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Learning about the parts of speech is the first step in grammar study just as learning
the letters of the alphabet is the first step to being able to read and write. From
learning the parts of speech we begin to understand the use or function of words and
how words are joined together to make meaningful communication. To understand
what a part of speech is, you must understand the idea of putting similar things
together into groups or categories. Let's look at some examples of categories.

blue banana milk Spanish
red apple water rabic
yellow orange soda !apanese
green grape beer "nglish
black lemon coffee #orean
$olors, fruits, drinks, and languages are categories. %f % tell you that &rebo is a
language, you would understand exactly what &rebo is. %f we did not ha'e the
category language, it would be hard to explain what is meant by the word &rebo. %t
is 'ery con'enient to ha'e categories to talk about similar things. Let's look at some
more examples of categories. %n the list below, which does not belong with the
a) 'iolin
b) hammer
c) drums
d) piano
e) guitar
%f you chose hammer, you are right. *iolin, drums, piano, and guitars are used to
make music, but a hammer is not used to make music. +ammer doesn't fit with the
other words because it is a tool and all of the others are musical instruments.
Let's try another example. ,hich of these does not belong with the others(
a) hammer
b) saw
c) 'iolin
c) screwdri'er
d) wrench
This time, the word 'iolin does not belong because it is not a tool. %t is 'ery useful
to ha'e categories like musical instruments and tools to organi-e our ideas. The
parts of speech are categories used to organi-e or classify words according to how
they are used. ,e use parts of speech as a way to make it easier to talk about
The philosopher ristotle and later scientists studied animals and classified them
according to what they ha'e in common. For example, eagles, robins and sparrows
are kinds of birds. sharks, salmon and tuna are kinds of fish. and dogs, horses and
elephants are kinds of mammals. ristotle and others also studied language and
classified words according to what they ha'e in common. ,e usually use /
categories or parts of speech to classify all the words we use in "nglish. This
classification is not perfect. Sometimes it is hard to tell which category a word
belongs in. The same word may belong in different categories depending on how it
is used. There may be better ways to classify "nglish than by using the / parts of
speech. 0ut this classification has been used for a long time and many grammar
books use it, so it is easier to keep on using it. %t is possible to speak or learn a
language without knowing the parts of speech, but for most of us, knowing about
parts of speech makes things easier.
+ere is an example of how it can be helpful to know about the parts of speech. Look
at the sentence1 The man surreptitiously entered the room. 2ou probably don't
know the meaning of the word surreptitiously, but if you know about parts of speech,
you will recogni-e that it is an ad'erb and that it tells you something about how the
man entered the room. 2ou may still not understand the exact meaning of the word,
but you can understand the whole sentence better than if you did not know about
parts of speech.
,hen you look up a word in a dictionary, you will find not only the meaning of the
word but also what part of speech it is. This information is 'ery helpful in
understanding the full meaning of the word and knowing how to use it.
The / parts of speech that are used to describe "nglish words are1

noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing. +ere are
some examples of nouns1 boy, ri'er, friend, 5exico, triangle, day, school, truth,
uni'ersity, idea, !ohn F. #ennedy, mo'ie, aunt, 'acation, eye, dream, flag, teacher,
class, grammar. !ohn F. #ennedy is a noun because it is the name of a person.
5exico is a noun because it is the name of a place. and boy is a noun because it is
the name of a thing.
Some grammar books di'ide nouns into 6 groups 7 proper nouns and common
nouns. Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a capital letter because it is the
name of a specific or particular person place or thing. Some examples of proper
nouns are1 5exico, !ohn F. #ennedy, tlantic 8cean, February, 5onday, 3ew 2ork
$ity, Susan, 5aple Street, 0urger #ing. %f you see a word beginning with a capital
letter in in the middle of a sentence, it is probably a proper noun. 5ost nouns are
common nouns and do not begin with a capital letter.
5any nouns ha'e a special plural form if there is more than one. For example, we
say one book but two books. Plurals are usually formed by adding an 7s 9books) or
7es 9boxes) but some plurals are formed in different ways 9child 7 children, person 7
people, mouse 7 mice, sheep 7 sheep).
Common Nouns : are names of people 9e.g. man), things 9e.g. books),
animals 9e.g. monkey) and places 9church).
Proper Nouns : are special names of people 9e.g. &eorge 0ush), things 9e.g.
Financial Times), animals 9e.g. #ing #ong) and places 9e.g. 4aris). proper
noun begins with a $apital Letter.
Abstract Nouns : n abstract noun is the name of something that we can
only think of or feel but cannot see 9e.g. friendship).
Collect!e Nouns : are names used for a number of people, things or
animals together and treated as one. For example1 a group of friends, a
bunch of bananas, a litter of puppies.
Countable an" Uncountable Nouns : $ountable nouns are nouns which
can be counted 9e.g. trees). ;ncountable nouns are nouns which cannot be
counted. 9e.g. smoke).

