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History of the telecommunications world

at 5 this assignment I will discuss about the development of telecommunications


in the world of yore zama

Telecommunications is derived from the word tele meaning far and Communicate
meaningful communication. So simply telecommunications can mean long-
distance communication. Telecommunications is not only a voice but also can be
done visually (visible) and electrically. Remote communication is also already
existed since time immemorial. Following the development of
telecommunications technology from time to time:

Telecommunications in the early days
At this time the telecommunications facilities used in the form of media that is
very simple,

Drums used by native peoples of Africa, New Guinea and South America. In
China, people use "Tamtam", a large circular metal plates that create loud sounds
that could be heard from a far distance.

In the 5th century BC, ancient Greeks and Romans used fire to communicate from
mountain to mountain or tower to tower. Telecommunications is used during the
war and only effective at night.

In the 2nd century AD the Romans use smoke on the tower as telecommunication
media. Each tower can produce smoke that can be seen by other towers that are
nearby. The telecommunication system is used to convey messages in a military
colony ruled over an increasingly wide.

In the 4th century AD, Aeneas the Tactician proposed telecommunication system
using the so-called hydro-water optical telegraph. The telecommunications system
utilizing the water level as the codes in communication. This system can send
messages very quickly from one place to another.


During the French Revolution, Claude Chappe find telecommunication device
called mechanical-optical semaphore telegraph or often called. The tool is in the
form of a rod that can be driven using the strap so that it can form a variety of
symbols / letters, which accounted for 196 (capital letters, small, punctuation and
numbers). The tool is mounted on the roof of the building so it could be seen from
a distance.













Telekomunikasi Elektrik
The first commercial electrical telegraph was built
on 9 April 1839 in England by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill
Cooke, operates with a range of 21 kilometers on the Great Western Railway May
24, 1844, Samuel Morse with Alfred Vail successfully built a telegraph that can
record messages into rolls of paper.

Ten years later (1876), 29-year-old young man named Alexander Graham Bell
and his assistant Thomas Watson (22 years old) found a conventional telephone.
Invention of the telephone in this period is considered very important because it
can transmit the voice over wires. Communication via this sounds more natural
and can be done by anyone. "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you!" The first is the
sound that is sent through wires by Graham Bell.

Cable network is slow and expensive in construction that led to the idea of the
wireless network without wires. Actually, this effort began in 1832 when James
Lindsay mendemonstrarsikan wireless telegraphy before the students. And in
1854 he succeeded in sending a message from Dundee to Woodhaven within
about 3 kilometers with water as the transmission medium.

Guglimo Marconi an Italian electrical engineer, developed a system of telegraphy
without wires known as "radio". The meaning of his new invention dramatically
illustrated in 1909 when the SS Republic sank to the ocean floor. News radio is
very helpful, all the passengers could be rescued but six people.
On March 25, 1925 in London, John Logie Baird Scot
managed to send a message in the form of moving silhouette images. In October
1925 Baird successfully transmit a moving image is actually better known as
"TV" using the Nipkow disk that is known as the mechanical television.
Furthermore, Baird managed to build denganchatode-ray color television tubes.

Computer-based telecommunications

Since the invention of the computer in the 1930s, the development of
telecommunications becomes very fast. Various attempts were made to send data
from one computer to another. August 1982, the protocol of electronic mail (e-
mail) was introduced. In May 1996, the HTTP / 1.0 or hyperlinked internet
protocol successfully implemented. The second application that makes a
computer-based telecommunications became popular.

It can be concluded that the combined voice and telecommunication equipment
such as sound and visuals such as live streaming conversations or video calls that
exist today are the result of the development of telecommunications that has been
passed from time to time. During its development, telecommunications devices
that are used to change the shape of the "primitive" to the easy and simple to use.


