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E - LEARNING AND TEACHER EDUCATION.

Unit: 5
Subject: Geography.
Form: Senior 3 and 4
Topic: Earth movements.
Sub-topic: (1) Folding and faulting
() !ol"ani"ity.
rie! "e#cription o! Topic.
#his unit deals $ith the formation of the lands"ape of East %fri"a. #he for"es& $hi"h
produ"e physi"al features& are of t$o types: internal for"es and e'ternal for"es.
Earth movements e.g. folding& faulting& do$n $arping and up $arping& vol"ani"ity
and earth(ua)es have formed features on the lands"ape of E. %fri"a.
$%in content %n" concept# to emp&%#i'e:
*y the end of the lessons students should +e a+le to:
,dentify different physi"al features in East %fri"a.
-es"ri+e the for"es $hi"h produ"e physi"al features on the lands"ape of East
%fri"a.
-es"ri+e the earth movements "aused +y folding& faulting& do$n $arping and
up $arping& vol"ani"ity e.t." and their effe"ts on the relief of E. %fri"a.
,dentify the features formed as a result of vol"ani"ity& faulting and folding of
the earth.s "rust.
,dentify the importan"e of folding& faulting& and vol"ani"ity.
1
Te%c&in( )*e%rnin( m%teri%*# %n" %cti+itie#.
#e't +oo)s
-iagrams sho$ing the different features and formation of different pro"esses.
SU-TO,IC: - FOLDING AND FAULTING.
Intro"uction:
#he for"es $hi"h produ"e physi"al features are of t$o folds i.e. internal for"es and
e'ternal for"es.
,nternal for"es are lateral and verti"al for"es $ithin the earth surfa"e leading to
earth(ua)es& vul"ani"ity& faulting and folding.
E'ternal for"es operates on the earth.s surfa"e leading to denudation & gla"iation river
a"tion and $ave a"tion.
Earth movements have led to the formation of features on the lands"ape of East
%fri"a. /a0or features su"h as mountains plateaus& plains& rift valley.
#he movements are lateral and verti"al and e'ert great for"es of tension and
"ompression& though ta)e pla"e very slo$ly they eventually produ"e impressive
features.
rie! "e#cription o! t&e #ubtopic:
#his su+topi" des"ri+es the t$o pro"esses of folding and faulting &the features
produ"ed and their importan"e to human a"tivities.
$%in content %n" concept# to emp&%#i'e.
#he tea"her should emphasise the follo$ing $hen tea"hing:
1 -efinitions of the follo$ing terms.
a) Earth movements.
+) Sedimentary ro")s.
") Stratified ro")s
d) #ension and "ompression for"es.
e) Folding

f) Faulting
g) Earth (ua)es.
1 -es"ri+e tension and "ompression for"es.
1 -es"ri+e the nature of folds.
1 ,dentify the features formed as a result of folding.
1 ,dentify the types of faults.
1 E'plain the features formed as a result of faulting.
1 E'plain the origin of the rift valley using the theory of tension and "ompression
theory.
1 ,dentify the importan"e of faulting and folding on human a"tivities in East %fri"a.
Te%c&er#. (ui"e.
2earning o+0e"tives:
Students should +e a+le:
1 #o define $hat faulting and folding is& earth movements& sedimentary
ro")s et".
1 #o des"ri+e the different pro"esses under earth movements.
1 #o identify the features produ"ed as a result of faulting and folding.
1 ,dentify the importan"e of folding and faulting to human a"tivities.
Re!erence#:
1) 3.* *unnett (1454) General Geography in -iagrams& 3
rd
Edition& 2ondon&
metro forms and system ltd.
) 3o+ert 6aruggah and 7udith 6a+asi (1443) 8ertifi"ate Geography form &
9airo+i :'ford ;niversity <ress.
3) =oung and 2o$ry (1455)& % 8ourse in >orld Geography (East %fri"a
<hysi"al and ?uman third edition)& 2ondon *ath <ress& %von.
4) -avid >augh (144@)& Geography& an integrated %pproa"h& ;6& #homas
9elson and Sons ltd.
3
Topic Note#:
Earth movements "ause sedimentary ro")s to +e displa"ed i.e. to +e pushed out of the
horiAontal plane so that the ro")s are tilted or in"lined.
Earth movements "an also "ause folding and faulting of the sedimentary ro")s.
Folding results from lateral for"es f "ompression.
2ateral for"es of "ompression "ause folding $hile either lateral or verti"al for"es of
tension or "ompression "ause faulting.
T&e proce## o! !o*"in(.
4
T&e n%ture o! !o*"#.
#he layers of ro") $hi"h +end up form an up !o*" or %ntic*ine. #hose $hi"h +end
do$n form a "o/n !o*" or #0nc*ine. #he sides of a fold are "alled the *imb# .if
"ompression "ontinues the simple folds are "hanged first to % #0mmetric%* !o*"#& then
into o+er !o*"# and finally into o+er t&ru#t !o*"#.
A #imp*e !o*"
5
#he "entre line of the up fold or do$n fold is "alled the a'is. ,n simple folding& the
folding pro"ess is never intense.
#he pro"ess gives rise to mountains and valleys. #he anti"lines +e"ame the mountains
and syn"lines the valleys. #he sides of a fold are "alled the lim+s.
A #0mmetric%* !o*"
:ne lim+ steeper than the other
An o+er !o*" or recumbent !o*"
%n over fold is formed $hen one lim+ is pushed over the other lim+. #his pro"ess
o""urs $hen the "ompressional for"es from one side are greater than from the other
side.
B
An o+er t&ru#t !o*"
>hen pressure is very great a fra"ture o""urs in the fold and one lim+ is pushed
for$ard over the other lim+ forming an overthrust fold.
