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WCDMAHSPA overview

Athanassios C. Iossifides
Assistant Professor
Department of Electronics
Alexander T.E.I. of Thessaloniki
P.O. Box 141, 57400 Sindos,Thessaloniki, Greece
Tel. +30 2310 013729, email: aiosifidis@el.teithe.gr
LLP/Erasmus Intensive Programme




Cellular Technologies & Services - IRIS
Nafpaktos, July 2013
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

introduction to UMTS
UMTS network architecture
introduction to WCDMA
WCDMA air-interface
basic procedures and functions
HSPA
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

UMTS objectives
standardization procedure
frequency allocation in Europe
3GPP releases
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
UMTS objectives
Multimedia services with high transmission rates.
Transparent network access in all environments.
always everywhere everybody with a single subscriber number and bill.
Services independent of the terminal with variability in type (voice, text, video, data,
graphics) and method (real-time two way, messaging, paging, data retrieval ...).
air interface technology selection criteria
Overcome of air interface resources scarcity.
Variable transmission rates provision.
Increased capacity (in terms of transmission bit rate and serviced users).





thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
IMT 2000
In 1992, WARC (World Administrative Radio Conference) of ITU allocates the
frequencies around 2GHz for 3
rd
generation mobile communication systems (3G).
ITU introduces the IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications) project, with
the objective to create a common air interface for mobile communications.
This project was planned to conclude by the end of 2000.
June 1998 was defined as the final date (deadline) for the submission of candidate radio
transmission technologies (RTT).

Comment: In Europe, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is responsible
for the technical development of GSM and UMTS.

thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
In June 1998, 10 proposals were submitted to ITU
Proposal Description Source
DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless
Telecommunications
ETSI Project DECT (Europe)
UWC-136 Universal Wireless Communications TIA TR-45.3 (USA)
WIMS W-CDMA Wireless Multimedia and Messaging
Services W-CDMA
TIA TR-46 (USA)
TD-SCDMA Time Division Synchronous CDMA CATT (China)
W-CDMA Wideband CDMA ARIB (Japan)
DMA II Asynchronous DS-CDMA TTA (South Korea)
UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access ETSI SMG2 (Europe)
NA: W-CDMA North America: Wideband CDMA ATIS TIP1 (USA)
cdma2000 Wideband CDMA (IS-95) TIA TR-45.5 (USA)
CDMA I Multiband Synchronous DS-CDMA TTA (South Korea)
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
In December 1998, a new body was created, the so called Third
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with the objective to harmonize
the different proposals that were based on WCDMA.
The regional standardization bodies participating were the Association of Radio
Industries & Businesses/ Telecommunications Technology Commission (ARIB/TTC) of
Japan, ETSI (Europe), ATIS T1 (United States), Telecommunications Technology
Association (TTA) of Korea and later CWTS, the standardization body of China.
In addition, a second body was created, the so called 3GPP2, based on
the proposal of cdma2000.
In this body the participants were ARIB/TTC (Japan), China Communications Standards
Association, Telecommunications Industry Association (, North America) and
Telecommunications Technology Association (, South Korea)
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
harmonization phase
In June 1999, a group of international operators, called Operator Harmonization Group
(OHG), suggested the harmonization of 3GPP and 3GPP2 proposals, so that to ensure
interoperability between UTRA-WCMDA and cdma2000.
final grouping of ITU
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

GSM1800(DL) UMTS FDD (UL) UMTS FDD (DL)
UMTS
TDD
UMTS
TDD
1900 2000 2100
1920
2200
1980 2010 2025 2110 2170
C V T VODAFONE WIND COSMOTE
1900,1 1920,1 1920,3 1950,3 1965,3
20MHz
5MHz
5MHz
MSS
(UL)
MSS
(DL)
5MHz
2152,8 MHz/10764
1962,8 MHz/9814
2147,8 MHz/10739
1957,8 MHz/9789
2142,8 MHz/10714
1952,8 MHz/9764
N
u
=5*F
uplink
N
d
=5*F
downlink
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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Release 99: The first UMTS 3G network based on WCDMA.
Release 4: Introduction of independent functionality of MSS and MGW, all-IP core
characteristics.
Release 5: Introduction of HSDPA, IP-multimedia subsystem (IMS), HSS and IP-based
transport layer, introduction of pool area.
Release 6: Introduction of HSUPA (EUL), improvements of HSDPA, interoperability with
Wireless LAN , MBMS, improvements of IMS, e.g. Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC), GAN, etc.
Release 7: Introduction of HSPA+ including higher order modulation schemes and MIMO,
improvements of QoS and real-time services like VoIP. Improvements of SIM for Near Field
Communication.
Release 8: Introduction of LTE (Long Term Evolution), All-IP Network (SAE System
Architecture Evolution).

thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

introduction to UMTS
UMTS network architecture
introduction to WCDMA
WCDMA air-interface
basic procedures and functions
HSPA
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

General architecture
Common elements of core network
CS core network elements
PS core network elements
Access network
Interfaces protocol structure
IMSI and MSISDN

thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
CS Domain
The CS domain refers to all the network
elements that support CS (circuit -
switched) type traffic interconnections
as well as the network elements that
support the relevant signaling
procedures.
PS Domain
The PS domain refers to all the network
elements that support PS (packet
switched) type traffic interconnections
as well as the network elements that
support the relevant signaling
procedures.
Cntrol plane
Procedures that are related with the signaling
among the network elements.
User plane
Procedures that are related with the information
(traffic) of the subscribers.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Home Location Register (HLR)
The central database of permanent
registration of the subscriber data. It
operates only in the control plane (SS7
signaling) and includes the following
information:
Subscriber and services information.
Position information (VLR number) so
that routing of calls is possible.
Identities: IMSI, MSISDN, PDP
addresses, etc.
Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
The HSS is the evolution of HLR in IMS (IP multimedia subsystem) and consists the central
database that includes all the above mentioned information. The HSS is connected with the rest
of the core network elements (only in the control plane) through the Serving Call Session
Control Function (S-CSCF), using IP.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Authentication Center (AuC)
A database where the identity key (K) per
IMSI is kept. This is used for authentication
procedure and the ciphering procedure.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
A database where the identities of the
mobile equipments (IMEI International
Mobile Equipment Identity) are kept. It
includes three lists:
white (equipment which are allowed to
be used),
black (equipment that require barring),
grey (equipment that under
examination by the system )
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
MSC Server
Operates in the control
plane and supports the
following functions:
Connection management
Mobility management
Security
Charging
Services: teleservices (voice,
SMS, ...) , bearer
services (video call, CS
data), supplementary
services (call waiting, call
forwarding etc.)
Controls the resources of
MGW.


thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Visitor Location Register
(VLR)
A temporary database (control
plane) keeping the following data:
IMSI, MSISDN
MS location area
SGSN number of the
subscriber.
Supplementary services of the
subscribers.
The last known position of the
subscriber.
Mobile Station Roaming
Number (MSRN)
Temporary Mobile Station
Identity (TMSI)
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Media Gateway (MGW)
Cooperates with the MSC
server and the GMSC server
in order to manage the core
network resources (user
plane).
It has the physical resources
(echo cancellers, SMS/tone
notification machines,
transcoders of CS calls, etc.)
It acts as an ATM/AAL2
switch for the routing of ATM
cells in the backbone
network.
It can be directly
interconnected to the IP
backbone network for call
routing.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Serving GPRS Support Node
(SGSN)
It combines the functionalities of VLR and
MSC server in the PS domain. It keeps the
following data:
Subscription information (IMSI,
temporary addresses, PDP addresses
etc.)
Position information (Routing area or
cell, VLR number, GGSN number).
The SGSN has the responsibility of PS
connections management:
Session management
Mobility management
GTP signalling, tunneling and routing
Charging and statistics
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Gateway GPRS Support Node
(GGSN)
The GGSN is the interface of the mobile
network and outside networks (e.g. internet)
in PS domain. It keeps the following data:
Subscription information: IMSI, PDP
addresses.
Position information: SGSN number.
It supports the management of sessions, GTP
tunneling and routing, charging and statistics.

thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Base station Controller (BSC)
Controls the operation of a group
of Base Stations (2G).
Supports both CS and PS
connections in the air interface
and the connection with core
network.
Manages and allocates the radio
resources (admission control,
power control, handover ...)
and controls the cells of the base
stations and the channels of the
air interface (telecom traffic,
system information, paging)

Base Station (BS)
This is the element of the network that realizes the
physical layer of the air interface, that is, Forward
Error Correction (FEC) coding, modulation,
equalization, ciphering, etc.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Radio Network Controller
(RNC)
Controls the operation of a
group of Node Bs (3G).
Supports both CS and PS
connections in the air interface
and the connection of the radio
and core network.
Manages and allocates the
radio resources (admission
control, load control, power
control, handover ...) and
controls the Node B cells and
the air interface channels. It
includes ciphering and
information integrity control.

Node B
The Node B realizes the physical layer of the air interface
including FEC, channelization, scrambling, modulation.
Participates in the radio resources management by
realizing the power control procedure (closed loop).
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
IuCS (RNC MSS Server/MGW) interface protocol structure
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
IuPS (RNC SGSN) protocol structure
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Iur (RNC RNC) protocol structure
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Iub (RNC Node B) protocol structure
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number
The calling number of the subscriber (up to 15 digits). It is kept in the SIM, the HLR, and in
cases in the VLR. The subscriber may have more than one MSISDN (e.g. different MSISDN for
different services)
MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN = 30 697 1234567



International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI):
The unique number of the subscriber in the GSM/UMTS network (15 digits). It is kept in the
SIM, the HLR/AuC, and in cases in the VLR.
IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN = 202 01 0123456789

Country
Code
(30)
National
Destination
Code
(697)
Subscriber
Number
(1234567)
Mobile
Country
Code
(202)
Mobile
Network
Code
(01)
Mobile
Subscriber
Identification
Number
(0123456789)
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

introduction to UMTS
UMTS network architecture
introduction to WCDMA
WCDMA air-interface
basic procedures and functions
HSPA
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

History
Multiple access techniques
DS/CDMA
WCDMA spreading in UMTS
Spreading/multiplexing
Channelization codes
Scrambling codes
The near far effect and power control
Multipath channels
Soft handover

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
CDMA is a party
Claude Shannon
it seemed like a very democratic way to use up the coordinates that you have, and to
distribute the cost of living, the noise, evenly among everyone. The whole thing seemed to
have a great deal of elegance in my mind, mathematically speaking, and even from the point of
view of democratic living in the world of communications.
More and more people can come, and they would all pay equally, so to speak. If more people
were there, gradually the noise level would increase on each channel. But everyone could still
talk, even though it might be a pretty noisy cocktail party by that time.
Who is Claude Shannon anyway?
Claude Elwood Shannon (1916 2001), was a mathematician,
electronic engineer, cryptographer, etc. who is considered to be
the father of information theory and modern digital
communications with his 1948 article A mathematical theory
of communications.
In addition he is considered to be the father of digital circuits
with his Master Thesis A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and
Switching Circuits, 1938.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
CDMA history at a glance
1941 Markey and Amtheil propose a FH system for remote control of torpedoes
1949 Pierce proposes a TH multiple access system
1950 De Rosa and Rogoff suggest multiplexing of information signals in temporal delays of
a noise like carrier
1952 Noise Modulation And Correlation (NOMAC). A project with Direct Sequence (DS) On-
Off keying and noise as the spreading waveform (Fano, Davenport, Weisner)
1954 Radio teletype F9C. DS with PN spreading
1955 Price and Green propose the RAKE receiver
1959 Costas evaluates the capacity of Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) Systems
1961 ARC-50. A DS system (Magnavox) for satellite applications (mainly military)
1979 Global Positioning System (GPS)
1980 DS system for indoor wireless communications by HP
1981 First wide commercial application of a satellite system with micro-earth stations.
1993 IS-95 DS/CDMA mobile communications system (Qualcomm)
2000 Adoption of DS/CDMA and WCDMA proposal for 3
rd
generation mobile
communications (UMTS)
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Multiple access technique: The method of organization and distribution/allocation of common
resources so that the medium is accessible by more than one users.
Frequently used multiple access techniques in mobile communications
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
Resource allocation based on bandwidth allocation per user.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Resource allocation based on time interval allocation per user.











CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access), SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) etc.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The basic concept of CDMA
Each user allocates all the available bandwidth and transmits at any time interval.
Each user is assigned a unique special code that spreads the signal bandwidth over the
available bandwidth (spread spectrum).
The users are separated by the unique code each one is assigned.
The users have to modify the transmitted power properly (unless special interference
cancellation multiuser reception techniques are used).

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Direct Sequence (DS) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is realized by multiplication
of the original information bits with a much faster pseudonoise sequence (code), unique
for each user.
The bandwidth of the spread signal is proportional to the number of pulses (chips) of the
code per information bit or inversely proportional to the duration of the chip.
The number of chips per bit is called Spreading Factor (SF)
Other CDMA techniques: Frequency Hopping (FH), Time Hopping (TH), hybrid.
frequency domain time domain
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Simplified models of transmitter and receiver of DS/CDMA
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
DS/CDMA example
The receiver correlates the received
signal with the user specific code.
The cross-correlation among the
spreading codes should be very low
so that to minimize the interference
between the users (multiuser
interference).
Good codes: Maximal length (PN)
sequences, Gold codes, Kasami
sequences, Hadamard codes
(orthogonal).
A CDMA systems capacity is
restricted by the multiuser
interference (interference limited)
or the power used in order to
overcome interference (power
limited)

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
In WCDMA spreading is applied in two levels
Channelization: spreading with orthogonal codes each code separates different
information streams of the same transmitter.
Scrambling: multiplication with a code that characterizes (unique) the transmitter.
The two codes have identical chip rate scrambling does not spreads the signal further.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Channelization and scrambling codes use in UMTS
Scrambling codes Channelization codes
Use Uplink: Users separation
Downlink: Cells separation (each
cell is characterized by a
scrambling code)
Uplink: Separation of information
and/or signaling streams of the
user
Downlink: Separation of users
belonging to the same cell
Length Uplink: 38400 or 256
Downlink: 38400
Uplink: 4-256
Downlink: 4-512
Code family Long codes: Gold
Short codes (UL): S(2)
OVSF Hadamard codes
Number of
codes
Uplink: over 1610
6
Downlink: 512 primary codes (15
secondary codes per primary
code)
Variable, depending on the
spreading factor of each
user/data stream and the
required bit rate.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) Walsh-Hadamard codes
Separate different information streams when the transmission is realized by a single transmitter
(separation of users in downlink, separation of channels in uplink). Channelization codes are
orthogonal among them.
They provide the capability of coexisting channels with different information data rates under a
fixed chip rate (3,84Mchips/s), while keeping their orthogonality.









