1 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

20 Aufrufe7 SeitenCold-formed steel section beams are widely used as the secondary structural members in buildings to
support roof and side cladding or sheeting.

Sep 19, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Cold-formed steel section beams are widely used as the secondary structural members in buildings to
support roof and side cladding or sheeting.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

20 Aufrufe

Cold-formed steel section beams are widely used as the secondary structural members in buildings to
support roof and side cladding or sheeting.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Tran Dai q 200905 Mast
- SPE Paper References
- M.AdilDar
- FF
- z
- Course Information for Students
- Shell Structures 2003
- kheider
- Staad pro Tutorial.
- 2382_1
- Design of purlins.docx
- ce2032
- Content
- Buckling consideration inn Pile design
- Effect of Local Buckling on the Design of Steel Plate Girders SSRC 2010
- Behavior, Design and Construction of Horizontally Curved Composite Steel Box Girder Bridges
- GardnerandNethercot2004-Structuralstainlesssteeldesign-anewapproach
- Flexural Test Longitudinally Stiffened Fabricated Seet Cylinders
- CE470 F07 Beam Design
- 33015252_bun

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

to up-lift loadings

Chong Ren

a

, Long-yuan Li

b,

, Jian Yang

a

a

School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

b

School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK

a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 14 October 2011

Accepted 3 January 2012

Available online 28 January 2012

Keywords:

Cold-formed steel

Channel

Bending

Uplift loading

Roof-purlin system

Cold-formed steel section beams are widely used as the secondary structural members in buildings to

support roof and side cladding or sheeting. These members are thus commonly treated as the restrained

beams either fully or partially in its lateral and rotational directions. In this paper an analytical model is pre-

sented to describe the bending and twisting behaviour of partially restrained channel-section purlins when

subjected to uplift loading. Formulae used to calculate the bending stresses of the roof purlins are derived

by using the classical bending theory of thin-walled beams. Detailed comparisons are made between the pre-

sent model and the simplied model proposed in Eurocodes (EN1993-1-3). To validate the accuracy of the

present model, both available experimental data and nite element analysis results are used, from which

the bending stress distributions along the lip, ange and web lines are compared with those obtained from

the present and EN1993-1-3 models.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Thin-walled, cold-formed steel sections are widely used in build-

ings as sheeting, decking, purlins, rails, mezzanine oor beams, lattice

beams, wall studs, storage racking and shelving. Among these prod-

ucts, purlins and rails are the most common members, widely used

in buildings as the secondary members supporting the corrugated

roof or wall sheeting and transmit the force to the main structural

frame. Roof purlins and cladding rails have been considered to be

the most popular products and account for a substantial proportion

of cold-formed steel usage in buildings.

In the UK, most common sections are the zed, channel and sigma

shapes, which may be plain or have stiffened lips. The lips are small

additional elements at free edges in a cross section, and so added to

provide the structural efciency under compressive loads [1]. Roof

purlins and sheeting rails are usually restrained against lateral move-

ment by their supported roof or wall cladding. Such restraints reduce

the potential of lateral buckling of the whole section, but do not nec-

essarily eradicate the problem [2]. For example, roof purlins are gen-

erally restrained against lateral displacement by the cladding, but

under wind uplift, which induces compression in the unrestrained

ange, lateral-torsional buckling is still a common cause of failure

[3]. This occurs due to the exibility of the restraining cladding and

to the distortional exibility of the section itself, which permits lateral

movement to occur in the compression ange even if the other ange

is restrained.

Several researchers have investigated the behaviour of the roof

purlins with partial restraints provided by their supported cladding

or sheeting. For example, Lucas et al. investigated the interaction

between the sheeting and purlins using nite element analysis

methods [4,5]. Ye et al. presented several examples to demonstrate

the inuence of sheeting on the bending [6], local and distortional

buckling behaviour [7] of roof purlins. Vieira et al. provided simplied

models to predict the longitudinal stresses when the channel-section

purlin is subjected to uplift loading [8]. The lateral-torsional buckling

of purlins subjected to downwards and/or upwards loadings has also

been discussed by several researchers [913]. Analytical models have

been developed to predict the critical loads of lateral-torsional buckling

and the inuence of sheeting on the lateral-torsional buckling behav-

iour of roof purlins [1214]. Experimental tests have also been per-

formed on both bridged and unbridged zed- and channel-section

purlins under uplift loads [15,16]. Calculation models for predicting

the rotational restraint stiffness of the sheeting have been proposed re-

cently [17,18]. Designspecications for the purlin-sheeting systemhave

been provided in Eurocodes [3].