,n east %fri"a folding did not "ause high mountains as the "rust "onsists of hard
+asement ro")s $hi"h fra"tures $hen folded.
?o$ever minor folds are found in south$estern ;ganda in 6igeAi distrist $here
layers of mudstone $ere "ompressed into a ; shape. #here is also some folding in the
layers of limestone on the East %fri"a "oast. Folding is evident in *u)a+a region in
the 9orth of #anAania.
C
T&e re#u*t# o! !o*"in(
Note: Fold /ountains "an +e found in the 9orth >est %fri"a i.e. %tlas /ountains and
in South %fri"a i.e. 8ape 3anges.
5
FAULTING.
% fault is a +rea)& "ra") or a fra"ture in the Earth "rust produ"ed +y verti"al and
lateral movements $ithin the earth.s "rust.
Faulting is one of the internal land forming pro"esses $hi"h shapes the earth.s
surfa"e. ,t is "aused +y earth movements& $hi"h "reate for"es of tension and
"ompression that are either lateral or verti"al for"es.
,f for"es of tension and "ompression are "reated +y earth movements the ro")s of the
earth "rust may fra"ture or "ra"). thus the faults are formed . #he line along $hi"h
ro")s have fra"tured is "alled a fault.
#ension "auses % norm%* !%u*t& "ompression "auses % re+er#e !%u*t and lateral
movement produ"e % te%r !%u*t.
E#c%rpment# "alled fault s"arps develop if faulting is a""ompanied +y up$ard or
do$n$ard movements of ad0oining parts of the "rust.
T0pe# o! !%u*t#
Norm%* !%u*t#
#hese are formed +y the for"es of tension. ,f the ro")s are under tension& faults $ill +e
formed and the "entre +lo") may sin) do$n relative to its neigh+ours.
9ormal faults are "ommon in East %fri"a.
4
Re+er#e !%u*t#.
#hese are also )no$n as thrust faults and are "aused +y the for"es of "ompression
$hen the strata or layers are "ompressed or pressed together the ro")s $ill "ra") and
faults $ill +e formed. :ne +lo") of ro")s may override another to form a +la")
mountain or a horst. Su"h faults are "ommon in $estern ;ganda. #he 3$enAori
mountain is an e'ample of a +lo") mountain formed +y thrust faults.
Te%r !%u*t.
>hen lateral movement is ta)ing pla"e parti"ularly during an earth(ua)e& tear faults
may o""ur. #ear faults are also )no$n as $ren"h or transform faults. ,f a tear fault
o""urs a"ross the "ourse of a river& then the river.s "ourse may +e slightly offset.
1@
T&e re#u*t# o! !%u*tin(.
FEATURES FOR$ED 1,RODUCED2 AS A RESULT OF FAULTING.
Faulting has produ"ed a variety of physi"al features over the surfa"e of the earth.
%mong the most remar)a+le features areD
11
1 *lo") mountains
1 #ilt +lo")s
1 3ift valleys or gra+ens
1 Es"arpments or fault s"arps
1 3ift la)es.
*oc3 $ount%in#.
% +lo") mountain is also )no$n as a Hor#t. ,t is formed $hen the middle +lo") of lnd
+ounded +y more or less parallel faults is made to rise or is uplifted +y the
"ompressional for"es. #he +est e'ample of a +lo") mountain in East %fri"a is mount.
3$enAori& also )no$n as the mountain of the moonE :thers in"lude /athe$s and
9yiru 9dotos in 9orthern 6enya.
Ti*t *oc3#.
#ilt +lo")s are formed $hen one side of the middle +lo") is uplifted higher than the
other side. #he top of the middle +lo") $ill not +e flat +ut $ill +e tilted. E.g. $est
6enya tilt +lo")& $hi"h rises to a+out 14@@ metres to$ards la)e !i"toria.
1
E#c%rpment#.
Es"arpments are also )no$n as fault s"arps. #hey are steep "liff1li)e slopes.
Es"arpments are said to have +een formed during the formation of the rift valleys.
Some es"arpments are steep and may e'tend several hundred )ilometres. E'amples of
su"h es"arpments in East %fri"a in"lude:
1 /andi(6enya)
1 *utia+a (uganda)
1 Eldeyo mara)$et (6enya)
1 6i)uyu (6enya)
1 /au ()enya)
1 2a)e manyara (#anAania)
1 9yendo (6enya)
1 6eiyo (6enya)
1 9yandarua (or %+erdare) (6anya)
1 8huya (#anAania.)
RIFT 4ALLE5S
% rift valley is an elongated trough +ound +y t$o in1fa"ing es"arpments.
3ift valleys are long& narro$ depressions on the earth surfa"e +ounded +y more or less
parallel faults. % rift valley is also )no$n as % (r%ben.
3ift valleys are thought to have +een developed either from the a"tion of tensional
for"es in the "rust or from the a"tion of "ompressional for"es.
13
#he East %fri"a rift valley system e'tends south$ards from the 3ed sea& through
Ethiopia and East %fri"a to /ala$i.
#he east %fri"a rift valley "overs a distan"e of appro'imately 5&B@@)m .it is divided
into t$o +ran"hes that is& the $estern rift valley and the eastern rift valley.
#he >estern +ran"h stret"hes from la)e %l+ert in ;ganda to la)e /ala$i. #he eastern
+ran"h stret"hes from la)e #ur)ana in northern 6enya to la)e /ala$i.
#he $idth of the rift valley varies from pla"e to pla"e. #he average $idth is +et$een
5@)m and B@)m.
:n the floor of the rift valley there are a num+er of rift la)es and vol"ani" "raters su"h
as longonat "rater and menengai "raters.
Ori(in o! t&e ri!t +%**e0#.