Starting in 1957, through the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the
United States was determined to develop an integrated communication networks
that interconnect science communities and military purposes. This is motivated by
the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union (in 1957 the Soviets
launched sputnik).
The first major development of the Internet is the most important invention of the
ARPA packet switching Packet switching in 1960 is sending a message that can
be broken down into smaller packages, each package can be through a variety of
alternative pathways damaged if one of the main track to achieve its intended
purpose. Packet switching also allows the network can be used simultaneously to
make a lot of connections, in contrast to the telephone lines that require special
line to connect. So when the ARPANET became a national computer network in
the United States in 1969, packet switching is used as a whole as replacing circuit
switching communication method used on public telephone lines.
The second major development Internet internet history is recorded on the
development of a network layer protocol known as the most widely used today is
TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). Protocol is a set of
rules to relate between networks. This protocol was developed by Robert Kahn
and Vinton Cerf in 1974 with standard protocols and widely agreed upon, then the
local network that is spread in various places can be interconnected to form a
giant network is even now reaching around the world. Network using the internet
protocol is what is often referred to as the Internet.
ARPANET network becomes larger since then and began to be managed by the
private sector in 1984, the more universities begin commercial company
incorporated and entered. TCP / IP protocol be agreed common protocols that can
communicate on the network is the Internet.
It can be concluded that the combined voice and telecommunication equipment
such as sound and visuals such as live streaming conversations or video calls that
exist today are the result of the development of telecommunications that has been
passed from time to time. During its development, telecommunications devices
that are used to change the shape of the "primitive" to the easy and simple to use

FIRST COMMUNICATION WITH A DIFFERENCE NOW
communication


Communication is a process of delivering information (messages, ideas, ideas)
from one party to another. In general, communication is made orally or verbally
that can be understood by both parties. if there is no verbal language that can be
understood by both, communication can still be done using body movements,
show certain attitudes, such as smiling, shook his head, shrugging. This way is
called nonverbal communication.


Media communication tools are
________________________________________
Media communication tools are tools used intermediaries in the delivery of
information from the communicator to komunikate that aim for efficient
dissemination of information or the message.


Sorts - Various Communication Tools and Functions
________________________________________
Based on his age and time of use of communication equipment is classified into
two kinds:
1 masalalu communication tools (Traditional communication tools)
2 Akat modern communication
Functions and uses of traditional and modern communication tools

A. Examples of Traditional Communication Tools

1. Kentongan

In the kingdom, gong is used to convey messages and orders from the king to the
people. Officers royal gong and hit quite a few moments later the people rushed
together in a place that has been commonly used for a meeting between the king
with his subjects to deliver informasi.Meskipun today are increasingly
sophisticated technology, but some people can not leave this traditional
communication media, especially in the area countryside which is used as a means
of night watchmen. There is also quite a large gong shaped or often called'bedug'
used by the public as a marker tiba.Dalam prayer time usage, gong is struck with a
rhythm that is different and the corresponding events will be taking place. For
example, a sign indicating the presence kentongan house fire, flood disaster, theft,
or the existence of hordes of opposing forces that come against future wars
ancient kingdom.
Benefits and Functions Kentongan:
Initially, gong is used as a complementary tool to notify the presence of patrolling
thief or a natural disaster. In rural communities, is often used when the gong-suro
suro small or society as a caller to the mosque for prayers when the hour has
come. kentongan known as traditional technology has undergone a transformation
function. in modern society, gong used as one of the effective tools to prevent
dengue fever. With kentongan, monitoring of mosquito larvae eradication was
done. In the farming community, is often used as a tool to drive kentongan
animals that destroy crops and rice citizen

2. bells


Bell is a simple device that creates sound digunakanuntuk. The shape is usually
adalahsebuah tube with one open side and resonates when struck. Tools to be a
long hitter to hit a bell hung in a separate tersebutatau hitter. According KBBI,
loncengmemiliki two senses, first bell is a kind of bell that was rung to determine
the time ataumemberitahukan something, while the second sense, the bell is a
large clock or watch. Large bells are generally made darilogam but small bells can
also be made of ceramic or porselen.Dahulu bells used to spread the news to the
community dansebagai a time marker. The bells are also used by Christians to
worship memberitanda time, usually rung three times, in 0600. 12.00, dan18.00.
The bells were first used in the Catholic church around the year 400 AD, and is
considered to be introduced by Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, a town in Campania,
Italia.Penggunaannya spread quickly and are not only used to gather people in a
religious event, but also as a warning when there is danger
3. Bedug

Drum is a percussion instrument like a drum. Bedugmerupakan traditional
musical instrument which has digunakansejak thousands of years ago, which has a
function as a traditional alatkomunikasi, both in ritualkeagamaan and political
activities. In Indonesia, a drum biasadibunyikan to notice the prayer time
atausembahyang. Drum made from a large piece of wood or palm trees along
approximately one meter or more. The middle section tubular batangdilubangi so
big. The tip of the larger stems covered with animal skin that serves as a
membrane or membrane gendang.Bila sounded, causing the drum heavy sound,
pitched a typical, low, but dapatterdengar to a considerable distance.