In this paper an analytical model is presented to describe the

bending and twisting behaviour of the partially restrained channel-

section purlins when subjected to uplift loading. The classical bending

theory of thin-walled beams is used to calculate the bending stresses

of the roof purlins. In order to validate the model, both available

experimental data and nite element analysis results are used, from

which the bending stress distributions along the lip, ange and

Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 1752 586 180; fax: +44 1752 586 101.

E-mail address: Long-yuan.Li@plymouth.ac.uk (L. Li).

0143-974X/$ see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.01.001

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Journal of Constructional Steel Research

web lines are compared with those obtained from the present and

EN1993-1-3 models.

2. Analytical model

Consider a channel section that is partially restrained by the sheet-

ing on its upper ange. When the member is subjected to a uniformly

distributed uplift load acting on the middle line of the upper ange,

the restraint of the sheeting to the member can be simplied as a lat-

eral restraint and a rotational restraint. For most types of sheeting the

lateral restraint is sufciently large and therefore the lateral displace-

ment at the upper ange-web junction may be assumed to be fully

restrained. The rotational restraint, however, is dependent on the

dimensions of sheeting and purlin, number, type and positions of

the screws used in the xing. If the stiffness of the rotational restraint

provided by the sheeting is known, then the purlin-sheeting system

may be idealized as a purlin with lateral displacement fully restrained

and rotation partially restrained at its upper ange-web junction as

shown in Fig. 1.

Let the origin of the coordinate system (x,y,z) be the centroid of

the channel cross-section, with x-axis being along the longitudinal

direction of the beam, and y- and z-axes taken in the plane of the

cross-section, as shown in Fig. 1. According to the bending and torsion

theory of beams [1,19], the equilibrium equations, expressed in terms

of displacements, are given as follows,

EI

z

d

4

v

dx

4

q

y

1

EI

y

d

4

w

dx

4

q

z

2

EI

w

d

4

dx

4

GI

T

d

2

dx

2

k

z

k

q

y

y

q

q

z

3

where v and w are the y- and z-components of displacement of the

cross-section dened at the shear centre, is the angle of twisting

of the section, E is the modulus of elasticity, G is the shear modulus,

I

y

and I

z

are the second moments of the cross-sectional area about

y- and z-axes, I

w

is the warping constant, I

T

is the torsion constant,

k

q

y

and q

z

are the densities of the uniformly distributed loads in y-

and z-directions, z

k

is the vertical distance from the shear centre to

the force line q

y

, and y

q

is the horizontal distance from the shear cen-

tre to the force line q

z

.

Using Eq. (1) to eliminate q

y

and Eq. (2) to eliminate w in Eq. (3),

it yields,

EI

w

d

4

dx

4

GI

T

d

2

dx

2

k

z

k

EI

z

d

4

v

dx

4

y

q

q

z

4

Note that, the lateral displacement restraint applied at the upper

ange-web junction requires,

z

k

v 0 5

Using Eq. (5) to eliminate the angle of twisting, , in Eq. (4), it

yields,

I

z

I

w

z

2

k

_ _

d

4

v

dx

4

GI

T

Ez

2

k

d

2

v

dx

2

k

Ez

2

k

v

y

q

q

z

Ez

k

6

Let

a

0

k

Ez

2

k

7

a

1

GI

T

Ez

2

k

8

a

2

I

z

I

w

z

2

k

9

With the use of Eqs. (7)(9), Eq. (6) can be rewritten into,

a

2

d

4

v

dx

4

a

1

d

2

v

dx

2

a

0

v

y

q

q

z

Ez

k

10

Eq. (10) is a fourth-order differential equation, which, for given

boundary conditions, can be solved analytically.

