healing and repair
Ansoft Classic Mesh
V11 Mesh Algorithm
Meshing Method
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Curvilinear Elements
Curvilinear Elements
New
Most accurate solution to fields on curved structures
Mesh adapted about curved or true surfaces
Element matrices computed using the curved boundaries
Reduces solution time and RAM usage
A smaller, coarser mesh achieves equivalent accuracy
Default: Disabled
Rectilinear mesh element Curvilinear mesh element
Red HFSS
Blue Analytic Curve
10 cm radius PEC sphere
solved from 0.040 - 2 GHz
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Dependent Solve Setup
Initial mesh options
Allows user to specify another simulation's mesh as starting mesh
Both simulations must be geometrically identical
Common uses
Changing material properties without re-meshing
Defining multiple solution frequencies for meshing
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Dependent Solve Example
Dual-band patch antenna
Use solution setups at 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz
Starting mesh uses final mesh from other resonant frequency
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
Freq [GHz]
-14.00
-12.00
-10.00
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
d
B
(
S
t
(
c
o
a
x
_
p
i n
_
T
1
,
c
o
a
x
_
p
i n
_
T
1
)
)
Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign2
XY Plot 1
m2
m1
Curve Info
dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
Name X Y
m1 2.4625 -8.6805
m2 5.5438 -12.2778
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GUI
Solver Mesh
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Solver Technology Overview
Solution Options
Direct
Default technique
Solves matrix equation Ax=b
Multi-frontal Sparse Matrix Solver to find the inverse of A
Solves for all excitations(b) simultaneously
Iterative
Added in V11
Reduces RAM and can improve simulation speed
Solves matrix equation MAx=Mb
M is a preconditioner For HFSS this is a lower order basis function solution
Major computation is the matrix-vector multiplication: (MA)x
Iterates for each excitation Simultaneously solve using SMP (MP/HPC License)
Iterative Solver is more sensitive to mesh quality
Benefits from TAU Meshing
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Example Basis Functions & Iterative Solver
Howmanypassesoncomputerw/8GBRAM?
Direct:3Passes
Iterative:11Passes
CopperWall
IncreasedCapacity(4x)
Iterative Direct
4xCapacityonSameMachine
2xUnknowns 2xMemory
Volume: 447cubic wavelengths
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Iterative Direct
Iterative Direct
3.2xLessRAM
6.4xFaster
IterativeandDirect
Convergein3Passes
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Solver Technology Overview
Order of Basis Functions
Hierarchical basis functions
Introduced in V11
Zero or First or Second order basis functions
Higher-order elements have increased accuracy
Convergence is a function of basis order
Mixed Order
New
hp-FEM Method
Refines element order(p) and element size(h)
Automatically distributes element order based on element size
Generates optimum combination of hierarchical basis functions
(Zero and First and Second)
Efficient use of computing resources
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Log Periodic over EBG Groundplane
High geometric detail with large homogeneous radiation volume
Compare mixed order vs. 1st order
28% reduction in solution time
29% reduction in memory
Mixed order converges faster
12 passes vs. 14 passes
Average order = 0.96
S11 @ 12 GHz
1st S11 = 0.86584
Mixed S11 = 0.86511
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Adjoint Derivatives
New
Capability for sensitivity, tuning, and optimization
Compute the derivatives of SYZ parameters with respect to project and design variables
Eliminates need to solve multiple variations with small differences and numerical noise
More efficient and more accurate
Provides real-time tuning of reports to explore effects of small design changes
Improves derivative-based optimization methods
Optimetrics license is required
Solve
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Introduction
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HPC
HighPerformanceComputing
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Ansoft HPC License - Overview
Domain Decomposition
Bigger
Faster
Multi-Processing (MP)
The MP option is used for solving models on a
single machine with multiple processors/cores
which share RAM.
Increases throughput by speeding up turn-
around time for individual simulations
Domain Decomposition (DDM)
A distributed memory parallel solver technique
that distributes mesh sub-domains to a network of
processors.
This method is a hybrid iterative and direct
solver technique that significantly increases
the simulation capacity by distributing the
RAM usage across multiple computers.
Enables the solution of higher fidelity and
larger models
HPC
License
Multi-Processing
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Domain Decomposition
Domain Decomposition Method
New
Distributed memory parallel technique
Distributes mesh sub-domains to network of processors
Significantly increases simulation capacity
64-bit meshing
Highly scalable to large numbers of processors
Automatic generation of domains by mesh partitioning
User friendly
Load balance
Hybrid iterative & direct solver
Multi-frontal direct solver for each sub-domain
Sub-domains exchange information iteratively
via Robins transmission conditions (RTC)
Requires an additional license
HFSS_HPC
Provides 8 DDM Nodes or SMP
HPC distributes mesh subdomains
to networked processors and memory
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Cellular Base Station Array
GSM base station tower with radome-enclosed antenna arrays
950 MHz
Electronic downtilt
Domain solver used to predict installed antenna patterns
34 domains
3.5 GB average RAM per domain
16M unknowns
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Multi-Processing (SMP)
Multi-Processing
Single workstation solution to increase the speed of the solver
Direct Matrix Solver
Takes advantage of multi-core and/or multi-processor computing resources
Iterative Solver
Parallelized matrix pre-conditioner
Parallelized excitations
Requires additional license
HFSS_MP or HFSS_HPC
Provides SMP
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 10 20 30
F
a
c
t
o
r
RAM [GB]
Solver - Time Factor
v12 - MP1
v12 - MP2
v12 - mp4
v12 - mp8
Typical direct solver SMP speed-up for 2, 4, & 8 Processors versus the size of the matrix solve
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Distributed Solve Option (DSO)
Distributed Solve
Distributed Solve is a productivity enhancement option that accelerates solution times for frequency sweeps and model
variations by leveraging modern computer resources
This option offers a near-linear speed up over conventional simulation sweeps by distributing and simultaneously
solving across a network of computers
Requires an additional license
Common license for HFSS, Designer/Nexxim, Q3D Extractor, and Maxwell
DSO distributes frequency or geometry
sweeps to networked processors
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DSO for Geometry Variations
Wire Radius
27x
Faster
Helical Antenna
DSO
Parametric sweep of helix wire radius
Ran on 8 Computers with 2-dual core CPUs each
32 Nodes
45 variations
27x speed up when running 32 parallel simulations using
DSO when compared with running each parameter variation
sequentially
HFSS 3D Rectangular plot
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Remote Simulation Manager
RSM
New
Manages communications between local and remote computers for HFSS simulations
Used by DSO, DDM, and Remote Solve to communicate with networked workstations
Improved installation setup for remote simulations
Supports mixed operating system environments
Supports LSF and Windows HPC
Local Remote Distributed
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Chapter 3
Boundary Conditions
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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Excitations and Boundary Conditions
Excitations and Boundary Conditions
Majority of HFSS errors are related to improper usage of excitations and boundary conditions
Boundary conditions are important because they significantly impact electromagnetic solution
They determine model scope
To truncate infinite space to finite volume, HFSS applies PEC boundary to surface surrounding geometric
model
They can reduce model complexity
Boundary conditions can be used to reduce solution time and computing resource demands
TE10 Cavity
Resonator
Pyramidal
Horn
Antenna
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User-Defined Boundary Conditions
Surface approximations
Perfect E surface
Perfect H surface
Finite conductivity surface
Impedance surface
Layered impedance
Lumped RLC boundary
Symmetry planes
Radiation (absorbing) boundary surface
Perfectly matched layer (PML)
Strictly not boundary condition, but effectively behaves like one
Master/slave (linked or periodic) boundaries
Screening impedance
Excitations
Wave ports (external)
Lumped ports (internal)
0 = V
= V
c
c
+ = V
c
c
= V
B
D
t
D
J H
t
B
E

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Perfect E and Perfect H Boundaries
Perfect E is perfect electrical conductor (PEC)
Forces E-field perpendicular to surface
Represents metal surfaces, ground planes, ideal cavity walls, etc.
Infinite ground plane option simulates effects of infinite ground plane in post-processing radiated fields
Perfect H is perfect magnetic conductor (PMC)
Forces H-field perpendicular to surface and E-field tangential
Does not exist in real world
Useful boundary constraint for electromagnetic models
Represents openings in metal surfaces, etc.
Parameters
None
Perfect E Boundary Perfect H Boundary
When you define a solid object as a
perf_conductor, a Perfect E boundary
condition is applied to its exterior surfaces.
E-field Parallel to surface
E-field Perpendicular to surface
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Four Surface Loss Modeling Methods
All methods utilize an equivalent surface impedance applied to the field as it travels
across the surface
Z
s,input
Z
s,Au
L
Au
Z
s,Ni
L
Ni
Z
s,Cu
L
Cu
Z
s,input
Z
s,Au
L
Au
Z
s,Ni
L
Ni
Z
s,Cu
L
Cu
oo
j
Z
s
+
=
1
eo
o
2
=
Z
s
specified as O/sq
0.7mil Copper
500 in Nickel 500 in Gold
0.7mil Copper
500 in Nickel 500 in Gold
Finite Conductivity
Impedance
Layered Impedance
Lumped RLC
Parallel RLC Circuit
t >> o
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Finite Conductivity Boundary
Lossy electrical conductor
Forces E-field perpendicular to surface
Surface impedance includes resistive and reactive surface losses
Used for non-ideal conductor analysis
Infinite ground plane option simulates effects of infinite ground plane in post-
processing radiated fields
Parameters
Conductivity (S/m)
Relative permeability (unitless)
When you define a solid object as a non-
ideal metal (e.g. copper or aluminum), and it
is set to Solve Surface, a finite conductivity
boundary is applied to its exterior faces.
eo
o
2
=
oo
j
Z
s
+
=
1
Surface Impedance Skin Depth Field Relationship
t >> o
Good conductor in
skin depth regime
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Impedance Boundary
User-defined surface impedance
Represents thin film resistors or reactive loads
Infinite ground plane option simulates effects of infinite surface in post-processing
radiated fields
Calculate required impedance from desired lumped value, width, and length
Length (in direction of current flow) width = number of squares
Impedance per square = desired lumped impedance number of squares
Parameters:
Resistance (O/square)
Reactance (O/square)
Example: Resistor in Wilkinson Power Divider
Resistor is 3.5 mils long (in direction of flow) and
4 mils wide. Desired lumped value is 35 O.
square
N
R
R
N
lumped
sheet
/ 40
875 . 0
35
875 . 0
4
5 . 3
O = = =
= =
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Layered Impedance Boundary
Models multiple thin layers in a structure as single impedance surface
Effect is same as impedance boundary, except that HFSS calculates surface impedance based on data entered for
layered structure
Surface roughness can be included
Plating layers can be modeled by using an equivalent surface impedance
Not available for fast frequency sweeps
Parameters
Layer thicknesses
Material properties
Surface roughness (optional)
0.7mil Copper
500 in Nickel 500 in Gold
Z
s,input
Z
s,Au
L
Au
Z
s,Ni
L
Ni
Z
s,Cu
L
Cu
Impedance of the layered structure is calculated by
recursively calling the impedance calculation
formulation from transmission line theory
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Lumped RLC Boundary
Represents any combination of parallel-connected lumped RLC elements on surfaces
in terms of circuit definition
Supply values for R, L, and C
HFSS determines impedance per square of lumped RLC boundary at any frequency
Fast frequency sweeps are supported
Parameters
Resistance
Inductance
Capacitance
Line for current flow
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Symmetry Plane
Allows for modeling portion of entire structure
For Driven Modal solutions
Two symmetry options are available
Use perfect E when electric field is perpendicular to symmetry plane
Use perfect H when electric field is tangential to symmetry plane
Involve further implications to boundary manager and fields post-processing
May need to specify impedance multiplier
Existence of symmetry boundary allows for near- and far-field calculation of entire structure
Parameters
Type
Impedance multiplier
Conductive edges
on all four sides
Waveguide contains symmetric propagating
mode which could be modeled using half the
volume vertically or horizontally.
Perfect E Symmetry
(bottom)
Perfect H Symmetry
(left side)
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Symmetry Plane Impedance Multiplier
When symmetry is used, Zpi and impedance line-dependent Zpv and Zvi calculations
will be incorrect since entire port aperture is not represented
Impedance is halved for model with Perfect E symmetry plane
Impedance is doubled for model with Perfect H symmetry plane
Port impedance multiplier is renormalizing factor used to obtain correct impedance
Value applied to all ports
Global parameter set during assignment of any port
Rectangular WG
(No Symmetry)
Half Rectangular WG
(Perfect E Symmetry)
Impedance Multiplier = 2
Half Rectangular WG
(Perfect H Symmetry)
Impedance Multiplier = 0.5
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Perfect E Symmetry (top)
Perfect H Symmetry
(right side)
TE20 mode in full model
Properly represented
with Perfect E symmetry
Mode cannot occur
with Perfect H
symmetry
Symmetry Plane Mode Implications
Geometric symmetry does not necessarily imply field symmetry for higher-order
modes
Symmetry boundaries can act as mode filters
Next higher propagating waveguide mode is not symmetric about vertical center plane of waveguide
Therefore one symmetry case is valid while the other is not
Use caution when using symmetry planes to assure that real behavior is not filtered
out by boundary conditions
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Radiation Boundary
Mimics continued propagation beyond boundary plane
Absorption achieved via 2nd order radiation boundary
Place at least /4 from strongly radiating structure
Place at least /10 from weakly radiating structure
Absorbs best when incident energy flow is normal to surface
Must be concave to all incident fields from within modeled space
Parameters
Advanced options used for incident wave and HFSS DataLink problems
Boundary is /4 away from
horn aperture in all directions
Radiation boundary functions
well for incident angles less
than 25-30
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Impact of Distance to ABC
Example probe-fed circular patch
Varied distance between absorbing boundary condition (ABC)
and antenna
/20, /10, /8, /4, /2, 3 /4,
Examined impact on return loss and gain
/4 and cases /4 and cases
within 13 MHz
of each other
(0.1%)
0.2 dB 0.2 dB
variation
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Perfectly Matched Layer (PML)
Fictitious lossy anisotropic material which fully absorbs electromagnetic fields
Two types of PML applications
PML objects accept free radiation if PML terminates free space
PML objects continue guided waves if PML terminates transmission line
Guidelines for assigning PML boundaries
Use PML setup wizard for most cases
Manually create a PML when base object is curved or inhomogeneous
Parameters
Uniform thickness
Minimum frequency
Minimum radiating distance (between PML and antenna)
PML functions well for
incident angles less
than 65-70
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Impact of Distance to PML
Example probe-fed circular patch
Varied distance between PML and antenna
/20, /10, /8, /4, /2, 3 /4
Examined impact on return loss and gain
/8 and 3/4 /8 and 3/4
cases within 28
MHz of each
other (0.3%)
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Radiation Boundary vs PML
Radiation Boundary PML
Type 2D 3D
(occupies volume)
Incident angle from normal < ~30 < ~70
Distance from radiator > /4 > /10
Setup complexity Low Medium
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Master/Slave Boundaries
Used to model unit cell of periodic structure
Also referred to as linked or periodic boundaries
Master and slave boundaries are always paired
Fields on master surface are mapped to slave surface with a phase shift
Phase shift specified either as absolute phase value or using scan angle
Constraints
Master and slave surfaces must be identical in shape and size
Coordinate systems must be created to identify point-to-point
correspondence
Parameters
Master/slave pairing
UV coordinate systems
Phase shift method
Unit Cell Model of Waveguide Array
WG Port
(bottom)
Ground Plane
Master
Boundary
Slave
Boundary
V-
axis
U-axis
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Screening Impedance Boundary
Used to efficiently represent periodic screens or grids with impedance boundary
condition
Can be anisotropic (different values in x and y directions)
Can be frequency-dependent
Periodic grid characterized by unit cell
Dynamic link support to import impedance values from unit cell
Includes effects of polarization
Parameters
Resistance and reactance (O/square)
Coordinate system if anisotropic
HFSS design for dynamic link
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Default Outer Boundary
Any exterior face of modeled geometry not given user-defined boundary condition is
assumed to be Perfect E boundary
Default boundary called outer
Imagine entire model buried in solid metal unless HFSS is instructed otherwise
Use HFSS > Boundary Display to view all boundary assignments
Graphical window shows both user and auto-assigned boundaries
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Trace Thickness Effects on Planar Antenna
Conducting traces often modeled as 2D objects for electromagnetic simulations
More computationally efficient since fewer meshing surfaces required
Good approximation for many structures operating in skin depth regime
Patch antenna modeled
with 2D sheet
Patch antenna modeled
with 3D object
Frequency response of both
models
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Trace Thickness Effects on Planar Filter
Planar filters which use edge coupling to operate require 3D objects (finite thickness)
for modeling conducting traces
Applications whose performance depends upon closely-coupled traces
End-coupled, parallel-coupled, hairpin filters, etc.
Edge-coupled filter modeled with 2D
sheets
Edge-coupled filter modeled with 3D
objects
Frequency response of both
models
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Excitations
Provide means for energy to enter and exit model
Types of excitations
Ports
Wave ports
Lumped ports
Floquet ports
Voltage sources
Current sources
Magnetic biases
Incident waves
Plane waves
Hertzian dipole
Cylindrical wave
Gaussian beam
Linear antenna wave
Far-field wave
Near-field wave
Only ports provide S-parameters
This presentation will focus on this type of excitation
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Driven Modal vs Driven Terminal Solutions
Driven modal
S-matrix solution expressed in terms of incident and reflected powers of waveguide modes
Always used by wave solver
Integration lines set phase between ports and modal voltage integration path (Zpv and Zvi)
Use for modal-based S-parameters of passive, high-frequency structures such as microstrips, waveguides, and
transmission lines
Driven terminal
S-matrix solution expressed in terms of linear combination of nodal voltages and currents for wave port
Equivalent modes-to-nodes transformation performed from modal solution
Use for terminal-based S-parameters of multi-conductor transmission line ports (with several quasi-TEM modes, etc.)
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Excitations
Example Solution Types:
T1
T2
IntegrationLine
Mode1
(EvenMode)
IntegrationLine
Mode2
(OddMode)
ModestoNodes
Transformation
SPICE
DifferentialPairs
Modal
Port1 Port2
Terminal
Port1 Port2
T1
T2
T1
T2
2Modes 2Modes
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Ports
Ports are unique type of boundary condition
Allow energy to flow into and out of structure
Defined on 2D planar surface
2D field patterns serve as boundary conditions for full 3D problem
Incorrect port setup will produce incorrect results
If port fields are incorrect, then solution will be incorrect
Assumed boundary condition on port edges should always be considered
Initial
Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full
Volumetric
Solution
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Wave Ports
External port type
Arbitrary port solver calculates natural waveguide field patterns (modes)
Assumes semi-infinitely long waveguide with same cross-section and material properties as port surface
Recommended only for surfaces exposed to background object
Supports multiple modes, de-embedding, and re-normalization
Computes generalized S-parameters
Frequency-dependent characteristic impedance
Perfectly matched at every frequency
Port1
Port2
Port3
Port4
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Port Solver
Wave port solver solves two-dimensional wave equation
Field pattern of traveling wave inside waveguide can be determined by solving
Maxwells equations
Wave equation is derived directly from Maxwells equations
where
E(x,y) is phasor representing oscillating electric field
k0 is free space wave number
r is complex relative permeability
cr is complex relative permittivity
2D solver obtains excitation field pattern in form of phasor solution E(x,y)
Phasor solutions are independent of z and time
Only after being multiplied by e
-z
do they become traveling waves
Different excitation field pattern is computed for each frequency point of interest
( ) 0 ) , ( ,
1
2
0
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
V V y x E k y x E
r
r
c

