You are on page 1of 256

Understand|ng IA1A:

2011
ALLlLudes 1owards Covernance, 8ellglon & SocleLy
ln aklsLan's lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
Vo|ume V
naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl
Copyr|ght CAM 2012
Commun|ty Appra|sa| & Mot|vat|on rogramme (CAM)
Understand|ng IA1A:
ALLlLudes 1owards Covernance, 8ellglon & SocleLy ln aklsLan's lederally
AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
volume v
A|| r|ghts reserved
ClLaLlon, reproducLlon or LranslaLlon of Lhls publlcaLlon, ln whole or parL,
for educaLlonal or oLher non- commerclal purposes ls auLhorlsed buL wlLh
wrlLLen permlsslon, provlded Lhe source ls fully acknowledged.
IS8N: 978-969-9S34-06-S
Coples and more lnformaLlon avallable from:
CAM nead Cff|ce
Pouse 217, SLreeL 39, l-11/3
lslamabad, aklsLan.
1el: +92-31-222 3196-97 lax: +92-31-222 3198
Lmall: pub||cat|onsQcamp.org.pk & campQcamp.org.pk
uownload from www.understand|ngfata.org - www.camp.org.pk
D|sc|a|mer:
"1hls publlcaLlon was made posslble wlLh supporL provlded by Lhe 8rlLlsh
Plgh Commlsslon. 1he oplnlons expressed here are Lhose of Lhe auLhor
and do noL necessarlly reflecL Lhe vlews of Lhe 8rlLlsh Plgh Commlsslon."
ALLlLudes 1owards Covernance, 8ellglon & SocleLy
ln aklsLan's lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
Vo|ume V
Understand|ng IA1A:
2011
naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl
Copyr|ght CAM 2012
Commun|ty Appra|sa| & Mot|vat|on rogramme (CAM)
Understand|ng IA1A:
ALLlLudes 1owards Covernance, 8ellglon & SocleLy ln aklsLan's lederally
AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
volume v
A|| r|ghts reserved
ClLaLlon, reproducLlon or LranslaLlon of Lhls publlcaLlon, ln whole or parL,
for educaLlonal or oLher non- commerclal purposes ls auLhorlsed buL wlLh
wrlLLen permlsslon, provlded Lhe source ls fully acknowledged.
IS8N: 978-969-9S34-06-S
Coples and more lnformaLlon avallable from:
CAM nead Cff|ce
Pouse 217, SLreeL 39, l-11/3
lslamabad, aklsLan.
1el: +92-31-222 3196-97 lax: +92-31-222 3198
Lmall: pub||cat|onsQcamp.org.pk & campQcamp.org.pk
uownload from www.understand|ngfata.org - www.camp.org.pk
D|sc|a|mer:
"1hls publlcaLlon was made posslble wlLh supporL provlded by Lhe 8rlLlsh
Plgh Commlsslon. 1he oplnlons expressed here are Lhose of Lhe auLhor
and do noL necessarlly reflecL Lhe vlews of Lhe 8rlLlsh Plgh Commlsslon."
ALLlLudes 1owards Covernance, 8ellglon & SocleLy
ln aklsLan's lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
Vo|ume V
Understand|ng IA1A:
2011
naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl
uedlcaLed Lo Lhe people of lA1A
uedlcaLed Lo Lhe people of lA1A
ConLenLs
LlsL of llgures ....................................................................................l
LlsL of Acronyms ................................................................................vl
Map of aklsLan and laLa ..................................................................vll
reface ..............................................................................................lx
LxecuLlve Summary ..........................................................................xl
CnA1Lk 1
Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A .....................1
CnA1Lk 2
ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A ............................................................19
CnA1Lk 3
AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles ..................37
CnA1Lk 4
lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL ....................................33
CnA1Lk S
ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy...........................................91
CnA1Lk 6
lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees ...............................................................107
CnA1Lk 7
Access Lo lnformaLlon .......................................................................113
CnA1Lk 8
ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles ..........123
CnA1Lk 9
Way lorward .....................................................................................147
ConLenLs
LlsL of llgures ....................................................................................l
LlsL of Acronyms ................................................................................vl
Map of aklsLan and laLa ..................................................................vll
reface ..............................................................................................lx
LxecuLlve Summary ..........................................................................xl
CnA1Lk 1
Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A .....................1
CnA1Lk 2
ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A ............................................................19
CnA1Lk 3
AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles ..................37
CnA1Lk 4
lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL ....................................33
CnA1Lk S
ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy...........................................91
CnA1Lk 6
lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees ...............................................................107
CnA1Lk 7
Access Lo lnformaLlon .......................................................................113
CnA1Lk 8
ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles ..........123
CnA1Lk 9
Way lorward .....................................................................................147
LlsL of llgures
l. 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan.....................................137
ll. uemographlcs of Survey ..............................................................164
lll. Cplnlon oll 2011 CuesLlonnalre .................................................172
lv. Agency/1ehsll/l8-wlse LlsL of vlllages .........................................204
v. lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), 1901 (Amended ln AugusL 2011) .......210
Appendlxes:
1.1 Whlch of Lhefollowlng areLhemosL lmporLanL servlces LhaL LheCo should
provldeLo your dlsLrlcL?