% num+er of theories have +een put for$ard to e'plain the origins of rift valleys.
?o$ever& only t$o have remained popular thus the t$o theories $hi"h attempt to
e'plain the origin of rift valleys. :ne relies on the for"es of tension and the other on
the for"es of "ompression. *oth theories depend on up$ard s$ells& along the sides of
$hi"h faults develop.
T&eor0 -: Ten#ion !orce#
14
a) #ension for"es a"t on the layers of ro").
+) Gradually t$o parallel faults appear and the "entral +lo") +egins to su+side
(sin)).
") 2and in +et$een sin)s in forming a rift valley. #he land on either sides stays in
pla"e.
%fter su+siden"e a depression $ith steep fault s"arp sides i.e. a rift valley is formed. ,t
is trapped in position +y later pressure.
15
a)
+)
")
T&eor0 6: Compre##ion%* !orce#
a) 2ayers of ro")s are su+0e"ted to "ompression for"es.
+) Faults develop and the outer +lo")s move up$ards. 3everse faults are formed.
") 8entral +lo") stays in pla"e and a rift valley is formed.
1B
a)
+)
")
RIFT 4ALLE5 LA7ES
#hese have +een formed on the floor of the rift valley and they vary in siAe& depth and
salinity. E'amples of the salty la)es are 2a)e 9atron& and 2a)e /agadi. #he rift
valley has several in land $ater +asins $hi"h "ontain la)es.
Ri!t +%**e0 *%3e# o! E%#t A!ric%
7en0% U(%n"% T%n'%ni%
2. #ur)ana 2. %l+ert 2.#anganyi)a
2.*aringo 2.Ed$ard 2.3u)$a
2.9a)uru 2.George. .2.9atron
2.Elmentata 2.Eyasi
2.9airasha 2./anyara.
2./agadi
F%;2#E- %3E%S ,9 E%S# %F3,8%.
#here are faulted areas in east %fri"a outside the rift valley su"h as:
1 6anrondo rift at 6isumu.
1 9orthern fa"e of $hi"h is the 9andi s"arp
1 ;sam+ara mountains have fault s"arps.
1C
A m%p o! E%#t A!ric% #&o/in( t&e e8tent o! t&e Ri!t 4%**e0.
Import%nce o! !%u*tin(.
1 Faulting has resulted into the formation of high mountains in East
%fri"a. For e'ample the 3$enAori in $estern ;ganda& the southern
highlands and the ;sam+ara mountains in #anAania and the "entral
highlands in 6enya. #hese are the most produ"tive areas& $here +oth
"ash "rops and su+sisten"e "rops are gro$n.
1 #hese highlands have a+undant and relia+le rainfall.
1 3ift valley la)es for e'ample 2.#anganyi)a& la)e #ur)ana& la)e
9aivasha and la)e *aringo are fished.
1 Some of these la)es have fresh $ater $hi"h "an +e used for irrigation
and also for domesti" purposes and industrial use.
1 2./agadi "ontains vast deposits of soda ash& $hi"h is one of the most
important minerals in 6enya.
1 Faulting presents an impressive s"enery $hi"h "an +e used for tourism
attra"tion. For e'ample 2.9a)uru has millions of "olourful flamingos
and other +irds.
1 Some highlands have +een made into 9ational par)s and game
reserves e.g. the slopes of the 9yandarua and 3$enAori mountains .
these par)s attra"t many tourists.
1 Faulting "an also "ause the formatiom of $aterfalls su"h as the
6aruma falls& /ur"hison falls .
Et".
,rob*em# c%u#e" b0 !%u*tin(.
1 Es"arpments and mountains hinder transport development.
15
1 3ift valleys are very hot and only suita+le for graAing +e"ause they are
in the rain shado$ unless irrigation is pra"tised as $ith the "ase of
mo+u)u.
1 #here is severe soil erosion and mass $asting $hi"h result in the
destru"tion of soil surfa"e& "rops and at times people.s property.
1 ,t is diffi"ult to settle on the steep areas $ithin the rift valley and
es"arpments. Et".
In!*uence o! Fo*" $ount%in# on &um%n %cti+itie#.
1. Fold /ountains often re"eive heavy rain or heavy sno$ falls $hi"h may give
rise to important rivers. For e'ample the %lps in Europe.
NB: #he pro"ess of folding $as not signifi"ant in East %fri"a and therefore didnFt
"reate any signifi"ant land forms.
ADDITIONAL NOTES.
1. Earth movementsD these are movements $hi"h are lateral and verti"al& they
e'ert great for"es of tension and "ompression and although they usually ta)e
pla"e very slo$ly they eventually produ"e very impressive features.
. Sedimentary ro")s are formed from sediments& $hi"h have +een laid do$n in
horiAontal layers.
3. Stratifi"ation is the layering of sedimentary ro")s and therefore sedimentary
ro")s are therefore stratified ro")s.
3o")s of the earth "rust are su+0e"ted to tension and "ompression $hen verti"al or
lateral earth movements ta)e pla"e. ,f one part of the earth "rust is "ompressed then
"learly another part must +e stret"hed i.e. under #ension.
3o")s under "ompression they may fold or fault depending on $hether they are +rittle
or fle'i+le under stress.

ene!it# o! t&e Ri!t +%**e0 to t&e peop*e o! E%#t A!ric%.
14
1. #he +eautiful s"enery attra"ts tourists.
. 2a)es in the 3ift valley provide fish. E.g. 2. #anganyi)a and 2. %l+ert
3 3ift valley la)es provide $ater for domesti" and agri"ultural use.
4. 2a)es help in navigation ($ater transport)
5. #here is forestry on the slopes& so sour"e of tim+er.