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Wave Port Boundary Conditions
All outer edges are assigned Perfect E boundary by default
Port is defined within waveguide
Simple setup for enclosed transmission lines (coax, waveguide, etc.)
Challenging setup for unbalanced or non-enclosed lines (microstrip, CPW, slotline, etc.)
Symmetry or impedance boundaries also recognized at port edges
For port on same surface as radiation boundary, default interface is Perfect E
boundary
Can set option to use radiation boundary on port edges during port solution
Creating port edges too close to current-carrying lines will allow coupling from trace to
port walls
Causes incorrect modal solution which will suffer immediate discontinuity as energy is injected past port into model
Port too narrow
(fields coupled to sidewalls)
Correct port size
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Wave Port Sizing Guidelines
Microstrip port height between 6h and
10h
Tend towards upper limit as dielectric
constant drops and fringing fields increase
Make bottom edge of port co-planar with
upper face of ground plane
Microstrip port width
10w for w > h
5w, or on order of 3h to 4h, for w < h
Extend stripline port height from upper
to lower groundplane (h)
Stripline port width
8w for w > h
5w, or on order of 3h to 4h, for w < h
Can also make side walls of port Perfect
H boundaries
w
h
6h to
10h
10w, w > h
or
5w (3h to 4h), w < h
Port sizing guidelines are not inviolable rules. If meeting height
and width requirements result in rectangular aperture larger than
/2 in one dimension, the substrate and trace may be ignored in
favor of a waveguide mode. When in doubt, run a ports-only
solution to determine which modes are propagating.
w
h
8w, w > h
or
5w (3h to 4h), w < h
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Wave Port Sizing Guidelines
Slotline port height at least 4h or 4g
(whichever is larger)
Include air above and below substrate
If ground plane is present, port should
terminate at ground plane
Port width should contain at least 3g to
either side of slot or 7g total minimum
Port boundary must intersect both side
ground planes or they will float and become
signal conductors
Coplanar waveguide port height at least
4h or 4g (whichever is larger)
Include air above and below substrate
If ground plane is present, port should
terminate at ground plane
Port width should contain 3-5g or 3-5s of
side grounds (whichever is larger)
Total width ~10g or ~10s
Port outline must intersect both side grounds
or they will float and become signal
conductors
g
Approx 7g minimum
h
Larger of 4h or 4g
For Driven Modal solutions, use
Z
pv
for impedance calculation
Larger of approx. 10g or 10s
s
h
Larger of 4h or 4g
g
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Uniformcross-section
addedforeachwaveport
Wave Port Implications
Modes, reflections, and propagation
It is possible for 3D field solution generated by excitation signal of one specific mode to contain reflections of higher-
order modes which arise due to discontinuities
If higher-order mode is reflected back to excitation port or transmitted onto another port, its S-parameters should be
calculated
If higher-order mode decays before reaching any port (because of attenuation or because it is a non-propagating
evanescent mode), there is no need to obtain its S-parameters
Wave ports require a length of uniform cross-section
HFSS assumes that each port is connected to semi-infinitely long waveguide with same cross-section as wave port
Nouniformcrosssection
atwaveports
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Internal Wave Ports
Wave ports can be placed internal to model by providing boundary condition normally
seen by external wave port
Create PEC cap to back the wave port and enable excitation in proper direction
Example coax feed within solution volume
Coaxial antenna feed
with coaxial wave port
capped by PEC object
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Integration Lines
Applicable to driven modal solution types
Port vector which can serve several purposes
Calibration line which specifies direction of excitation electric field pattern at port
Define separate integration line for each mode on multi-mode ports
Impedance line along which to compute Zpv or Zvi port impedance
Select two points with maximum voltage differential
Microstrip line
Waveguide
Slotline
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Lumped Ports
Recommended only for surfaces internal to model
Single TEM mode with no de-embedding
Uniform electric field on port surface
Normalized to constant user-defined Z0
Lumped port boundary conditions
Perfect E or finite conductivity boundary for port edges which interface
with conductor or another port edge
Perfect H for all remaining port edges
Uniform electric field
User-defined Z
o
Z
o
Dipole element
with lumped port
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Lumped vs Wave Ports for Planar Filters
Lumped ports can be used to feed
printed transmission lines
S-parameters normalized to user-
specified characteristic impedance
Single mode propagation
No de-embedding operations available
Must be located inside model
Wave ports can be used to feed printed
transmission lines
S-parameters normalized to computed
characteristic impedance
Multiple propagating modes possible
De-embedding available as post-
processing operation
Must touch background object (or be
backed by conducting object)
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Lumped vs Wave Ports for Planar Filters
Same results obtained from both port types
Lumped Ports
Wave Ports
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Wave Ports vs Lumped Ports
Wave port Lumped port
Accessibility
External Faces
Internal to Model
Higher order modes
Yes
No
De-embedding
Yes
No
Re-normalization
Yes
Yes
Setup complexity
Moderate
Low
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Chapter 4
Mesh Operations
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Mesh Seeding Why? and How?
Mesh seeding is a general term
related to the manual manipulation
of the tetrahedral mesh.
The Adaptive solution process in
HFSS is very robust, and will
converge to the correct solution
given enough passes and memory.
Mesh seeding uses a priori knowledge
of the fields to provide the adaptive solution
process a head-start.
It can also be used to relax the mesh where the user knows it has little impact on the
results.
Mesh operations should be used sparingly as they can are usually un-necessarily
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Mesh Seeding - Methods
Length Based Restriction on Selection
Restrict maximum length and/or number of tets on surface of objects
Length Based Restriction in Selection
Restrict maximum length and/or number of tets in volume of objects
Model Resolution
Restrict minimum length of tets on or inside objects
Max. Surface Deviation / Max. Surface Normal Deviation
Define facet angle for true surface objects
Max. Aspect Ratio
Define tet Aspect Ratio for any objects
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Mesh Seeding Methods 1 & 2
Restrict maximum length or number of tets on a surface or inside an objects volume
For areas of known high field gradient, add extra tets to improve convergence
HFSS / Mesh Operations / Assign / On Selection / Length Based
HFSS / Mesh Operations / Assign / In Selection / Length Based
Uses:
Reduce the number of adaptive passes
Help adaptive process find high Q resonances
Fewer passes needed from Seeded Mesh Fewer passes needed from Seeded Mesh
then from Initial Mesh
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Mesh Seeding Method 3
For imported geometries with electrically insignificant detail
HFSS / Mesh Operations / Assign / Model Resolution
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Mesh Seeding Method 4
Defines true surface discretization by controlling how tightly the mesh conforms to a
curved geometry
HFSS / Mesh Operations / Assign / Surface Approximation
Methods:
Surface Deviation specifying maximum distance allowed between curved surface and faceted surface.
Normal Deviation specify the angular separation between facets.
Uses:
Reduce mesh density for low current ground vias.
Improve meshs conformity to cylindrical or spherical resonant cavities
Initial Mesh
(22.5 deg facets)
Surface Approximation applied
(45 deg facets)
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Mesh Seeding Method 5
Set Aspect Ratio for all tetrahedra within a selected volume
HFSS / Mesh Operations / Assign / Surface Approximation Maximum Aspect Ratio
Mesh quality is directly related to the tetrahedras aspect ratio
E-field calculations in HFSS have reduced accuracy when there are long & skinny tetrahedra (high aspect ratio >10)
Allows the user to increase the mesh density without determining a specific length
Uses:
Improving mesh quality around dipoles
A substitute for length based refinement or virtual objects
Not needed as much with improved mesh quality mesh in HFSSv11
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Seeding vs. Virtual Objects
Virtual objects have been used in HFSS to control the aspect ratio of tetrahedra in
electrically significant regions.
The object does not create an electrical boundary condition, but does affect the mesh since the mesh must conform its
its faces.
Uses:
Dipole
Now, the Aspect Ratio seed (Method 5) is much easier to use
Dipole element
Virtual air object with radius
between dipole and
radiating boundary box
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Chapter 4.1
Solution Process and
Advanced Settings
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RefineMesh
(SingleFrequency)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
CheckConvergence
(DeltaS)
No
HFSS Solution Process
Mesh
Generation
Frequency
Sweep
Solution
Setup
Parametric
Model
Generation
Design
HFSS/HFSS-IE
SolutionType
DrivenModel
DrivenTerminal
Eigenmode
Analysis
MeshSeeding
SolutionSetup:
FrequencySweep
ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
Boundaries
Excitations
FrequencySweep
Discrete
Interpolating
Fast
InitialMesh
Seedingand
LambdaRefinement
(SingleFrequency)
PortSolution
(Adaptive)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
AdaptiveMeshLoop
Yes
InitialSolution
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InitialSolution
FrequencySweep
YES AdaptiveMeshLoop
NoAdaptiveMeshing
PortsOnly&
FrequencySweep
InitialMesh
Seedingand
LambdaRefinement
(SingleFrequency)
PortSolution
(Adaptive)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
RefineMesh
(GradientofE-Field
atSingleFrequency)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
CheckConvergence
(DeltaS)
No
HFSS Solution Process
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Patch Antenna
Substrate
Coaxial Wave Port
Probe
Air
Probe-Fed Patch Antenna Example
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Initial mesh captures geometrical details of the model
Every vertex in the model is represented in the mesh
The tetrahedral mesh is conformal to complex, non-rectilinear geometries
Initial Mesh
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
Mesh Plotted on Top
Dielectric Surface Only
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Seeding is a useful advanced capability inside HFSS which allows the user to
influence the mesh
Can be used for several different reasons
Reducing number of adaptive passes needed to solve project (time savings)
Reducing amount of RAM needed to solve project (memory savings)
Getting more accurate answers (accuracy/time savings)
Addressing meshing issues that arise
Lambda refinement ensures that first adaptive mesh is no larger than preset value
(0.3333*lambda)
Seeding and Lambda Refinement
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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Performs 2D FEM Eigenmode solution of port
Adaptive process used to properly determine excitation characteristic impedance and
propagation constant
Mesh on the port lines up with the mesh in the 3D volume
Port Solution
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
Initial Mesh on
Coax Port
Refined Mesh on
Coax Port
Center Conductor
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The fields throughout the entire 3D volume are
solved and the S-parameters are calculated.
1st Adaptive Pass
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
Adaptive Frequency
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2nd Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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3rd Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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6th Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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8th Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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9th Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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10th Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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10th Adaptive Pass
Adaptive Frequency
Frequency Sweep
YES
Adaptive Mesh Loop
Initial Mesh
Seeding and
Lambda Refinement
(Single Frequency)
Port Solution
(Adaptive)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Refine Mesh
(Gradient of E-Field
at Single Frequency)
Full Volumetric Solution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
Check Convergence
(Delta S)
No
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Analysis Setup
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RefineMesh
(SingleFrequency)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
CheckConvergence
(DeltaS)
No
HFSS Solution Process
Mesh
Generation
Frequency
Sweep
Solution
Setup
Parametric
Model
Generation
Design
HFSS/HFSS-IE
SolutionType
DrivenModel
DrivenTerminal
Eigenmode
Analysis
MeshSeeding
SolutionSetup:
FrequencySweep
ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
Boundaries
Excitations
FrequencySweep
Discrete
Interpolating
Fast
InitialMesh
Seedingand
LambdaRefinement
(SingleFrequency)
PortSolution
(Adaptive)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
AdaptiveMeshLoop
Yes
InitialSolution
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The solution setup controls HFSSs solution process.
Set the Solution Frequency
Control the initial mesh
Set the convergence criteria
Control how the mesh is modified between passes
Control the ports solution and convergence criteria
Select the basis function used to describe the fields
Choose the matrix solver
Determine if Adjoint Derivatives will be calculated
Analysis Setup
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Solution Frequency
The Solution Frequency sets:
The frequency used to create the adaptive mesh.
Defines the spatial resolution of the mesh through the
Lambda Refinement step
Lambda Refinement is wavelength dependant.
Determines the frequency used to evaluate the
meshs convergence.
A higher frequency mesh is generally valid at
lower frequencies.
A mesh created at a higher frequency will be
denser than a mesh at lower a frequency because
the wavelength is smaller.
The denser mesh is likely to pickup the field
variations associated with lower frequencies
behaviors.
A low frequency mesh is generally NOT valid
at higher frequencies.
A mesh created at a lower frequency will be
coarser than a mesh created at a higher frequency
because the wavelength is longer.
The coarser mesh is less likely to pickup field
variations associated with the higher frequencies.
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The Starting Mesh
Lambda Refinement
Controlled at the top of the Options Tab
Lambda Refinement controls the minimal mesh
density throughout the model.
The default value is established to provide a good
starting density for the adaptive process.
Defined in terms of wavelength (at the solution
frequency) in the bulk material
Accounts for the material properties
Its applied before any seeding operations or port
solutions.
Initial Mesh Options
Controlled at the top of the Advanced Tab
Allows the use of another simulations mesh as an
initial mesh for this simulation.
Both Simulations must be geometrically identical
Common Uses include
Changing material properties without re-meshing
Defining multiple solution frequencies for
consideration in the Adaptive Meshing Process
Performing Parametric Sweeps on geometrically
identical models
Use the Setup Link to point to the desired mesh
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Using Dependent Setups: Dual-band Patch Antenna Example
Challenge:
Antennahastworesonantfrequencies
Designgoal:
Radiateat2.5GHzand5.0GHz,
returnlossof-10dB.
Solution(DependentSolve):
Createameshthatisadaptived atboth
2.5GHzand5.0Ghzandaddasweepto
capturecompletefrequencyrange
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UnderanalysisrightclickonSetup1andselectAddDependentSolveSetup
Add Dependent Solve
Allsettingsfromparent
(Setup1)arecopiedto
child(Setup1_1)
Thedependentsetup
usesthemeshfrom
theparentsetup
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Modify the Dependent Solve Setup
HFSSwillcreateaconverged
meshforSetup1usingits
convergencecriteriaandsettings
OnceSetup1iscomplete,Setup1_1will
buildoffofSetup1smeshandcreatea
convergedmeshusingitsown
convergencecriteriaandsettings
Theresultisasinglemeshthataccuratelypredictsthe
antennasperformanceatbothfrequencies
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Adaptive Meshs Convergence Results
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Results
Solutionsagreewellatthelower
frequencywherebothwere
adaptivelymeshed
Slightdiscrepancyatthe
higherfrequencywhere
onlySetup1_1was
adaptivelymeshed
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Convergence Criteria
Adaptive mesh loop has two exit criteria:
Maximum Number of Passes (Time)
Controls how many passes the user is willing to wait
10 is a reasonable initial value
Convergence Per Pass (Accuracy)
Indicates the solutions sensitivity to mesh variations
Relates to the accuracy of the solution
Maximum Solution Variation Per Pass
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Converging on Maximum Delta S
Summarizes the S-Parameters sensitivity
A single number for the entire S-Matrix
Accounts for magnitude and phase variation for
all S-parameters simultaneously.
Reports the worst case violation
Default value of 0.02 is reasonable for most
cases
DONT over-specify
Setting the Maximum Delta S too small wastes
computer resources and time.
DONT under-specify
Setting the Maximum Delta S Too large
jeopardizes accuracy.
| | | |
1
= A
N N
S S Max S Max
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Always set the deltaS with your error tolerance in mind.
Consider the worst case scenarios when setting the Maximum Delta S
A worst case magnitude error can be determined by assuming the S-parameter
magnitude is the only source of error (phase is perfectly accurate) .
Most likely actual solution is much closer since the error will be split between the
magnitude & phase
Setting The Maximum Delta S Criteria
| | | |
1
= A
N N
S S Max S Max
Expected Range
for |S| = 0.98 &
Max(|AS|) = 0.005
0.005
* plots assume asymptotic convergence
Linear Units
dB Units
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Converging on Matrix Convergence
Converging on Matrix Convergence
Provides more control over the S-parameter matrix
convergence.
Specify the acceptable magnitude and
phase difference between meshes for each
individual S-Parameter.
3 Ways To Specify the Convergence:
All Defines the allowable magnitude and phase
difference between meshes.
Diagonal/Off-Diagonal groups return losses
and transmission losses separately
Selected Entries specifies an individual
convergence criteria for each S-parameter.
(

