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# Chapter 34 Electric Current Review Questions

1. What condition is necessary for the flow of heat? What analogous condition is necessary for the flow of
charge? (34.1)
There needs to be a temperature difference for the flow of heat; likewise a voltage difference is necessary for
the flow of charge.
2. What is meant by the term potential? What is meant by potential difference? (34.1)
Electric Potential is defined as the Potential Energy per unit Charge (EP = PE/!; Potential difference is the
C"#\$%E in Potential energy per unit Charge (EP = PE/! between any two points of a circuit.
3. What condition is necessary for the sustained flow of water in a pipe? What analogous condition is necessary
for the sustained flow of charge in a wire? (34.1)
&n order for water to flow in a pipe there must be a pressure difference; likewise for the flow of charge in a
wire there must be a potential difference.
4. What is electric current? (34.2)
Electric Current is defined as the flow of positi'e charges.
5. What is an ampere? (34.2)
The ampere is a unit of current defined as ( Coulomb of charge flowing past a gi'en point per second in a
circuit (( #mp = ( C / ( sec!.
. What is !oltage? (34.3)
)oltage is defined as the PE gi'en per unit charge (PE/!; it is the electric *pressure+ that produces current.
". #ow many \$oules per coulomb are gi!en to charges that flow in a 12%&!olt circuit? (34.3)
(,- ) = (,- .oules / ( Coulomb.
'. (oes charge flow through a circuit or into a circuit? (34.3)
Charge flows through a circuit rather than into a circuit due to an electric field established by a potential
difference.
). (oes !oltage flow through a circuit* or is !oltage established across a circuit? (34.3)
)oltage is established across a circuit/ causing charges to flow by establishing an electric field.
10. What is electric resistance? (34.4)
Electric resistance is the property of materials that resists flow of charge/ measured in ohms (!.
11. +s electric resistance greater in a short fat wire or a long thin wire? (34.4)
There is greater resistance in a long thin wire than a short fat wire/ 0ust like it would be harder to push
water through a long thin pipe than a short thick one. .umper cables for a car are a great e1ample of
thick/ low resistance wires in order to allow a lot of current to flow to the battery of a dead car.
12. What is ,hm-s law? (34.5)
Current = 'oltage/resistance.
13. +f the !oltage impressed across a circuit is constant but the resistance doubles* what change occurs in the
current? (34.5)
The current would drop to half/ in accord with 2hm3s law (& = )/4!.
14. +f the resistance of a circuit remains constant while the !oltage across the circuit decreases to half its former
!alue* what change occurs in the current? (34.5)
"alf as much current (& = )/4!.
15. #ow does wetness affect the resistance of your body? (34.)
5etness lowers skin resistance.
1. Why is it that a bird can perch without harm on a high&!oltage wire? (34.)
There is 'ery little or no potential difference across the body of the bird on a high6'oltage line. &f the bird
straddled , different lines7well that would be a different story8
1". What is the function of the third prong in a household electric plug? (34.)
9er'es as a ground for safety reasons.
1'. (istinguish between dc and ac. Which is produced by a battery and which is usually produced by a
generator? (34.")
:irect current is produced by a battery and flows in only one direction/ whereas alternating current is
produced by a generator and alternates direction.
1). . diode con!erts ac to pulsed dc. What electric de!ice smooths the pulsed dc to a smoother dc? (34.')
# capacitor.
2%. What are the roles of a diode and a capacitor in an ac&dc con!erter? (34.')
:iode con'erts ac to dc/ capacitor smooths current.
21. What is a typical /drift0 speed of electrons that ma1e up a current in a typical dc circuit? +n a typical ac
circuit? (34.))
&n dc/ less than ( cm/s; in ac/ ;ero drift speed since direction of current alternates.
22. 2rom where do the electrons originate that flow in a typical electric circuit? (34.1%)
<rom the conductors themsel'es8
23. What is power? (34.11)
Power = energy/time/ rate of doing work or rate at which energy is e1pended measured in watts.
24. Which of these is a unit of power and which is a unit of electric energy3 a watt* a 1ilowatt* a 1ilowatt&hour?
(34.11)
Power is measured in watts or kilowatts; electrical energy is often measured in the kilowatt6hour.
25. #ow many amperes flow through a %&watt bulb when 12% !olts are impressed across it? (34.11)
<rom P= &)/ =- 5 = & ((,- )!; & = -.> #.