Countable an" Uncountable Nouns are use" #t$ t$e %ollo#n&'
Countable Noun Uncountable Noun
a, an, a few, se'eral, many, a little, much, some, plenty of,
some, plenty of, a lot of, a lot of, a large amount of,
a large number of a great deal of
Nouns $a!e %our &en"ers'
<. (asculne Gen"er : The masculine gender is used for all males. "xample1
boy, man
6. Femnne Gen"er : The feminine gender is used for all females. "xample1
girl, woman
=. Common Gen"er : The common gender is used where the noun can be both
male and female. "xample1 cousin, friend, person, child, student
>. Neuter Gen"er : The neuter gender is used for things which ha'e no life or
sex. "xample1 table, chair.

Sn&ular an" Plural Nouns : noun that shows only one person 9e.g. a girl), thing
9e.g. pencil), animal 9e.g. tiger) or place 9e.g. market) is called a singular noun).
noun that shows more than one person 9e.g. girls), thing 9e.g. pencils), animal
9e.g. tigers) or place 9e.g. markets) is called a plural noun.
Ho# plural nouns are %orme")
*+ a""n& ,s)
*+ a""n& -es. to nouns en"n& n ,c$/ ,s/ ,s$ an" ,0)
beach beaches peach peaches
branch branches speech speeches
ditch ditches watch watches

boss bosses glass glasses
bus buses lens lenses
chorus choruses pass passes

brush brushes fish fishes
bush bushes lash lashes
dish dishes wish wishes

box boxes hoax hoaxes
fax faxes six sixes
fox foxes tax taxes

*+ a""n& -es. to nouns en"n& n ,o)
buffalo buffaloes potato potatoes
cargo cargoes mos?uito mos?uitoes
echo echoes tomato tomatoes

*+ a""n& -s. to nouns en"n& n ,o)
banjo banjos patio patios
bamboo bamboos photo photos
radio radios 'ideo 'ideos

*+ replacn& -+. #t$ ,es)
baby babies lorry lorries
fly flies na'y na'ies
hobby hobbies puppy puppies

*+ a""n& -s. to nouns en"n& n ,+)
boy boys key keys
day days toy toys
donkey donkeys turkey turkeys

*+ repla+n& -%. or -%e. #t$ ,!es)
calf cal'es loaf loa'es
half hal'es self sel'es
life li'es wife wi'es

*+ a""n& -s. to nouns en"n& n ,% or ,%e)
chief chiefs hoof hoofs
dwarf dwarfs reef reef
gulf gulfs roof roofs

*+ c$an&n& !o#els)
foot feet louse lice
goose geese tooth teeth
mouse mice woman women
Some nouns $a!e same #or"s %or plural an" sn&ular)
aircraft aircraft music music
crossroads crossroads series series
furniture furniture sheep sheep

E0ceptonal plural)
child children ox oxen
crisis crises passer7by passers7by
mouse mice radius radii

3ouns can be formed from nouns, !erbs and a"1ect!es. They are formed by
adding certain letters to them.
Nouns Nouns
widow widowhood
friend friendship
king kingdom

2erbs Nouns
add addition
fail failure
gi'e gift

A"1ect!es Nouns
clean cleanliness
sad sadness
beautiful beauty

*erbs are words that show action. "'ery sentence must ha'e a 'erb. 'erb is not
always one word. %t may be made up of more than one word.
Au0lar+ !erbs
The words1 am/ s/ are/ #as/ and #ere are !erbs. They are forms of the 'erb @to
beA. They are $elpn& !erbs called au0lar+ !erbs.
%f the sub1ect of a sentence is sn&ular, the !erb must be sn&ular. %f the sub1ect
of a sentence is plural, the !erb must be plural. The !erb must agree with the
sub1ect n number.
"xamples of @sub1ectsA and @!erbsA being sn&ular1 The man s sleeping. S$e &oes
to the market. The stu"ent "oes his homework e'ery day. The tran $as arri'ed.
@(anA, @s$eA, @stu"entA and @tranA are known as sub1ects) The sub1ects are all
sn&ular.The !erbs @sA, @&oesA, @"oesA and @$asA are all sn&ular too.
"xamples of @sub1ectsA and @!erbsA being plural1 The men are sleeping. T$e+ &o
to the market. The stu"ents "o their homework e'ery day. The trans $a!e
@(enA, @t$e+A, @stu"entsA and @transA are known as sub1ects) The sub1ects are all
plural. The !erbs 'are', @&oA, @"oA and @$a!eA are all plural too.
Singular subjectB'erb 4lural subjectB'erb
% am do ha'e eat ,e are do ha'e eat
2ou are do ha'e eat 2ou are do ha'e eat
+e is does has eats They are do ha'e eat
She is does has eats They are do ha'e eat
%t is does has eats They are do ha'e eat
Ot$er sn&ular an" plural sub1ects t$at ta3e on sn&ular an" plural !erbs'
C Subjects with words like @eachA, @e'eryA, @anyA, @noA, @noneA and @nobodyA take on the
sn&ular 'erbs.
"xamples1 Eac$ student s gi'en a pen.
E!er+ child s happy watching the show.
Nobo"+ s allowed to walk on the grass.