A A
A A
s
(

= A

22 21
12 11
1
22 21
12 11
22 21
12 11
S S
S S
S S
S S
S S
S S
S
N N
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Expression Cache Convergence
Controlled on the Expression Cache Tab
Allows the solution to convergence to a specific quantity
Expressions can be derived from any network
parameter or field quantity.
The expressions must be a single, scalar
value so HFSS can easily assess it variation
as a function of adaptive pass.
Convergence is determined by either a
percent change or an absolute change
between meshes.
HFSS continues solving
adaptive passes until both:
the S-parameters converge and
the Output Variables converge.
Variables Defined from Field Quantities must have a context setup
Additional expressions can be defined, but not included in the
convergence evaluation.
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Other Meshing Options
Maximum refinement per pass
Controls the maximum number of tetrahedra
added between adaptive passes
Higher percentages will allow HFSS to:
Converge in fewer number of passes
Usually with better quality mesh
Minimum Number of Passes helps avoid
premature convergences
Minimum Converged Passes force a
couple of consecutive passes be met
before declaring a solution converged
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Port Options
2D eigenmode solution determines port fields.
Ports Adaptive Solution
Ensures accurate model excitation
Ports convergence is based on Delta Z
o
If a more accurate Z
o
is required reduce the Max
Delta Z
o
percentage
Use Radiation Boundary on Ports overrides
the default Wave Port boundary condition to
377Ohms.
Set Triangles for Wave Port restricts the
number of triangles in the port to fall between
the Minimum and Maximum values.
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Basis Functions
HFSS solves the electric field and stores
basis functions associated with each
tetrahedra.
Basis functions are n-order polynomials that
describe how the electric field varies along a
tetrahedras edge, face or volume.
The higher the basis function order
the more unknowns HFSS solves for a given
tetrahedra.
the more complex field variation a single
tetrahedra can describe.
Higher order basis functions require less
tetrahedra to accurately describe the fields.
If the mesh density is reduced enough a
problem will require less memory to solve.
v0
v1 v3
v2
v0
v1 v3
v2
v0
v1 v3
v2
v0
v1 v3
v2
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Solver - Higher Order Basis Mesh
1
st
Order 2
nd
Order
Homogenous Materials Require Less Dense Meshes
with Higher Order Basis Functions
Homogenous Materials Require Less Dense Meshes
with Higher Order Basis Functions
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The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
The model is first discretized into cells (1, 2, 5).
Each cell is sampled to create and a polynomial basis function which describes the
function along the entire line.
1D FEM Example
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1D FEM Example
The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
The basis functions try to describe the fields in between the sampled points.
A key feature of the FEM, as it is implemented in HFSS, is the ability to locally
determine the error. Recall that F(x) is not known, but the ERROR can be determined
1
1
D. K. Sun, Z. Cendes, J.-Fa Lee, Adaptive Mesh Refinement, h-Version, for Solving Multiport
Microwave Devices in Three Dimensions, IEEE Trans Magnetics, pp 1596-1599, Vol. 36, N.4, July 2000
Error
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The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
One method of decreasing the error is to make the mesh denser in areas of high error.
Note the FEM with tetrahedral elements allows for local control of the mesh density so
a uniform mesh is not required.
1D FEM Example
Cell 1 Is Divided to
Reduce the Error
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The finite element method (FEM) can be used to approximate the unknown curve F(x).
Another method of decreasing the error is to increase the order of the polynomial
basis functions that describe how the fields vary in a tetrahedra
However, the increased order requires more unknowns to solve
Higher order basis functions can reduce RAM requirements if it can sufficiently
coarsen the mesh
1D FEM Example
Second Order Basis Functions:
Requires 4 Solution Points
Per Cell
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Solver Technology Overview
Order of Basis Functions
Hierarchical basis functions
Introduced in V11
Zero or First or Second order basis functions
Higher-order elements have increased accuracy
Convergence is a function of basis order
Mixed Order
New
hp-FEM Method
Refines element order(p) and element size(h)
Automatically distributes element order based on element size
Generates optimum combination of hierarchical basis functions
(Zero and First and Second)
Efficient use of computing resources
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Log Periodic over EBG Groundplane
High geometric detail with large homogeneous radiation volume
Compare mixed order vs. 1st order
28% reduction in solution time
29% reduction in memory
Mixed order converges faster
12 passes vs. 14 passes
Average order = 0.96
S11 @ 12 GHz
1st S11 = 0.86584
Mixed S11 = 0.86511
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Choosing the Solver
Each time HFSS solves the Volumetric Field Solution it must solve a matrix of
unknowns.
The solution describes the field behavior for that particular mesh
This is done for each adaptive pass and directly solved frequency point.
HFSS offers 3 Solvers Options to apply to this matrix equation:
1. Direct Solver (Default)
Traditional solver used in HFSS
Very stable
Can be memory and time intensive for large matrices
2. Iterative Solver
Added in HFSSv11
More memory efficient than the Direct Solver
Can be more time efficient than the Direct Solver
3. Domain Decomposition
Added in HFSSv12
Allows the field solution from a single mesh to take advantage of distributed RAM across a network
Requires an additional license feature
b Ax =
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Choosing a Solver: Direct Solver
The Direct Solver obtains an exact solution to the matrix equation
Common Direct Matrix Solver Methods:
Gaussian Elimination
LU Decomposition
Best uses for the Direct Solver
Moderately sized matrices
Large number of excitations
Solving for x:
b Ax =
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
44
34 33
24 23 22
14 13 12 11
0 0 0
0 0
0
b
b
b
b
x
x
x
x
a
a a
a a a
a a a a
44
4
4
a
b
x =
33
4 34 3
3
a
x a b
x

=
11
4 14 3 13 2 12 1
1
a
x a x a x a b
x

=
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Choosing a Solver: Iterative Solver
Howdoesitwork?
TheIterativeMatrixSolverworksbyguessing a
solutiontothematrixofunknowns,andthen
recursivelyupdatingtheguess untilanerror
tolerancehasbeenreached
Whatistheadvantage?
ReducedRAMandSimulationTime
WheredoyoucontroltheIterativeSolver?
OptionsTabfromSolutionSetupdialog
The acceptable relative residual is
controlled through text entry field
Reducing the value will reduce the error associated with
the Matrix Solution process
Best uses for the Iterative Solver
Large Matrices (>30,000 Tets)
Moderate Port Count (2 Ports Per Processor)
For 1
st
, 2
nd
and Mixed Order Basis Functions only
Initial guess
Preconditioner
Update solution and
search direction
Converges ?
yes
no
MPCG
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Example: Iterative Solver
Howmanypassesoncomputerw/8GBRAM?
Direct:3Passes
Iterative:11Passes
CopperWall
IncreasedCapacity(4x)
Iterative Direct
4xCapacityonSameMachine
2xUnknowns 2xMemory
Volume: 447cubic wavelengths
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Iterative Direct
Iterative Direct
3.2xLessRAM
6.4xFaster
IterativeandDirect
Convergein3Passes
Example: Iterative Solver
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Choosing a Solver: Domain Decomposition
Domain Decomposition Method
New
Distributed memory parallel technique
Distributes mesh sub-domains to network of processors
Significantly increases simulation capacity
64-bit meshing
Highly scalable to large numbers of processors
Automatic generation of domains by mesh partitioning
User friendly
Load balance
Hybrid iterative & direct solver
Multi-frontal direct solver for each sub-domain
Sub-domains exchange information iteratively
via Robins transmission conditions (RTC)
Requires an additional license
HFSS_HPC
Provides 8 DDM Nodes or SMP
HPC distributes mesh subdomains
to networked processors and memory
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Cellular Base Station Array
GSM base station tower with radome-enclosed antenna arrays
950 MHz
Electronic downtilt
Domain solver used to predict installed antenna patterns
34 domains
3.5 GB average RAM per domain
16M unknowns
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Multi-Processing (SMP)
Multi-Processing
Single workstation solution to increase the speed of the solver
Direct Matrix Solver
Takes advantage of multi-core and/or multi-processor computing resources
Iterative Solver
Parallelized matrix pre-conditioner
Parallelized excitations
Requires additional license
HFSS_MP or HFSS_HPC
Provides SMP
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 10 20 30
F
a
c
t
o
r
RAM [GB]
Solver - Time Factor
v12 - MP1
v12 - MP2
v12 - mp4
v12 - mp8
Typical direct solver SMP speed-up for 2, 4, & 8 Processors versus the size of the matrix solve
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Frequency Sweep
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RefineMesh
(SingleFrequency)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
CheckConvergence
(DeltaS)
No
HFSS Solution Process
Mesh
Generation
Frequency
Sweep
Solution
Setup
Parametric
Model
Generation
Design
HFSS/HFSS-IE
SolutionType
DrivenModel
DrivenTerminal
Eigenmode
Analysis
MeshSeeding
SolutionSetup:
FrequencySweep
ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
Boundaries
Excitations
FrequencySweep
Discrete
Interpolating
Fast
InitialMesh
Seedingand
LambdaRefinement
(SingleFrequency)
PortSolution
(Adaptive)
FullVolumetricSolution
(S-Parameters/E-Fields)
AdaptiveMeshLoop
Yes
InitialSolution
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Frequency Sweep Options
Once the adaptive process converges frequency sweep analyses are
performed using the Last Adaptive mesh.
An adaptive mesh is not created for each frequency point in the sweep.
HFSS offers 3 Types of frequency sweeps
Discrete
Solves adapted mesh at user specified frequencies.
Can save fields for post-processing if desired
If one solution take N minutes, then M discrete points
takes M x N minutes
Set Adaptive Frequency near high end of band
Fast
Creates a rational polynomial function for Electric field
at the adaptive frequency, and then plugs in the frequency
range to extrapolate field over specified range
Usually only valid over less than a decade range in frequencies
Dont use near DC
Set Adaptive Frequency near mid band
Interpolating
Solves adapted mesh at start, stop and midpoint of frequency range, and then uses this to create
a curve-fit for all complex S-parameters.
Then iteratively add solutions to improve curve fit.
Useful for very broadband S-parameters
Only for S-parameters / Fields are NOT saved over frequency range
Can extrapolate S-parameters to DC value
Set Adaptive Frequency near high end of band
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Frequency Sweep Guidelines
*
Number of points are based on a reasonable computation time

Bandwidth assumes the physics of the problem does not fundamentally change from the Adaptive Frequency
Sweep Type Speed
# of
Freq.
Points
*
Bandwidth
Limit

Saved Fields Memory


Discrete
Slow for a large
number of points
10s None All Frequencies
Same as
Last
Adaptive
Fast
Fast for a
large sweeps
Can be slower
for small
sweeps
<10,000 Octave All Frequencies
More than
Last
Adaptive
Interpolating Fast <10,000 None
Only
Last Adaptive
Same as
Last
Adaptive
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Chapter 5 - Phased Array
Element Analysis Using
Floquet Ports
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Array Overview
Phased Array
A group of antenna elements in which the relative amplitudes and phases are varied to construct an effective radiation
pattern by constructive and destructive interference
Beam shape can be controlled by
adjusting the amplitude of each element
Beam can be steered by applying a
progressing phase shift across the array.
Mutual coupling plays a key role in an
elements pattern and input impedance.
It is necessary to analyze the arrays
performance over frequency and scan
volume.
Amplitude
Phase


=
n
n
n
r jk
j
o o n o o array
E
r
e
e A E
n o
o o n
) , ( ) , ( ) , , , (
) , (
| u | u | u | u
| u

=
n
n m
j
o o m
j
o o n
o o m
S
e A
e A
S
o o m
o o n
,
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
| u
| u
| u
| u
| u
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Unit Cell Simplification
Unit Cell Analysis simplifies large arrays by assuming:
The array is infinite
The pattern of each element is identical
The array is uniformly excited in amplitude, but not necessarily in phase.
This simplifies the pattern superposition equation


=
n
n
n
r jk
j
n array
E
r
e
e A E
n o
n
) , ( ) , ( | u | u


=
n
n
r jk
j
n array
r
e
e A E E
n o
n

| u | u ) , ( ) , (
Element
Pattern
Array Factor
Determined by:
1. the arrays lattice
2. the elements amplitude
distribution
3. the progressive phase shift
Solved using HFSSs Unit Cell Analysis
with Master / Slave Boundaries
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Unit Cell Creation
Unit Cell shape describes the arrays lattice
The shape should recreate the arrays periodicity
Rectangular Lattice
Triangular Lattice
Rectangle Hexagon Rectangle Parallelogram
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Verifying the Unit Cell Geometry
When an element is duplicated along a periodicity the Master boundary should make
contact with the adjacent cells slave boundary
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
M
1
M
2
M
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
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Floquet Ports Overview
Floquet Port
Excites and terminates waves propagating down the unit cell
Always Linked to Master/Slave Boundaries
Establishes field periodicity of the array
Only for surfaces exposed to the background
Replaces radiation boundary and PML for free space field absorption
How do Floquet Ports Excite and Terminate Power
Decomposes the fields on the Floquet Port into
Floquet Modes
Set of TE and TM modes in which the power travels
Similar concept to Waveguide Modes
Floquet Ports only absorb the modes that are defined
on the port
All other modes are short circuited back into the model
Post-Processing Floquet Ports
Supports multiple modes and de-embedding
Computes Generalized S-Parameters
Frequency dependent characteristic impedance (Zo)
Frequency dependent propagation constant
Perfectly matched at every frequency and every
scan angle
All significant mode need to be defined in the Floquet All significant mode need to be defined in the Floquet
Port Setup to obtain accurate solutions.
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Each Floquet Mode is a plane wave propagating in different directions
Propagating modes represent the main beam or grating lobes of the arrays pattern
The Floquet polarization and propagation properties are dependent on:
Frequency (k
o
=2tf/c
o
)
Lattice dimensions (A, B & o)
(m,n) mode Index
Scan Angle (u
o
,|
o
)
All of these factors will need to be considered when determining which modes to include
in the simulation
] [
0 0 0 0
2 2
2
) cos( ) sin(
) sin(
2
) tan(
2
) sin( ) sin(
) (
1
z k y k x k j
o o
zmn
TE zmn ymn xmn
e y
A
m
k x
B
n
A
m
k
k k B A
E
+ +
.

(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(

=
t
| u
o
t
o
t
| u
TE
z
Floquet Mode Decomposition
ymn
k
xmn
k
Polarization Vector
E-Field Orientation
Wave Propagation
Propagation Direction
phase velocity
attenuation
Consistent with Waveguide Modes
Unique to Floquet Modes
2 2 2
ymn xmn zmn
k k k k =
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Floquet Mode Visualization
Dominant Mode
Scanned to (u,|) = (45
o
,0
o
)
Higher Order Mode
Scanned to (u,|) = (-45
o
,0
o
)
Power Flow
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Floquet Ports: Determining the Modes to Include
Include all modes that attenuate by less than 40dB between the Floquet Port and your
1st discontinuity
Modes not defined on the port are short circuited back into the model and can form standing waves that affect the
solution
40dB of attenuation will have minimal impact of solution
Standing wave created
from an undefined
Floquet Mode
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Modes Calculator
Calculates attenuation per unit length for each requested mode based on
Lattice, Frequency, & Scan Angle
Modes with a significant attenuation constant do not need to be defined in the port
Their reflection will not significantly couple back into the model.
Multiply the calculated attenuation by the distance between the Floquet Port and the array face using the models units.
Provides the total attenuation experienced by that mode
Make sure the total attenuation is at least 40dB to 50dB.
If you wish to decrease the number of modes needed with out adjusting the frequency or scan volume increase the
length of the unit cell to allow evanescent modes to attenuate further.
The port can be de-embedded to bring the reference plane back to its original position.
Modes Calculator
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Modes Calculator Considerations
Mode Calculator Test Cases
Always set the frequency to the highest simulated frequency
Investigate several key scan angles
obtain super set of modes for the
scan volume
Start with the largest scan angle in the direction of the closest grating lobes
Move on the largest scan angle in the direction of the next closest grating lobes
Continue until the modes attenuation exceeds 40dB
If your model requires a large number of modes consider extending the unit cell to allow the evanescent modes to
attenuate
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Floquet Port Setup
Define A and B Lattice Vectors
A and B Vectors define the lattice spacing and the angle of the skew.
Only the vector direction and length matter. (Not the specific location of the tip and tail)
a
b
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What if the Lattice is Triangular
Triangular Lattice
A and B vectors should point from one element to the next adjacent element.
Alternatively they should point from a master boundary to its corresponding slave boundary (or visa versa).
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Floquet Port Setup
1. Define Master/Slave Scan Angle
Scan angle values will default to slave boundary settings
2. Selecting the Ports Floquet Modes
Use the Modes Calculator can help determine what modes need to be considered
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Floquet Port Setup
3. 3D Refinement
Determines which modes are excited during the adaptive meshing process.
Modes that are not excited will NOT affect the mesh density
Used to simplify the adaptive meshing process
Most phased arrays are modeled in the transmit mode where the element is connected to the source.
Eliminating modes that are not going to be excited in the model from the adaptive meshing process improves the
simulations efficiency.
For phased array element analysis uncheck all the modes.
The primary purpose of the Floquet Port is to terminate the arrays radiated power and determine how the element
transmits power to different Floquet Modes.
The transmission terms from the antenna to the Floquet Modes will be accurate because the antennas ports are
always included in the 3D Refinement process.
The only questionable results will be the transmission and reflection terms where the power emanates from the
Floquet Port itself.
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Floquet Port Setup
4. Determine Reference Plane
Allows the user to shift the Floquet Port reference plane to a desired location.
Distance can be entered numerically or graphically.
The deembedding process adjust the S-Parameter solutions for phase and attenuation due to a constant unit cell
cross-section.
It will not remove the affect of geometry features from the S-Parameter solutions
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Results Matrix Data
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Results: Return Loss/Insertion Loss
Floquet Port: Return Loss/Insertion Loss
Determine how much power is transmitted into each Floquet Mode (Transmission Loss)
Identify Grating Lobes, Surface Waves
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) cos(
4 2
2
s R
T
A
G u

t
=
Modes Floquet Dominant Power to d Transmitte
2
= T
Area Cell Unit = A
h Wavelengt Space Free =
Boresight Off Angle Scan =
s
u
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Chapter 6
Antenna Post Processing
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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Post-Processed Results
5.00 2.00 1.00 0.50 0.20
5.00
-5.00
2.00
-2.00
1.00
-1.00
0.50
-0.50
0.20
-0.20
0.00 -0.00 0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80 90 100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
-170
-160
-150
-140
-130
-120
-110
-100 -90 -80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Ansoft Corporation 2.4GHz Dual Feed Smith Plot 1
Curve Info
S(WavePort1,WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sweep1
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50
Freq [GHz]
-100.00
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
600.00
700.00
800.00
Y
1
Ansoft Corporation 2.4GHz Dual Feed Z11ReIm
Curve Info
im(Z(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
re(Z(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
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Quantities of Interest
S-parameters
Input impedance
Return loss
VSWR
Smith chart
Mutual coupling
Active S-parameters
Multi-port antennas
Phased arrays
Near-fields
Electric fields
Magnetic fields
Currents
SAR
Far-fields
3D pattern
2D pattern cuts
Directivity
Power gain
Realized gain
Axial ratio
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HFSS Models
Antenna Examples
Geometry
Single driven element and director element
Truncated ground plane used as reflector element
Element printed on 0.025 thick Duroid substrate (cR=10.2)
Port Setup
Fed using 50 O lumped port on microstrip line
Boundary
PMLs placed /10 from element
Solution Setup
6-10 GHz fast sweep with 100 MHz resolution
Single Element
10 adaptive passes
AS = 0.01
14k tetrahedra
2-Element Array Model
10 adaptive passes
AS = 0.02
20k tetrahedra
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Impedance Response
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Infinite Spheres for Far-field Data
Far-Field Setup
Set of spatial data points upon which to calculate far-fields
Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite Sphere
Setup is required in order to plot any Far Field quantities
If 2D cutplanes are desired, save post-processing time by only calculating desired points
Relative coordinate systems may be used to modify reference orientation in far-field calculations
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Custom Radiation Surface
Radiation Surface
Default integration surfaces for far-field calculations are faces of radiation boundaries
Radiation boundaries automatically defined on base object surfaces of PML objects
Consider creating custom radiation surface for better accuracy and reduced simulation time
Place at least /10 from all radiating surfaces
Create using the menu item Modeler > List > Create > Face List
Specify custom radiation surface when creating infinite sphere
Default Integration
Surface
Custom Integration
Surface
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Element 3D Pattern at 10 GHz
Three-dimensional radiation patterns can be plotted for various far-field quantities
Directivity, power gain, and realized gain
Total Gain vs. Realized Gain
Polarization components can be examined
E and E| components
Ludwig3 co-polarized and cross-polarized components
Right-hand and left-hand circular polarization (RHCP/LHCP)
Ludwig-3X Ludwig-3X Ludwig-3Y Ludwig-3Y
Power Accepted
U 4
Gain Total