3. Calculation of bending stresses

The longitudinal stress at any point on the cross-section generated

by the two displacement components and warping can be calculated

as follows [1],

x

x; y; z Ey

d

2

v

dx

2

Ez

d

2

w

dx

2

E

d

2

dx

2

11

where is the sectorial coordinate with respect to the shear centre

and is the average value of . The rst term in the right hand

side of Eq. (11) is the stress generated by the deection of the beam

in horizontal direction, the second term is the stress generated by

the deection of the beam in vertical direction, and the third term is

the warping stress.

Using Eq. (5) to eliminate , Eq. (11) can be rewritten into,

x

x; y; z Ez

d

2

w

dx

2

E y

z

k

_ _

d

2

v

dx

2

12

Eq. (12) indicates that the total longitudinal stress in the beam can

be decomposed into two parts. One is the stress that is generated by

load q

z

when the beam is considered to be fully restrained in rotation

and can be calculated as follows,

x1

x; y; z Ez

d

2

w

dx

2

13

Fig. 1. Analytical model used for a channel-section purlin-sheeting system.

255 C. Ren et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

The other is the stress that is generated by the lateral deection of

the beam and can be calculated as follows,

x2

x; y; z E y

z

k

_ _

d

2

v

dx

2

14

For a simply supported beam in both y- and z-directions the bend-

ing stress

x1

can be expressed as follows,

x1

l

2

; y; z

_ _

zM

y; max

I

y

15

where M

y; max

q

z

l

2

8

is the largest moment of the beam bent about

y-axis and l is the length of the beam. By solving the differential

Eq. (10) analytically and then substituting the solution into Eq. (14), it

yields,

(1) Rotation partially restrained case, when k

x2

l

2

; y; z

_ _

y

z

k

_ _

A

2

1

2

2

_ _

2

2

A

2

B

2

_ _

_

_

_

_

_

_

y

q

q

z

2z

k

a

0

16

(2) Rotation free case, when k

=0

x2

l

2

; y; z

_ _

y

z

k

_ _

8y

q

z

k

EM

y; max

l

2

GI

T

sech

l

2

a

1

a

2

_ _ _

1

_ _

17

where A, B,

1

and

2

are the constants dened as follows,

A sin

2

l

2

sinh

1

l

2

18

B cos

2

l

2

cosh

1

l

2

19

1

1

2

a

0

a

2

_

1

4

a

1

a

2

_ _1

2

20

2

1

2

a

0

a

2

_

1

4

a

1

a

2

_ _1

2

21

For given dimensions of a section, one can use Eqs. (16) or (17) to

calculate the longitudinal stress at any coordinate point (y, z).

4. Comparison with EN1993-1-3

In the Eurocodes [3] the bending stress of the channel-section pur-

lin of depth h, ange width b, lip length c, and thickness t, with lateral

displacement fully restrained and rotation partially restrained at the

upper ange-web junction is calculated based on the two parts of

bending. One is the beam bent only in the plane of the web, in

which case the stress is calculated exactly the same as that given in

Eq. (15). The other is the compression part of the section, consisting

of the lip and ange plus 1/5 of web height from the compression

ange, bent about an axis parallel to z-axis, in which case the stress

is calculated as follows,

x2

l

2

; y; z

_ _

R

k

h

M

y; max

I

fz

y

R

k

h

M

y; max

I

fz

y y 22

Fig. 2. Bending stress calculated in EN1993-1-3. Upper: Compression part consisting of

lip and ange plus 1/5 of web length. Lower: Stress distribution due to the bending

about z* axis.

4 6 8 10 12 14

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Beam length, m

M

o

m

e

n

t

c

o

r

r

e

c

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

,

R

M

o

m

e

n

t

c

o

r

r

e

c

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

,

R

Present solution, k

=10 N

EN1993-1-3, k

=10 N

EN1993-1-3*, k

=10 N

Present solution, k

=100 N

EN1993-1-3, k

=100 N

EN1993-1-3*, k

=100 N

Present solution, k

=1000 N

EN1993-1-3, k

=1000 N

EN1993-1-3*, k

=1000 N

4 6 8 10 12 14

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Beam length, m

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3. Comparison of moment correction factors between the present and EN1993-1-3

models. In EN1993-1-3 K is calculated using Eq. (40), while in EN1993-1-3* K=k

/h

2

is

used, which ignores the section distortion in the spring stiffness used in EN1993-1-3

model. (a) (h=120 mm, b=50 mm, c=15 mm, t=1.5 mm, a=b/2). (b) (h=400 mm,

b=100 mm, c=30 mm, t=2.5 mm, a=b/2).