4. Letters

Based on the inscriptions and documents found, correspondence in
Indonesia has been around since the days of the Kingdom Mulawarman,
Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, Ancient Mataram, Purnawarman, and Majapahit.
The entry of Buddhist and Hindu culture maneulis trigger and
correspondence. However, usually only done between nobles and monks.
The shape is simple, using stone, wood, bark, bamboo or papyrus, and use
the Sanskrit language.
When the VOC rule (around 17th and 18th centuries), correspondence
conducted between the island and mainland Europe Jwa. When the letter
should only be addressed to the officials and its contents should not be
telling VOC activities in Indonesia. Delivery through the ship sailed from
the Netherlands to Indonesia or vice versa. Shortly delivery services also
appear melalaui office fit snugly. Mail delivery even more smoothly when
the Post Road (de Grote Posweg) from Anyer to Panarukan (1,000 km)
was built. The time needed to send a letter from West Java to East Java
shorter.
5. Pigeon Post

A communication tool using pigeons as delivering a letter or message, Merpati
chosen because these birds are smart, has a strong memory, the ability to navigate
and natural instinct to return to the nest, this method comes from the Persians who
trained pigeons. First used by the Sultan of Baghdad, Nuruddin (1416) to send the
message about the kingdom. The Romans used carrier pigeons to send messages
to the military forces. Greeks Olympics notify winners via carrier pigeon. during
the First World War (1914-1918) using permati any American troops heading for
communication
6. FIRE

The fire was caused by hot substance burning item, derived from the oxidation
process so berupaenergi varying intensity and has the form of light (with
wavelengths also outside spektrumvisual so it can not be seen by the human eye)
and heat can also cause smoke. Fire is also used in traditional communication
7. Smoke

8. Communication medium is quite unique and very popularly used by the
Indians in America. Smoke can be used to transmit confidential
information to temanmaupun opponent. In communicating using smoke,
there is no standard codes so that not everyone can read the intent of
yangdikirim smoke. However, a common and often we see in some
movies, the smoke can digunakanuntuk ask for help when someone is
being lost in the woods with a way to use smoke in existence. Or maybe
you've come dalamkegiatan Scouts where they use smoke in a game chain
messages
9. INSCRIPTION

According to Big Indonesian Dictionary, prasastimerupakan charter is written in
stone, copper, and so on. The inscription is an important historical source for
future events lalu.Prasasti uncover the source of a written document and must
yangorisinil guarantee its authenticity as relics of the lalu.Menurut Matrical
Eulogitic Inscription, Ms. Dannel, Sanskrit Dictionary, which contains the
inscription means writing praise and seorangraja is a gift given to the people and
the enactment of the turuntemurun. The term is said to be in a state Kertagama
purwasarirareng rinaksan Iwo prasatyalama tan, which means the privileges that
since dahuludilindungi by ancient inscriptions.
9. Daun Lontar

In addition to the inscriptions, palm leaves are also used as a communication tool
of the past. Palm leaves are the leaves of a palm tree that is dried. Palm leaves,
also known as tree leaves Nira. Palm leaves used for writing scripts and crafts.
Naskahdari ejection are found in Sunda, Java, Bali, Madura, Lombok and South
Sulawesi. While the craft of papyrus digunakan untuk roof materials and primary
products woven and fan



B. Contoh Alat Komunikasi Modern


1. Telegrap

The telegraph is a machine / tool that uses telegraphy technology to send and
receive messages remotely. Telegraph word often heard today, is largely an
electric telegraph. Telegraph invented by an American named Samuel FB Morse
along with his assistant Alexander Bain..

2. PHONE

The phone is a communication tool that is used to deliver voice messages
(especially in the form of a conversation message). Most phones operate using
electric signal transmission in telephone networks that allows phone users to
communicate with other users.

The basic principle of telephone
When the handset is lifted, a position called the phone off the hook. Then the
circuit is divided into two paths where the positive part will serve as a tip that
shows zero while the negative part will serve as ring which shows the number -
48V DC. Both of these lines which will process the message from the sender to
the receiver to get. In order to produce a sound on the phone, an electrical signal is
transmitted over a telephone line which is then converted into a signal that can be
heard by phone receiver. For analog technology, the transmission of analog
signals transmitted from the central office (CO) will be converted to digital
transmission. The numbers as of phone numbers is a merger between the notes
and certain frequencies are then called Dual-tone multi-frequency DTMF and has
units of Hertz. Key relationships that exist in the circuit will be on the hook when
opened, and will appear vibrations. The sound that appears on the recipient's
phone indicates that the phone is ready for use.