C Uncountable nouns always take sn&ular 'erbs.

"xamples1 Rce s eaten in many countries.
There s ol on the floor.
Salt s added to make the food taste better.
C Subjects with words like @bothA, @allA, @manyA, @someA, @se'eralA and @a number ofA take
on a plural 'erb.
"xamples1 *ot$ of you $a!e to come home early.
All of us #ant to be happy.
Some of my friends are female.
C Two or more subjects joined by @an"A always take a plural 'erb.
"xamples1 5y brother an" his friends l3e to play football.
+is father an" mother are watching tele'ision.

Transt!e an" ntranst!e !erbs
The 'erb which needs an object to make its meaning clear or complete is called a
transt!e !erb.
"xample1 +e feeds a cat. The word @catA is called the ob1ect of the 'erb @%ee"sA. The
object can be a noun or a pronoun.
The ntranst!e !erb does not need an object but the meaning is clear or
"xample1 +e ran. The 'erb @ranA does not need an object. She reads e'ery day. 93o
object) +e eats ?uickly. 93o object)
T$e Fnte !erb
The finite 'erb changes with the subject. The subject is the person, thing, animal or
place we refer to. ,hen the subject is in the first or second person or is plural, the
'erb does not change. ,hen the subject is in the third person or is singular, the 'erb
changes from, say, @eatA to @eatsA. The 'erb @eatA is a %nte !erb. E!er+ sentence
must $a!e a %nte !erb.
Sub1ect Sn&ular sub1ect Plural sub1ect
First 4erson % eat ,e eat
Second 4erson 2ou eat 2ou eat
Third 4erson +e eats They eat
Third 4erson She eats They eat
Third 4erson %t eats They eat
The penBs The pen is The pens are
The elephantBs The elephant does The elephants do not
The houseBs The house has The houses ha'e

T$e In%nt!e
The infiniti'e is a 'erb that is followed by @toA and does not change with the subject.
Sub1ect Sn&ular Sub1ect Plural Sub1ect
First 4erson % want to play. ,e want to play.
Second 4erson 2ou want to play. 2ou want to play.
Third 4erson +e wants to play. They want to play.
She wants to play. They want to play.
%t wants to play. They want to play.
The infiniti'e can take on an object. For example1 +e likes to read book. 9To read D
infiniti'e. book D object).
Ot$er usa&e o% !erbs to remember
<. ,hen 4an"5 is used to join t#o nouns or pronouns together, the !erb is usually
in the plural)
"xamples1 0eef and mutton are meat.
He and I #ere classmates.
6. ,hen we use t#o nouns for the same person or t$n&, the !erb should be in
the sn&ular)
"xamples1 5y friend and classmate s 'ery helpful.
0read and butter s his only food.
=. ,hen we use t#o nouns for the same person, we use t$e artcle @theA onl+
once and the !erb should be in the sn&ular.
"xample1 The shopkeeper and owner of the shop s my uncle.
>. ,hen we refer to two "%%erent persons, we use the artcle t#ce and the !erb
must be in the plural)
"xample1 T$e shopkeeper and t$e owner of the shop are my good friends.
E. ,hen we join t#o nouns and treat them as a #$ole, the !erb is in the
"xample1 0read and butter s his usual breakfast.
F. ,hen a noun is a 6uantt+ or an amount, it is treated as a #$ole and the !erb
is in the sn&ular.
"xamples1 Ten kilometers s not a long way to tra'el.
3owadays, fifty dollars s not a lot of money.
'erb is used in different forms as follow1
Simple 4resent Tense eat
Simple 4ast Tense ate
4resent 4article is eating
4ast 4article has eaten
Future Tense will eat