256 C. Ren et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

where k

R

the rotation restraint, dened as

R

10:0225R

1 1:013R

23

R

Kl

4

4

EI

fz

24

K

4 1

2

_ _

h

2

h b

mod

Et

3

h

2

k

_

_

_

_

1

25

k

h

y

q

2z

k

26

I

fz

is the second moment of the cross-section area of the compres-

sion part about z*-axis as dened in Fig. 2, y is the horizontal distance

between z- and z*-axes, v is Poisson's ratio, b

mod

=a is for cases where

the equivalent lateral force (k

h

q

z

) bringing the purlin into contact

with the sheeting at the purlin web, or b

mod

=2a+b is for cases

where the equivalent lateral force (k

h

q

z

) bringing the purlin into

contact with the sheeting at the tip of the purlin ange, and a is the

horizontal distance from the web line to the sheeting-purlin xing

point (in the present case a=b/2).

For the convenience of comparison, Eq. (16) is now rewritten into

the following format

x2

l

2

; y; z

_ _

k

R

k

h

M

y; max

I

eq

y

z

k

_ _

27

in which,

k

R

8I

eq

a

0

l

2

A

2

1

2

2

_ _

2

2

A

2

B

2

_ _

_

_

_

_

_

_ 28

10 20 30 40 50 60 70

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.25

1.3

1.35

1.4

1.45

1.5

h

2

/(bc)

I

e

q

/

I

f

z

y = -9.03/x

2

+ 3.47/x + 1.133

Fig. 4. Ratio of the equivalent second moments of cross-section area used in the present

(I

eq

) and EN1993-1-3 (I

fz

) models for 60 channel-sections.

0 20 40 60 80 100

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

Lip, flange and 1/5 of web lines, mm

S

t

r

e

s

s

r

a

t

i

o

,

x

2

/

a

b

s

(

x

1

)

S

t

r

e

s

s

r

a

t

i

o

,

x

2

/

a

b

s

(

x

1

)

Present solution

EN1993-1-3

(a)

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

Lip, flange and 1/5 of web lines, mm

Present solution

EN1993-1-3

(b)

Fig. 5. Bending stress distribution along the lip, ange and web lines (x-axis starts from

the tip of lip and ends at the 1/5 of the web length). (a) Section of h=120 mm,

b=50 mm, c=15 mm, t =1.5 mm and a=b/2. (b) Section of h=400 mm,

b=100 mm, c=30 mm, t =2.5 mm, and a=b/2.

Fig. 6. (a) Finite element mesh employed for the analysis of a channel section purlin.

(b) The deformed shape of the partially restrained purlin under uplift loading

(h=200 mm, b=75 mm, c=20 mm, t =2.0 mm, a=b/2, k

=300N).

257 C. Ren et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

I

eq

1

4

I

z

I

w

z

2

k

_ _

29

The comparison of Eqs. (22) and (27) shows that, there are three dif-

ferences between the present model and the EN1993-1-3 model for cal-

culating the longitudinal stress. The rst is the moment correction

factor used in calculating the lateral bending moment. The second is

the second moment of cross-section area used to calculate the bending

stress. The third is the lateral coordinate used to calculate the lateral

bending stress (or the position of the neutral axis).

Fig. 3 shows the comparisons of the moment correction factors

calculated from the present and EN1993-1-3 models. It can be seen

from the gure that, the moment correction factor decreases with

0 50 100 150

-5

0

5

Present solution

EN1993-1-3

FEA

0 50 100 150

-2

0

2

0 50 100 150

-2

0

2

Lip, flange and half-web lines, mm

0 50 100 150

-5

0

5

0 50 100 150

-2

-1

0

1

0 50 100 150

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

Lip, flange and half-web lines, mm

(a) L=4000mm

0 50 100 150

-5

0

5

Present solution

EN1993-1-3

FEA

0 50 100 150

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0 50 100 150

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

Lip, flange and half-web lines, mm

0 50 100 150

-5

0

5

0 50 100 150

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0 50 100 150

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

Lip, flange and half-web lines, mm

(c) L=8000mm

(b) L=6000mm

(d) L=12000mm

Fig. 7. Bending stress distribution along the lip, ange and web lines (x-axis starts from the tip of lip and ends at the half of web length, h=200 mm, b=75 mm, c=20 mm,

t =2.0 mm, a=b/2). Top: k

=0. Middle: k

=300N. Bottom: k

=750N.