=
t
Power Incident
U 4
Gain Realized

=
t
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Antenna Parameters
Antenna Parameters
Calculates common antenna parameters for arbitrary frequency and angular region
Note: The values are not expressed in dB
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Edit Sources Dialogue
Edit Sources
Sets complex power scaling factors for each port
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Edit Sources
Specifies coefficients used in post-processing
E, H, and J fields on 3D geometry
Far-field plots (patterns)
Active S-parameters
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Electromagnetic Field Plots
Field Plots
Plot any field quantity by selecting any Object, Face or Plane
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > Quantity
Streamline plot of
Poynting vector created
by selecting originating
face
MagE Plotted on 2D
Antenna Object
MagE Plotted on XZ Plane
of Coordinate System
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Electromagnetic Field Plots and Animations
Field Plots
Plot any field quantity by selecting any Object, Face or Plane
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > Quantity
Easily plot fields and export to animated GIF
Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Animate
Example shown for electric fields in element plane at 10 GHz
Provides insight into balun operation, mutual coupling behavior, etc.
Elements Phased for Broadside Beam Elements Phased for Scanned Beam
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Antenna Trace Characteristics
Trace Characteristics
Quickly obtain beamwidth for any dB threshold (3 dB, etc.) and sidelobe levels and locations
Right-click on pattern report to activate menu
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Antenna Trace Characteristics (2)
Example shown for scanned array beam
Markers confirm beamwidth and sidelobe information
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
90
60
30
0
-30
-60
-90
-120
-150
-180
150
120
Ansoft Corporation array
Co-pol in E-plane (Trace Characteristic)
m1
m2
m3
m4
Curve Info lSidelobeY lSidelobeX xdb10Beamwidth(3)
dB(DirTheta)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
-5.62 -74.00 61.58
Name Theta Ang Mag
m1 -74.00 -74.00 -5.62
m2 14.00 14.00 6.51
m3 50.00 50.00 3.57
m4 -10.00 -10.00 3.79
d(
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Far-field Pattern Plot Type
Changing Plot Type
Easily convert between rectangular and polar format for far-field pattern plots
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Overlay Far Field Plots on Model
Visualize radiation patterns on model geometry
Control transparency and/or size of pattern overlay
Uses existing 3D plots generated under Results
Right-Click in 3D modeler window select the context menu Plot Fields > Radiation Fields
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Array Factor Calculator
Built-in array factor calculator using single element pattern
First-order approximation which neglects mutual coupling
Uses global coordinate system for array definition
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Array Factor Calculator (2)
Example shows array factor versus actual two-element array pattern for scanned beam
(E-plane cutplane)
Array factor most applicable when mutual coupling is small
Actual Array
Array Factor
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Active S-Parameters
Includes all mutual coupling from other ports to produce an active S11 response at a
given port
Applicable to phased arrays and multi-port antennas
Dependent upon excitations at other ports (changes with scan angle, etc.)
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Active S-Parameters (2)
S-Parameters
Passive S-parameters assume all other ports are loaded in terminal impedance
No reflections from other terminated ports
Active S-parameters represent port response based on coupled signals from other ports
Includes coupling from other ports
S
11
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
S
11
Port 4
Port 2
Port 3
1
2
3
4
1 0
1 90
1 180
1 270
o
o
o
o
source
source
source
source
= Z
= Z
= Z
= Z
11 11 21 31 41
1 0 1 90 1 180 1 270
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
o o o o
active o o o o
S S S S S
Z Z Z Z
= + + +
Z Z Z Z
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Active S-Parameters (3)
Active S-Parameters
Available from modal solution data
Dependent upon coefficients entered using Edit Sources
Active Return Loss for Port 1 and Port
2 for 60 Phase Delay Between Ports
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Chapter 7 Complex
Geometry Modeling
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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Complex Geometry Topics
Importing files from other engineering tools
Appropriate format
Geometry healing
De-featuring
Creating complex shapes within HFSS
Inherently parametric geometry
Boolean operations
Equation-based curve and surface
Scripting
User defined primitive (UDP)
Antenna Design Kit
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From Solid Model to Analysis
Importing Complex Solid Models
Each step is important and can impact setup time and simulation time
Can use automated or manual healing to analyze and remove problem features
De-featuring removes holes, chamfers, and blends
Mesh operations (surface approximations) can be used to simplify geometry
Model resolution allows mesher to ignore small details in model geometry
HFSS 3D Model Formats
Select the menu item Modeler > Import
ProE Files (*.prt*,*.asm*)
Unigraphics File (*.prt)
Ansoft 2D Geometry Files (*.sm2)
GDSII files (*.gds)
3D Modeler File (*.sm3)
SAT File (*.sat)
STEP file (*.step,*.stp)
IGES File (*.iges,*.igs)
AutoCAD Files (*.dxf,*.dwg)
SLD File (*.sld)
GEO File (*.geo)
STL File (*.stl)
NASTRAN File (*.nas)
Catia V4/V5 Files (*.model, *.CATPart,*.CATProduct)
Parasolid Files (*.x_t, *.x_b)
Import
Geometry
Healing
De-featuring
Meshing
Model
Resolution
Analysis
Formats listed in blue require
AnsoftLinks MCAD
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AnsoftLinks Design Flow
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Healing Imported Geometries
Geometry Healing
Often necessary due to different model rules and unavoidable geometry database translations
User decides if imported objects should be healed
Two healing options provided for imported objects
Automatically analyze imported model and remove problem features
User manually selects criteria for object analysis
Vertices not on a Face
Edges not on a Face
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Manual Healing
Manual Healing
Manual Healing brings up Healing Options dialog window
User specifies criteria to remove problematic geometry features
Remove features such as holes, chamfers, and blends
Remove small entities such as edge lengths, faces, and sliver faces
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Healing and Stitching Example
Healing and Stitching Example
Select menu item Modeler > Model Analysis > Heal
If two edges in a part are not touching, healing attempts to extend surface edges to make them touch
Some gaps cannot be fixed by healing and stitching is applied to perturb the surface and bring edges together
Model with gap
Healed model
Model with gap
Model repaired by stitching
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Simplify Imported Geometries
De-feature models obtained from mechanical or electrical CAD tools when possible
These models typically include geometry details insignificant for electromagnetic analysis
Small holes, bends, etc.
Removing unnecessary model details reduces mesh density and runtime
Use good engineering judgment to make certain that removed features are electrically insignificant
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Small Feature Removal
Feature Removal
User can inspect holes, chamfers, and bends individually or automatically remove features below specified size
Select menu Modeler > Model Analysis > Analyze Object
Automatic defeaturing accessed through Modeler > Model Analysis > Heal (Feature Removal Options)
All Holes
Removed
All Holes and
Blends
Removed
Subset of
Blends
Removed
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Groundplane Housing Geometry
Top hat aluminum ground plane structure
5 diameter ground plane
Twelve mounting holes on flange
0.150 diameter
Blended edge between flange and pedestal
0.150 radius
Blended Edge
Mounting holes
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De-Featured Groundplane Housing
Original mesh: 14,520 tetrahedra with 0.353 RMS edge length
Defeatured mesh: 173 tetrahedra with 1.94 RMS edge length
Two orders of magnitude reduction in mesh density
Defeatured
Mesh
Original
Mesh
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Creating Complex Shapes in HFSS
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Parametric Modeling
HFSS supports inherently parametric geometry creation
Variable values can be edited to update model objects
Enables efficient modifications to complex models
Parametric
geometry
created
Variables
created
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Geometry Primitives
HFSS includes primitives for creating simple geometry objects
ACIS solid modeling engine
Boolean operations can be applied to multiple primitives to form complex objects
UWB crescent antenna
formed by subtracting
circle from ellipse
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Equation Based Geometry
Any line or surface that can be described by an equation in three dimensions can be
drawn
Creates parametric equation or parametric surface
Accessed through Draw > Equation Based Curve and Draw > Equation Based Surface
Example: Create parametric curve for helix and sweep circular cross-section along
helix
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Equation Based Geometry
Model any parametric surface
Conchoid
Trangluoid
trefoil
Toupie
Conical
spiral
Mobius strip Conical
spiral
Spiral
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Geometry Scripting
VBScript or Javascript can be used to generate complex geometries
Accessed through Tools > Run Script
Gather required inputs from user through dialog boxes or hardcode into script
VBScript manual available in HFSS help system
Variable pitch
helix element
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User Defined Primitive (UDP)
Enables efficient creation and optimization of complex 3D geometric models used by
HFSS
Generates objects defined using parametric characteristics
Parameters can also be accessed for optimization from Optimetrics
User builds and compiles DLLs
HFSS includes example C++ source and header files that can be used to generate DLLs
Accessed through Draw > User Defined Primitive
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UDP Antenna Examples
Model antennas based on arbitrary mathematical equations
Exponential, spiral, log-periodic, helix, sinuous, etc.
Also allows parameterization of number of objects (duplicates)
Useful for multi-arm elements
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Antenna Design Kit
GUI-based wizard tool
Automates geometry creation, solution setup, and post-processing reports for 26 common antenna elements
Assists in learning to use HFSS for antenna design
Parametric antenna geometry
Easily modify parameters in HFSS after generating initial model
Facilitates parametric sweeps and optimizations
Synthesis feature for each antenna
Automatically generates physical dimensions for desired frequency
Provides starting point for new designs
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Antenna Design Kit Available Antenna Types
Wire Dipole Planar Dipole Rectangular Patch Elliptical Patch
Pyramidal Horn E-plane Sectoral
Horn
H-plane Sectoral
Horn
Conical Horn Circular
Waveguide
Rectangular
Waveguide
Archimedean Spiral Log-Spiral Sinuous Spiral
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Antenna Design Kit Available Antenna Types
Conical Sinuous
Spiral
Conical
Archimedean Spiral
Conical Log-
Spiral
Vivaldi (Tapered Slot) Stepped Vivaldi
Log-Periodic
Toothed
Log-Periodic
Toothed Trapezoidal
PIFA with
Shorting Strip
PIFA with
Shorting Pin
PIFA
Bowtie Bicone Discone
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Antenna Design Kit Example Project
Ports and Boundary
Conditions
Solution Setup and
Frequency Sweep
Reports for Input
Impedance and
Radiation Patterns
Parameters for
Antenna Geometry
Model ready
to solve
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Geometry Wrap
Geometry Wrap
New
Wrap a 2D sheet on an arbitrary geometry
Slot Coupled Patch Array wrapped on a
cylinder
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Imprint/Imprint Projection
Imprint
New
Projection
Patch Antenna Array Imprinted on a Nosecone
Results in Faces of original object imprinted
Make sure that the distance selected is greater than the distance between the antenna and nosecone
Face created from
imprint
Face created from
Imprint projection
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Polyline Cross Section
Polyline Cross Section
New
Choose Cross Section Type and Size
Type: Line, Rectangle, Circle
Size can be a variable
Section is automatically swept along the polyline
1. Create a Polyline 2. Set Cross Section Property 3. Polyline with Cross Section Property
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Chapter 8 Introduction to
Optimetrics
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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Introduction
Optimization is a process of finding a better or more suitable design instance among
the possible design variations
Optimetrics is an add-on module which provides numerous analysis tools
Parametric
Optimization
Sensitivity
Statistical
Tuning
Analytical Derivatives
Allows centralized control of design iterations from one common interface
Compatible with all Ansoft 3D products and Ansoft Designer
Allows full analysis for multiple variables
Optimetrics allows the user to:
Define model parameters and automate parametric sweeps
Perform real time parameter tuning using Analytical Derivatives
Identify performance specifications to optimize
Perform sensitivity and statistical analysis on optimized model
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Using Optimetrics
Process
1. Create parameterized model
2. Define design parameters to vary
Model geometry, material properties, etc.
3. Perform analyses
Parametric
Optimization
Sensitivity
Statistical
Tuning
Where can it be used?
User may apply parameterization at all modeling stages
Geometry (size, shape, orientation, quantity, etc.)
Materials (lossless, complex, anisotropic, etc.)
Boundaries (impedance/conductance boundaries, linked boundary scan angles, symmetry or mode cases, etc.)
Solution setup
Once model is parameterized, optimization can be performed toward an extensive array of cost functions
Circuit parameters (S, Z, or Y-parameters)
Antenna patterns (Directivity, gain, axial ratio, etc.)
Emissions
Derived field quantities (radiated power, etc.)
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Parameterizing a Model
Parameterizing a Model
Optimetrics relies on using the parametric capability built into Ansoft tools
Variables can be easily entered
Project variables (global)
Design variables (local)
Include units (defaults to meters)
Supports mixed units
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Parametric Analysis
Optimetics Setup: Parametric Analysis
Create nominal design with variables assigned to model aspects to change
Define one or more variable sweep definitions
Each specifies series of variable values within a range
Optimetrics solves the design for each variation
Compare results to determine how each variation affects performance
Number of variations limited only by computing resources
Parametric analyses often used as precursors to optimization because they help determine reasonable range of
variable values
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Optimization Analysis
Optimetics Setup: Optimization Analysis
Identify cost function and optimization goal
Cost function can be based on any solution quantity that HFSS or Designer can calculate
Field values, S-parameters, and Eigenmode data
Optimetrics changes design parameter values to meet goal
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Optimization Analysis Parameters
Several analysis parameters must be specified
Cost function
Optimetrics minimizes the cost function. Define this so that minimum location is also optimum location. For
example, if you desire to maximize transmission from port 1 to port 2 (S21=>1), define cost function to be -
mag(S(Port2,Port1)).
Acceptable Cost
Value of cost function at which optimization stops (may be negative).
Goal Weight
If cost function with multiple goals, you may assign different weight to each goal. The goal with greater weight is
given more importance during cost calculation.
Step Size
In order to make the search reasonable, the algorithm limits the minimum and maximum step limits for individual
optimization variables.
Cost Function Noise
Numerical calculation of EM fields introduces various sources of noise to cost function due to changes in finite
element mesh. The noise indicates whether change is significant enough to support achievement of cost function.
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Available Optimizers
Quasi Newton
Uses gradient approximation of cost function in search for minimum location
Downhill search iterative method using second order derivatives to accelerate convergence
Only accurate enough if there is little noise involved in cost function
Use when SNLP optimizer has difficulty and noise is insignificant
Sequential Non-Linear Programming (SNLP)
Uses principle similar to Quasi Newton optimizer
Assumes that optimization variables are continuous
Handles numerical noise slightly better than Quasi Newton optimizer
More accurate overall cost approximations and faster convergence
Sequential Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming
Identical to SNLP except that it is able to deal with discrete integer variables as well as continuous variables
Pattern Search (gradient-free optimizer)
Performs grid-based simplex iterative search using either triangular or tetrahedral simplexes
Pattern is defined on grid, and grid is refined according to success rate of search
Preferred when numerical noise is significant
Genetic Algorithm
Iterative process which progresses through a number of generations with chromosomes representing combinations of
parameter values (possible solutions)
Chromosomes participate in selection, reproduction, and mutation processes to produce best overall result (survival of
the fittest)
Robust optimization scheme for large solution spaces
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Sensitivity Analysis
Sensitivity Analysis
Used to determine design sensitivity to small variations in specific parameters around specific design point
Can tolerance a design to ensure design goals are met
For example, determine maximum acceptable deviation for substrate permittivity of microstrip line to ensure
impedance is well-matched
Preferred over parametric analysis for this purpose
Careful choice of parameter variations required to determine sensitivity and de-embed this from numerical mesh
noise and large scale variations in parameter values
Optimetrics varies the parameters about design point and automatically fits second order polynomial to requested
output
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Statistical Analysis
Statistical Analysis
Used to predict yield of component when subject to random variations in parameter values
Optimetrics includes uniform and Gaussian distribution functions
Uniform distribution: User specifies percentage tolerance from variables starting value for the analysis. Solves for
values within this tolerance range assuming uniform probability
Gaussian distribution: User specifies standard deviation of distribution and upper and lower limits. Solves for
values between the upper and lower limits assuming Gaussian probability
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Analytical Derivatives
Analytical Derivatives
Compute the derivatives of SYZ parameters with respect to project and design variables
Eliminates need to solve multiple variations with small differences and numerical noise
More efficient and more accurate
Provides real-time tuning of reports to explore effects of small design changes
Improves derivative-based optimization methods
2008 IEEE MTT-S Digest, pp. 527-530
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Analytical Derivatives Example: SMA launch
Example: Analytical Derivatives
SMA launch is typical multi-variable design problem
Design variables:
length, radius of via stub, radius of antipads, radius of signal pads, radius & antipad of ground via
Solve for the derivatives of many variables at once
Nominal Values for Design Variables
Specify Desired Derivatives in Solution Setup
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Analytical Derivatives Example: SMA launch
Results: Analytical Derivatives
Real-time tuning shows effects of small changes on S-parameters
S-parameters of Nominal Design
S
21
S
11
Quickly Explore Effects of Small
Changes on S-parameters
Derivative
Context in
Report Editor
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ANSYS DesignXplorer and HFSS Integration
Powerful DOE-based tool suite
Quantifies influence of uncertainty variables on performance
Variety of sampling, modeling and optimization routines
Sampling: central composite design and optimal space filling
Modeling: full second-order polynomial, Kriging, non-parametric regression, and neural network
Optimization: screening, multi-objective genetic algorithm, and nonlinear sequential quadratic programming
Create and execute DOE simulations for HFSS from DesignXplorer
Entire solution space of HFSS design can be investigated using efficient, accurate DOE algorithms
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Distributed Solve Option
Distributed Solve Option
Distributed analysis used to quickly explore multi-dimensional design space
DSO distributes frequency and parametric sweeps to network of processors
Approximately linear increase in simulation throughput
Highly scalable to large numbers of processors
Up to 10 nodes per Distributed Solve license
Multi-processor nodes can be utilized
DSO distributes frequency and parametric
sweeps to networked processors
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Summary
Optimetrics
Add-on option integrated into interface of all Ansoft 3D tools and Ansoft Designer
Includes variety of powerful analysis capabilities
Parametric sweeps: defined variables automatically changed and corresponding analysis performed
Optimization: properties optimized based on performance goal and defined design variables
Sensitivity analysis: yields design sensitivity for range of values about design point
Statistical analysis: determines effects of statistical variations of design variables on output
Integration of Ansoft HFSS and ANSYS DesignXplorer offers new valuable insights into behavior of EM designs
Entire solution space of HFSS design can be investigated using efficient, accurate DOE algorithms
Provides powerful 3D and 2D visualization of solution space to evaluate performance trends
ANSYS R12 supports DSO for efficient characterization of designs
Distributed Solve Option can be used to further increase simulation throughput
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Chapter 9 Fields Calculator
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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HFSS Field Calculator
Tool for performing mathematical
operations on all saved field data in
modeled geometry
E, H, J, and Poynting data available
Perform operations using model or
non-model geometry
Perform operations at single or
multiple frequencies
Generate numerical, graphical,
geometrical, or exportable data
Macro-enabled
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Named Expressions
which can be plotted
using Report Editor
and Field Overlay
Calculator Layout
Data Stack: Contains
current and saved
entries in scrolling stack
similar to RPN scientific
calculator.
Calculator Functions:
Organized groupings of
all available calculator
functions in button
format. Some buttons
contain further options as
drop-down menus.
Stack Operations:
Manipulate stack
contents
Context Selection:
Select solution,
frequency, and
phase
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Named Expressions
Add expressions to Named Expressions to create field overlays and
Report Editor plots
Makes these available through standard post-processing capabilities
Frequently used expressions can be included in user library and loaded
into any project
Eliminates need to re-create expressions consistently used across many projects
Lists defined
expressions for use in
field calculator or post-
processing
Includes expression at
top of stack to list of
named expressions.
Named Expressions must
be scalar quantities.
Loads named expressions
from user library
Saves added expressions
to a user library
Deletes named
expression
Clears all named
expressions
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Usage Changing Data Types
As discussed previously, many
operations require the correct input
data type
Many operations result in a different
data type than the inputs
Ex1: The Dot product of two vectors is a
scalar.
Ex2: Obtaining the Unit VecNormal to a
Surf generates a Vector.
Some calculator buttons exist primarily
to assist in type conversion
Vec? converts Scl to Vec data
Scal? does the reverse
Cmplx Real or Cmplx Imag takes a Scl
component from a CSc or CVc
Cmplx CmplxR or Cmplx CmplxI take a
Vec or Scl component and make it the real
or imaginary part of a complex value CVc or
CSc, respectively
For example, note the INTEGRAL sign is in the Scalar column,
Always think of what type of data you are working with and
whether or not it is compatible with your desired operation.
For example, note the INTEGRAL sign is in the Scalar column,
implying that to integrate complex numbers you will have to
integrate the real and imaginary components separately,
performing an integration by parts.
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Usage Input Types
E and H are Peak Phasor representations of the steady-state fields. Therefore
the current representations J derived from n H or E are also Peak Phasor
quantities. The Poynting Vector input is a time-averaged quantity.
Input Quantity Description
E The complex vector E field data everywhere in the modeled geometry
H The complex vector H field data everywhere in the modeled geometry
Jvol
Current density in a volume, computed as ( + jwe'')E which contains both conduction and
displacement currents)
Jsurf
Net Surface current computed as n x (H|
top tetrahedra
H|
bottom tetrahedra
)
Unlike other quantities, Jsurf can only be output on an object surface geometry
Poynting The time-average Poynting vector computed from the above as (E x H*)
LocalSAR
Specific Absorption Rate: Measure of the amount of electromagnetic energy absorbed in a lossy
dielectric material. Computed from SAR: * E
2
/(2r).
AverageSAR
SAR averaged over a volume that surrounds that point. The volume is determined by the settings
in the Specific Absorption Rate Setting dialog box.
CertificationSAR IEEE standard procedure for calculating SAR
SurfaceLossDensity
Surface impedance loss computed as (r
s
= re(S*n)). SurfaceLossDensity can only be output on
an objects surface geometry
VolumeLossDensity
The volume loss density computed as
r
v
= 1/2Re(E*J+jwB*H) = 1/2Re(E*J-curl(E)*H)
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Data Indicators
Each stack entry will be preceded by a unique code
denoting its data type
Mathematical:
CVc: Complex Vector
Vec: Vector
CSc: Complex Scalar
Scl: Scalar
Geometric:
Pnt: Point
Lin: Line
Srf: Surface
Vol: Volume
Combinations can also exist
e.g. SclSrf: Scalar data distributed on a Surface geometry
Most data input types are self-explanatory
E and H fields being Phasor quantities will be Complex Vectors (CVc).
An exception to this rule is the Poynting input, which will show up as a
CVc even though E H should have no imaginary component. The
calculator only knows that two complex vectors were crossed, and
does not know ahead of time that the imaginary component has been
zeroed.
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Examples
Radiated power from pyramidal horn antenna
Horn_wave_impedance.hfss
Wave impedance along pyramidal horn antenna
Horn_wave_impedance.hfss
Element port voltage due to mutual coupling between quasi-Yagi
array elements
Quasi-Yagi.hfss
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Radiated Power from Antenna
Calculated power flow through radiation boundary by integrating
Poynting vector normal to surface
Created face list for radiation boundary surfaces
0.25 Watts used as input power for one-quarter model of horn
antenna
All radiation boundaries
used for integration
surface
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Calculation of Radiated Power
Calculator Operation Stack Display
QuantityPoynting CVc : Poynting
ComplexReal Vec : Real(Poynting)
GeometrySurface {radiation_surfaces} Srf : Surface(radiation_surfaces)
Normal SclSrf :
SurfaceValue(Surface(radiation_surfaces),
Dot(Real(Poynting), SurfaceNormal))
Scl : Integrate(Surface(radiation_surfaces),
Dot(Real(Poynting), SurfaceNormal))
Eval Scl : 0.249510973953421
Power calculated in Watts (calculator uses MKS units)
Multiply by 4 to obtain total power of full model
Total power = 0.998 W
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Validation of Radiated Power
Radiated power also calculated as part of Antenna Parameters
Solver automatically accounts for symmetry planes (uses total P
in
= 1W)
Values also correlate with P
rad
= P
in
(1-S
11
2
) since model is lossless
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Wave Impedance Along Horn Antenna
Pyramidal horn antenna fed using WR-90 waveguide
10 GHz operation
Two symmetry planes reduce model size to one-quarter of full
horn
Impedance line located along antenna centerline
Line for
Impedance
Calculation
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Calculation of Wave Impedance
Ratio of transverse component of electric field to transverse
component of magnetic field
Calculator Operation Stack Display
QuantityE CVc : <Ex,Ey,Ez>
Smooth CVc : Smooth(<Ex,Ey,Ez>)
CmplexCmplxMag Vec : CmplxMag(Smooth(<Ex,Ey,Ez>))
GeometryLineimpedance_line Lin : Line(impedance_line)
Unit Vec Tangent Vec : LineTangent
Cross Vec : Cross(CmplxMag(Smooth(<Ex,Ey,Ez>)), LineTangent)
Mag Scl : Mag(Cross(CmplxMag(Smooth(<Ex,Ey,Ez>)), LineTangent))
QuantityH CVc : <Hx,Hy,Hz>
Smooth CVc : Smooth(<Hx,Hy,Hz>)
CmplexCmplxMag Vec : CmplxMag(Smooth(<Hx,Hy,Hz>))
GeometryLineimpedance_line Lin : Line(impedance_line)
Unit Vec Tangent Vec : LineTangent
Cross Vec : Cross(CmplxMag(Smooth(<Hx,Hy,Hz>)), LineTangent)
Mag Scl : Mag(Cross(CmplxMag(Smooth(<Hx,Hy,Hz>)), LineTangent))
/ Scl : /(Mag(Cross(CmplxMag(Smooth(<Ex,Ey,Ez>)), LineTangent)),
Mag(Cross(CmplxMag(Smooth(<Hx,Hy,Hz>)), LineTangent)))
Select Add and enter wave_impedance
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Creating 2D Report
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0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50
Distance [in]
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
w
a
v
e
_
i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
Ansoft Corporation WR90_feed_horn
Impedance along Horn
m1
Curve Info
wave_impedance
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='10GHz' Phase='0deg'
Name X Y
m1 4.600 364.762
Wave Impedance along Horn Antenna
Flare provides match to free space impedance
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Wave Impedance Along Open-Ended Waveguide
Abrupt transition from guided wave to free space
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50
Distance [in]
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
w
a
v
e
_
i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
Ansoft Corporation WR90_open_ended
Impedance along Waveguide
m1
Curve Info
wave_impedance
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='10GHz' Phase='0deg'
Name X Y
m1 4.60 368.04
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Calculating Port Voltage in Array
Mutual coupling between array elements changes total voltage at
element ports
Sum of incident, reflected, and coupled signals
V
n
= 1 + ActiveS
11
for nominal 1V incident voltages
1
Can calculate this voltage using output variable or with field
calculator (for modal solutions)
Integration lines placed at each port to calculate total voltage from signal to
ground
Chen, et al., Mutual Coupling Effects in Microstrip Patch Phased
1
Chen, et al., Mutual Coupling Effects in Microstrip Patch Phased
Array Antennas, IEEE AP-S Symposium, Vol. 2, June 1998, pp. 1028-
1031.
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Calculation of Port Voltage
Calculated real and imaginary components as intermediate steps
Added result to Named Expressions to plot vs frequency
Calculator Operation Stack Display
QuantityE CVc : <Ex,Ey,Ez>
ComplexReal Vec : Real(<Ex,Ey,Ez>)
GeometryLineport1_integration_line Lin : Line(port1_integration_line)
Tangent SclLin : LineValue(Line(port1_integration_line),
Dot(Real(<Ex,Ey,Ez>), LineTangent))
Scl : Integrate(Line(port1_integration_line),
Dot(Real(<Ex,Ey,Ez>), LineTangent))
Select Add and enter V1tot_real
QuanttiyE CVc : <Ex,Ey,Ez>
ComplexImag Vec : Imag(<Ex,Ey,Ez>)
GeometryLineport1_integration_line Lin : Line(port1_integration_line)
Tangent SclLin : LineValue(Line(port1_integration_line),
Dot(Imag(<Ex,Ey,Ez>), LineTangent))
Scl : Integrate(Line(port1_integration_line),
Dot(Imag(<Ex,Ey,Ez>), LineTangent))
Select Add and enter V1tot_imag
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Calculation of Port Voltage (cont)
Calculator Operation Stack Display
Select V1tot_real in Named Expressions and
Copy to Stack
Scl : V1tot_real
ComplexCmplxReal CSc : CmplxR(V1tot_real)
Select V1tot_imag in Named Expressions and
Copy to Stack
Scl : V1tot_imag
ComplexCmplxImag CSc : CmplxI(V1tot_imag)
+ CSc : +(CmplxR(V1tot_real), CmplxI(V1tot_imag))
ComplexCmplxMag Scl : CmplxMag(+(CmplxR(V1tot_real),
CmplxI(V1tot_imag)))
Select Add and enter V1tot_mag_from_fieldcalc
Combines real and imaginary components into final Named
Expression for magnitude of total port voltage
Must repeat all steps for each port
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Specify Element Excitations
Edit Sources sets power scaling for modal excitation
coefficients
0.01 Watt input power 1 V
in
for 50 port since P
in
= |V
in
|
2
/(2*Z
0
)
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2D Report Editor
Named Expressions available for plotting from report editor
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Total Port Voltage
Port voltages calculated over sweep range
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Chapter 10 RCS Analysis
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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RCS Overview
RCS Definitions
Mathematically RCS is defined by :
Physically, RCS is a measure of a targets effective echoing area and is a measure of the power scattered in a given
direction normalized by the incident power
RCS is termed Bistatic when scattering is not back towards source of incident radiation
RCS is Monostatic when source and receiver are located at same point
RCS units are area, but common normalizations are dBsm and dBsl
E
s
and E
i
are the scattered and
incident electric fields respectively
source
location
observation
location
Monostatic Bistatic
(