B. Gentle slopes are used for "rop farming and settlement due to fertile soils.
C. 3ift valley la)es are used for mining. E.g. Soda ash from 2.magadi
5. /odifi"ation of "limate due to the ?ighlands.
4. %reas o little rainfall (rain shado$) provides pasture for graAing.
1@. Study purposes or resear"h.
11. >ildlife "onservation. For e'ample game par)s in rift valley areas
Et".
,rob*em# !%ce" b0 t&e peop*e *i+in( in t&e Ri!t +%**e0 %re%# o! E%#t A!ric%
1. Earth(ua)es (tremors) $hi"h destroy property
. 2ittle rainfall or drought in the 3ain shado$ areas.
3. <oor means of transport and "ommuni"ation +e"ause of the steep es"arpments.
4. Salty la)es +e"ause of high temperatures and high evaporation rates.
5. Soil erosion and land slides espe"ially on the steep slopes
B. ?igh temperatures +e"ause of the rain shado$ effe"t.
Et"
STUDENTS. ACTI4IT5
Acti+it0 -: Fo*"in( %n" F%u*tin(.
1) #a)e a pie"e of paper of a reasona+le siAe. <ut it on the des).
;sing +oth hands apply some "ompressional for"e. =ou $ill see
that the pie"e of paper $ill start to fold or +end.
) #a)e a ruler or a pen"il and apply the same for"e& the ruler or
pen"il $ill not +end easily. ,f a lot of pressure is applied on the
ruler or pen"il it $ill +rea).
@
Acti+it0 6.
1. >hi"h one of the follo$ing la)es is not a 3ift valley la)eG
%. 2a)e 9a)uru.
*. 2a)e 9atron.
8. 2a)e !i"toria.
-. 2a)e #anganyi)a.
. #he feature formed $hen a +lo") of the earth.s "rust is depresses +et$een parallel
faults a:
%. *lo") /ountain.
*. ?anging valley.
8. #ilt +lo")
-. 3ift valley.
3. %n up thrust +lo") +et$een t$o faults is )no$n as:
%. %n es"arpment.
*. % horst
8. % 3ift valley
-. % vol"ano.
4. >hi"h of the follo$ing mountains in East %fri"a $as formed +y faultingG
%. 6iliman0aro
*. 6enya
8. ;sam+ara
-. 2ongonot.
5. >hi"h of the follo$ing mineral is e'tra"ted from 2. /agadi in 6enyaG
%. 3o") salt
*. Soda ash
8. Gold
-. -iamond.
1
B. #he +eautiful s"eni" landforms of East %fri"a $ere formed as a result of:
%. Folding& faulting and vol"ani"ity a"tivity.
*. Folding& $arping and soil erosion.
8. >arping and tilting.
-. Folding and $eathering.
C. >hi"h of the follo$ing "hara"teristi"s are true of most of the East %fri"a 3ift
valley la)es.
%. >ide& shallo$ and salty
*. 2ong narro$ and shallo$.
8. >ide& deep& and salty.
-. 2ong& narro$ and deep.
5. #he follo$ing are vol"ani" mountains e'"ept.
%. 6enya and longnat.
*. 9apa) and moroto.
8. 3$enAori& ;sam+ara
-. 6ilima0aro &/ufum+ira.
4. >hi"h of the follo$ing mountains is a +lo") mountain.
%. 6iliman0aro
*. 3$enAori
8. 6enya
-. /ufum+ira.
1@. >hi"h of the follo$ing la)es $as not formed as a result of faulting.
%. 2.magadi
*. 2./anyara
8. 2.mtanda
-. 2./ala$i.
11. >hi"h of the follo$ing la)es in a rift valley $ith fresh $aterG
%. 9atron
*. 9aivasha

8. #ur)ana
-. *aringa.
1. >hi"h of the follo$ing types of ro")s is formed in StrataG
%. /etamorphi"
*. Sedimentary ro")s
8. ,gneous ro")s
-. %ll a+yssal ro")s.
13. #he +asement ro") of East %fri"a is
%. ?ard
*. Saft
8. ?ighly $eathered
-. 2ight "oloured.
An#/er#:
1. 8 B. % 11. 8
. - C. - 1. *
3. * 5. 8 13. %.
4. 8. 4. *
5. *. 1@. 8
Acti+it0 .9
1. a). -ra$ a s)et"h map of East %fri"a and on it mar) and name:
1i2 t$o "omposite "ones
1ii2 one ash vol"ano
1iii2 t$o lava plains
1i+2 the East %fri"an 3ift valley.
1+2 /ountains: 3$enAori and ;sam+ara.
1+i2 2.9aivasha and 3u)$a.
3
+). -es"ri+e the pro"esses $hi"h led to the formation of "omposite vol"anoes
("ones)
"). E'plain t$o influen"es of vul"ani"ity on:
(i) 8limate.
(ii) %gri"ulture in East %fri"a.
. a) :utline any 5 $ays in $hi"h vol"ani"ity is important to the people of East
%fri"a.
+). -es"ri+e one pro"ess $hi"h $as responsi+le for the formation of East %fri"a an
3ift valley.
3. a) E'plain five +enefits of the 3ift valley to the people of East %fri"a.
+) :utline five pro+lems fa"ed +y the people living in the rift valley area of East
%fri"a.
4. :n the outline map of East %fri"a provided a+ove. /ar) and name the follo$ing
features:
(i) #he East %fri"a rift valley.
(ii) 2a)es19a)uru& /anyara& George&9atron
(iii) /ountains1 ;sam+ara& 3$enAori& %+erdares& /ufum+ira.
(iv) 3ivers13uvuma and %thi.
5. a) -ra$ the map of East %fri"a and sho$
(i) #he rift valley.