258 C. Ren et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

the increase of either beam length or the stiffness of rotational spring.

The rate of the decrease is found to be faster in a small section than in

a large section. It can also be observed from the gure that the mo-

ment correction factor calculated using the EN1993-1-3 model is

higher than that calculated using the present model, particularly

when the stiffness of the rotational spring is very small or very large.

Note that the main difference in the moment correction factors

between the present and EN1993-1-3 models is the torsional rigidity

[21]. In the present model the torsional rigidity is included, which

makes the moment correction factor smaller, particularly for cases

where the stiffness of the rotational spring is small. In the EN1993-

1-3 model, the torsional rigidity is not included. However, its spring

stiffness, that is Eq. (25), takes into account the inuence of the sec-

tion distortion, which makes the moment correction factor larger,

particularly for the case where the stiffness of the torsional spring is

large. This is why more difference in the moment correction factors

between the two models is found in the case where the stiffness of

rotational spring is either very large or very small. If the section dis-

tortion is ignored in the spring stiffness in EN1993-1-3 model (that

is, EN1993-1-3* plotted in Fig. 3 and the corresponding results are

represented by the plus, x-mark, and star symbols), then the moment

correction factor predicted by EN1993-1-3 model is found to be

higher for the small stiffness of rotational spring but lower for the

large stiffness of rotational spring than that calculated using the pre-

sent model.

Fig. 4 shows the variation of the ratio of the equivalent second

moment of cross-section area I

eq

used in the present model and that

I

fz

used in EN1993-1-3 model for 60 channel-sections of different

sizes produced by a UK manufacturer [20]. The justication of the def-

inition of I

eq

can be found in [21]. The gure shows that for all sections

the second moment of cross-section area employed in the EN1993-1-

3 model is smaller than the equivalent second moment used in the

present model. This indicates that the bending stress calculated

using EN1993-1-3 model will be higher. Note that the increase in

web length involved in I

fz

does not simply scale down or scale up

the bending stress in the ange. This is because although it increases

the value of I

fz

, it also changes the position of the neutral axis and thus

alters the stress distribution pattern in the ange. In literature there is

some argument on how to choose suitable web length to be included

in the beam-column model to calculate the out-of-plane bending

stress. In the Australia design codes [16], for example, it is suggested

to use 35% of the total web length, instead of the 20% of the total web

length as used in EN1993-1-3, in the beam-column model.

The third difference between the present and EN1993-1-3 models

is the coordinates used to calculate the bending stress in Eqs. (22) and

(27). EN1993-1-3 model does not take into account the warping

stress, whereas the present model does. Fig. 5 shows a comparison

of the bending stresses generated by the lateral displacement due to

the lateral load -k

h

q

z

along the lip, ange and web lines, obtained

from the two models, which shows a combined inuence of the sec-

ond moment of cross-section area and the coordinate. For the sim-

plicity of comparison, the correction factor in both models is not

applied (that is, k

R

=k

R

using the maximum value of

x1

. It can be seen from the gure that

the EN1993-1-3 model predicts higher stresses in the lip, web, and

most part of the ange than the present model does. It is only in the

small part near the angeweb junction of the large section where

the stress predicted by the EN1993-1-3 is slightly lower than that

predicted by the present model. This implies that the EN1993-1-3

model is more conservative in predicting the bending stresses.

