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OSI MODEL

This model was proposed in 1978 by the Communications of local webs and it tried
to have an order among the Exchange of information in the computers, people, webs, and
process. This model defines WHERE have to be done, but it does not define HOW to it
specifics neither services nor protocols.
The OSI LEVEL provides a common base for coordination in the development of standars
toward the conexion in the communication systems.

THE LAYER OF APLICATION LEVEL
It offers the applications (of users or not) the possibility to access the services of
other layers and define the protocols that applications use to exchange information, such
as: EMAIL (POP&SMTP), gestors of data bases, and protocols of file transference (FTP).
Also the user doesnt have interaction directly with this layer, usually he has interaction
with the software that same time it has interaction with the level of application but hiding
complexity.
For example when we are in chat of messenger, it doesnt necessary that we encode the
information and the information for the user of another side. In this layer appear different
protocols:
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
DNS (Domain Name Service)
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
HTTP(Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
NAT(Network Address Translation)
POP(Post Office Protocol)
SMTP(Simple Mail Transport Protocol)
SSH(Secure SHell)
TELNET To have access to remote hardware



LAYER OF PRESENTATION LEVEL
Basically its function is the format to show the information. It set the context in elements
level of application and it determines how it have had to represent the information, it
does a traduction of the format of software to the web understands and vice versa.
Additionally this layer has to secure that the language van be understood for the emmisor
and the receptor into of the web.
For example: A communication between two international companies that use English as
a language to have communication because it is a language that both understand although
it is not having its mother language.
LAYER OF THE SESSION LEVEL
This layer control the communication between computers, it commonly we know as
sessions. It establishes, manage and finish the conexions between the local applications
and the remote applications.
Also it determinates if the communication is simplex (in one sense), semi duplex (in both
senses, but only one sense each once) or duplex (both senses at same time) also it
regulates the checkpoints for it can take again the session if the information was
interrupted or cut. For example when we download a file from internet and we can re
download in the point that this download was interrupted we can do it such as in Bit
torrent and Ares.
LAYER OF THE TRANSPORT LAYER
It gives through the transport of information between the finally users (conexion side to
side), offering safe information through the superior levels on the process. It segments the
information that it receives of the superior levels toward the inferior levels. The transport
layer works oriented, for the conexion or no conexion. The most famous examples of this
level are the protocols:
TCP(Oriented to the conexion)
UDP(Oriented to no conexion)




LAYER OF THE WEB LEVEL
It contains the process to look the road most appropriate into the web. This level says us
the possible errors in the communication and the correct sending of the information but it
doesnt check if the information has arrived good or bad, if not if the message arrives or
no arrive. For example: The internet protocol (IP)

LAYER OF THE LEVEL DATA LINK
This layer determinates the process and the functions for the transference of the data
between the elements web and detecting (sometimes to correct) mistakes in the physic
level. The principal task of this level is the detection of the possible mistakes and the
control of the informations flow to avoid possible saturations.

LAYER OF THE PHYSIC LEVEL
IT defines the physical and electrical specifications of the devices. It refers at relation
between the device with the physic mediums (coxial cable, radio and infrareds) also the
physic level says at the advice how transmitting in the medium or how receiving the
information therefore it level establish and finish the communication in the medium.