7) T$e Present Smple
;sed for a habitual or repeated action, that is, for something that we do
always, e'ery day, often, usually, etc.
E0ample1 +e plays football on Sundays.
;sed for a general truth or a fact, that is, for something that is true.
E0ample1 3ight follows day.
;sed for something or an action happening now.
E0ample1 See how she walks.
;sed instead of the future tense.
E0ample1 +e arri'es tomorrow.
;sed instead of the past tense, to make something look more real.
E0ample1 The tiger comes. it catches the boy.
;sed instead of the present perfect tense.
E0ample1 ,e hear that the king is dead.
;sed to introduce a ?uotation, that is, to repeat words spoken or written by
someone else.
E0ample1 Shakespeare says1 G3either a borrower nor a lender be.H
8) T$e Present Contnuous Tense
;sed to show that something is still happening, that is, an action is still going
on at the time of speaking. %t shows that the action is not yet complete.
"xample1 +e is writing a letter.
;sed instead of the future tense. ,e usually say the time when this future
action will take place
"xample1 +e is going to !apan next week.
;sed to use the phrase @is goingA which means @about toA.
"xample1 %t is going to rain.
;sed to show an action which happens many times. ,e often use @alwaysA
with this expression.
"xample1 +e is always getting into trouble.
9) T$e Present Per%ect Tense
;sed to show an action which has just been completed or a past action when
the time is not mentioned. The action may be a recent one or it may be one
which happened a long time ago.
"xample1 % ha'e finished reading the book.
There ha'e been many changes in this country.
;sed for an action that has been going on from the past until now, that is,
something that happened in the past but is going on still.
"xample1 % ha'e li'ed here for ten years.
;sed often with @justA, @alreadyA, @recentlyA, @ne'erA, @yetA and 9in ?uestions) with
"xample1 % ha'e already told them about the plan
She has ne'er replied to my letter.
+a'e you e'er been to London(
;sed often to answer ?uestions which contain a 'erb in the 4resent 4erfect
"xample1 ,here ha'e you been( % ha'e been to London to see the Iueen.
,hat ha'e you lost( % ha'e lost all my money.
:) T$e Present Per%ect Contnuous Tense
;sed for an action just completed or continued up to now.
"xample1 +e has been talking for an hour.

7) T$e Past Smple Tense
;sed to describe a completed past action when the time of the action is
"xample1 % went to the cinema yesterday.
;sed to show for a past action that was completely done in the past.
"xample1 5y mother made a cake and we all ate it.
;sed to express a habitual past action.
"xample1 +e always came home late.
8) T$e Past Contnuous Tense
;sed for an action that was going on in the past when something else
"xample1 ,hile they were watching tele'ision, the light went out.
;sed to show an action that was going on at a certain time in the past.
"xample1 % was eating my dinner at J oAclock last night.
;sed for two actions that were going on at the same time in the past.
"xample1 ,hile his father was reading the newspaper, his mother was
9) T$e Past Per%ect Tense
;sed for an action that was completed before another action took place.
"xample1 % had left the house before he arri'ed.
;sed in the %ndirect or Keported Speech.
"xample1 G% ha'e read the bookH. +e said that he had read the book.
:) T$e Past Per%ect Contnuous Tense
;sed for an action that had been going on in the past before another action
occurred in the past.
"xample1 She had been cooking when we 'isited her.

The Future Tense is used to show some action or happening in the future. Future
Simple L @&oing ToH
7) Smple Future Tense is used to show future action or that something will
happen in the future.
"xample1 ,e will complete the work tomorrow.
8) -Gon& to. is used to express a future action that has been planned in ad'ance.
"xample1 ,e are going to !apan next week.
9) Future Contnuous Tense is used to show continuous action at some future
"xample1 % shall be seeing both of you tomorrow.
:) Future Per%ect Tense is used for an action which will ha'e finished by some
future time or date which is mentioned or before another action has begun.
"xample1 % shall ha'e finished this job by se'en oAclock.
% shall ha'e finished this job by the time you arri'e.
;) Future Per%ect Contnuous Tense) This continuous tense is formed with
@shallBwill ha'e beenA L a present particle.
"xample1 % shall ha'e been li'ing in London for exactly ten years next
n adjecti'e is a word that tells us something about a noun, that is, about a person,
an animal, a thing or a place.
For example1
She is a pretty girl.
giraffe has a long neck.
The table is round.
That is an old temple.

There are 'arious kinds of adjecti'es1
<. n adjecti'e which tells us about the ?uality of the noun.
For example1 the blue sky, a big house, a s?uare table, a cold morning.
6. n adjecti'e which tells us about the ?uatity of the noun.
For example1 The -oo has many animals.
The pen has not much ink left.
=. n adjecti'e which tells us about the ownership of the noun.
For example1 That is my dog.
Those are their bicycles.
>. n adjecti'e which poses ?uestion in an @interrogati'eA manner.
For example1 ,hich school do you go to(
,hose car is this(
E. n adjecti'e which specifies a noun.
For example1 This boy is a member of the club.
That girl is my sister.
C djecti'es which end in @7ingA, e.g. an interesting film, an ama-ing player, an
annoying habit,
C djecti'es which end in @7ed, e.g. the damaged goods, the escaped prisoners,
impro'ed 'ersion.
Forming adjecti'es
dding @yA.Mrop @eA. dd @fulA.N $hange @yA
to @iA.
dd @ousA or @iousA.
NMrop @yA.
dd @lessA.
anger care mountain aim
easeN doubt danger end
greed peace industry harm
iceN beautyN mysteryN sense
oil pityN gloryN use
dd @alA. N Mrop @eA. dd @ableA. dd @icA.NMrop @yA. dd @i'eA.
music accept acrobat attract
nation comfort artist effect
person enjoy photograph act
natureN fashion sympathyN instruct
agricultureN respect robot progress
djecti'es can be formed from 3ouns.
3oun djecti'e
accident accidental
danger dangerous
length long
star starry
wind windy
djecti'es can be formed from *erbs.
*erb djecti'e
enjoy enjoyable
help helpful
obey obedient
play playful
talk talkati'e
djecti'es can be formed from djecti'es.
djecti'e djecti'e
comic comical
correct correcti'e
elder elderly
red reddish
sick sickly
Comparson o% a"1ect!es
O ,e use the 4ositi'e degree to compare two e?ual nouns. For example1 +is house is
as big as my house.
O ,e use the $omparati'e degree to compare two une?ual nouns. For example1 +is
house is bigger than my house.
O ,e use the Superlati'e degree to compare three or more 3ouns. For example1 +is
house is the biggest in the neighbourhood.