(ii) % +lo") mountain
(iii) 2a)es: Eyasi& /anyara & 9atron and 3u)$a.
(iv) #o$ns: 7in0a and /om+asa.
+) E'plain ho$ the rift valley $as formed using the tensional theory.
4
") ,dentify the pro+lems "aused +y faulting.
An#/er# to Acti+it0. 9
1 (a) % s)et"h map of East %fri"a sho$ing physi"al features.
8omposite "ones: 11muhavura& 16iliman0aro& 31meru& 416enya.
%sh vol"ano e.g. /t Elgon
2ava plains: %1)isoro& *1)ano plains& 81yatta plateau& -1*asin Gishu
<lateau.
*lo") mountains: usam+ara& 3$enAori.
3ift !alley: H1 Eastern rift valley& =1$estern rift valley.
2a)es: <19aivasha& I1 3u)$a.
(+) -es"ription of the pro"ess that led to the formation of "omposite
!ol"anoes ("ones):
1 % "omposite "one is made of alternative layers of ash and lava.
1 ,t is formed +y repeated eruptions of lava and ash from a "entral vent.
1 #he ash and lava solidify around the vent forming a vol"ani" "one of great height.
1 #he eruption is +oth violent and effusive ((uite) during effusive eruption& lava is
e0e"ted.
1 >hen the main vent is +lo")ed& the lava es"apes to the surfa"e through the
se"ondary Jside vent forming a parasiti" "oneJ"onelet on the sides of the main
vol"ano.

(") #$o influen"es of vol"ani"ity on:
(i) 8limate:
1 3ainfall on the $ind$ard side of the mountain.
1 3ain shado$ on the lee$ard side of the mountain.
1 ?igh temperatures in the lo$land areas.
1 2o$ temperatures in the higher areas.
5
(ii) %gri"ulture.
1 <rodu"e fertile vol"ani" soils.
1 %llo$ gro$th of a variety of "rops +e"ause of "hanging altitudes.
1 ?igh relief& so plenty of rainfall (relief) that favours agri"ulture.
1 -ry "onditions on the lee$ard side Jrain shado$& so agri"ulture
re(uires irrigation.
1 <orous vol"ani" soils are too fragile for "ontinuous agri"ulture
produ"tion.
1 !ol"anoes are prone to soil erosion +e"ause of the steep gradient.
. a) Five $ays in $hi"h vul"ani"ity is important to the people of East %fri"a.
1 Fertile soils for agri"ulture.
1 -ifferent altitudes favour gro$ing of a variety of "rops.
1 Sour"e of rivers e.g. 3. <angani
1 #ourist attra"tions1foreign e'"hange.
1 %ttra"t relief rain fall& so agri"ulture.
1 8ool "limate that attra"ts settlements
1 Sour"e of valua+le minerals e.g. limestone from #ororo ro")& diamonds
at shynyonga& salt from 2.magadi (hot spring).
1 Generation of geothermal po$er from the hot springs.
+) -es"ription of one pro"ess $hi"h $as responsi+le for the formation of the East
%fri"an rift valley.
Either +y #ension or +y "ompression.
*y tension.
1 2ayers of ro")s su+0e"t to a tensional for"e.
1 9ormal faults develop and the ro")s are divided into 3 +lo")s a& +. ".
#he "entral +lo") + su+sides +et$een +lo")s a and ".
1 %fter su+siden"e& a depression $ith steep fault s"arps sides i.e. a rift
valley is formed.
*y "ompression
1 2ayers of ro")s are su+0e"t to a "ompessional for"e.
B
1 3everse faults develop and divide the ro")s into 3 +lo")s a& +& ".
*lo")s a and " on the outside +egin to thrust up over "entre +lo") +.
1 #he overhanging sides are $orn +a") +y erosion and the depression
remaining the rift valley.
9. 1%2 Five +enefits of the rift valley to the people of East %fri"a:
1 #ourist attra"tion i.e. +eautiful s"enery e.g. la)es& mountains&
es"arpments et".
1 2a)es in the rift valley provide fish.
1 2a)es in the rift valley provide $ater for domesti" and industrial use
and irrigation for agri"ulture.
1 3ain shado$ areas Jareas $ith lo$ rainfall provide pasture for graAing.
1 2a)es are used for navigation.
1 #here is forestry on the slopes& so sour"e of tim+er.
1 Gentle slopes are used for ara+le farming and settlement.
1 >ildlife "onservation
1 Salt1$ater la)es are used for mining.
1 <rodu"tion of geothermal ele"tri"ity from underground.
1 /odifi"ation of "limate due to e'isten"e of mountains.
+) Five pro+lems fa"ed +y the people living in the rift valley area of East %fri"a.
1 <oor means of transport and "ommuni"ations.
1 Shortage of $ater.
1 Earth (ua)es (tremors)
1 2ittle rainfall Jdrought in the rain shado$s areas.
1 ;nrelia+le rainfall
1 !ol"ani" eruptions& $hi"h destroy property and lives.
1 <oor soils
1 Soil erosion
1 ?igh temperatures
1 Flooding
1 Salty la)es +e"ause of high temperaturesJhigh evaporation.
Acti+it0 .:
C
1. a) >hat is a fault and ho$ is it formedG
+) ?o$ is a rift valley formedG
. a) 9ame t$o hand forms "ommon in East %fri"a formed +y the faulting pro"ess.
+) #hrough $hi"h "ountries does the rift valley of eastern %fri"a passG
3. -ra$ diagrams to sho$ the follo$ing features.
+. 9ormal fault
". #ear fault
d. 3everse fault
4. -ra$ diagrams to illustrate the follo$ing features.
(i) Simple fold
(ii) an overfold
(iii) a symentri"al fold.
5. State three advantages and t$o disadvantages asso"iated $ith the formation of fold
mountains.