(data symbol rate) SF = 3,84 Mchips/s

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Multiple access example with OVSF codes












Data stream B is more vulnerable to multiple access interference than data stream A (compare the
final decision values). Therefore, the less the SF is, the higher the power that is required in order to
overcome interference.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example of OVSF code tree use

thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department, A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Scrambling codes do not spread further the signal. They are multiplied on a chip by chip basis
with the signal arising after the channelization process.
In downlink each cell is characterized by a scrambling code. 512 primary scrambling codes are
used and there are 15 secondary for each one of them.
In uplink each user is assigned a unique
scrambling code by the network during the
call setup process. There are 2
24
codes.
Scrambling codes are based on Gold codes
and have length of 38400 chip and total duration
Equal to one frame (10ms). Additionally,
there exist short scrambling S(2) codes of
length 256 chips for use with multiuser receivers.


Example of correlation
properties of a good code
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Long codes used in uplink
Gold codes are created as a linear combination of two m-sequences. These are selected so that
to present very low cross-correlation between each other. The resulted Gold codes have almost
identical cross-correlation properties with the original m-sequences.









The two codes c
1
and c
2
are combined so that to produce the complex scrambling code that is
used in the uplink. Different codes are created depending on the initial values of the shift
registers.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Radio planning based on scrambling codes
Each cell uses one or more channels of
BW=5Hz (one channel is enough for the
realization of a WCDMA system).
Each cell is characterized by a scrambling
code. Since scrambling codes are not
orthogonal, interference is always present in
a WCDMA system.
Radio planning is realized in such a way that the
same scrambling code does not exist in neighbor
cells of the same frequency.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

The near-far effect appears
when the signals of different users
arrive at the receiver with high
power difference.
In this case, a simple correlation
receiver cannot detect the desired
signal easily and may result to a
great number of errors.
In order to avoid the near-far
effect, the system utilizes power
control or special detection
techniques (interference
cancellation or multiuser
reception)
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
WCDMA utilizes three levels of power control
Closed loop (inner) power control
Power control cycle: 1.5KHz (1500 times per second)
Power adjustment step: 1 dB or 2 dB
Path loss suppression, fast fading elimination to a great extent.
Outer loop power control
Adjusts the target SIR that inner power control aims to follow.
SIR values that give a specific BER depend on the channel conditions.
Open loop power control
Transmission power adjustment with respect to the received power.
Not exact because of uplink/downlink different characteristics (5 ... 10 dB)
Used for initial power adjustment before connection establishment

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
1. MS1 transmits at power P1.
2. The BS estimates the SIR of the received
signal from MS1.
3. If (estimated SIR) < (target SIR)
then
send increase TPC command to MS1
else
send lower TPC command to S1
4. MS1 modifies the transmission power to
P1* according to the TPC command.
1. BS1 transmits at power P1.
2. MS1 estimates the SIR of the received signal.
3. If (estimated SIR) < (target SIR)
then
send increase TPC command to BS1
else
send lower TPC command to BS1
4. BS1 modifies the transmission power to MS1
to P1* according to the TPC command (not
always).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

Due to reflections, diffractions, etc.
the transmitted signal may reach the
receiver by different paths that
present different delays, amplitudes
and phases. This procedure id called
multipath.
The delay spread (the difference in
delays among different paths) may
reach 1-2s in urban environments.


When the delay difference of the paths is greater than the chip duration, then a suitable receiver
may separate the different paths and detect the information signal through all of them. This is a
special characteristic of DS (Direct Sequence) spread spectrum systems.
The separation and independent reception of the information signal can take place when proper
spreading codes (with low auto-correlation) are used.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The RAKE receiver
Vector processing with RAKE
and MRC (Maximal Ratio
Combining)
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
In standard handover procedures (e.g. in GSM), the call is switched (transferred) from one to cell to
another, during communication, after proper measurements of the MS regarding the quality of the
received signal. The decision and the handover command are given by the BSC. The MS communicates
with only one cell at a time.

A B
D C
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE








In WCDMA the MS can communicate with 2 or
more Node Bs simultaneously by using
different scrambling codes. This is why the
procedure is called soft handover (softer
handover when the cells belong to the same
Node B ).
Depending on the quality of the
communication and the measurements of the
MS, the RNC decides with how many and which
cells the MS will communicate simultaneously.
The soft HO improves the quality of the communication, decreases the possibility of a drop call
during handover but consumes more system resources (codes, power). It is estimated that in a fully
deveoped WCDMA system, 20-30% of the MSs are in soft handover state.
C
B
D
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

introduction to UMTS
UMTS network architecture
introduction to WCDMA
WCDMA air-interface
basic procedures and functions
HSPA
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

Air-interface protocols
Logical, transport and physical channels
Information transmission
Downlink transmission
Uplink transmission
Services examples
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
air-interface UMTS
L3
Logical
Channels

Transport
Channels
Physical
Channels



L2/MAC
L1
RLC L2/RLC
MAC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
BMC L2/BMC

PDCP


L2/PDCP
control
c
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Radio
Bearers

RRC
User plane data Control plane signalling

PDCP
PHY
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The RRC (radio resource control) protocol
The RRC protocol is responsible for the setup, modification and release of layers 1 and 2
(MAC physical) connections. It transfers the signaling for MM (mobility management),
CM (connection management) and SM (session management). This protocol is responsible
(among others) for:
The system information broadcast contents
The paging procedures
The outer loop power control
The cell selection/reselection in idle mode
The transport and physical channels configuration and reconfiguration
The MS measurements configuration
The ciphering & integrity protection procedures
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The RLC (radio link control) protocol
The RLC protocol is responsible (among others) for:
The segmentation and organization of the information in PDU (protocol data units)
depending on the type of the information (logical channels)
The transmission/reception of PDUs in three modes: Acknowledged (AM),
Unacknowledged (AM), Transparent (Tr)
The retransmission of information (when required)
The numbering of PDUs and duplicate detection
The MAC (medium access control) protocol
Mapping of logical channels to transport and multiplexing of common and dedicated
channels
Management of the broadcast channel (MAC-b), the dedicated (MAC-d) and common
channels (MAC-c/sh)
The identification of MS to which a common channel transmission is directed.
The determination of the priority of information streams of an MS or among different
MS.