4ositi'e $omparati'e Superlati'e
bold bolder boldest
deep deeper deepest
near nearer nearest
rich richer richest
tall taller tallest
4ositi'e $omparati'e Superlati'e
careful more careful most careful
enjoyable more enjoyable most enjoyable
forgetful more forgetful most forgetful
useful more useful most useful
wonderful more wonderful most wonderful
4ositi'e $omparati'e Superlati'e
bad worse worst
good better best
little less least
n ad'erb adds more to the meaning of a 'erb, an adjecti'e or another ad'erb.
% called you last night. 9calledD'erb. last nightDad'erb)
2our dress is 'ery beautiful. 9beautifulDadjecti'e. 'eryDad'erb)
The rain stopped ?uite suddenly. 9suddenlyDad'erb. ?uiteDad'erb)
T+pes o% A"!erbs
A"!erb o% Tme , This shows when an action or something is done or happens. %t
answers the ?uestion G,hen(H %t is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a
Example: % phoned you yesterday. B % saw her walking along the ri'er last week.

A"!erb o% Place , This shows where an action or something is done or happens. %t
answers the ?uestion G,here(H %t is placed after the 'erb.
Example: % li'e here. B +e fell down.
A"!erb o% (anner , This shows how an action or something is done. %t answers the
?uestion G+ow(H %t is usually placed just after the 'erb.
Example: She sleeps soundly. B +e dri'es ?uickly.
A"!erb o% De&ree or =uantt+ , This answers the ?uestions, GTo what degree(H or
G+ow much(H %t is usually placed before the adjecti'e and the ad'erb.
Example: %t is too dark for us to see anything. B Last night it rained 'ery hea'ily..
A"!erb o% Fre6uenc+ , This answers the ?uestion G+ow often(H
Example: +e will ne'er ha'e finished in time. B ,e always go to school by bus.

A%%rmat!e A"!erb >+es? an" A"!erb o% ne&aton >No?
Example: yes, surely, certainly, indeed, by all means, no, not at all, by no means.
%nterrogati'e d'erb 9Iuestion) For example1 ,hen( ,here( +ow( ,hy( +ow
Relat!e A"!erb' when, where, how, why These words are the same in form as
%nterrogati'e d'erbs. but they are not ?uestions.
Example: The time when he arri'ed. B The scene where the accident occurred. B +e
knows how to do it. B The reason why he left.
Comparson o% A"!erbs
Similar to the comparison of adjecti'es, ad'erbs ha'e three degrees of comparison :
the 4ositi'e, the $omparati'e and the Superlati'e. 5ost ad'erbs which end in @7lyA
form the $omparati'e with @moreA and the Superlati'e with @mostA.
4ositi'e $omparati'e Superlati'e
comfortably more comfortably most comfortably
happily more happily most happily
kindly more kindly most kindly
loudly more loudly most loudly
noisily more noisily most noisily