SU-TO,IC 6: 4ULCANICIT5.
rie! "e#cription o! #ub ; topic.
#his su+ topi" des"ri+es the pro"esses of !ul"ani"ity& the features produ"ed and their
importan"e to the people.

$%in content %n" concept# to emp&%#i#e.
1 -efinition of the follo$ing )ey $ords:
1 !ul"ani"ity&
1 E'trusive features
1 ,ntrusive feature.
1 #he types of lavaJvol"anoes
1 Formation of vol"ani" features i.e. !ol"ani" "ones& "alderaJ"rater& *atholith& dy)es
sills et"
5
Te%c&er.# (ui"e
2earning o+0e"tives.
Students should +e a+le to:
1 -es"ri+e vul"ani"ity as a pro"ess of earth movement.
1 ,dentify the feature produ"ed as a result of vul"ani"ity.
1 E'plain the advantages and disadvantages of vul"ani"ity.
TO,IC NOTES.
<&%t c%u#e# +u*c%nicit0 .
-eep inside the earth heat and pressure e'erted +y the "rust "ause ro")s to melt
forming molten ro")s )no$n as magma& $hi"h is for"ed to rise along the lines of
$ea)ness (fault lines).
!ul"ani"ity K involves a pro"ess through $hi"h molten ro") (magma) and gases from
interior moves on to the earth surfa"e along lines of $ea)ness (fault lines).
Features formed K on rea"hing the surfa"e the magma $hi"h +e"omes lava& "ools and
solidifies either on the earth surfa"e forming e'trusive vol"ani" features or magma
may solidify +elo$ the earth Ls surfa"e forming intrusive vol"ani" features.
T0pe# o! +o*c%nic cone
4
3@
T0pe# o! intru#i+e !e%ture#
E8tru#i+e !e%ture#.
1. L%+% K that moves to the surfa"e differs in "hemi"al "omposition& this party e'plain
the different types or shapes of vol"anoes and nature of eruption $hether
e'plosions or (uite.
%"idi" lava K very thi")& traps a lot of gas & $ater& ri"h in sili"a "ontent violent
eruption and lava solidifies very (ui")ly +uilds up steep "ones.
*asi" lava K this is a form of fluid poor in sili"a "ontent flo$s for a very distan"e
+efore it solidifies& it +uilds up gently sloping "ones& lava plateau and
plains.
<yro"lasts (?eated lava) K $hen lava is heated& it +rea)s do$n into small fragments
or pie"es (pyro"lasts) &$hi"h usually falls to the ground and form layers of
%shJ"inder. 2ayers of ash mi' $ith layers of lava to form "omposite "ones.
31
. 4o*c%noe# K these are hills or mountains formed $hen magma erupt and piles up
around the vent until a "one is formed. #hese are +asi"ally four types of vol"ani"
"ones.
A#&)cin"er cone K #hese are small +ut steep sided hills formed $hen e'plosive
eruptions thro$ lava high into the air& +rea)ing up lava into small fragments or pie"es
)no$n as pyro"lasti"s (fire ro")s). #he erupted materials +uild up or a""umulate
around the opening )no$n as ventD layer after layer forming steep sided "ones of
a+out 15@ metres high. e'amples in 6enya are Sus$a and /enegai hills and #ele)i
hills south of 2a)e #ur)ana and 2ongonat. #he hills are "hara"terised +y a large "rater
J"aldera at the top +e"ause of violet eruptions.
Cr%ter1 "ir"ular depression c%*"er% K an enlargement of a "rater on top of
at top of vol"ano. mountain as a result of violent eruption.
E'amples are found on menegai& sus$a& longnot in 6enya&
9apa)a& and elgon in ;ganda.
3
9garogero in #anAania.
#here are also lo$ land e'plosion "raters.e'plosion "raters are flat floor depressions
formed $hen e'plosions eruptions of gases +lo$ off the ro")s at the surfa"e leaving a
shallo$ "ir"ular depression& depressions are filled $ith $ater to form e'plosion "rater
la)es. E'amples areD 2. )at$e& 2. 9yamuru)a& 2. /unyanyang& 2. Sa)a& and 6yegere
and others. Found in $estern ;ganda& in )asese & 6a+arole and *ushenyi distri"ts.
%#ic *%+% cone)#&ie*" +o*c%no. 1 #his is a hill $ith gently slopping sides. ,ts formed
$hen hot fluid lava& $ith lo$ sili"a "ontent& flo$s from one or t$o faults in a (uiet
eruption. ,t spreads out in flat layers. #he layers +uild up a +road vol"ano $ith gently
sloping sides& shaped li)e a shield and hen"e the name shield vol"ano. ,ts "ommon in
;ganda1 3$anda +oarder along the 9yamulagira ranges.
Aci" *%+% "ome: 1 these are doom shaped hills& thi") lava ri"h in sili"a "ontent&
solidifies (ui")ly on rea"hing the surfa"e& forming a vol"ani" dome or "one of vis"ous
lava& e'amples K #ern%* +o*c%no domes in #savo national par) in 6enya.
4o*c%nic p*u(
#he thi") lava (vis"ous) lava& at times solidifies in the vent& after prolonged erosion&
the plug is e'posed to the MMM.e'amples are the #ororo ro")s in Eastern ;ganda.
A compo#ite cone:
% "omposite "ones are large mountains formed $hen vol"ani" eruptions alternate
+et$een (uite and violent eruptions. %n e'posure period releases gas and ash and
"inder layers. #hen the eruption "hanges to a (uite period erupting lava over the top of
ash layer& $hen the "y"le of ash and lave is repeated over and over in alternating
layers& a "omposite vol"ano is formed.