=
i
s
r
2
4
r
lim
t
o
E
E
2
2
3D
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Significance of RCS
RCS Received Power
From the radar range equeation one can write the received power as:
Detection Range
RCSmustbereducedbyfourordersofmagnitudeforareductionindetectionrangeofoneorderofmagnitude
Forexample,halvingthedetectionrangerequiresa12dBreductionintheRCS
Detection range reduction assuming s1 detected at r1 and s2 at r2 at noise thresholds
P
t
is transmitted power,
G
t
is peak gain of antenna,
o is RCS of object illuminated,
A
r
is the effective aperture of the antenna and given
by A
r
= G
t

2
/4t
(

P
r
=
r
2
4t
o P
t
G
t
r
2
4t
A
r
r
1
r
2
=
o
1
o
2
1/4
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Scattering Regimes for RCS
Low-Frequency (Raleigh)
Incident wavelength much greater than body size
Resonant
Incident wavelength is on the order of the body size
High-Frequency (Optical)
Incident wavelength is much smaller than the length of the scattering object
Three regions illustrated for RCS of conducting sphere
Scattering Regimes for RCS
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Boundary Conditions for Radar Cross Section
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Air Region Boundary Type and Size
Outer Boundary
Air volume should be assigned either radiation boundary or PML
Radiation boundary is simpler to assign
PML is more robust and can be brought closer to strong radiating currents
Size airbox appropriately to avoid influencing solution (loading reactive nearfields, etc.)
Place radiation boundary a minimum of /4 from strong currents
Place PML a minimum of /8 from strong currents
RadiationBoundary PMLBoundary
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Radiation Boundary
Radiation Boundary
Mimics continued propagation beyond boundary plane
Absorption achieved via 2nd order radiation boundary
Place at least /4 from strongly radiating structure
Place at least /10 from weakly radiating structure
Absorbs best when incident energy flow is normal to surface
Must be concave to all incident fields from within modeled space
Parameters
Advanced options used for incident wave and HFSS DataLink problems
Boundary is /4 away from
horn aperture in all directions
Radiation boundary
functions well for incident
angles less than 25-30
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PML Boundary
Fictitious lossy anisotropic material which fully absorbs electromagnetic fields
Two types of PML applications
PML objects accept free radiation if PML terminates free space
PML objects continue guided waves if PML terminates transmission line
Guidelines for assigning PML boundaries
Use PML setup wizard for most cases
Manually create a PML when base object is curved or inhomogeneous
Parameters
Uniform thickness
Minimum frequency
Minimum radiating distance (between PML and antenna)
Perfectly Matched Layer (PML)
PML functions well for
incident angles less
than 65-70
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Radiation Boundary vs PML
RCS: Radiation Boundary
For RCS problems, PMLs are the recommended absorbing boundary condition for the highest accuracy
For quicker answers, a Radiation boundary condition can be used
More accurate answers with Radiation BC can be obtained by changing the integration surface
Radiation Boundary PML
Type 2D 3D
(occupies volume)
Incident angle from
normal
< ~30 < ~70
Distance from radiator > /4 > /10
Setup complexity Low Medium
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Integration Surface
Radiation Surface
By default, HFSS utilizes the Boundary Radiation Surface for the
integration of far fields
To change, go into the Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup / Radiation
Surface tab, and change surfaces.
The alternate surface must already be defined by selecting the
faces, and then 3D Modeler / List / Create / Face List
Why would you want to change the integration
surface?
There is no set rule for changing this, however, for some problems, it
might be more efficient to use an aperture or other object as the
integration surface.
The predominant thinking is that the fields are strongest nearest the
scattering object, and thus the RCS values will be most accurate near the
object.
Contrary to what you might expect, this even works when the object
is a PEC
In most cases, there will be no difference in final results, but you can use
the alternate integration surface method to obtain quicker answers
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Incident Wave Excitation
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Incident Wave Excitation
Excitations
RCS models use incident waves to excite the simulation
HFSS offers several different incident wave excitations
Plane Wave
Others including:
Evanescent Wave
Hertzian-Dipole Wave
Cylindrical Wave
Gaussian Beam Wave
Linear Wire Antenna Wave
Waves created in other HFSS models
Use the menu selection HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Incident Wave > Plane Wave
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Plane Wave Excitation Setup (Cartesian)
Setup
General Data Window used to specify Vector Input Format and Excitation Location
Cartesian Vector Setup Window defines orientation of the E-field (Eo Vector) and direction of propagation (k Vector) in
Cartesian Coordinates.
Plane Wave Options Window sets up attenuation of evanescent waves and elliptical polarization.
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Plane Wave Excitation Setup (Spherical)
Setup
Choosing Spherical Vector Input Format changes Vector Setup to accept spherical coordinates.
Now multiple incident waves can be defined and solved for at the same time
HFSS does NOT need to resolve the entire problem for each incident wave. It simply changes the stimulus and
applies it to the already solved matrix.
Mesh is affected by every specified incident wave
Multiple incident waves are solved in a fraction of the time it would take to re-solve the problem for each wave.
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Incidence Angle and Observation Angle
Distinguishing Between Incidence and Observation Angle
HFSS needs to distinguish between the (q,f) of the incident wave and the (q,f) of the observation point.
HFSS does this by specify the waves angle of incidence as IWavePhi and IWaveTheta. The observation angles are
specified as theta and phi.
This is important when setting up RCS plots in the post-processor
u
|
IWaveTheta
IWavePhi
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Incident Wave Formulations
Scattered Field Formulation
Total Field Formulation
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Incident Wave Formulations
Incident Wave Formulations
The total E-field in a scattering problem is a superposition of the incident and scattered fields
Since the incident field is known ,HFSS can solve for either the scattered field or the total field.
The remaining quantity can be derived through superposition
HFSS can solve incident waves using either of these formulations
The Choice of Formulation is Problem Dependent
Use the Total Field Solution for models with objects that touch any radiation boundaries or PMLs.
Use Scattered Field Solution for scatterers in free space (where the scatterer does not touch the radiation boundary or
PML).
Scattered Incident Total
E E E