Formn& A"!erbs d'erbs can be formed from nouns, adjecti'es and 'erbs. 5ost
ad'erbs end in @7lyA.
3ouns djecti'es *erbs d'erbs
beauty beautifully
success successfully
angry angrily
foolish foolishly
continue continually
know knowingly
@e can report #$at anot$er person sa+s n t#o #a+s'
7) *+ usn& t$e e0act #or"s o% t$e spea3er)
Example: : +e said to me, G0e carefulPH This is the Mirect Speech. ,e repeat the
exact words used by the speaker and keep the exact words within ?uotation marks.
8) *+ usn& our o#n #or"s to repeat #$at t$e spea3er sa")
Example: : Mirect1 +e said to me, G0e carefulPH %ndirect1 +e told me to be careful.
This is the %ndirect or Keported Speech. 3otice that the past tense is used when the
main 'erb @saidA is in the past tense. +ere we do not use the ?uotation marks. ,e
use an infiniti'e and we repeat the pronoun.
@$en #e c$an&e Drect Speec$ nto In"rect Speec$/ t s sometmes
necessar+ to'
$hange all 4resent and Future Tenses in the Mirect Speech into the 4ast
Tenses in the %ndirect Speech when the main 'erb @saidA is in the 4ast Tense.
Example Direct: G,rite carefullyPH he said to me.
Indirect: +e told me to write carefully.
$hange a pronoun or a possessi'e adjecti'e, and the tense of the 'erb to 4ast
Example Direct: GMonAt dri'e so fast when you pass my school,H he said to
Indirect: +e asked me not to dri'e so fast when % passed his
;se more than one GspeechH 'erb if the Mirect Speech contains more than one
Example Direct: GMonAt ?uarrel with your sister,H my mother said. G&et on
with your school homework. H
Indirect: 5y mother told me not to ?uarrel with my sister. She
toldAasked me to get on with my school homework.
In most cases/ #e "o not c$an&e t$e tense o% t$e !erbs n Drect Speec$
The reporting 'erb is in the Simple 4resent tense 9he says), the 4resent
4erfect tense 9she has told us) or the Simple Future tense 9% will tell him).

Drect' In"rect'
G%Am tired,H he says e'ery e'ening. "'ery e'ening he says 9that) he is tired.
GThey are late,H she has already told us. She has already told us 9that) they are
G% will tell him, GThe shop is shut.H % will tell him 9that) the shop is shut.
,e do not change the tense of 'erbs in Mirect Speech if they make a statement
which is always true or if the action is still continuing and a change of tense would
gi'e the wrong meaning.
Drect' In"rect'
+e told us, GThe world is round.H +e told us that the world is round.
G5y brother is li'ing in ustralia.H She said that her brother is li'ing in
T$e %ollo#n& c$an&es are also ma"e'
<. shall to should will to would may to might
can to could has to had

6. 4ronouns and 4ossessi'e djecti'esThe pronoun is changed in person from first
and second to third.
% becomes he or she ,e becomes they 2ou becomes he, him,
her or them

=. djecti'es and d'erbs1
,e change1
this to that
these to those
now to then
today to that day
last night to on the pre'ious night or the night before
tomorrow to the next day or the day after
here to there
yesterday to the pre'ious day or the day before
thus to so. 9in) that way
Mefinite rticle : @TheA
%ndefinite rticle : @A or @nA
@AA is used1
0efore a word which begins with a consonant) "xample1 a woman
0efore a sn&ular/ countable noun. "xample1 a banana
,hen we mention something for the %rst tme. "xample1 % saw a dog.
0efore a word with a lon& soun" o% -u.) "xample1 a uni'ersity, a uniform, a
useful book, a "uropean, etc.
0efore the word one) "xample1 a one7way street, a one7eyed man, a one7
year course, a one7day holiday, etc.
@AnA is used1
0efore a noun which begins with a !o#el. "xample1 an apple.
0efore a word which begins with a !o#el soun" or a slent -$A. "xample1 an
hour, an honest man, an heir, an honour, an honourable man, etc
0efore a singular, countable noun which begins with a !o#el or slent @$A.
"xample1 an orange
@T$eA is used1
,hen the same thing or person mentone" a&an, that is, a partcular
t$n& or person) "xample1 % bought an orange. T$e orange is sweet..
,hen there is onl+ one suc$ t$n&) "xample1 t$e earth, t$e sun, t$e
0efore the names of famous buildings, etc. "xample1 T$e "iffel Tower, T$e
&reat ,all of $hina.
,hen a singular noun is used to pont out a #$ole class/ race/ &roup/ etc)
"xample1 T$e bear is a strong animal.
0efore the specal names of a ri'ers, seas, oceans, mountain ranges, groups
of islands, certain organi-ations, political parties, and countries such as the
;.S.., the ;.#., the ;.S.S.K. and the ;..K., T$e 3ile, T$e Mead Sea, T$e
4acific 8cean, T$e +imalayas, T$e ;nited 3ations, T$e Kepublican 4arty,
0efore the names of holy or important books. "xample1 T$e #oran, T$e
0efore an adjecti'e when the noun is understood. "xample1 T$e poor need
Artcles are not use"'
0efore the name o% a person' "xample1 % am a fan of 5ichael !ackson. 9not
or The 5ichael !ackson)
0efore the name o% a place/ to#n/ countr+/ street/ or roa") "xample1
0arcelona is a beautiful city. 9not or The 0arcelona)
0efore names of materials. "xample1 &old is found in ustralia. 9not or The
0efore abstract nouns used in a general sense. "xample1 ,e lo'e all beauty.
9not a beauty or the beauty)
4ronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. %t refers to a person or thing
without gi'ing the name.
There are two types of 4ersonal 4ronouns1
9<) those used as subjects. and
96) those used as objects.
Personal Pronouns
Singular 4lural
Subject 8bject Subject 8bject
First 4erson % 5e ,e ;s
Second 4erson 2ou 2ou 2ou 2ou
Third 4erson +e

Re%le0!e Pronouns
,e use the Re%le0!e Pronoun when the action of the doer goes back to himself so
that the Sub1ect of the sentence is the same person as the ob1ect.
"xample1 +e has hurt $msel%.
4ronouns like @himself' are called Keflexi'e 4ronouns. They always end in @sel% '.