1.2 WhaL do you wanL for your chlldren? (Mole cbllJteo)
1.3 WhaL do you wanL for your chlldren? (lemole cbllJeto)
1.4 varlous forelgn counLrles, lncludlng uS &uk, have expressed an lnLeresL ln
provldlng developmenL asslsLance for lA1A. Pow do you Lhlnk LhaL
asslsLancecould bemosL valuable?
1.3 ls LherelnLernaLlonal asslsLancerequlred?
1.6 uo you undersLand how developmenL prlorlLles are declded ln lA1A and
pro[ecLs selecLed?
1.7 ln your oplnlon whaL ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL human rlghLs lssue ln aklsLan
Loday?
1.8 Would you llveouLsldelA1A, lf glven LheopLlon Lo?
1.9 Would you llve ouLslde Lhe lA1A lf glven Lhe opporLunlLy? (bteok Jowo by
teqloo)
1.10 lf no, would you always prefer Lo llveln lA1A and why?
1.11 Would you llveouLsldeLhelA1A, lf glven LheopLlon Lo? (bteok Jowoby oqe
qtoop)
1.12 lf ?es: whywould you prefer Lo llveouLslde?
1.13 lf yes, wherewould you prefer Lo llve?
2.1 Should aklsLan's lederallyAdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas...
2.2 8easons for supporLlng full lnLegraLlon lnLo kk
2.3 8easons LhaL lA1A should keep lLs currenL governlng arrangemenLs
2.4 8easons for lA1A Lo beesLabllshed as aseparaLeprovlnceof aklsLan
2.3 8easons for esLabllshmenL of alA1A Councll aklsLan
2.6 WhaL do you Lhlnk of Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan's currenL proposals for
reform of LhelC8?
2.7 WhaL do you Lhlnkof lC8?
2.8 WhaL aspecLs aremosL lmporLanL Lo changeln LhelC8?
2.9 WhaL aspecLs aremosL lmporLanL Lo amend ln LhelC8?
2.10 LxLendlng LheollLlcal arLles Crdlnance(C) Lo lA1A
2.11 AdmlraLlon for allvlng naLlonal pollLlclan (5electeJ)
2.12 lavourlLepollLlcal parLyfor LhenexL general elecLlons
2.13 WhaL would you bewllllng Lo parLlclpaLeln?
3.1 AssessmenL on Lheperformanceof ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon
L|st of
I|gures
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
age
No
I
undersLandlng lA1A
4
3
6
8
9
9
11
12
13
14
14
13
16
23
24
23
23
26
27
27
28
29
30
31
33
33
39
LlsL of llgures
l. 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan.....................................137
ll. uemographlcs of Survey ..............................................................164
lll. Cplnlon oll 2011 CuesLlonnalre .................................................172
lv. Agency/1ehsll/l8-wlse LlsL of vlllages .........................................204
v. lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), 1901 (Amended ln AugusL 2011) .......210
Appendlxes:
1.1 Whlch of Lhefollowlng areLhemosL lmporLanL servlces LhaL LheCo should
provldeLo your dlsLrlcL?
1.2 WhaL do you wanL for your chlldren? (Mole cbllJteo)
1.3 WhaL do you wanL for your chlldren? (lemole cbllJeto)
1.4 varlous forelgn counLrles, lncludlng uS &uk, have expressed an lnLeresL ln
provldlng developmenL asslsLance for lA1A. Pow do you Lhlnk LhaL
asslsLancecould bemosL valuable?
1.3 ls LherelnLernaLlonal asslsLancerequlred?
1.6 uo you undersLand how developmenL prlorlLles are declded ln lA1A and
pro[ecLs selecLed?
1.7 ln your oplnlon whaL ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL human rlghLs lssue ln aklsLan
Loday?
1.8 Would you llveouLsldelA1A, lf glven LheopLlon Lo?
1.9 Would you llve ouLslde Lhe lA1A lf glven Lhe opporLunlLy? (bteok Jowo by
teqloo)
1.10 lf no, would you always prefer Lo llveln lA1A and why?