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page 59
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The PDCP (packet data convergence protocol) protocol
It is defined for user plane PS connections only
Compression/decompression of TCP/IP and RTP/UDP/IP headers
Information transfer to/from the users
SRNC relocation procedure
The MC (broadcast/multicast control) protocol
It is defined only for the user plane and refers to
The storage of broadcast messages
The scheduling of BM messages and the control of the relevant resources
The transmission of BM messages
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 60
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The logical channels refer to the type of information transferred.
Control channels (control plane)
Broadcast control channel (BCCH): Downlink channel used for information transfer to
all users
Paging control channel (PCCH): Downlink channel for paging
Dedicated control channel (DCCH): Dedicated (point-to-point) per user channel for the
transfer of signaling (control data) between the network and the user (MS).
Common control channel (CCCH): Common channel for the transfer of signaling
(control data) between the network and the users.
Traffic channels (user plane)
Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH): Dedicated (point-to-point) per user channel for the
transfer of information (traffic data) between the network and the user.
Common traffic channel (CTCH): Common (point-to-multipoint) channel for the
transfer of information (traffic data) between the network and all or some users.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 61
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The transport channels define the way and the characteristics of data
transmission: how information is split in blocks, how different information types are
multiplexed, what is the information rate (), what error protection (channel coding) is used,
what CRC is used etc.
Common transport channels
Random access channel (RACH): a common uplink channel for gaining access to the
system and transmission of small amount PS data
Forward access channel (FACH): a common downlink channel used for signaling
purpose and small amount of PS data
Broadcast channel (BCH): downlink channel used for the transfer of system information
Paging channel (PCH): downlink channel used for the transfer of signaling (control) to
the cell
Dedicated transport channels
Dedicated channel (DCH): Dedicated to each user channel for the transfer of traffic or
signaling (control) information.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example of voice transport channels (12.2Kbps)
The number of TrChs 3
Transport block size
TrCH#a 0, 39 or 81bits
TrCH#b 103 bits
TrCH#c 60 bits
TFCS
#1 N
TrCHa
=1*81, N
TrCHb
=1*103, N
TrCHc
=1*60 bits
#2 N
TrCHa
=1*39, N
TrCHb
=0*103, N
TrCHc
=0*60 bits
#3 N
TrCHa
=1*0, N
TrCHb
=0*103, N
TrCHc
=0*60 bits
CRC 12 bits (attached only to TrCh#a)
CRC parity bit attachment for 0 bit
transport block
Applied only to TrCH#a
Coding
Convolutional Code,
coding rate = 1/3 for TrCh#a, b
coding rate = 1/2 for TrCh#c
TTI 20 ms
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example of 384Kbps downlink PS data transport channel






Example of 64Kbps uplink PS data transport channel
The number of TrChs 1
Transport block size 336 bits
Transport block Set size
336*B bits (B = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 for
TTI=10 ms, B = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16,
20, 24 for TTI=20 ms)
CRC 16 bits
Coding Turbo coding, coding rate = 1/3
TTI 10 or 20 ms
The number of TrChs 1
Transport block size 336 bits
Transport
block
Set size
64 kbps 336*B bits (B = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4)
128 kbps 336*B bits (B = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8)
144 kbps 336*B bits (B = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 9)
CRC 16 bits
Coding Turbo coding, coding rate = 1/3
TTI 20 ms
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Mapping logical transport physical channels
DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel (uplink and downlink)
DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink and downlink)
PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel (uplink)
PCCPCH: Primary Common Control Physical Channel (downlink)
SCCPCH: Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (downlink)
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page 65
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The radio frame
The physical channels are characterized by the carrier frequency, the scrambling code, and
the channelization code (when required).
The transmission is organized in (both uplink and downlink)
Slots: each slot includes 2560 chips and has a duration of 2/3 ms. In every slot a power
control command is exchanged (1.5 z rate).
Sub-frames: this is the transmission unit of HS-DSCH (HSDPA), it last 2 ms and consists
of 3 slots.
Radio frames: each frame ha a duration of 10 ms, includes 38400 chips (a full long
scrambling code) and consists of 15 slots.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink dedicated physical channel
Dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH): The dedicated channel through which user
traffic (DTCH) and signaling (DCCH) is transferred.
Dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH): The dedicated channel through which
physical control information of the user is transferred (TPC: Transmission power control
bits, TFCI: Transport format combination bits, Pilot: Pilot bits)








This channel is realized with closed (inner) loop power control

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink dedicated physical channel
Downlink dedicated channel transmission rates: the rates given in the following (channel
bit rate) are not pure information. Channel coding (FEC) is included.
(channel symbol rate) SF = 3,84Mchips/s

DPDCH
Bits/Slot
DPCCH
Bits/Slot
Slot
Format
Channel
Bit Rate
(kbps)
Channel
Symbol
Rate
(ksps)
SF
Bits/
Slot
Data1 Data2 TPC TFCI Pilot
Transmitted
slots per radio
frame

0 15 7.5 512 10 0 4 2 0 4 15
1 15 7.5 512 10 0 2 2 2 4 15
2 30 15 256 20 2 14 2 0 2 15
3 30 15 256 20 2 12 2 2 2 15
. .
. .
. .
11 60 30 128 40 6 22 2 2 8 15
12 120 60 64 80 12 48 4 8* 8 15
13 240 120 32 160 28 112 4 8* 8 15
14 480 240 16 320 56 232 8 8* 16 15
15 960 480 8 640 120 488 8 8* 16 15
16 1920 960 4 1280 248 1000 8 8* 16 15

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink dedicated physical channel reception
The MS receiver carries out the following basic procedures in order to decode the information
transmitted from the Node B:
Starts despreading DPCCH of DPCCH bits and puts DPDCH data to a buffer.
In every slot:
Calculates the SIR from the pilot bits of DPCCH and/or CPICH channels.
Sends the TPC (power control) command to the Node B at the next uplink slot.
Decodes the TPC that has received and modifies correspondingly the transmission
power
In every frame:
Decodes the TFCI bits of DPCCH in order to read informatino regarding the structure of
the transport channels that the DPDCH carries.
In every (time transmission interval 10, 20 ,40 or 80 ms):
Decodes the information (traffic or signaling) of DPDCH and forwards it to the upper
layers.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink common physical channels
Synchronisation channel (SCH): This channel is common to all the system cells. It uses
Golay codes and it is transmitted only in the first 256 chips of the slot. It consists of the
Primary SCH and the Secondary SCH and is used by the MS in order to achieve
synchronization and identify the scrambling code of the cell.
Common pilot channel (CPICH): This is the reference channel of the cell. It has a
SF=256, it is transmitted continuously with constant power (that determines the cell
size).
Primary common control physical channel (P-CCPCH): This channel carries the system
information (BCCH), has a SF=256 and it is continuously transmitted, except the first 256
chips of each slot.
Secondary common control physical channel (S-CCPCH): This channel carries the FACH
(signaling and small volume data) and the PCH (paging), it has a variable spreading
factor SF=2564, and there is always one in each cell.
Paging indicator channel (PICH): This is the channel that the MS listens to in order to
identify if there is a paging message (SF=256).
Acquisition indicator channel (AICH): This channel is used by the Node B to respond to
a random access request of a MS (SF=256).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink physical channels timing
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Transport channels processing in downlink
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink multiplexing and modulation
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink multiplexing and modulation (a)
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink multiplexing and modulation (b)
Downlink modulation is QPSK. Every symbol corresponds to two chips, so the total information
rate is (info bit rate) = 2 (channel symbol rate). The filter is a raised cosine filter with rolloff
factor 0.22.
The channel coding schemes used are
convolutional of rate 1/2 for BCH, PCH,
convolutional of rate 1/2 or 1/3 and turbo
coding of rate 1/3 for FACH and DCH.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Downlink power allocation