Re%le0!e Pronouns Singular 4lural
First 4erson 5yself 8ursel'es
Second 4erson 2ourself 2oursel'es
Third 4erson +imself

Relat!e Pronouns
The Kelati'e 4ronouns ta3e t$e place o% Nouns or Pronouns. and they are used
to 1on t#o sentences about the same person or thing.
"xamples of relati'e pronouns1 #$o, #$c$, t$at, #$om and #$ose.
%n most cases, we use #$o, #$ose and #$om to make statements about people.

,e use #$o to join two sentences.
"xample1 QThe man is an artist. +e drew that picture.Q
QThe man is an artist #$o drew that picture.Q

,e use #$ose to show possession or relationship.
"xample1 QThat is my uncle whose son is my cousin.Q

,e use #$c$ or t$at in almost the same way as we use #$o but it refers to
t$n&s, not human beings. There is one other difference in the way we use
#$o and #$c$. fter #$o we put a !erb. fter #$c$ we can put a !erb,
a pronoun or a noun.
"xample1 That is the camera #$c$ costs fifty dollars. That is the camera #$c$ $e
That is the camera #$c$ <o$n likes.

,e use #$om to make a statement about human beings. %t is used in place
of #$o 9a) when it is the object of a 'erb or 9b) when it comes after a
"xample1 9a) The man #$om t$e+ cau&$t was sent to prison. 9b) The man to
#$om you should speak is my uncle.
4repositions are words placed before 3ouns and 4ronouns. They are used to show
time, position and direction.
"xamples of 4repositions showing time1
5y birthday falls n September.
5ost shops are closed on Sunday.
% ha'e an appointment at R o'clock.
"xamples of 4repositions showing position1
+e is standing at the door.
The glass is on the table.
The cat is sleeping un"er the chair.
"xamples of 4repositions showing direction1
She got nto the taxi.
The girl is walking to#ar"s her mother.
% ha'e to go to town.

Ot$er e0amples o% e0pressons usn& prepostons'
The picture was drawn b+ his brother.
She likes to go out #t$ her friends.
They say % walk l3e my father.
+er parents gi'e her a box o% sweets.
E0pressons usn& Prepostons'
good at get up fall off interested in
cle'er at wake up get off in'ol'ed in
bad at look up set off send in
point at clean up break off work in
stare at add up finish off fill in

fight against get into turn on made of
speak against cash into switch on built of
'ote against jump into get on a box of
hit against turn into carry on half of
lean against di'e into put it on many of
Con1unctons are words that connect words, sentences, phrases, or clauses.
"xamples of conjunction are1 'and', 'but', 'or', 'while', 'because', 'since', 'unless',
'although', and many more.

Con1unctons 1onn& #or"s'
"xample1 % ha'e a car and a $ouse.

Con1unctons 1onn& p$rases'
"xample1 The fisherman is happy #al3n& alon& t$e beac$ and carrying a buc3et
%ull o% %s$.

Con1unctons 1onn& sentences'
+e walked to his car. +e got into it..
+e walked to his car an" got into it.
,ill you ha'e tea( ,ill you ha'e coffee(
,ill you ha'e tea or coffee(
She is tired. She cannot sleep.
She is tired but she cannot sleep.

$onjunctions can join nouns, !erbs, a"1ect!es and a"!erbs.
% ha'e a pen an" a book. 9!oining two nouns)
+e joked an" we laughed. 9!oining two 'erbs)
She is beautiful an" tall. 9!oining two adjecti'es)
+e eats ?uickly an" noisily. 9!oining two ad'erbs)
There are three kinds of 4ossession1 Possess!e Nouns, Possess!e A"1ect!es
and Possess!e Pronouns.