1.11 Would you llveouLsldeLhelA1A, lf glven LheopLlon Lo? (bteok Jowoby oqe
qtoop)
1.12 lf ?es: whywould you prefer Lo llveouLslde?
1.13 lf yes, wherewould you prefer Lo llve?
2.1 Should aklsLan's lederallyAdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas...
2.2 8easons for supporLlng full lnLegraLlon lnLo kk
2.3 8easons LhaL lA1A should keep lLs currenL governlng arrangemenLs
2.4 8easons for lA1A Lo beesLabllshed as aseparaLeprovlnceof aklsLan
2.3 8easons for esLabllshmenL of alA1A Councll aklsLan
2.6 WhaL do you Lhlnk of Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan's currenL proposals for
reform of LhelC8?
2.7 WhaL do you Lhlnkof lC8?
2.8 WhaL aspecLs aremosL lmporLanL Lo changeln LhelC8?
2.9 WhaL aspecLs aremosL lmporLanL Lo amend ln LhelC8?
2.10 LxLendlng LheollLlcal arLles Crdlnance(C) Lo lA1A
2.11 AdmlraLlon for allvlng naLlonal pollLlclan (5electeJ)
2.12 lavourlLepollLlcal parLyfor LhenexL general elecLlons
2.13 WhaL would you bewllllng Lo parLlclpaLeln?
3.1 AssessmenL on Lheperformanceof ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon
L|st of
I|gures
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
age
No
I
undersLandlng lA1A
4
3
6
8
9
9
11
12
13
14
14
13
16
23
24
23
23
26
27
27
28
29
30
31
33
33
39
LlsL of llgures
3.2 Pow has Lhe performance of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon changed over Lhe
pasL 12monLhs?
3.3 WhaL could ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon do Lo lmproveLhelr performance?
3.4 erformanceof LhelA1A SecreLarlaL
3.3 ln whaL wayhas lA1A SecreLarlaL performed well?
3.6 ln whaL wayhas lA1A SecreLarlaL performed badly?
3.7 erformanceof LhelA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy(luA)
3.8 ln whaL wayhas lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy(luA) performed well?
3.9 ln whaL wayhas lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy(luA) performed badly?
3.10 ClosesL lnLeracLlon wlLh leadershlp
3.11 MosL LrusLed lnsLlLuLlons/leaders ln lA1A
4.1 uo you belleveLhaL LhecounLry ls golng ln LherlghL or wrong dlrecLlon?
4.2 WhaL areaklsLan's and lA1A's blggesL problems?
4.3 WhaL arelA1A's blggesL problems?
4.4 Servlces LhaL LhegovernmenL should provlde
4.3 Pow securedo you feel ln your dallyllfe?
4.6 Compared Lo lasL year, do you feel your securlLyls geLLlng beLLer or worse?
4.7 Compared Lo lasL year: do you feel your securlLy ls geLLlng beLLer or worse?
(bteokJowobyteqloo)
4.8 WhaL areLheblggesL LhreaLs Lo your securlLy?
4.9 WhaL areLhemaln reasons of confllcLs ln lA1A?
4.10 Who/whaL ls Lo blamefor Lhehlgh raLes of sulcldebomblng ln aklsLan?
4.11 lacLors enabllng sulcldebomblng ln aklsLan
4.12 Sourceof sulcldebombers
4.13 Whlch of Lhe followlng lnsLlLuLlons do you belleve should ulLlmaLely be
responslblefor securlLyln lA1A?
4.14 Whlch securlLyprovlder do you LrusL?
4.13 Pow do you raLeLheperformanceof 1rlbal communlLles / Lakhkars?
4.16 erformanceof khasadars and levles
4.17 erformanceof MlllLary
4.18 erformanceof LhelronLler Corps
4.19 uo you Lhlnk Lhe lronLler Corps plays a valuable role ln provldlng securlLy
ln lA1A?
4.20 lf Lralned wlLh Lhe ald of lnLernaLlonal asslsLance, would you have more or
less confldenceln LheablllLyof LhelronLler Corps Lo do Lhelr [ob?
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
age
No
LlsL of llgures
4.21 Pow could your senseof securlLybelmproved?
4.22 Paveyou been forced Lo leaveyour homedurlng LhepasL years?
4.23 Pave you been forced Lo leave your home durlng Lhe pasL years? (8teok
Jowomy oqeocy)
4.24 lf you weredlsplaced: wheredld you moveLo? (selecteJ)
4.23 Pow do you raLe Lhe level of supporL you recelved from CovernmenL of
aklsLan durlng your dlsplacemenL?