Power is allocated in an additive
way at the downlink channels.
The control channels have
constant power which is defined
with respect to the power of the
CPICH. The CPICH power is
usually set at 27dBm, 30dBm or
33dBm).
For each user the transmission
power is controlled in
accordance to the outer/inner
power control procedure and
the service type (normally, the
smaller the SF is the greater the
allowed power is).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

M
u
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e
x
i
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g

o
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A
M
R

s
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c
h


a
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s
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t
r
a
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p
o
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t

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
s

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

M
u
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i
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l
e
x
i
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g

o
f

3
8
4
K
b
p
s

p
a
c
k
e
t

d
a
t
a


a
n
d

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t
r
a
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p
o
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c
h
a
n
n
e
l
s

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Uplink dedicated physical channel
Dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH): The dedicated (to the user) channel that
carries the traffic (DTCH) and signaling DCCH) information of the user.
Dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH): The dedicated (to the user) channel that
carries physical layer control information of the user (TPC: Transmission power control
bits, TFCI: Transport format combination bits, Pilot: Pilot bits, FBI: Feedback indication
bits)








The channel is realized with closed loop (inner) power control

T
h
e

c
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a
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e
l
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a
r
e


c
o
d
e

m
u
l
t
i
p
l
e
x
e
d

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Uplink dedicated physical channel
Uplink dedicated channel transmission rates: the information rates given below (channel
bit rate) do not correspond to pure information. Channel coding (FEC) is included.
(channel symbol rate) SF = 3,84Mchips/s

Slot
Format
Channel Bit
Rate (kbps)
Channel
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/Frame Bits/Slot Data
0 15 15 256 150 10 10
1 30 30 128 300 20 20
2 60 60 64 600 40 40
3 120 120 32 1200 80 80
4 240 240 16 2400 160 160
5 480 480 8 4800 320 320
6 960 960 4 9600 640 640

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Uplink dedicated physical channel reception
The Node B receiver realizes the following procedures in order to decode the information
transmitted by the MS:
Starts the despreading of DPCCH and puts the DPDCH symbols in a buffer.
In every slot:
Estimates the SIR from the pilot bits of
Transmits the TPC (power control) command to the MS in the next downlink slot
Decodes the received TPC command and modifies accordingly the transmission power
Every second or fourth slot:
Decodes the FBI bits and modifies the amplitudes and phases of the antennas
In every frame:
Decodes the TFCI of DPCCH in order to identify the format of the transport channels
that the DPDCH carries
In every TTI (time transmission interval 10, 20 ,40 or 80 ms):
Decodes the information (taffic or signaling) of the DPDCH and forwards it to the upper
layers.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Uplink common physical channels
Physical random access channel (PRACH): The MS uses this channel to request access to the
network. It is transmitted:
For signaling (control) transmission to the network (location update or call setup)
When the MS has a small amount of data to transmit
It consist of two parts:
he preamble, with 8192 possible scrambling codes (16 codes for each primary DL cell
scrambling code).
The message part that contains the info to be transferred. This is transmitted only if the
MS receives a response in AICH. (SF=256,128,64,32)
it is realized with open loop power control







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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Transport channel processing in uplink
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Multiplexing and modulation in uplink
Modulation: QPSK (Dual BPSK)
info bit rate = channel symbol rate
Root Raised Cosine Filter (a=0.22)
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Examples of common services channel organization
Downlink Uplink
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

introduction to UMTS
UMTS network architecture
introduction to WCDMA
WCDMA air-interface
basic procedures and functions
HSPA
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

Idle mode
Cell selection/reselection
System information
Location registration
Paging & random access
SRB & RABs
Handover procedure
Admission & load control
Soft capacity

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Idle mode procedures
Cell selection
PLMN selection
Location Registration
Cell reselection
Idle mode states
Camped normally: the MS has been
registered to the network, has read system
information (BCCH), listens to PICH and
may send a RACH in order to initiate a
connection.
Camped on any cell: the MS has restricted
functionality (emergency cell)
Any cell selection: the MS is in search
network state (e.g. no SIM).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Suitable cell selection
Initial cell selection (when the MS has no frequency data stored).
Stored information cell selection.
Cell selection is possible in WCDMA only when the MS has been synchronized to the
network through the cell search procedure.
Cell search
The MS decodes the PSC (Primary SCH) which is common to all cells of the network in
order to attain slot level synchronization.
The MS decodes the SSC (Secondary SCH) which is different in every cell and then
synchronizes to the frame level and reads the scrambling code group the cell belongs
to (there are 64 groups of 8 scrambling codes each).
The MS finds with successive correlations which of the possible 8 scrambling codes is
the scrambling code of the CPICH that listens, that is, the scrambling code of the cell.
The MS decodes the P-CCPCH and reads the system information that is transmitted with
the BCCH.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Cell Selection
The MS selects a cell to camp, when some quality criteria are fulfilled. These criteria,
known as the general term S criterion include:
The quality (Ec/Io) measured by the MS with respect to a minimum acceptable quality
The received power level (RSCP) with respect to a minimum acceptable power level
(the max allowed transmission power in RACH is also taken into account).
If the S criterion requirements are not fulfilled the MS looks for a GSM channel.
Cell reselection
When the cell to which the MS is camped does not fulfill the criteria any more or the
MS finds a better than the current cell, then it selects the best (among the received
neighbor cells) to camp, according the R criterion (the requirements are given in
the BCCH).
The R criterion includes the same quality level (c/Io) in addition to some offset which
is predefined by the operator.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The BCCH provides the necessary identities and information of the system so that
the MS can use the system.








The MS decodes the BCCH (P-CCPCH) when
The MS is switched on.
The MS changes cell.
When it is notified for a change in the SIBs.
When switches from the dedicated to the idle state.
Periodically (when the system requires so).