5. Validation of the present model

The present model is validated by using both nite element anal-

ysis results and available experimental data. The nite element model

employed here is very similar to what we used for the zed-section

[21]. Fig. 6 shows a typical mesh employed in the analysis and the

deformed shape of the partially restrained channel-section purlin

under a uniformly distributed uplift load (a half of the beam). The

experimental data are taken from Hancock and his colleagues reports

[15,16], who described a series of tests on simply supported channel

section purlins with screw-fastened sheeting under wind uplift load-

ing, performed in a vacuum test rig.

Fig. 7 shows the detailed comparison of the total bending stresses

obtained from the nite element analysis, the present model and the

EN1993-1-3 model. It can be seen from the gure that, the results

predicted by the present model agree very well with the nite ele-

ment analysis results. While for most of cases the results provided

by the EN1993-1-3 model are over conservative, particularly when

the stiffness of the rotational spring is very small. Since the stresses

plotted in Fig. 7 are normalised by the maximum bending stress in

the web plane, the variation of the stress along the compression

ange reects the contribution of the bending stress due to lateral de-

ection. It can be found from the gure that, the lateral bending

reduces the bending stress (or alters the stress direction from com-

pression to tension) near the ange and lip junction but increases

the bending stress near the ange and web junction. The extent of the

reduction or increase in stresses is dependent on the stiffness of the

rotational spring. The larger the stiffness of the rotational spring, the

smaller the stress contributed by the lateral bending. It is noticed from

Fig. 7 that, the contribution of the lateral bending is very signicant to

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

-1.2

-1.1

-1

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

Lip, flange and half-web lines, mm

Present solution

EN1993-1-3

FEA

Rousch&Hancock test

(a)

(b)

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

,

m

m

Beam Length, mm

Present solution

EN1993-1-3

FEA

Rousch&Hancock test

Fig. 8. (a) Bending stress distribution along the lip, ange and web lines (x-axis starts

from the tip of lip and ends at the half of the web length). (b) Lateral deection at

lower ange-web junction (h=202 mm, b=76.7 mm, c=20.8 mm, t =1.51 mm).

259 C. Ren et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

the total longitudinal bending stress, particularly when the stiffness of

the rotational spring is small.

Fig. 8 shows the comparison of total bending stresses and lateral

deections of the compression ange obtained from different models.

Again, the good agreement of the present model with the experimen-

tal data demonstrates that the linear bending model with taking into

account the warping torsion can provide a good prediction for the

bending stresses of the partially restrained channel-section purlin

subjected to uplift loading. In contrast, the bending stress provided

by EN1993-1-3 model is likely over-predicted.

6. Conclusions

This paper has presented an analytical model which can describe

the bending and twisting behaviour of the partially restrained

channel-section purlins when subjected to uplift loading. Formulae

to calculate the bending stresses of roof purlins have been derived

using the classical bending theory of thin-walled beams. Detailed

comparisons of bending stresses obtained from the nite element

analysis, available experimental data, the present model and the

EN1993-1-3 model are provided, which demonstrates that the linear

bending model with taking into account warping torsion can provide

good prediction for the bending stresses of the sheeting-purlin sys-

tem. The results obtained from the present model have also shown

that the longitudinal stress induced by the lateral bending is signi-

cant for channel-section purlins. This additional stress may change

the failure modes from lateral-torsional buckling to local or distor-

tional buckling.

References

[1] Li LY, Chu XT. Cold-formed steel sections. In: Martin LH, Purkiss JA, editors.

Structural design of steelwork. Oxford: Elsevier; 2007. p. 41157. Chapter 11.

[2] Li LY. Calculation of moment capacity of cold-formed steel members. International

Journal of Structural Engineering 2010;2(2):10115.

[3] ENV1993-1-3. Eurocode 3 design of steel structures Part 13: general rules

supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting. BSI; 2006.

[4] Lucas RM, Al-Bermani GA, Kitiporchai S. Modelling of cold-formed purlin-sheeting

systems Part 1: full model. Thin Walled Struct 1997;27(3):22343.

[5] Lucas RM, Al-Bermani GA, Kitiporchai S. Modelling of cold-formed purlin-sheeting

systems Part 2: simplied model. Thin Walled Struct 1997;27(4):26386.

[6] Ye ZM, Kettle R, Li LY. Analysis of cold-formed zed-purlins partially restrained by

steel sheeting. Comput Struct 2004;82:7319.