Possess!e Nouns
3ouns that show possession are called 4ossessi'e 3ouns. 4ossessi'e 3ouns are
0y adding an apostrop$e 9-s) to sn&ular nouns and plural nouns not
ending in s.
"xample1 my father's car. the children's toys
6. 0y adding an apostrophe 9@) to plural nouns ending in s.
"xample1 the boys' bicycles
=. 0y using @o% t$e' with names of non7li'ing things.
"xample1 the roof of the house.
Possess!e A"1ect!es
A"1ect!es that show possession are called Possess!e A"1ect!es. A"1ect!es
such as @m+' and @$s' are used before nouns such as @school' and @bicycle' to show
possesson. Such adjecti'es are examples of Possess!e A"1ect!es.
"xample1 @This is my school' and @That is his bicycle'.
Possess!e A"1ect!es Sn&ular Plural
First 4erson my our
Second 4erson your your
Third 4erson his

Possess!e Pronouns
4ronouns that show possession are called Possess!e Pronouns. ,ords like @mine'
and @yours' are pronouns and as they show possession, they are known as
Possess!e Pronouns.
"xample1 @This is my car. %t is mine' and @That is your 'an. %t is yours'.
Possess!e Pronouns Sn&ular Plural
First 4erson 5ine 8urs
Second 4erson 2ours 2ours
Third 4erson +is
%ull stop or pero" 9 . ) is used1
C to mark the end of a sentence.
"xample1 There are two sides to e'ery ?uestion.
C to show the shortened form of a word
"xample1 exam
C at the end of an abbre'iation.
"xample1 Mr.
Comma > / ? is used1
C to separate words in a list.
"xample1 ,e saw monkeys, lions and tigers in the -oo.
C to show a pause in a sentence or reading.
"xample1 2esterday, as % was jogging, % saw a big snake.
C before in'erted commas of actual words spoken.
"xample1 +e told us, GThe world is round.H
C to separate the name of the person spoken to.
"xample1 G!ohn, letAs start work straightaway.H
C to separate parts of an address.
"xample1 RR, Mowning Street, #ingston.
C to separate relati'e clause from the rest of the sentence.
"xample1 The man, who li'es next door, is a doctor.
=ueston (ar3 > C ? is used at the end of a sentence to show a ?uestion.
"xample1 G,hen will the train arri'e(H
E0clamaton (ar3 > D ? is used at the end of a sentence to show surprise, excited,
or angry.
"xample1 ,e wonP IuietP
Colon > ' ? is used to introduce an example, ?uotation, etc.
"xample1 This box contains the following items1 bandages,plasters, lotion, medicines
and a pair of scissors.
Semcolon > E ? is used to join two sentences or two complete parts of a sentence
which are closely connected in meaning.
"xample1 +e gi'es up smoking. ob'iously, he fears smoking7related disease may
strike him.
Apostrop$e > - ? is used1
C to show that numbers or letters ha'e been left out.
"xample1 A/F 9D<R/F). donAt 9Ddo not).
C to show that something belongs to someone or something.
"xample1 !ohnAs mother. $harlesA book
C to the plural of letters and numbers.
"xample1 2our cAs B EAs are too big.
H+p$en > F ? is used to join two words or more to form compound words.
"xample1 good7looking, pro7merican, forty7one, mother7in7law.
=uotaton (ar3s > 4 4 ? are used1
C to show the beginning and end of reported speech.
"xample1 GTurn on the lightH she said to me.
C to show a ?uoted word, phrase or title.
"xample1 G,ar and 4eaceH is a no'el by Leo Tolstoy.
SO(E an" ANG
<. ,e use GsomeH in a positi'e statement and GanyH in a negati'e statement or a
6. ,e use both GsomeH and GanyH with countable or uncountable nouns.
=. ,e use GsomeH in a ?uestion if it is an in'itation or a re?uest.
>. ,e join GsomeH and GanyH with GoneH, GbodyH or GthingH to form positi'e
sentences and negati'e sentences respecti'ely.
<. % ha'e a sister. B % donAt ha'e a sister. B Mo you ha'e any sister(
6. +e bought some oranges. B +e spent some time looking for his lost wallet. B
There arenAt any eggs on sale here. B There isnAt any tea in the kettle.
=. ,ould you like to drink some milk( $an you do something for me(
>. Someone has taken my book. B nyone could ha'e taken it.B ThereAs somebody
waiting to see you. B +as anybody seen the film( B % want something to eat. B
,ould you like anything else to eat(

7) 4USED TO5 AS A 2ER*

,e can use the expression Gused toH when we wish to refer to a past habit which
has now stopped.

"xample1 % used to go to that shop but now % donAt go there anymore.

The usual ?uestion form and possible answers with Gused toH are1
?uestion1 GMid you use to see them 'ery often(H
answers1 G2es, % used to.H B G3o, % didnAt use to.H B G3o, % ne'er used to.H

Kemember that GuseH and not GusedH is used after GdidH and GdidnAtH.


,e can show that somebody is accustomed to something by using Gused toH as
an adjecti'e. %t is often followed by a gerund but it can be followed by a noun or

"xample1 % am used to li'ing in a warm climate. 9followed by a gerund)
They are used to this weather. 9followed by a noun)
+e seems used to your brotherAs jokes. 9followed by possessi'e