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example of information in SIBs
Contents MIB SIB1 SIB3 SIB5 SIB7 SIB11 SIB12
PLMN identity
X
Cell selection and reselection
parameters
X X
Paging parameters
X X
Measurements management
X X
Cell and common channel
configuration
X
Timers and counters in Idle and
Connected mode
X
Power control on common
channel
X
LA and RA update parameters
X
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Location registration
Registration area (Location Area/LA Routing
Area/RA) is the area where the network transmits
the paging message in order to communicate with a
MS in idle mode, e.g. when there is an incoming to
MS call.
The cells of the network are grouped in Location
Areas. Each LA is characterized by a unique number.
Whenever the MS changes the location area (i.e.
camps to a better than the old cell which belongs to
a different location area), it always informs the
network (MSS Server) through the location
(registration) update procedure.
In general LA/RA update takes place in the following
cases:
Normal registration
IMSI attach/detach
Periodic location registration
LA 1
LA 2
LA 3
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Paging in idle mode
Paging procedure is used to notify the MS that there is a request for incoming to the MS
connection (e.g. an incoming call to the MS or a SIB change, etc.). Paging is realized by the
RNC in a LA level.
The MS, in idle mode, periodically decodes the PICH to see if there are any paging
messages for it.
The MS are grouped in paging groups according to their IMSI.
When there is paging message for any of the IMSI (MS) of the group then the
corresponding paging Indicator bits of PICH are set to the value 1.
Then every MS of the specific paging group decodes the S-CCPCH that carries the PCH in
order to find out is there is a paging message for it.
Paging connected mode
In this case there is already an RRC connection established between the MS and the
network, therefore the paging message is transferred through the existing signaling, i.e.
the DCCH included in the DPDCH of the MS.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The random access procedure takes place whenever the MS must connect to the network,
either because of an existing paging message or because the MS wants to initiate a call. The
procedure is based on slotted ALOHA protocol with fast acquisition indication.
The MS is aware of the system information via the BCCH.
The MS selects randomly one out of the 12 available PRACH access slots and one of the
available 16 preamble sequences. The MS sets the transmission power according to the
received power and the information of BCCH.
The MS transmits the preamble.
The MS decodes the AICH so that to find out if the Node B has responded.
If no AICH is received, the MS increases the power and retransmits the preamble 3
access slots later at least.
When the AICH is received, the MS transmits the message part of the RACH that
includes the corresponding signaling (e.g. for call setup) or data.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Random access timing

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The first procedure after a successful response to a RACH message is the establishment of
signaling with the network (SRB signaling radio bearer). This results to a RRC connection,
which is mandatory for any communication of the MS with the network.
Then, in order to establish a call (CS or PS) a Radio Access Bearer is setup. he Radio Access
Bearer (RAB) is an end-to-end dedicated connection of the MS to the CN, through which the
traffic is transferred.






There are 4 RAB types, corresponding to the QoS classes UMTS:
Conversational
Streaming
Interactive
Background
CN
UTRAN
K
RANAP
RANAP
RRC
RRC
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
UMTS QoS classes characteristics
Conversational class (voice, video-telephony, telemetry)
Time sequence/relation preservation of the information.
Stringent and low delay and jitter.
Streaming class (video-audio streaming, )
Continuous unidirectional stream.
Time sequence/relation preservation of the information.
Interactive class (web-browsing, e-commerce, data transfer)
Request-response relation.
Very low probability of error.
Background class (fax, server-to-server email)
Loose time restriction regarding the reception of the information.
Very low probability of error.
Delay
Errors
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Examples of SRB/RABs reconfigurations











The existence of SRB is mandatory throughout the duration of a connection.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Example of basic RABs
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Handover procedures may be separated in 5 steps
MS measurements
Measurements filtering
Event and measurements reporting to the RNC
Measurements evaluation by the RNC and handover decicion
Handover execution
The MS knows (from the system information - BCCH) which cells (neighbor) and how to
measure them. The measurements concern the quality of the CPICH received by the
neighbor cells.
When the MS recognizes a predefined event, i.e. the criteria to perform a handover are
fulfilled, it transmits a report of the measurements and the event type to the RNC.
The RNC decides (taking into account the measurements and the available resources in
terms of codes and power) if a cell must be added or subtracted at the ACTIVE SET (the cells
serving the MS simultaneously) of the MS and sends the relevant message (signaling) to the
MS and the candidate Node B to execute the handover.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Handover events 1a and 1b
The CPICH of a cell approaches or moves away the CPICH of the cell that serves the MS
(events 1a or 1b).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Handover event 1c
The CPICH of a cell becomes better than the worst CPICH of the ACTIVE-SET that serves the
MS (event 1c).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Handover event 1d
The CPICH of a cell in the ACTIVE-SET becomes better than the best CPICH of the ACTIVE-SET
that serves the MS (event 1d).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Handover events 2d and 2f
The CPICH of the cell serving the MS becomes worse (better) than a predefined threshold
and the MS starts measurements in another frequency band (events 2d 2f) in order to
realize an inter-frequency (hard) handover.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Compressed mode
When the MS must gather measurements from another than the serving frequency, then it
reorganizes the transport channels by lowering the bit rate of the SF in order to create a
time interval to tune to the other frequency and perform the measurements. This is called
compressed mode.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Inter-system handover
When the MS has performed measurements in GSM frequencies (by entering the
compressed mode) and the quality of CPICH has become worse than a predefined threshold
while there exists a GSM cell with adequate quality(over a predefined threshold), the MS
sends measurements to the RNC in order to realize an inter-system handover (hard
handover).
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Admission control
This is the procedure that takes place in order to admit or not new connections. The system
resources taken into account are:
The channelization codes in downlink and the code tree availability.
The downlink cell transmitted power.
The level of uplink interference.
The downlink connections and their type.
The Iub/Iur resources.
Load (congestion) control
The procedures that take place in order to avoid and overcome overload:
New call admissions are postponed until overload solution.
Gradual reduction of the QoS (e.g. delay increase in background connections, bit rate
reduction, etc.).
Release of allocated resources until overload solution.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The capacity of the cells is not fixed (as in GSM) either for voice or data
services.
In WCDMA when the number of power consuming users is increasing
either because of distance
or because of high bit rate services that demand higher power (due to lower SF
and greater vulnerability to interference)
the capability of serving new users is reduced. This is called cell breathing.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Factors affecting downlink capacity
The total available transmission power of the cell
Number of active users
The type of user services
The code tree (the number of available channelization codes)
The interference of neighbor cells
The required coverage
Factors affecting uplink capacity
Multiple access interference
Number of active users
The type of user services
The required coverage
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Maximum downlink capacity with a single scrambling code
The maximum number of channels that can be supported in a cell for voice transmission
is in the order of 100 for AMR full rate (12.2Kbps, SF=128) and 200 for AMR half rate
(7.95Kbps, SF=256).
The maximum bit rate for PS data that the cell can support is in the order of 2.5Mbps (7
users with 384Kbps bit rate)
Examples of estimated capacity per cell with a single scrambling code for different
service types
Service Basic limiting factor Downlink capacity Uplink capacity
Voice 12.2Kbps
Multiuser interference in uplink or
total downlink power
70-90 users 70-100 users
Video 64Kbps Multiuser interference in 10-15 users 15-20 users
PS 384Kbps Total downlink power 3-4 users
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

introduction to UMTS
UMTS network architecture
introduction to WCDMA
WCDMA air-interface
basic procedures and functions
HSPA
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE

Introduction
HSDPA (Rel. 5) transmission
HSDPA ARQ
HSDPA scheduling
EUL (Rel. 6) transmission
EUL scheduling
HSPA+ (Rel. 7) improvements
Mobile equipment categories
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Basic targets of HSPA
Support of higher bit rates (throughput) for PS services.
Minimization of latency introduced in the processing the information.
Full adaptation to a packetized structure (IP).
Advantages
More services
Services that require higher bit rates (download/upload, high quality video, VoIP, etc.)
Greater number of users with high bit rate services
Increase of the total capacity of the air-interface

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Bit rate evolution
System
Downlink Uplink
peak rate peak rate
WCDMA Rel.99 (theoretical) 2.048 Mbps 768 Kbps
WCDMA Rel.99 (applied) 384 Kbps 384 Kbps
HSDPA Rel. 5 14.4 Mbps 384 Kbps
HSDPA/EUL Rel. 6 14.4 Mbps 5.76 Mbps
HSPA+ Rel. 7 (DL 64QAM, UL 16QAM) 21.6 Mbps 11.5 Mbps
HSPA+ Rel. 7 (2x2 MIMO, DL 16QAM, UL 16QAM) 28 Mbps 11.5 Mbps
HSPA+ Rel. 7 (2x2 MIMO, DL 64QAM, UL 16QAM) 42 Mbps 11.5 Mbps
HSPA+ Rel. 7 (2x2 MIMO, DL 64QAM, UL 16QAM, Dual
carrier)
84 Mbps 23 Mbps
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
New characteristics with respect to WCDMA
Parallel use of more than one channelization codes per user in downlink.
Fast scheduling of transmissions and retransmissions (HARQ) of the active connections
by the Node B.
Suppression of soft handover and closed loop power control.
Time base for information transfer (TTI) is set to the subframe (3 slots) 2 ms.
Introduction of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) techniques, including higher
order modulation schemes.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
New physical channels in HSDPA
High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH): Transfers only the user
traffic data.
High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH): Downlink channel that carries the
physical layer signaling, so that proper traffic data (carried with HS-PDSCH) decoding is
possible by each user
High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH): Uplink channel that
carries physical layer signaling , so that effective scheduling is applied in the downlink
direction by the Node B.
Each HS connection is accompanied by a standard DCH (the associated DCH) which is
transmitted via the DPDCH and is used for signaling transfer (3
rd
layer) with the network
or parallel services (e.g. CS AMR voice).
In Rel. 6 the Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) is introduced which
restricts the use of the downlink associated DCH to a low percentage (10% ) of the
frame.


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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
HS-PDSCH (downlink)
The SF of the channelization codes in downlink is fixed to SF = 16.
Every cell supports a fixed number of channelization codes (5, 10 15) for HSDPA users (the
rest code tree is given to WCDMA users). Usually a second carrier is used for pure HSDPA use
(i.e. a full code tree).
Each user may use more than one channelization codes (max 15), depending on the MS
capability.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
HS-PDSCH (downlink)
No transport channel multiplexing is utilized
Channel coding is turbo 1/3 (with puncturing goes up to 3/4) or none.
Modulation is QPSK or 16QAM.
Slot format Channel
Bit Rate
(kbps)
Channel
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/ HS-
DSCH
subframe
Bits/ Slot Ndata
0 (QPSK) 480 240 16 960 320 320
1 (16QAM) 960 240 16 1920 640 640
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
HS-PDSCH (downlink)
The combination of modulation coding is not fixed but changes during the connection
according to the channel conditions (feedback by the MS). This is called Adaptive
Modulation and Coding AMC
There 30 different AMC schemes that a MS can receive. Each one of them corresponds
to a specific CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) value.
Examples of max (theoretical) bit rates for various AMC combinations
5 parallel codes, QPSK, r
c
=3/4 Max bit rate = 54803/4 = 1.8 Mbps
5 parallel codes, 16QAM, r
c
=3/4 Max bit rate = 59603/4 = 3.6 Mbps
10 parallel codes, 16QAM, r
c
=3/4 Max bit rate = 109603/4 = 7.2 Mbps
15 parallel codes, 16QAM, r
c
=1 Max bit rate = 159601 = 14.4 Mbps
Slot format #i Channel
Bit Rate
(kbps)
Channel
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/ HS-
DSCH
subframe
Bits/ Slot Ndata
0 (QPSK) 480 240 16 960 320 320
1 (16QAM) 960 240 16 1920 640 640
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
HS-SCCH (downlink)
Each HS-SCCH corresponds to a specific MS (proper masking) and is transmitted only when
there is information (traffic) for this MS. There can be more than one HS-SCCH channels per
cell.
It has a duration of 3 slots (SF = 128, 40 bits per slot, CC 1/3) and consists of two parts:
First part (1 slot): how many channelization codes are used and what type of
modulation is used in the HS-PDSCH of the specific user.
Second part (2 slots): channel coding and HARQ information.
It is transmitted 2 slots before the corresponding HS-PDSCH so that the MS has time to
decode it and use the information to decode the HS-PDSCH.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
User multiplexing example with HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH

The HS-SCCH precedes the HS-PDSCH
by 2 slots.
When more than one HS-PDSCH are
transmitted, more than one HS-SCCH
are accordingly transmitted.
the users may be multiplexed in
time (time multiplexing) or based on
the channelization codes used (code
mulitplexing) or in both ways (code-
time multiplexing).
The cell resources (codes, power,
time) are shared among the
multiplexed users .

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
HS-DPCCH (uplink)
The uplink HS-DPCCH has a fixed SF=256, it consists of 3 slot and carries physical layer
signaling for the functionality of HSDPA.
It consists of two functional parts:
ACK/NACK (1 slot) messages that update the Node B about the correct or wrong
reception of the HS-PDSCH packets, so that retransmissions are applied according to the
HARQ procedure.
The Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) (2 slots) which declares the estimated best
modulation and coding scheme that the MS can receive with acceptable BLER (Block
Error Rate). This mainly depends on the channel fluctuations and the interference. It
takes 1 out of 30 predefined values and it is used by the Node B in order to schedule
the codes in the downlink direction.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
HS-DPCCH HARQ procedure
The Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) method combines the channel coding (FEC) with
retransmissions of packets in order to achieve better performance. For each user there are up to
8 parallel Stop-and-Wait (SAW) HARQ procedures.