%t times lava is diverted side $ays from the vent forming dy)es& 8orre"ts or parasite
"one.E'amples are /t.6enya& 6ilima0aro in #anAania& /aham+ura in South $est
;ganda.
L%+% p*%te%u K formed as a result of (uite eruptions& $hen lava moves out slo$ly
along "ra")s Jfaults .the lava fluid lava flo$s for a very long times on the plateau
+efore it solidifies& forming lava plateau.
33
E'amples areD 6isoro lava plain in ;ganda& =atta& 2ai)ipia and #ur)ana plateau in
6enya.
Hot #prin(# )(e0#er
#hese are features produ"ed $hen heated $ater in vol"ani" areas flo$ out (ueitely in
form of hot springs or erupt periodi"ally shooting out $ater Jsteam in the air.
E'amples K 6atagata in *ushenyi.
Sempaya in fortportal
/a0imoto in #anAania.
/a0iyamot in 6enya.
L%+% "%mme" *%3e# 1 these are formed $hen lava +lo")s "hannels. >ater pools
+ehind leading to formation of la)es. E'amples 2.*unyonyi and 2. /utande in
south$est ;ganda.
Intru#i+e !e%ture#: these are formed $hen magma solidifies underground. /agma
forms in many different shapes and siAes& the most "ommon are: 1
1. %t&o*it&#: these are mostly massive ro")s. #hey are dome shaped& formed at great
depth and at times they are e'posed at the surfa"e +y denudational for"es as
insel+ergs. E'amples are mum+ende hills& para+ong and la+$a hills in %"holi.
/umias and 6isii +atholith in 6enya.
34
. D03e#: formed $hen magma solidifies into verti"al "ra")s& "utting a"ross ro")
layers. >hen affe"ted +y erosion dy)es may stand as a ridge. #here are ridges in most
of #ur)ana and Su)ulu hills South of #ororo to$n.
3. Si**#: formed $hen lava solidifies in +et$een ro") layers& after prolonged erosion&
Sills may +e e'posed as es"arpments and $hile they o""ur a"ross a river valley they
"ause $ater falls and rapids. E'amples are #hi)a and #hompson falls in 6enya&
6aruma falls and *u0agali in ;ganda.
4. L%cco*it&: this is magma $hi"h solidifies in a shape similar to a mushroom. %fter
prolonged erosion& it may form upland.
5. L%ppo*it&: this is a sau"e shaped magma& after erosion. ,t "an +e e'posed as a
shallo$ +asin. E'amples are %renas in %n)ole.
A"+%nt%(e# o! 4u*c%nicit0.
1. !ol"ani" mountains and lava plateau provide fertile vol"ani" soils $hi"h support
agri"ulture& e.g. %ra+i" "offee is gro$n on mountain Elgon& /ufum+iro& 6enya and
6iliman0aro& "offee earns the "ountry foreign "urren"y and provides employment&
other "rops gro$n in"lude $heat& tea& pyrethrum& maiAe& +ananas& vegeta+les& irish
potatoes.
. #he highland areas are densely settled. #his is due to the fertile soils and "ool
"limate& e.g. *ugishu& 6igeAi& 6enya and 6iliman0aro highlands. ,n addition some of
these areas have large to$ns li)e 6a+ale& /+ale& /oshi& and 9airo+i. #his has led to
development of "ommer"ial a"tivities.
3. #he vol"ani" features espe"ially mountains are tourist attra"tions. #hey provide
sporting a"tivities li)e mountain "lim+ing. #hey generate in"ome in form of foreign
e'"hange and provide employment to lo"al people.
35
4. !ol"ani" mountains influen"e "limate& lead to formation of geographi" or relief
rainfall $hi"h is important for agri"ulture. Some mountains are i"e "apped. #hey are a
sour"e of many rivers& $hi"h provide $ater for domesti" use and generate
hydroele"tri" po$er.
5. #here are forest reserves on the slopes of mountains li)e Elgon& /ufum+iro 6enya&
and 6iliman0aro $hi"h are valua+le sour"e of tim+er and fire$ood. #he forests also
a"t as $ildlife "onservation areas e.g. *$indi impenetra+le forests& has the largest
population of gorillas& $hi"h promote tourism.
B. 2ava or magma is ri"h in minerals e.g. #ororo ro") vol"ani" plug is a sour"e of
limestone for the "ement industry. ,ron&tin uranium are found in the /ufum+iro
ranges.
2a)e 6at$e $hi"h is an e'plosion "rater is a "entre for salt mining. #he 6im+erlite
ro") in #anAania is "entre for gold mining. /inerals provide revenue and
employment.
C. ?ot springs or Geysers are potential sour"e of Geothermal po$er (ele"tri"ity).in
6enya &the :l)aria Geothermal <o$er Station near la)e 9aivasha in 6enya& generates
ele"tri"ity.
5. #here is fishing in lava1damned la)es& $hi"h provides food and employment.
#he intrusive features *atholiths& dy)e& sills& la""oliths and lappoliths on"e e'posed to
the surfa"e as insel+ergs have the follo$ing advantagesD
Good sites for (uarrying. #hey are sour"es of stones used for "onstru"tion.
Sills and -y)es on"e "rossed +y rivers "reate $aterfalls $hi"h are good for
hydro po$er generation.
#hey are tourist attra"tions.
Di#%"+%nt%(e# o! 4u*c%nicit0.
3B
1. !ol"ani" features espe"ially mountains are "ommuni"ation +arriers due to
steepness.
. ,t is very e'pensive and ris)y to "onstru"t roads and rail$ays in the hilly areas.
3. !ol"ani" eruption leads to loss of lives and property.
4. ?eavy rainfall and steepness lead to soil erosion& mass $asting and landslides
$hi"h are "ommon in 6igeAi and Elgon areas.