+ =
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Scattered Field Formulation
Scattered Field Formulation
HFSS directly solves the scattering field using the scattered field formulation
Implementation
HFSS first imposes a plane wave that is present everywhere in the model at all times.
HFSS then creates sources that account for the scattered fields due to material properties and boundary
conditions
The scattered fields are calculated using the Finite Element Method
Total Field is derived through superposition
As a result of this method, every non-vacuum object is treated as a source for the scattered fields
Can be changed in Boundaries > Edit Global Material Environment
Scattered Incident Total
E E E

+ =
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Scattered Field Formulation
The scattered field formulation is invoked
by defining a standard radiation boundary or PML.
by choosing Radiating Only radio button under the advanced options
The scattered field solution is most appropriate for
Finite Structures
Structures do not make contact with Radiation Boundary or PML
The scattered field is of interest (RCS)
Scattered Field is much weaker than incident and total fields.
=
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Scattered Field Formulation
Example: Iris in an infinite ground plane (Scattered Field Formulation)
Non-Vacuum objects become sources in the model.
Radiation Boundaries and PMLs do not behave well when sources are touching the boundary
Scattered Field Formulation should therefore be used with finite scatterers that do not make contact with the
absorbing boundaries
Incident wave is present throughout the entire volume at all times.
Areas that you do not expect direct contact with the incident wave might indicate erroneous scattering (Iris)
Why are we getting non-physical energy using scattered field formulation?
Total field is calculated from scattered field + incident field located everywhere
Scattered field is calculated from artificial sources on every non-vacuum object
Artificial sources are finite in extent and cannot compensate for the incident plane wave fields
Total field magnitude is small and is computed from the subtraction of two relatively large numbers which can
result in large relative numerical error
Scattered Field Formulation: Incident Wave
Scattered Field Formulation: Total Field
Infinite Ground Plane
Iris
Non-physical Energy
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Total Field Formulation
Total Field Formulation
Expands the number and type of problems HFSS can solve
Implementation
Incident field originates from Incident Field Ports defined on radiation boundary of PML
The total field is then directly solved for throughout the model using FEM
Intuitively similar to typical component modeling with waveports
Scattered Field is derived from the Total Field through superposition
Non-vacuum objects do not act as sources
Incident Total Scattered
E E E