Two HARQ methods are uses:
Chase combining
Incremental redundancy
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
The Node B receives information for the success of transmissions and the max rate
the MS can receive and schedules the transmissions of the next subframe.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Scheduling for HSDPA channel takes place every TT (3 slots) according to the
following basic criteria:
The channel condition as reported (indirectly) by every active MS with the use of CQI.
The volume of data waiting in the Node B buffer to be transferred to each MS.
The packets waiting for retransmission to each MS.
The last time instant that each user has been serviced.
The Node B takes into account all or some of the above criteria and applies a
relevant algorithm in order to schedule the transmissions, such as:
round-robin where all the users are served in a cyclic way.
highest C/I where the user presenting the best radio conditions is served.
proportional fair that tries to achieve a balance between fairness and efficient resources
utilization.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
New characteristics with respect to WCDMA
Parallel use of more channelization codes in uplink.
Scheduling of transmissions and retransmissions (ARQ) of the active connections to the
Node B.
Introduction of new channels.
Time base (TTI) either at 10ms (frame) or 2ms (subframe).
Differences with HSDPA
Closed loop power control is preserved (as in WCDMA).
Soft handover is preserved.
No AMC is applied.
The use of variable spreading factor is preserved.

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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
New channels in EUL
Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH): Uplink channel that carries the
traffic data of the MS.
Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control Channel (E-DPCCH): Uplink channel that carries
the characteristics of the E-DPDCH and information about the retransmissions (ARQ)
which are used by the Node B to schedule uplink transmissions.
E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (E-HICH): Downlink channel that carries the
ACK/NACK messages from the Node B to the MS corresponding to the uplink packets.
E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH) and E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH):
Downlink channels that carry scheduling commands that the MSs must follow in the
uplink.
The DPDCH is used when there is simultaneous CS service (e.g. AMR speech)
The DPCCH is used for the transmission of power control commands and pilot bits
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
E-DPDCH (uplink)
The modulation used is identical to WCDMA (dual BPSK).
The channel coding is turbo 1/3.
The SF is variable, ranging from 256 to 2.
When the bit rate is high and one channelization code with SF = 4 is not enough, parallel
transmission of more channelization codes is applied.







The pure information bit rate id lower (e.g. 730 Kbps for 1 code with SF=4) due to the
use of channel coding (FEC).


SF Uplink channel rate
1 code with SF=4 960 Kbps
2 codes with SF=4 1.92 Mbps
2 codes with SF=2 3.84 Mbps
2 codes with SF=4 and 2 codes with SF=2 5.76 Mbps
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Examples of EUL channels organization








The channels DPCCH and E-DPCCH are always transmitted. When the required bit rate increases
the SF of E-DPDCH #1 decreases. When the bit rate increases more than 960 Kbps, then a second
-DPDCH is engaged with a different channelization code.
The addition of E-DPDCH channels is accompanied with increase of the transmission power of
the MS, a fact that leads to the increase of the overall uplink multiuser interference in the cell.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Scheduling of the MS transmissions in EUL is realized by the Node B by taking into
account the following basic criteria:
Noise level: The Node B scheduler measures the noise level (multiuser interference) in
the uplink so that to decide if it can support more users or if the users should have
lower bit rates (which corresponds to lower MS transmission power).
MS capabilities: The scheduler reads the feedback that the MSs send in every TTI with
the E-DPCCH. Based on this, the Node B identifies the MS capability to send at higher
rates taking into account their power capability.
MS priority: The Node B knows the priority & bit rate profile of the MS (theya re
forwarded to the Node B by the RNC).
Based on the above, the Node B decides to modify the transmission rate of some users and
sends the corresponding commands via the E-RGCH and E-AGCH.
In addition, the Node B responds with an ACK/NACK response to the ARQ procedures of the MS
(via the -HICH), and the MS start new packet transmissions or retransmissions.
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Some of the major improvements that have been introduced for High
Speed Packet Access + are the following:
Higher order modulation
Muli-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) transmission
Layer 2 optimization
Continuous packet connectivity
Flat network architecture
With these improvements the theoretical and the real bit rates are
increased both in uplink and downlink.



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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Higher order modulation
64QAM is introduced in downlink.
16QAM (24PAM) is introduced in uplink








With 64QAM in downlink the bit rate is 3 times higher than QPSK and 3/2 times higher than
16QAM
With 16QAM (24PAM) in uplink, the bit rate is doubled with respect to QPSK (2BPSK).
2 bits/symbol 4 bits/symbol 6 bits/symbol
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 133
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
MIMO 22











Depending on the channel conditions it is possible to transmit the same information (diversity)
or different information (higher rate) by the transmission antennas.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 134
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Layer 2 optimization
Layer 2 optimization is applied in the downlink direction and is related with the size of the
RLC packets.
In Rel. 99, 5 and 6 the length of the RLC packets is small (40 or 80 bytes) and constant.
In Rel. 7 the length of the RLC packets is variable and equal to the TCP packet size (typically
1500 bytes).
Advantages:
The greater length of RLC packets leads to a smaller number of (headers) for the same
amount of information of a PS connection.
With the variable RLC length, padding is avoided.
The segmentation of RLC packets takes place at the Node B and not the RNC.
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 135
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Layer 2 optimization

thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 136
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Continuous Packet Connectivity
In WCDMA the MS used continuous transmission and reception even when there are no
traffic data to transmit.
In EUL (Rel. 6), the MS transmits the DPCCH during the connection even when there are
no traffic data to transmit.
Rel. 7 introduces discontinuous transmission (DTX) so that to stop the transmission of
the control channel when there are not traffic data. So the RF part of the MS switches
off. The same applies to the MS reception (DRX)
In this way MS power consumption and interference is reduced.


Example of uplink voice
transmission in UL with
WCDMA, EUL (Rel.6)
and EUL (Rel.7)
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 137
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Flat architecture
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 138
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Mobile categories in downlink
Category
Max number of
codes received
Modulation
MIMO
22
Max bit rate
(Mbps)
1 5 QPSK/16QAM No 1.2
2 5 QPSK/16QAM No 1.2
3 5 QPSK/16QAM No 1.8
4 5 QPSK/16QAM No 1.8
5 5 QPSK/16QAM No 3.6
6 5 QPSK/16QAM No 3.6
7 10 QPSK/16QAM No 7.2
8 10 QPSK/16QAM No 7.2
9 15 QPSK/16QAM No 10.2
10 15 QPSK/16QAM No 14.4
11 5 QPSK No 0.9
12 5 QPSK No 1.8
13 15 QPSK/16QAM/64QAM No 17.6
14 15 QPSK/16QAM/64QAM No 21.1
15 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes 23.4
16 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes 28
19 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes 35.3
20 15 QPSK/16QAM/64QAM Yes 42.2
thanassios C. Iossifides, Electronics Department A.... Thessaloniki
page 139
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EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Mobile categories in uplink

Category
Max
number of
codes
transmitted
Min SF Modulation TTI
Max bit rate
(Mbps)
1 1 SF4 QPSK 10ms 0.73
2 2 SF4 QPSK 10ms/2ms 1.46
3 2 SF4 QPSK 10ms 1.46
4 2 SF2 QPSK 10ms/2ms 2/2.9
5 2 SF2 QPSK 10ms 2
6 4 2SF2 + 2SF4 QPSK 10ms/2ms 2/5.76
7 4 2SF2 + 2SF4 16QAM 10ms/2ms 2/11.5