[7] Ye ZM, Kettle R, Li LY, Schafer B. Buckling behaviour of cold-formed zed-purlins

partially restrained by steel sheeting. Thin Walled Struct 2002;40:85364.

[8] Vieira Jr LCM, Malite M, Schafer BW. Simplied models for cross-section stress

demands on C-section purlins in uplift. Thin Walled Struct 2010;48:3341.

[9] Li LY. Lateraltorsional buckling of cold-formed zed-purlins partial-laterally

restrained by metal sheeting. Thin Walled Struct 2004;42(7):9951011.

[10] Toma T, Wittemann K. Design of cold-formed purlins and rails restrained by

sheeting. J Constr Steel Res 1994;31:14968.

[11] Roger CA, Schuster RM. Flange/web distortional buckling of cold-formed steel sec-

tions in bending. Thin Walled Struct 1997;27(1):1329.

[12] Svensson SE. Lateal buckling of beams analysed as elastically supported columns

subject to a varying axial force. J Constr Steel Res 1985;5:17993.

[13] Sokol L. Stability of cold formed purlins braced by steel sheeting. Thin Walled

Struct 1996;25(4):24768.

[14] Pekz T, Soroushian P. Behaviour of C and Z-purlins under wind uplift. Sixth

International Specialty Conference on Cold-formed Steel Structures, St. Louis,

Missouri, USA; 1982. 1982.

[15] Hancock GJ, Celeban M, Healy C, Georgiou PN, Ings NL. Tests of purlins with screw

fastened sheeting under wind uplift. Tenth International Speciality Conference on

Cold-formed Steel Structures, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 1990.

[16] Rousch CJ, Hancock GJ. Comparison of tests of bridged and unbridged purlins with

a nonlinear analysis model. J Constr Steel Res 1997;41(2/3):197220.

[17] Katnam KB, van Impe R, Lagae G, De Strycker M. A theoretical numerical study of

the rotational restraint in cold-formed steel single skin purlin-sheeting systems.

Comput Struct 2007;85:118593.

[18] Katnam KB, van Impe R, Lagae G, De Strycker M. Modelling of cold-formed steel

sandwich purlin-sheeting systems to estimate the rotational restraint. Thin

Walled Struct 2007;45:58490.

[19] Timoshenko SP, Gere JM. Theory of elastic stability. New York: McGraw-Hill;

1961.

[20] Albion Sections Ltd. Albion sections Zed purlin and rail technical manual.

Birmingham, UK; 2008 http://www.albionsections.co.uk.

[21] Li LY, Ren C, Yang J. Theoretical analysis of partially restrained zed-purlin beams

subjected to up-lift loads. J Constr Steel Res 2012;70:2739.

260 C. Ren et al. / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012) 254260

- Tran Dai q 200905 MastHochgeladen vonMahfuzur Rahman
- SPE Paper ReferencesHochgeladen vonjamarti
- M.AdilDarHochgeladen vonZeeshaan Bhatt
- FFHochgeladen vonMuhammad Firdaus
- zHochgeladen vonAdal Contreras
- Course Information for StudentsHochgeladen vonMUHAMMAD NURNAJMI
- Shell Structures 2003Hochgeladen vonPaul Daher
- kheiderHochgeladen vonwallisonkennedy014
- Staad pro Tutorial.Hochgeladen vonArushiBiswas
- 2382_1Hochgeladen vonVijay Kumar
- Design of purlins.docxHochgeladen vonSankalp Lama
- ce2032Hochgeladen vonMohamed Zamri
- ContentHochgeladen vonHemam Prasanta
- Buckling consideration inn Pile designHochgeladen vonPeyman Mzn
- Effect of Local Buckling on the Design of Steel Plate Girders SSRC 2010Hochgeladen vonabuhamd3761
- Behavior, Design and Construction of Horizontally Curved Composite Steel Box Girder BridgesHochgeladen von魏学军
- GardnerandNethercot2004-Structuralstainlesssteeldesign-anewapproachHochgeladen vonLinh Tran
- Flexural Test Longitudinally Stiffened Fabricated Seet CylindersHochgeladen vonWashington Morais
- CE470 F07 Beam DesignHochgeladen vonMoisés Vázquez Toledo
- 33015252_bunHochgeladen vonAnonymous 1hOgJqwZuz
- Saint VernantHochgeladen vonibrahimugrl
- Br No 469 Pier designHochgeladen vonBasava Sowmya
- Post Buckling Behaviour.pdfHochgeladen vontech
- eth-41432-01Hochgeladen vonAnonymous dkML2wzU
- ctsunindexHochgeladen vonvenkat_venkat
- Design of Input Gear-shaft-examplerHochgeladen vonGuru Prasad
- D4476D4476M-14 Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Fiber Reinforced Pultruded Plastic RodsHochgeladen vonAhmed Abbas Ghubin
- Chap6_madhukarHochgeladen vonDaniel Espinoza
- labmanual-bn3201-2Hochgeladen vonSanjay Ragupathy
- CBA Datasheet 10 (10-200)Hochgeladen vonSteven Zuk