=
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Total Field Formulation
The Total Field Formulation is invoked
by choosing the Incident Field Option located under the radiation boundary/PML Advanced Options
Determine which faces the wave originates from and set the radiation boundaries associated with those faces to
Incident field
All other radiation boundaries should be left in the default or set to Radiating Only
The Total Field Formulation is most appropriate for
Infinite scatterers
Structures that make contact with the radiation or PML boundary
Structures with cavities or areas with little field strength.
Wavepropagatestowardgroundplanefromabove
All5facesofupperAirBox aredefined
asIncidentFieldradiationboundaries
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Solution Setup for RCS
RCS Setup
For wideband RCS simulations, as is the case with most
wideband problems, the adaptive Solution Frequency should be
chosen to be the maximum desired frequency
For Maximum Number of Passes, choose something reasonable
based upon the size of the problem, and the resources of the
computer
Typically 8-10 passes is sufficient
For Maximum Delta Energy, the default value of 0.1 is usually
sufficient
RCS Convergence
A better approach to the convergence of the adaptive refinement
process is to actually use the RCS calculation
We want to stop the adaptive mesh refinement when RCS
has settled down to a reasonable tolerance, say 0.2 dB
Create Output Variables
Use Expression Cache
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Convergence for RCS
Output Variables
All Far Field calculations require an Infinite Sphere for calculation
Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite Sphere
Create Output Variable
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Output Variable
Enter name of Output Variable
Report Type: Far Fields
Select Solution
Select RCS Quantity and Function
Click the Add button
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Expression Cache
New
Allows the user to get field data vs. adaptive pass.
An expression can be added to the cache and that quantity will be computed and its result stored for each adaptive
pass.
Once a quantity has been defined it only takes one button click to add it to the convergence criteria.
Quantities available for the cache include Output Variables, Calculator Expressions and Near or Far Field quantities.
Note: Expression cache quantities are also available to Optimetrics.
Expression Cache for Convergence
Adding Expressions
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Multiple Convergence Criteria
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Chapter 11
HFSS-IE: Overview
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HFSS-IE Introduction
HFSS-IE: Technology
A new solver technology in the HFSS desktop
A 3D Method of Moments (MoM) Integral Equation technique
HFSS-IE: Applications
Efficient solution technique for large, open, radiating or scattering analyses
Antenna placement
Radar cross section (RCS)
S-Parameters
HFSS-IE: Advantage
Automated results with accuracy
Effective utilization of automated adaptive meshing technique from HFSS
Ensures accuracy
Employs Adaptive Cross Approximation (ACA) technique for larger simulation
Automated matrix based solution for larger problems
Utilization of results from HFSS as a linked source
Link can include effects of backwards scattering to the source geometry
HFSS-IE: User Interface
Implemented as a new design type in the HFSS desktop
Shares same modeler interface and similar analysis setup
Minimal user training required for existing users of HFSS
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Examples
VHF 350 MHz
RCS of Cone-Sphere
Antenna Placement - UAV drone @ VHF
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Easy to Use
A new design type in the HFSS desktop
Similar interface as HFSS
Same model tree
Same project tree
Similar solution setup
Same reporter
Easily share models and materials between types
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Automated and Accurate Results
Adaptive Meshing
Same adaptive meshing technology as HFSS
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Materials, Boundary Conditions
Material Definitions
Same as HFSS
Frequency dependent dielectrics
All dielectrics must be isotropic
Boundary Conditions
Finite Conductivity/Perfect Electric Conductors
Infinite ground planes
Aperture opens up a "hole" in a conducting boundary
Impedance
Lumped RLC
HFSS-IE Excitations
Terminal Lumped Ports
Rectangular or coaxial
Incident Waves
Linked Near/Far-Field sources from HFSS
HFSS-IE Reports
Same as HFSS
S-Parameters, Near/Far-Field, RCS
0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
Primary Sweep
-18.00
-17.00
-16.00
-15.00
-14.00
-13.00
-12.00
-11.00
-10.00
Y
1
Ansoft LLC HFIEDesign_coupled_E
XY Plot 3
Curve Info
dB(S(Rectangle1_T1,Rectangle1_1_T1))
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='10GHz'
Ref. Data
Imported
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Displaying Surface Currents
Fields/Mesh Display
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Additional Features
HFSS-IE Solver Technology
Direct and Iterative Solve
For large models uses an adaptive cross approximation (ACA) scheme for matrix compression and fast solutions.
This fast solving technology is automatically implemented
Does not require additional user interaction
Does not require uniform mesh distribution
Design Flow
Dynamic Link to Ansoft Designer
Optimetrics Support
Parametric, Sensitivity, and Statistical
High-Performance Computing
Multi-processing enabled by same license as HFSS solver
Distributed Solve Option (DSO) support for Frequency Sweeps and Optimertics
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Summary
HFSS-IE
New solver technique in the HFSS interface
Effective for large open radiating problems
Automated and reliable accuracy through adaptive meshing and ACA fast solver technologies
Links with HFSS for multi-solver domain studies
When combined with HFSS and HPC a comprehensive solution for large radiating and scattering studies
HFSS Horn (Source)
Coupled HFSS-IE/HFSS
Reflector
Results: Includes Horn Blockage
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Workshop 1.1 HFSS
Example: Waveguide Array
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Waveguide Array - Example
The Waveguide Array
This example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a Waveguide array antenna using the
Ansoft HFSS Design Environment
A WavePort will be used for the waveguide feed excitation
A Floquet Port will be used for the phased arrays free space excitation and termination
Master/Slave boundary conditions will be used to create the arrays unit cell
Reference:
[1] N. Amitay, V. Galindo and C. Wu, Theory and Analysis of Phased Array Antennas, Wiley-Interscience, 1972, ISBN 0-471-02553-4, section5.2.1.
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Overview
Design Review
Instead of modeling the entire array, we will make use of the master/slave boundaries and only model a unit cell.
A Floquet Port will be used to excite and terminate the model from free space. This port works in conjunction with the
Master/Slave boundaries to enforce the arrays periodicity and allow for a changing scan angle.
Ansoft HFSS Design Environment
The following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to create this passive device model
3D Solid Modeling
Primitives: Box
Boundaries/Excitations
Ports: Wave Ports, Floquet Ports
Boundaries: Master/Slave
Analysis
Sweep: Interpolating
Results
Cartesian plotting
Optimetrics
Parametric sweep
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Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a New Project
In HFSS Desktop, click the On the Standard toolbar, or
select the menu item File > New.
From the Project menu, select Insert HFSS Design.
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Creating the Design
Set Solution Type
Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type
Choose Driven Modal
Click the OK button
Set Model Units
Select the menu item Modeler > Units
Select Units: in
Click the OK button
Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, make sure that vacuum is the default material
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Create Waveguide
Create Waveguide
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position
X: -12.28, Y: -12.28, Z: -55, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box
dX: 24.56, dY: 24.56, dZ: 55, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: waveguide
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View or press the CTRL+D keys
Create Airbox
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position
X: -13.246, Y: -13.246, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box
dX: 26.492, dY: 26.492, dZ: 55.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: Airbox
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View or press the CTRL+D keys
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Assign Master/Slave Boundaries
Create First Master Boundary
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select Face dialog: Select the object Airbox from the left column
Select different FaceIDs until the side face located on the
positive x-axis of the Airbox is highlighted.
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Master
Name: Master1
Coordinate System: U Vector: Click the Undefined pulldown and select New Vector.
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X:13.246, Y: -13.246, Z:0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX: 0, dY: 26.492, dZ: 0, Press the Enter key
For the V vector, check the Reverse Direction: Checked
Click the OK button
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Create Second Master Boundary
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select Face dialog: Select the object Airbox from the left column
Select different FaceIDs until the side face located on the
positive y-axis of the Airbox is highlighted.
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Master
Name: Master2
Coordinate System: U Vector: click the Undefined pulldown and select New Vector.
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X:13.246, Y: 13.246, Z:0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX: -26.492, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
For the V vector, check the Reverse Direction: Checked
Click the OK button
Assign Master/Slave Boundaries
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Create First Slave Boundary
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select Face dialog: Select the object Airbox from the left column
Select different FaceIDs until the side face located on the
negative x-axis of the Airbox is highlighted.
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Slave
Name: Slave1
Master Boundary: click on Undefined pulldown and select: Master1
Coordinate System: U Vector: click the Undefined pulldown and select New Vector.
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X: -13.246, Y: -13.246, Z:0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX: 0.0, dY: 26.492, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Click the Next button
Continued on next page
Assign Master/Slave Boundaries
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To create the Slave Boundary (Continued)
Complete Phase Delay Tab
Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is checked
For Phi, enter a variable name phi_scan
For Theta, enter a variable name theta_scan
Click the Finish button
For the Add Variable dialog corresponding to phi_scan,
Enter 90deg
Click the OK button
For the Add Variable dialog corresponding to theta_scan,
Enter 0deg
Click the OK button
Create Second Slave Boundary
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select Face dialog: Select the object Airbox from the left column
Select different FaceIDs until the side face located on the negative y-axis of the Airbox is highlighted.
Click the OK button
Assign Master/Slave Boundaries
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Create Second Slave Boundary (continued)
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Slave
Name: Slave2
Master Boundary: click on Undefined pulldown and select: Master2
Coordinate System: U Vector: click the Undefined pulldown and select New Vector.
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X: 13.246, Y: -13.246, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX: -26.492, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Click the Next button
Complete Phase Delay Tab
Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is checked
For Phi, enter a variable name phi_scan
For Theta, enter a variable name theta_scan
Click the Finish button
Assign Master/Slave Boundaries
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Create WavePort
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select the object waveguide from the left column
Select different FaceIDs until the bottom face of the
waveguide is highlighted.
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Excitation > Assign > WavePort
Complete the General Tab
Name: p1
Click Next
Complete the Modes Tab
Number of Modes: 2
Mode 1: click on the None pulldown located under the Integration Line Column and select New Line
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X: -12.28, Y: 0.0, Z: -55.0, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX: 24.56, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Continued on next page
Create Waveport
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Create Waveport
To create WavePort (continued):
Complete Mode Tab (continued)
Mode 2: click on the None pulldown located under the Integration Line Column and select New Line
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X: 0.0, Y: -12.28, Z: -55, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX:0.0, dY: 24.56, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Align modes using integration lines: Selected
Selecting align modes using integration lines will cause HFSS to use the analytical waveguide mode
solutions to properly polarize the electric field in the port. The analytical solution is only invoked for
canonical waveguide structures like rectangular waveguide, circular waveguide and coaxial waveguide.
For all other port geometries HFSS will enforce the polarization without the analytical solution. HFSS still
performs a numerical solution of the ports modes, but will orient the field polarizations through its
knowledge of the analytical solution.
Click the Next button
Complete the Post Processing Tab
Click Finish
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Create Floquet Port
Create FloquetPort
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select the object Airbox from the left column
Select different FaceIDs until the top face of the AirBox is highlighted.
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Excitation > Assign > Floquet Port
Name: FP1
A Direction Lattice Coordinate: click on the Undefined pulldown located and select New Vector
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X: -13.246, Y: -13.246, Z: 55, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX: 26.492, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
B Direction Lattice Coordinate: click on the Undefined pulldown located and select New Vector
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position
X: -13.246, Y: -13.246, Z: 55, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector
dX:0.0, dY: 26.492, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key
Click Next
Continued on next page
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Create Floquet Port
To create FloquetPort (continued):
Click the Modes Calculator button
Complete the Modes Setup Tab
Number of Modes: 10
Frequency: 299.79 MHz
Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is checked
Phi: 90 deg
Theta: 90 deg
Click the OK button
HFSS has a Modes Calculator to help determine the number of modes that should be
included in the Floquet Port. Any mode that is not defined in the Modes Setup Tab will
be short circuited at the port and reflected back toward the array. For accurate results
all modes that have a significant amount of energy at the port must be included in the
Modes Setup Tab.
The Floquet Mode calculator is going to request the number of modes that should be
evaluated, a frequency and a scan angle to calculate each modes attenuation
constant. The modes with the least attenuation are going to occur at the highest
simulation frequency and at locations in the scan volume that are close to grating
lobes. Therefore, we are going to set these conditions in the Modes Calculator to
determine the attenuation in dB/length for each mode. We will then restrict the number
of modes to only include the modes with a significant contribution to the arrays
performance
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Notice that the first 4 modes have an attenuation of 0.00
dB/length. This indicates that they are propagating
modes. The TE00 and TM00 modes correspond to the
main beams of the x and y polarized patterns.
respectively. The TE0-1 and TM0-1 modes correspond to
the grating lobes of x and y polarized patterns.
Modes 5 through 10 have attenuation of 1.67 dB/length
or 2.06 dB/length depending the mode. The length
portion of this attenuation is calculated in the models unit
(inches for this example). To calculate a modes total
attenuation from the array to the Floquet Port, the
attenuation value displayed in the Modes Setup Tab
needs to be multiplied by the distance between the array
face and the Floquet Port.
For this example this distance is 55in. Therefore the TE-
1-1 mode experiences 1.67*55 = 91.85dB of attenuation
as it propagates from the array face to the Floquet Port.
Likewise the TE10 mode experience 2.06*55 = 113.3dB
of attenuation across this same distance.
It therefore is safe to only include the first 4 modes in the
Floquet Port definition.
Create Floquet Port
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To create FloquetPort (continued):
Change the Number of Modes: 4
Click the Next button
Complete the Post Processing Tab
Click the Finish button
Complete the 3D Refinement Tab
Click the Next button
For this example we only included the modes that propagate at the highest simulated frequency for the largest
scan angle in the plane corresponding the closest grating lobe. Although these modes are propagating for this
instance, they may not be propagating for other cases where the frequency is lower or the scan angle as extreme.
The cases where any of these modes are heavily attenuated can cause an unusually dense mesh concentrated at
the port. This will significantly decrease the simulation efficiency and in many phased array cases there is more
interest in terminating these modes than exciting them. To improve the simulations efficiency HFSS allows you to
determine which Floquet Modes are excited for the purposes of refining the mesh during the adaptive meshing
process. Which modes affect the adaptive meshing process is controlled by checking the box under the Affects
Refinement column on the 3D Refinement Tab. This exercise is only interested in exciting the problem from the
waveguide side. Therefore none of the Floquet Modes are going to be excited in the adaptive mesh refinement
Create Floquet Port
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Analysis Setup
Creating an Analysis Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Solution Frequency: 299.79 MHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 6
Maximum Delta S: 0.02
Click the Options tab:
Minimum Number of Passes: 5
Click the OK button
Creating a Frequency Sweep:
Select the menu item HFSS> Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep
Choose Setup1 from pop-up window and click the OK button
Sweep Type: Interpolating
Frequency Setup Type: LinearStep
Start: 200MHz
Stop: 300MHz
Step: 0.1MHz
Click the OK button
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Analyze
Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As.
Filename: hfss_array
Click the Save button
Model Validation
Select the menu item HFSS > Validation Check
Click the Close button (Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.)
Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze All
Solution Data
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution Data
To view the Profile, Click the Profile Tab.
To view the Convergence, Click the Convergence Tab
Note: The default view is for convergence is Table. Select the Plot radio button to view a graphical
representations of the convergence data.
To view the Matrix Data, Click the Matrix Data Tab
Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the Simulation to Setup1, Last Adaptive
To view the Mesh Statistics, Click the Mesh Statistics Tab.
Click the Close button
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Post Processing
Create Floquet Mode Plot vs Frequency
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1: Sweep1
Category: S-Parameter
Quantity: S(FP1:3,P1:1), S(FP1:4,P1:1), S(P1:1,P1:1)
Function: dB
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button
This plot shows how the X-Polarized Waveguide mode couples into the TE00 and TM00 modes at boresight as frequency is
swept from 200MHz to 300MHz.
Notice that just above 240MHz the return loss spikes to 0dB and the coupling to both the TE00 and TM00 modes show a sharp
discontinuity. This is caused by the TE10 waveguide mode transitioning out from being cutoff.
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Optimetrics Parametric Sweep
Optimetrics Setup
For this array design, we want to see the effect of scan angle on the input match of the antenna. To do this, we must
sweep the scan angle with a parametric sweep.
Add a Second Solution Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Setup Name: Setup2
Solution Frequency: 299.79 MHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 6
Maximum Delta S: 0.02
Click the Options tab:
Minimum Number of Passes: 2
Click the OK button
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Parametric Sweep Setup
Add a Parametric Sweep
Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric
Click the Sweep Definitions tab:
Click the Add button
Add/Edit Sweep Dialog
Select Variable: theta_scan
Select Linear Step
Start: 0deg
Stop: 90deg
Step: 10deg
Click the Add >> button
Click the OK button
Click the General tab:
Uncheck Setup1 Include
Click the Options tab:
Check Save Fields and Meshes
Check Copy geometrically equivalent meshes
Click OK to accept the Parametric Sweep settings
Note: The plots shown for the parametric sweep contain an
additional sweep for theta_scan to improve the plot resolution:
Type: Linear Step
Start: 27.1deg
Stop: 27.9deg
Step: 0.1deg
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Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save
Analyze Parametric Sweep
Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under Optimetrics
Right-click the mouse on ParametricSetup1 and choose Analyze
Optimetrics Results
Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics
Results
Select the Profile Tab to view the solution progress for each setup.
Click the Close button when you are finished viewing the results
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Parametric Post Processing
Create Propagation Constant Plot
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup2: LastAdaptive
X: theta_scan
Category: Gamma
Quantity: Select All Quantities
Function: Im
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button
Notice that Floquet Modes 1 and 2 do not start propagating until the array is scanned to 29deg. These mode are the TE0-1 and
TM0-1 modes respectively and represent the grating lobes associated with the E-phi and E-theta patterns respectively. The
main beams (TE00 and TM00) are the 3rd and 4th Floquet Modes. These modes propagate to the edge of real space.
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Parametric Post Processing
Create S-Parameter Plot
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup2: LastAdaptive
X: theta_scan
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(FP1:2,p1:2), S(FP1:4,p1:2), S(p1:2,p1:2)
Function: mag
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button
Notice the transmission for the 1st Floquet Mode is not significant until just below 30deg scan. This mode corresponds to the
TM0-1 mode which doesnt propagate until 29deg scan. At this same scan angle a scan blindness is observed in the return loss
and the transmission for the 4th Floquet Mode (TM00) drops sharply.
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Create Active Element Pattern
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup2: LastAdaptive
X: Switch to theta_scan
Y: 10*log(4*pi*701.8/39.361^2*mag(S(p1:2,FP1:4))^2*cos(theta_scan))
701.8 is the unit cell area in square inches
39.361inches is the wavelength in free space
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button
Double click on the Y-axis of the plot
Click the Scale tab:
Specify Min: Checked
Min: -60
Spacing: 10
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Workshop 2.1 HFSS
Optimetrics: Shorted Patch
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Optimetrics: Example
The Shorted Probe-Fed Patch Antenna with Optimetrics
This example is intended to show users how to create a variable, and set up a parametric study of a probe feed patch
antenna using the Ansoft HFSS Environment
A parametric sweep will be used to determine the effect on the input impedance match as a function of the feed pin
position
This parametric sweep will be used to seed an optimization analysis that will be used to find the optimal position for the
feed pin
Analytical derivatives will also be used to perform real time tuning of several dimensions of the patch antenna
Only half the model is shown below, and all dimensions are in mm
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Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a Project
Select the menu item File > Open
Select the project: OptimetricsPatch_training.hfss
Click the Open button
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Design Variables
Checking Design Variables
A design variable has been created that controls the location of the feed of the patch antenna: feed_pos
To view a list of any design variables that have been created for this design:
Go to the menu item HFSS > Design Properties
Alternatively, highlight HFSSModel1 in the Project Manger Window, the design variables will be
displayed in the Properties Window
Verify that the variable feed_pos is assigned the value 9mm
Press the OK button
Feed_pos
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Parametric Analysis Setup
Parametric Sweep of Feed Position
We will now complete the creation of the parametric project using the defined variable to vary the coaxial feed position in
order to achieve optimal match between the patch antenna and its coaxial feed line. The ratio of the coaxial feed inner
and outer diameters was chosen to achieve a 50 Ohm characteristic impedance. So we will effectively change the value
of the feed offset until we find a position which presents a 50 Ohm load impedance on the coaxial feed line. The S11 vs.
frequency plot has a dip at the patch resonant frequency, the dip is maximized when the optimal offset is found.
Create Parametric Sweep
Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric...
Under Variable check feed_pos is selected
Select Linear Step
Start: 7mm
Stop: 13mm
Step: 2mm
Click the Add>> button
Click the OK button
Click the OK button
In the project tree, go to Optimetrics > ParametricSetup1, right click and select Analyze
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Creating a Report
Create Modal S-Parameter plot Magnitude
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1:Sweep1
Domain: Sweep
Trace tab
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(P1,P1)
Function: dB
Families tab
Ensure All under Value column for variable feed_pos
Click New Report button
Click Close button
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Results
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Optimization Analysis Setup
Optimization
The Parametric Sweep was useful for generating design curves. For this simple design with only a single variable we
could use the design curves to make educated guesses at performance targets that are not contained in the Parametric
Sweep. Ansoft HFSS and Optimetrics with Optimization takes the guess work out of achieving performance targets.
To demonstrate this we will target a minimum of less than -20dB for S
11
at 1.8GHz for this shorted patch antenna. From
the Parametric Sweep, we can see that the minimum return loss will be achieved when the variable feed_pos is around
11mm.
Create an Optimization Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Design Properties
Click the Optimization radio button:
Name: feed_pos
Include: Checked
Min: 10 mm
Max: 12 mm
Click the OK button
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Optimization Analysis Setup
Add Optimization Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Optimization
Setup Optimization
Click the Goals tab:
Optimizer: Quasi-Newton
Max. No. of Iterations: 10
Click the Setup Calculations button
Add/Edit Calculation dialog:
Report Type: Model Solution Data
Solution: Setup1: Sweep1
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(p1,p1)
Function: dB
Click the Add Calculation button
Click the Done button
Calc Range: 1.8GHz
Condition: <=
Goal = -20
Weight = 1
Acceptable Cost: 0
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Optimization Analysis Setup
Setup Optimization (continued)
Click the General tab:
Parametric Analysis: ParametricSetup1
This parametric analysis that we solved earlier will be used to seed
the optimization
Click OK to complete the optimization setup
Analyze Optimization
Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under Optimetrics
Right-click the mouse on OptimizationSetup1 and choose Analyze
Optimetrics Results
Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics Results
Optimal solution occurs at ~10.50mm
Click the Close button when you are finished viewing the results
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Create Modal S-Parameter plot Magnitude
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1:Sweep1
Domain: Sweep
Trace tab
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(P1,P1)
Function: dB
Families tab
Select the value which achieved the desired goal in the optimization solution for variable feed_pos. In
this optimization the feed_pos = 10.50mm results in RL < -20dB @ 1.8GHz
Click New Report button
Click Close button
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Analytical Derivatives
Analytical Derivatives
From the parametric sweep and optimization of the feed position we can see that the
optimal position is at about 10.50mm. To further investigate or an alternative to the
optimization, we could use analytical derivatives to predict the behavior of our model
with respect to small changes in design variables.
Enable Analytical Derivatives
Right click on Setup1 in Project Manager Window and choose Properties
Select Derivatives Tab
feed_pos: Use Checked
patch_width: Use Checked
Click the OK button
Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze All
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Creating a Tuning Plot
Create Tuning Plot
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report> Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1: Sweep1
Domain: Sweep
Click the Trace tab
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(p1,p1)
Function: dB
Click the New Report button
Create Tuning Trace
Derivatives: All
Click the Trace tab
Category: Tune S Parameter
Quantity: TuneS(p1,p1,All)
Function: dB
Click the Add Trace button
Click Close button
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Tuning Plot
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Tune Reports
Move the scroll bar on the Tune Report window to get the predicted performance with patch widths and feed positions
Click on Close button
Note: The predicted response is based off the nominal solution and partial derivative that was computed during the solution process.
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Workshop 2.2 HFSS
Optimetrics: Dual-band WLAN
Antenna
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WLAN antenna design Double L-slits antenna with Optimetrics
This example is intended to demonstrate users how to optimize a realistic double L-slits WLAN antenna using the
dynamic link concept of Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer/Nexxim Environments
First, the W, L1 and W1 are parameterized in HFSS (pre-solved)
Then, the solved parameterized HFSS project is linked into Designer/Nexxim, and the antenna is optimized in circuit
level
Finally, the optimized dimensions are entered in the HFSS model for validation
Top View of the model
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Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a Project
Select the menu item File > Open
Select the project: Ant_WLAN_training.hfss
Click the Open button
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Check Antenna Model in HFSS
Check antenna variables:
Highlight the design under the project tree, model variables (as W, L1, W1 etc)
are shown in the property window
Check parametric setup:
Double click the ParametricSetup1 under Optimetrics in project tree
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Check Pre-solved Parametric Profiles
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution Data
By default, nominal design solution data is shown
Click and Set Design Variation window pops up
Uncheck Use Nominal Design to select parametric combination to see its solution data
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Plot Pre-solved Parametric Solutions
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1:Sweep1
Domain: Sweep
Trace tab
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(WavePort1, WavePort1)
Function: dB
Families tab
Variables: W1, W and L1
Values: All
Click New Report button
Click Close button
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Distributed Solve Option Linear Speed up for parametric study
Allows the user to send multiple instances of an analysis to be solved on different machines simultaneously.
The graphical user interface enables users to select computer addresses for analysis distribution.
Automated parser management and reassembly of data.
Parametric tables and studies.
Frequency sweeps for discrete, fast, and interpolating.
Per license, distributed analysis allows up to 10 parallel simulations on remote machines, providing near-linear
reduction of simulation run times.
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Ansoft Designer/Nexxim and HFSS Linkage
We will now link the pre-solved double-L slits antenna model from