5. /ountains a"t as +arriers to rainfall espe"ially on the lee$ard side (rain shado$
areas) this "auses aridity.
B. ,ntrusive features li)e sills and dy)es form $aterfalls and rapids $hi"h hinder
navigation of rivers.
C. >here there are ,nsel+ergs and *atholiths ma)e agri"ulture pra"tising diffi"ult.
Acti+it0 .=
1. a) -efine !ol"ani"ity.
+) 9ame the e'trusive features of !ol"ani"ity.
. a) -ra$ a $ell la+elled diagram of a "omposite "one.
+) -ra$ a diagram sho$ing three intrusive vol"ani" features.
3. Give the importan"e of vol"ani"ity to man.
An#/er# to Acti+it0 .=
1. a) !ol"ani"ity is the eruption or sipping of molten magma from the earth.s "rust
3C
through faults Jvents.
+) E'trusive features of vol"ani"ity areD
1. !ol"ani" mountains li)e "omposite "one& %sh and "inder "one& and lava "one.
. 2ava plains
3. 8raterJ"alderas
4. <lugs
. a)
+) -iagram sho$ing three intrusive features.

35
3. ,mportan"e of vol"ani"ity to man.
1 #ourism due to attra"tive features.
1 Soil favour agri"ulture
1 8rater la)es for mining (salt)
1 ?ighlands modify "limate.
1 >ater for domesti" purposes from the 8rater 2a)e.
1 Forests on the highlands for various purposes.
1 Iuarrying of ro")
1 Spas "uring diseases.
1 Study purposes.
Acti+it0 .>
1. /olten ro") that has for"ed its $ay to the earth.s surfa"e leads to the formation ofD
%. ,ntrusive features.
*. -y)es and sills.
8. !ol"ani" features.
-. ,ntrusive and e'trusive features.
. /ost la)es in East %fri"a $ere formed due to:
%. #e"toni" %"tivity
*. -eposition.
8. -amming.
-. Gla"ial a"tivity.
3. #he feature formed $hen magma "ools along a +edding plane is "alled a:
%. -y)e
34
*. 2a""olith.
8. *atholith
E. Sill
4. /t. 6iliman0aro is an e'ample of:
%. a vol"ani" plug.
*. an e'posed +atholith.
8. a +lo") mountain.
-. a "omposite vol"ani".
5. #he e0e"tion of solid& li(uid and gaseous material from the earth "rust to the surfa"e
is "alled.
%. Faulting
*. #e"toni" a"tivity.
8. !ol"anity.
-. !ul"ani"ity.
B. % granite done shaped feature found at the +ottom of mountains is "alledD
%. Sill
*. *atholith
8. -y)e
-. <lug.
C. % large $idened vol"ani" depression found on top of a vol"ano is "alledD
%. 8rater.
*. !ent
8. 8aldera
-. <lug.
5. :ne of these mountains is not vol"ani".
%. 3$enAori
*. 6enya
8. Elgon
4@
-. 9apa).
4. #he follo$ing are intrusive vol"ani" features e'"ept.
%. Sill
*. 8one
8. *atholite
-. -y)e.
1@. >hi"h of the follo$ing is an e'ample of an a"tive vol"ano.
%. /t Elgon
*. /t 6enya
8. /t 6iliman0aro.
-. /t. 2angonot.
11. >hi"h of the follo$ing forms of energy is asso"iated $ith areas of re"ent
vul"ani"ity in 6enya.
%. #idal energy
*. Solar energy
8. Geothermal energy
-. ?ydro ele"tri"ity.
1. #he "aldera on top of mount.manegai near 9a)uru is a result of a vol"ani".
%. /ountain petting e'tin"t.
*. /ountain erupting fre(uently.
8. /ountain vent getting sealed.
-. /ountain getting sun).
13. >hi"h of the follo$ing features is not a vol"ani" landform.
%. % gra+en
*. *atholith
8. Sill
-. 2avaplain.
14. % feature formed $hen lava solidifies in a vent is "alledD
41
%. 2ava plain
*. !ol"ani" plug
8. 2imestone
-. Granite.
15. /olten ro") $hi"h has for"ed its $ay to the earth.s surfa"e leads to the
formation of:
%. ,ntrusive features
*. -y)es and sills
8. !ol"ani" features.
-. E'trusive features.
1B. % vol"ani" eruption is more li)ely to +e violet $henD
%. #he vol"ano is near the sea.
*. #he ne") of the vol"ano is sealed +y a plug.
8. #he lava is vis"ous.
-. #he lava rea"hes the surfa"e through fissures.
1C. >hi"h of the follo$ing statement des"ri+es the pro"ess of vul"ani"ity.
%. >hen magma and gaseous materials are intruded into the "rustal layers.
*. >hen magma and gaseous materials are e'truded into the "rustal surfa"e.
8. >hen magma and gaseous materials are e'truded into the earth.s surfa"e.
-. >hen molten ro") and gaseous materials are intruded into the mantle.
15. >hi"h of the follo$ing layers of the earth.s stru"ture is asso"iated $ith the origin
of molten magma.
%. #he lo$er and upper layers of the "rust .
*. #he upper and lo$er layers of the "ore.
8. #he upper and lo$er layers of the sima.
-. #he lo$er and upper layers of the mantle.
14. #he steam 0ets $ithin ol donyo lengai indi"ate that vol"ano isD
%. -ormant
*. %"tive.
8. E'tin"t
4
-. 9ever erupting.
An#/er# to Acti+it0. >
1. 8 11. 8
. % 1. -
3. - 13. %
4. % 14. *
5. 8 15. 8
B. * 1B. 8
C. * 1C. 8
5. % 15. *
4. *. 14. *
1@.-
43