- Calculation of the Moment Resistance of Z- And C-Shaped Cold-Formed Sections According to Eurocode 3Hochgeladen vonLiviu Ion
- Elastic Buckling of Cold-formed Channel Sections in ShearHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- 1-s2.0-0263823196000201-mainHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- Design of Cold-Formed Steel Built-up Post Members_tsnHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- BuildersGuideResidentialSteelFloors.pdfHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- c-propHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- Optimum Design of CFSHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- MSE-1112-016-Section-optimization-cold-formed-steel-columns-stiffeners.pdfHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- LandolfoHochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho
- AISI DSMHoles Report Final R2Hochgeladen vonNuno Pedrinho

- ublHochgeladen vonAnonymous hPr5tSz
- Tutorial No 4 TorsionHochgeladen vonwaleedkhalillahmed
- Structural PrinciplesHochgeladen vonOghenerume
- Calculation Method of the Pull Back Force for Cable Laying of the Trenchless Completed Power Pipeline-Chan Wu Et AlHochgeladen vontosinmann3557
- Deflections an IntroductionHochgeladen vonAnonymous CARgcGMTX
- Mohr MethodHochgeladen vonEleni Douvi
- Beam Analysis in MatlabHochgeladen vonNajibullah Al Farisy
- Red Blue Green bookHochgeladen vonRufus Cheng
- Diseño de Escalera HelicoidalHochgeladen vonPedro Luis Choque Mamani
- Jian_Bian_Thesis-psc sleepers.pdfHochgeladen vonJagadeesh Bommisetty
- Finite Element Modelling of Hydro ElasticityHochgeladen vontrollguele
- Applied_Strength_of_Materials_Sixth_Edit.pdfHochgeladen vonDiego santiago de lima
- Structural ElementsHochgeladen vonAdam Foltz
- HC Slabs and JointsHochgeladen vonkangchin
- E-TN-CBD-BS-5950-90-001Hochgeladen vonlt2955
- String FatigueHochgeladen vonNagaraju Jalla
- Rak-50 3149 m. l13- ExcavationsHochgeladen vonjames_frank
- Case-Study-Report.pptxHochgeladen vonKriselle Jane Ang-angan Gaerlan
- SCL_Through_Areas_of_Peak_Stress.pdfHochgeladen vonMas Arman Tewo
- SapReferHochgeladen vonRija Hossain
- Practice ProblemsHochgeladen vonJejo Duqz
- 2014 - Damage identification-Modal Curvature.pdfHochgeladen vonpaulkohan
- Interview Questions and AnswersHochgeladen vonLisa Malone
- BENDING-SHEAR INTERACTION OF LONGITUDINALLY STIFFENED GIRDERSHochgeladen vonrajarshibose
- Plate and Box Girder DesignHochgeladen vonkalimo7
- Raft Analysis and Design - Some Practical ExamplesHochgeladen vonCw Tan
- FLEXURAL ANALYSIS1Hochgeladen vonMuhammad Waleed Khan
- ASME Sección VIII Div. 2. Interpretaciones Volume 60Hochgeladen vonEduardo Tello del Pino
- Trunnion Calc r6Hochgeladen vonChirag Shah
- Applications-Design of Buckling Restrained Braces in JapanHochgeladen vonOmarVarga

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.