HFSS into Ansoft Designer, and set up optimization and run.
Launch Ansoft Designer/Nexxim
Double click on the Designer 5 icon on the Windows Desktop
Nexxim-HFSS Datalink Setup
Select the menu item Project > Insert NexximCircuit Design
In the Choose Layout Technology dialog box, click None
Select the menu item Project > Add Model > Add HFSS Model...
Name: WLAN_HFSS_Model
File name: <project location>\Ant_Wlan_training.hfss
Select Simulation tab
Select Interpolate Options... Button
Check Only use independent variables during
interpolation button
Click the OK button
Click the OK button
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Components Placement in Designer/Nexxim
Placing the pre-solved HFSS project
Highlight Model under Models and drag into schematic window
Choose Implied reference to ground
Adding the port
Select the menu item Draw > Interface Port
Left-click to place the ports at input and output as shown. Place
the first port (Port1) at the input.
Hit the <Esc> key or space bar to finish placing ports
Adding Wiring to connect components
As you place the cursor near a pin of a component, it changes from an
arrow to an X. This indicates that the schematic editor is in the wiring
mode. In the wiring mode:
Left-click to start drawing a wire.
Left-click again to end the wire.
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Variables Setup in Designer/Nexxim
Right click on the imported HFSS component in the Designer schematic > Properties
Input variables LL1, WW1, and WW to the Value column of Name of L1, W1 and W in the Properties window
For example, type WW into the Value column of Name of W, press <Tab> key, Add Variables windows pops up.
Type 3mm in the Value
Click OK button
Same procedures to set LL1 (= 8mm) and WW1 (=0.5mm)
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Analysis Setup in Designer/Nexxim
Select the menu item NexximCircuit> Add Solution
Setup> Linear Network Analysis
Accept the defaults for Analysis Name
Highlight F in the Sweep Variables
Click the Edit button
Click the Add button
Variable type: F
Select Linear Step
Start: 1 GHz
Stop: 6 GHz
Step: 0.01 GHz
Click the Add >> button
Click the OK button
Click OK button.
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Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As
Filename: optimization_Nexxim_HFSS_training
Click the Save button
Solve Project
Select the menu item NexximCircuit > Analyze
Optimization Setup in Designer/Nexxim
Select the menu item NexximCircuit > Design Properties
In the Properties dialog box, click on Local Variables, and select Optimization
Check Include for WW, WW1, and LL1
Click the OK button
Select the menu item NexximCircuit > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Optimization
Click Variables tab
Input Starting Value, Min, Max and Step for each variable
LL1: Starting Value = 8.99mm, Min = 7mm, Max = 9mm, Min Step = 0.01mm
WW: Starting Value = 2.01mm, Min = 2mm, Max = 4mm, Min Step = 0.01mm
WW: Starting Value = 1.49mm, Min = 0.5mm, Max = 1.5mm, Min Step = 0.01mm
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Optimization Setup in Designer/Nexxim
Select the Goals tab
Optimizer: Quasi Newton
Max. No. of Iterations: 40
Acceptable Cost: 1
Click the Setup Calculations button
Category: S Parameter,
Quantity: S(Port1, Port1)
Function: dB
Click Calculation Range tab
Click ... button
Highlight 2.35GHz
Click Add Calculation button
Click Done tab
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Optimization Setup in Designer/Nexxim
Click = under Condition column
Select <=
Type -15 under Goal column
Weight: 1
Repeat this procedure to add a second goal function for
4.85 GHz
Click the OK button
Plot Nominal S Parameter Solution in
Designer/Nexxim
Select the menu item NexximCircuit > Results> Create
Standard Report > Rectangular Plot
Category: S Parameter
Quantity: S(Port1,Port1)
Function: dB
Click New Report button
Click Close button
Right click mouse on the plot, and click Accumulate
Select the menu item Tools> Options> Report2D Options...>
General T
Accumulate Depth: 40
Click the OK button
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Run Optimization in Designer/Nexxim
Right click OptimetricsSetup1 and click Analyze
Right click OptimetricsSetup1 and click View Analysis Result...
Optimized Dimensions
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1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00
F [GHz]
-45.00
-40.00
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
d
B
(
S
(
P
o
r
t
1
,
P
o
r
t
1
)
)
Ansoft Corporation Nexxim2
XY Plot 2
Curve Info
dB(S(Port1,Port1))
LinearFrequency
dB(S(Port1,Port1))
Optimized Solution in Designer/Nexxim
After optimization analysis, the optimized solution will be auto added to the nominal curve as shown below
Red Optimized Design
Blue Nominal Design
Before After
2.35 GHz: -6.63dB -15.8 dB
4.85 GHz: -4.94 dB -14.2 dB
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Validation with HFSS
Right-click on return loss plot and de-select Accumulate
Right-click on imported component in schematic window > Edit Model
Click Simulation tab and select Simulate missing solutions
Click the OK button
Right-click on return loss plot and select Accumulate
Right-click LinearFrequency in the Analysis section of the project manager window and select Analyze
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
Freq [GHz]
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
Y
1
Ansoft Corporation HFSS_imptPlanarEM
XY Plot 1
Curve Info
dB(S(Port1,Port1))
Import2 : Optimization_AD_HFSS Circuit
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup_1 : Sweep1
L1='9mm' W='2.743mm'
BlueHFSS Final
RedHFSS-AD Optimization
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Workshop 3.1 Ansoft Designer:
Push Excitations
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Antenna & Subsystem bi-directional co-design Push Excitation in Designer/Nexxim
Push Excitation in Designer/Nexxim links the field & S-parameter solutions from an EM simulator, like HFSS or Siwave,
and simultaneously allows the circuit excitations to be pushed into the field solvers to see the impact of the total system
on the fields including far-fields.
Push Excitations are used by:
Linking the pre-solved HFSS antenna project into Designer/Nexxim
Build a subsystem with the imported antenna model in Designer/Nexxim
Solve the subsystem with antenna model in Designer/Nexxim
Updated excitations (amplitude & phase) are pushed back to HFSS antenna model, and fields, active S
parameters etc are automatically updated
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Quasi-Yagi 2 element array with Subsystem Co-design with Push Excitation in
Designer
This example is intended to demonstrate the procedures to build the bi-directional co-design with a simple antenna
array and feed network
First, the Quasi-Yagi antenna array is solved in HFSS
Then, the solved array project is linked into Designer/Nexxim as a component, and subsystem components are added
Run Linear Network Analysis in Designer/Nexxim
Amplifiers effect (amplitude and phase) on antenna pattern is demonstrated via push excitation
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Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a Project
Select the menu item File > Open
Select the project: Quasi-Yagi.hfss
Click the Open button
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HFSS Project Setup
Antenna Setup
The Quasi-Yagi HFSS project consists of 2 antenna elements
Each element is driven with a lumped port excitations
Check ports setup:
Under project tree, right click P1 under Excitations, and click Zoom to
Under project tree, right click P2 under Excitations, and click Zoom to
Check pre-solved Antenna Project Solutions
Double click Principal Cutplanes under Results
Port 1
Port 2
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Designer Project setup
Ansoft Designer/Nexxim and HFSS Linkage
We will now link the Quasi-Yagi antenna elment that has been
solved in HFSS with Ansoft Designer using a Dynamic Link
Launch Ansoft Designer/Nexxim
Double click on the Designer 5 icon on the Windows Desktop
Create HFSS Dynamic Link Component
To add a Nexxim Circuit design to the project:
Select the menu Project > Insert Nexxim Circuit Design.
In the Choose Layout Technology dialog box, click None
Menu: Project > Add Model > Add HFSS Model...
Name: QuasiYagiArray_HFSS
File name: <project location>\Quasi-Yagi.hfss
Select Link Discription tab
Select Design name: array
Click OK tab
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Components Placement in Designer/Nexxim
Placing HFSS Dynamic Link Component
Highlight Model under Models and drag into schematic window
Choose Implied reference to ground
Placing Additional Components
Select the Components tab in the Project Manager Window
Place the Component GAIN_NX: Ideal Gain/Loss Model twice as
seen in the schematic shown below
Place the Component PWCMB2_NX: Power Combiner/Divider,
02-Way as seen in the schematic shown below
Adding the port
Select the menu item Draw > Interface Port
Left-click to place the ports at input and output as shown. Place the first
port (Port1) at the input.
Hit the <Esc> key or space bar to finish placing ports
Adding Wiring to connect components
As you place the cursor near a pin of a component, it changes from an
arrow to an X. Click to begin drawing wire, click again to connect end
point.
GAIN_NX
PWCMB2_NX
HFSS Dynamic Link
Component
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Analysis Setup in Designer/Nexxim
To create an analysis setup:
In the menu item, click Nexxim Circuit> Add
Solution Setup> Linear Network Analysis
In the Linear Network Analysis, Frequency
Domain window
Accept the defaults for Analysis Name
Highlight F in the Sweep Variables
Click Edit
In the Linear Network Analysis, Frequency
Domain window
Click Add button
In the Add/Edit Sweep window
Variable type: F
Select Single Value
Value: 8 GHz
Click ADD >> button
Click the OK button
Click OK button.
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Edit Port Excitation in Designer
Double Click on Port1 in the Designer schematic to edit the Port Definition
Select Edit Sources
Add new source by selecting Add to selected port
Edit ACMAG equal to 1V
Click OK button
Click OK when prompted to select analysis and OK on Configure ports and sources
Click OK to close port definitions window
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Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As
Filename: push_ex_Nexxim_HFSS_training
Click the Save button
Solve Project
Select the menu item NexximCircuit > Analyze
Push Excitations
Right click the Field Solver component, click Push Excitations...
Click OK button in Push Excitation Information window
Pattern and field plots will automatically be updated in HFSS
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Push Excitations
To view updated reports after push excitations, switch to view the HFSS Desktop and open any far field report
View updated sources in HFSS through the menu HFSS > Fields > Edit Sources
Notice the Scaling Factor and Offset Phase have been updated to reflect the magnitude and phase
determined through the circuit simulation in Ansoft Designer
For this first case, the circuit components are providing ideal performance and equal gain between both
antenna elements. In the next case we will vary these circuit components and observing the resulting
change in field patterns.
Edit sources window in HFSS
Total Gain
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Push Excitations
Switch the view back to the Designer user interface
Modify the gain and phase shift associated with each amplifier by double clicking on the amplifier component
Modify the Gain and Input to Output phase delay of each amplifier
Amplifier 1
Gain = 2, PG = 180
Amplifier 2
Gain 1.8, PG = 0
Solve Project
Select the menu item Nexxim Circuit > Analyze
Push Excitations
Right click the Field Solver component, click Push Excitations...
Click OK button in Push Excitation Information window
Pattern and field plots will automatically be updated in HFSS
To view updated reports after push excitations, switch to view the HFSS Desktop and open any far field
report
Gain = 2
PG = 180
Gain = 1.8
PG = 0
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Push Excitations
View updated sources in HFSS through the menu HFSS > Fields > Edit Sources
Notice the Scaling Factor and Offset Phase have been updated to reflect the magnitude and phase
determined through the circuit simulation in Ansoft Designer
Notice the offset phase and magnitudes are no longer equal as we have modified the phase and amplitudes
from within the circuit simulation in Ansoft Designer
Total Gain
Gain and Phase are equal between antenna elements
Total Gain
After push excitations with unequal gain and phase
between antenna elements
Amplifier 1
Gain = 2, PG = 180
Amplifier 2
Gain 1.8, PG = 0
Amplifier 1
Gain = 0, PG = 0
Amplifier 2
Gain 0, PG = 0
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Workshop 4.1 HFSS
Example: RCS of a Cube
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Example RCS of a Cube
Radar Cross Section of a PEC Cube
This example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze the RCS of a PEC Cube, using the Ansoft
HFSS Design Environment.
This example was taken from the publication, Electromagnetic Code Consortium Benchmarks, compiled by Andrew
Greenwood and published by the Air Force Research Laboratory.
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Example RCS of a Cube
Background on RCS and PEC Cube problem
As mentioned previously, this problem was taken from a paper illustrating some simple radar targets that can be used to
calibrate electromagnetic simulators. The paper used several different university codes for the different targets.
In the lecture notes on scattering problems, you were introduced to two different methods of solving for the scattered field off of an
object, the Total Field formulation and the Scattered field formulation.
The Total Field formulation is recommended for targets which have an infinite or pseudo-infinite ground plane, where the
target would need to touch the PML.
The Scattered field formulation is recommend for targets that do not touch the PMLs, and are thus, finite in size. The PEC
Cube will use the scattered field formulation.
Also mentioned in the lecture notes are the two measurements of RCS, Monostatic and Bistatic. The measurements from the
paper which we will simulate in HFSS are shown below in the graphs, and represents Monostatic RCS.
From this graph, we can obtain some settings for the HFSS simulation:
Adaptive Frequency: 0.43 GHz Single frequency / no sweep
Azimuth (f) swept with a fixed Elevation
q = 90
f = 0 to 90 since the structure is symmetric about the axis, we wont simulate the remaining quadrants
VV-polarized Excite the vertical polarization (q) and observe the vertical polarization (q)
Ephi = 0 / Etheta = 1
Observe MonostaticRCSTheta
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Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a New Project
In HFSS Desktop, click the On the Standard toolbar, or
select the menu item File > New.
From the Project menu, select Insert HFSS Design.
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Example RCS of a Cube
Set Solution Type
Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type
Choose Driven Modal
Click the OK button
Set Model Units
Select the menu item Modeler > Units
Select Units: meter
Click the OK button
Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select
Type pec in the Search by Name field
Click the OK button
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Example RCS of a Cube
Creating the Cube
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: -0.5, Y: -0.5, Z: -0.5, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 1, dY: 1, dZ: 1, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: cube
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View. Or press CTRL+D
Creating the base airbox for PMLs
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: -0.85, Y: -0.85, Z: -0.85, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 1.7, dY: 1.7, dZ: 1.7, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: airbox
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View. Or press the CTRL+D key
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Example RCS of a Cube
Setup the PMLs
Switch to Face selection mode by selecting Edit > Select > Faces
Select Edit > Select > By Name to bring up a dialog that will enable you to just select faces of an object.
Select airbox from the Object name list, and select all the faces from the Face ID list
Click OK button
Use the PML setup wizard to define the PML objects
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > PML Setup Wizard
Enter 0.35 meter for the Uniform Layer Thickness
This corresponds to l/2 at the frequency of operation for this model. This value is just a guideline, but you
should always err on the side of thicker PMLs versus thinner ones.
Make sure the Radiating Only option is selected for the Base Face Radiation Properties
Click Next
Enter 0.43 GHz for the Min Frequency field in the specification for PML Objects Accept Free Radiation
Enter 0.35 meter for the Minimum Radiating Distance
Click Next
Click Finished
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Example RCS of a Cube
Creating the airbox for Far Field integration faces
When simulating radiating problem, we have found it beneficial to use a different set of faces for the far field integration
than those defined by default in HFSS. In order to accomplish this, we recommend creating an airbox that is slightly
smaller than the one used for the base of the PMLs. A typical size would be to use one that is about 90% of the X, Y,
and Z dimensions of the PML airbox.
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: -0.8, Y: -0.8, Z: -0.8, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 1.6, dY: 1.6 dZ: 1.6, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: integration_box
Click the OK button
Creating the facelist for Far Field integration
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name to bring up a dialog that will
enable you to just select faces of an object.
Select integration_box from the Object name list, and select all the faces
from the Face ID list
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Modeler > List > Create > Facelist
Facelist1 will be defined in the Lists section of the model tree
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Example RCS of a Cube
Creating the Plane Wave Excitation
Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations >Assign > Incident Wave > Plane Wave
Select Spherical as the Vector Input Format
Click Next
Enter the values for the incident plane wave angles:
IWavePhi Start: 0 deg, Step: 1 deg, Stop: 90 deg
IWaveTheta Start: 90 deg, Step: 0 deg, Stop: 90 deg
E0 vector Phi: 0V/m, Theta: 1 V/m
Click Next
Click Finish
The Incident Plane Wave excitation can be viewed by selecting the IncPWave1 in the Excitation section of the Project
tree
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Example RCS of a Cube
Creating an Analysis Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Solution Frequency: 0.43 GHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 8
Maximum Delta E per Pass: 0.01
Click the Options tab:
Order of Basis Functions: Second Order
Change the Minimum Number of Passes to 4
Click the OK button
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Example RCS of a Cube
Create a Radiation Setup
Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite Sphere
Infinite Sphere Tab
Name: Infinite Sphere1
Phi: (Start: 0, Stop: 0, Step Size: 10)
Theta: (Start: 0, Stop: 0, Step Size: 10)
Click the Radiation Surface tab
Select Use Custom Radiation Surface
Verify that Facelist1 is chosen from the list
Click OK
NOTE: Since we are going to be creating a plot of Monostatic RCS, HFSS takes the observation angle from the
incident angle definition. The far field radiation sphere setup performs little else but to define the integration surface. It
is actually easier in the plotting stage to only define one observation angle in the far field sphere setup.
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Example RCS of a Cube
Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As.
Filename: hfss_rcs_cube
Click the Save button
Model Validation
Select the menu item HFSS > Validation Check
Click the Close button
Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze All
Solution Data
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution Data
To view the Profile, Click the Profile Tab.
To view the Convergence, Click the Convergence Tab
Note: The default view is for convergence is Table. Select the Plot radio button to view a graphical
representations of the convergence data.
To view the Matrix Data, Click the Matrix Data Tab
Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the Simulation to Setup1, Last Adaptive
To view the Mesh Statistics, Click the Mesh Statistics Tab.
Click the Close button
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Example RCS of a Cube
Create RCS plot
Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptive
Geometry: Infinite Sphere1
Category: MonostaticRCS
Quantity: MonostaticRCSTheta
Function: dB
Primary Sweep: IwavePhi
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button
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Workshop 5.1 HFSS-IE
Example: PEC Cubic Monostatic RCS
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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HFSS-IE Example: PEC Cubic RCS
Radar Cross Section of a PEC Cube
This example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze the RCS of a PEC Cube, using the Ansoft
HFSS-IE Design Environment.
This example was taken from the publication, Electromagnetic Code Consortium Benchmarks, compiled by Andrew
Greenwood and published by the Air Force Research Laboratory.
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Background on RCS and PEC Cube problem
As mentioned previously, this problem was taken from a paper illustrating some simple radar targets that can be used to
calibrate electromagnetic simulators. The paper used several different university codes for the different targets.
Also mentioned in the lecture notes are the two measurements of RCS, Monostatic and Bistatic. The measurements from the
paper which we will simulate in HFSS-IE are shown below in the graphs, and represents Monostatic RCS.
From this graph, we can obtain some settings for the HFSS-IE simulation:
Adaptive Frequency: 0.43 GHz Single frequency / no sweep
Azimuth (f) swept with a fixed Elevation
q = 90
f = 0 to 90 since the structure is symmetric about the axis, we wont simulate the remaining quadrants
VV-polarized Excite the vertical polarization (q) and observe the vertical polarization (q)
Ephi = 0 / Etheta = 1
Observe MonostaticRCSTheta
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Ansoft HFSS-IE Design Environment
The following features of the Ansoft HFSS-IE Design Environment will be used to create this passive device model
3D Solid Modeling
Primitives: Boxes
Boundaries/Excitations
Ports: Incident Wave
Boundaries: Default Open Space
Analysis
Adaptive Solution Setup
Results
Far-Field Setup
Cartesian Plotting
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Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS-IE Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a New Project
In HFSS Desktop, click the On the Standard toolbar, or
select the menu item File > New.
From the Project menu, select Insert HFSS-IE Design.
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Example RCS of a Cube
Set Model Units
Select the menu item Modeler > Units
Select Units: meter
Click the OK button
Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select
Type pec in the Search by Name field
Click the OK button
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Example RCS of a Cube
Creating the Cube
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: -0.5, Y: -0.5, Z: -0.5, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 1, dY: 1, dZ: 1, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: cube
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View. Or press CTRL+D
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Creating the Plane Wave Excitation
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Excitations >Assign > Incident Wave > Plane Incident Wave
Vector Input Format: Spherical
Click the Next button
IWavePhi Start: 0 deg, Step: 1 deg, Stop: 90 deg
IWaveTheta Start: 90 deg, Step: 0 deg, Stop: 90 deg
E0 vector Phi: 0V/m, Theta: 1 V/m
Click the Next button
Click the Finish button
Viewing the Plane Wave Excitation
The Incident Plane Wave excitation can be viewed by selecting the
IncPWave1 in the Excitation section of the Project tree
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Analysis Setup
Analysis Setup
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Solution Frequency: 0.43 GHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 8
Maximum Delta E per Pass: 0.01
Click the OK button
Create a Radiation Setup
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite Sphere
Infinite Sphere Tab
Name: Infinite Sphere1
Phi: (Start: 0, Stop: 0, Step Size: 10)
Theta: (Start: 0, Stop: 0, Step Size: 10)
Click the OK button
NOTE: Since we are going to be creating a plot of Monostatic RCS, HFSS-IE takes
the observation angle from the incident angle definition. It is actually easier in the
plotting stage to only define one observation angle in the far field sphere setup.
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Example RCS of a Cube
Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As.
Filename: hfssie_rcs_cube
Click the Save button
Model Validation
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Validation Check
Click the Close button
Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.
Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Analyze All
Solution Data
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Results > Solution Data
To view the Profile, Click the Profile Tab.
To view the Convergence, Click the Convergence Tab
Note: The default view is for convergence is Table. Select the Plot radio button to view a graphical
representations of the convergence data.
To view the Matrix Data, Click the Matrix Data Tab
Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the Simulation to Setup1, Last Adaptive
To view the Mesh Statistics, Click the Mesh Statistics Tab.
Click the Close button
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Results
Create RCS plot
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Results > Create Far Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptive
Geometry: Infinite Sphere1
Primary Sweep: IWavePhi
Category: MonostaticRCS
Quantity: MonostaticRCSTheta
Function: dB
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button
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Workshop 5.2 HFSS-IE
Example: HFSS to HFSS-IE Datalink
Ansoft Antenna/RF Training Guide
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Example Horn-Fed Reflector Antenna
EMI from Slot at Enclosure Cavity
This example is intended to show you efficiently how to create, simulate, and analyze horn-fed reflector antenna
system, using the Ansoft HFSS and HFSS-IE Design Environment.
Step I: HFSS Design of horn antenna;
Step2: HFSS-IE design of reflector and horn, with excitation linking to HFSS design in step I.
Enhanced datalink from HFSS (Horn) to HFSS-IE (Reflector) takes into account of aperture blockage due to the feed
(horn) in the reflector antenna system.
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HFSS: Getting Started
Launching Ansoft HFSS
To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 12 program
group. Click HFSS 12.
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries/mesh operations with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Select last command on object select: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a New Project
In HFSS Desktop, click the On the Standard toolbar, or
select the menu item File > New.
From the Project menu, select Insert HFSS Design.
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HFSS: Creating the Design
Set Solution Type
Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type
Choose Driven Modal
Click the OK button
Set Model Units
Select the menu item Modeler > Units
Select Units: in
Click the OK button
Set Default Material
Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, make sure that vacuum is the default material
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HFSS: Creating the Design
Creating the Feed
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: 5.16, Y: -0.45, Z: -0.2, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 0.315, dY: 0.9, dZ: 0.4, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: Horn
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View. Or press the CTRL+D key
Creating the Horn
Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > YZ
Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: 5.16, Y: -0.45, Z: -0.2, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 0.0, dY: 0.9, dZ: 0.4, Press the Enter key
Click the OK button
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HFSS:
Creating the Horn
Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: 0.0, Y: -1.325, Z: -0.972, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: 0.0, dY: 2.65, dZ: 1.944, Press the Enter key
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Select the objects: Rectangle1, Rectangle2
Click the OK button
Select menu item Modeler > Surface > Connect
Complete the Horn
Select the menu item Edit > Deselect All
Select the menu item Edit > Select All
Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Unite
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HFSS:
Assign a Metal Boundary for the Horn
Select menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Object name: Horn
Multiple select the faces that make the shell of the horn
Note: Exclude the faces parallel to the YZ plane
Click the OK button
Select menu item HFSS >Boundaries >Assign > Perfect E
Click the OK button
Creating the Airbox
Select the menu item Draw > Box
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box origin
X: 5.475, Y: -2.0, Z: -1.5, Press the Enter key
Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the box:
dX: -6.0, dY: 4.0, dZ: 3.0, Press the Enter key
Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.
For the Value of Name type: Air_box
Click the OK button
To fit the view:
Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View. Or press the CTRL+D key
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HFSS:
Create Wave Port Excitation
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Object Name: Horn
Select the Face ID that corresponds to the Port
Note: The face is in the +YZ plane
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port
Name: 1
Click the Next button
Click the Next tab
Click the Finish button
Create Radiation Boundary
Select the menu item Edit > Select > Objects
Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name
Object Name: Air_box
Click the OK button
Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Radiation
Click the OK button
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HFSS: Analysis Setup
Creating an Analysis Setup
Select the menu item HFSS> Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Solution Frequency: 8 GHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 8
Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.02
Click the Options tab
Order of Basis Functions: Mixed Order
Click the OK button
Save Project
Select the menu item File > Save As
Filename: Datalink_example
Click the Save button
Source Design Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze All
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HFSS-IE: Getting Started
Setting Tool Options
Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set :
Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS-IE Options
Click the General tab
Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: Checked
Duplicate boundaries/mesh operations with geometry: Checked
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options.
Click the Operation tab
Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked
Click the Drawing tab
Edit property of new primitives: Checked
Click the OK button
Opening a New Project
Select the menu item Project > Insert HFSS-IE Design
Set Model Units
Select the menu item Modeler > Units
Select Units: in
Click the OK button
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HFSS-IE: Creating the 3D Model
Create Reflector
Select the menu item Draw > Equation Based Curve
X(_t): (26.625-_t*_t/106.5)*(-1cm)
Y(_t): (_t)*(1cm)
Z(_t): 0
Start_t: 0
End_t: 53.25
Number of Points: 18
Click the OK button
Select the menu item Edit > Select All
Select the menu item Draw > Sweep Around Axis
Sweep axis: X
Angle of sweep: 360 deg
Draft angle: 0
Draft type: Round
Number of segments: 36
Click the OK button
Assign PEC
Select the menu item Edit > Select All
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E
Click the OK button
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HFSS-IE: Defining the Linked Excitation
Create Linked Excitation
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Excitations > Assign > Incident Wave > Near Field Wave
Select the Near Field Wave Options tab
Click the Setup Link button
Product: HFSS
Source Project: Use This Project
Source Design: HFSSDesign1
Source Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptive
Click the OK button
Click the Finish button
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HFSS-IE: Analysis Setup
Creating an Analysis Setup
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
Click the General tab:
Solution Frequency: 8GHz
Maximum Number of Passes: 10
Maximum Delta E per Pass: 0.01
Click the OK button
Create a Radiation Setup
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite Sphere
Infinite Sphere Tab
Name: 3D Pattern
Phi: (Start: 0, Stop: 360, Step Size: 2)
Theta: (Start: 0, Stop: 180, Step Size: 1)
Click the OK button
Save Project
Click the menu item File > Save
Reflector Design Analyze
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Analyze All
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HFSS-IE: Results
Create Current Plot
Select the menu item Edit > Select All
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Fields> Fields > J >Mag_J
Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptive
Frequency: 8GHz
Phase: 0deg
Quantity: Mag_J
Click the Done button
Create 3D Far Field Pattern
Select the menu item HFSS-IE > Results > Create Far Fields Report > 3D Polar Plot
Solution: Setup1: Sweep1
Geometry: 3D Pattern
Primary Sweep: Phi
Secondary Sweep: Theta
Category: Directivity
Quantity: DirTotal
Function: dB
Click the New Report button
Click the Close button