3. Television

Television is a telecommunication medium that serves as a receiver known
broadcasting moving images along with the voice, whether it is monochrome
(black-white) or colored. The word "television" is a combination of words tele
(, "far") from the Greek and Visio ("vision") of the Latin language, so the
television can be interpreted as a "means of distance communication that uses
visual media / vision." Television is aligned with the invention of the wheel, since
the invention is capable of changing the world civilization. In Indonesia
'television' is not formally often called a TV (read: television, television or tipi.)

Box Television was first sold commercially since the 1920s, and since then the
television has become commonplace in homes, business offices, and institutions,
particularly as a source of entertainment and news will need as well as being a
media advertising. Since the 1970s, the emergence of video tapes, laser discs,
DVDs and now Blu-ray discs, but also make the television as a tool box to see the
material for broadcast and recording. In recent years, television has broadcast can
be accessed via the Internet,
4. Mobile Phone (hand Phone)

Cell phone (mobile phone) or mobile phones (telgam) or mobile (HP) or also
called is an electronic telecommunications device that has the same basic
capability with conventional fixed-line telephone, but it can be taken anywhere
(portable, mobile) and does not need connected to the telephone network using a
wired (wireless; wireless). Currently, Indonesia has two wireless telephone
networks, namely GSM (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) and
system of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). The governing body of
Indonesian cellular telecommunication is Indonesian Cellular
Telecommunications Association (ATSI).

5. Faksimili (FAX)
Fax machine is a communications device that is used to transmit a document by
using a device that is capable of operating over the telephone network with similar
results to the original.


Whereas According A.G. Pringgodigdo, fax machine is a wireless transmission
system for images and graphics with beams of light and how to set the
photoelectric cell and change the lightest and darkest parts of a material that can
be transmitted in the voice, and the receiver will turn it back to the original as
paper that has been treated scientifically. In addition to sending a document, a fax
machine is also capable of delivering the image of half-tone images with the
facility. Fax machine typically consists of a modem, copier, scanner images, and
the data display devices (printers).
6. Radio

Radio is a technology that is used for the transmission of signals by means of
modulation and electromagnetic radiation (electromagnetic waves). These waves
pass and propagate through the air and can also propagate through the vacuum of
space, because these waves do not require a carrier medium (such as air
molecules)
Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation, and is formed when
electrically charged object of wave oscillator (carrier wave) modulated by the
audio waves (superimposed frequency) at frequencies contained in the radio
frequency (RF; "radio frequency")) on a spectrum electromagnetic, and
electromagnetic radiation moves with oscillating electric and magnetic ways.
Other electromagnetic waves having a frequency above the radio waves include
gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light.
When radio waves are sent through the cable and then radiated by the antenna, the
oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields are expressed in the form of
alternating current and voltage in the cable. Of radio wave beam can then be
changed by the radio receiver (radio) into an audio signal or other carrying
broadcast and information..



7. Pager
Calling a pager or radia telecommunications equipment to deliver and
receive short messages. Now it may be rare, but it is still often used for
people who are engaged in services such as information on health services.
Paging discovered in 1956 by Multitone Electronic Hospital St. Thomas
London by doctors who were on duty in an emergency. Since the pager is
growing. Before developing a mobile phone, a pager is used as a substitute
for local and international telephone services. In Indonesia pagers emerged
before the year 1997 reached 800,000 subscribers. but due to the
continuous price soar subscriber is slowly declining. Moreover,
technology has been the advent of mobile phones.


8. Internet

The circuit is formed iuternet (short for interconnected-networking) started in
1969 as the ARPANET. The circuit is built by ARPA (United States Department
of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). 1983 ARPANET protocol to
exchange a series of head of the NCP to TCP / IP, which is the beginning of the
internet as we know it. In Indonesia, the history of the Internet began in the early
1990s. 1992 to 1994, some names appear at the beginning of the development of
the internet one of them Onno W. Purbo. 1994 IndoNet into ISP (Internet Provider
Serveci) first commercial in Indonesia. Currently, the Postal and
Telecommunications have not seen a crack internet business. By 1995 appear
Telnet access services abroad, so that Internet users in Indonesia can access the
internet (HTTP).