4.26 WhaL do you Lhlnkof LheaklsLan army's mlllLary offenslveln lA1A?
4.27 WhaL do you Lhlnk of Lhe aklsLan army's mlllLary offenslve ln lA1A?
(bteokJowobyteqloo)
4.28 SupporL for or opposlLlon Lo mlllLary LacLlcs
4.29 uo you supporL or opposeLhepresenceof Lhefollowlng groups ln lA1A?
4.30 WhaL do you Lhlnkof uSdronesLrlkes ln lA1A?
4.31 WhaL do you Lhlnk of uS drone sLrlkes ln lA1A? (Aqeocy wlse bteok
Jowo)(letceotoqe)
4.32 uo you Lhlnkpossesslng nuclear weapons enhances aklsLan's securlLy?
3.1 Pow much of a LhreaL, lf any, does lslamlc exLremlsm pose Lo aklsLan Lhese
days?
3.2 Pow would you descrlbeaklsLanl 1allban?
3.3 WhaL phrasebesL descrlbeAfghan 1allban?
3.4 ercepLlons on Lhe llkellhood of Lhe 1allban reLurnlng Lo power ln
AfghanlsLan
3.3 Pow would you feel abouL 1allban reLurnlng Lo power ln AfghanlsLan?
3.6 uo you know whaL Al-Caedals?
3.7 WhaL do you Lhlnkof Al-Caeda?
3.8 WhaL should happen Lo anyforelgn flghLer/!lhadl currenLlyllvlng ln lA1A?
3.9 8oleof rellglon ln lA1A
3.10 uo you Lhlnk LhaL a person has Lhe rlghL Lo klll a relaLlve Lo proLecL Lhe
honour of Lhelr famlly?
3.11 !usLlflcaLlon of sulcldebomblng ln lslam
3.12 1rusLed rellglous auLhorlLles
3.13 MosL LrusLed rellglous auLhorlLyouLsldeof aklsLan
6.1 Should all Afghan refugees llvlng ln aklsLan reLurn Lo AfghanlsLan?
6.2 1o whaL exLenL do you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln
aklsLan damageaklsLan's economy
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
III II
undersLandlng lA1A undersLandlng lA1A
40
41
43
44
43
46
46
47
48
30
33
37
39
61
62
63
64
66
68
69
70
72
74
74
73
76
76
77
77
78
79
80
82
83
83
84
86
87
88
89
90
94
93
96
97
98
98
99
100
100
101
102
103
104
110
109
76
L|st of
I|gures
L|st of
I|gures
age
No
LlsL of llgures
3.2 Pow has Lhe performance of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon changed over Lhe
pasL 12monLhs?
3.3 WhaL could ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon do Lo lmproveLhelr performance?
3.4 erformanceof LhelA1A SecreLarlaL
3.3 ln whaL wayhas lA1A SecreLarlaL performed well?
3.6 ln whaL wayhas lA1A SecreLarlaL performed badly?
3.7 erformanceof LhelA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy(luA)
3.8 ln whaL wayhas lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy(luA) performed well?
3.9 ln whaL wayhas lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy(luA) performed badly?
3.10 ClosesL lnLeracLlon wlLh leadershlp
3.11 MosL LrusLed lnsLlLuLlons/leaders ln lA1A
4.1 uo you belleveLhaL LhecounLry ls golng ln LherlghL or wrong dlrecLlon?
4.2 WhaL areaklsLan's and lA1A's blggesL problems?
4.3 WhaL arelA1A's blggesL problems?
4.4 Servlces LhaL LhegovernmenL should provlde
4.3 Pow securedo you feel ln your dallyllfe?
4.6 Compared Lo lasL year, do you feel your securlLyls geLLlng beLLer or worse?
4.7 Compared Lo lasL year: do you feel your securlLy ls geLLlng beLLer or worse?
(bteokJowobyteqloo)
4.8 WhaL areLheblggesL LhreaLs Lo your securlLy?
4.9 WhaL areLhemaln reasons of confllcLs ln lA1A?
4.10 Who/whaL ls Lo blamefor Lhehlgh raLes of sulcldebomblng ln aklsLan?
4.11 lacLors enabllng sulcldebomblng ln aklsLan
4.12 Sourceof sulcldebombers
4.13 Whlch of Lhe followlng lnsLlLuLlons do you belleve should ulLlmaLely be
responslblefor securlLyln lA1A?
4.14 Whlch securlLyprovlder do you LrusL?
4.13 Pow do you raLeLheperformanceof 1rlbal communlLles / Lakhkars?
4.16 erformanceof khasadars and levles
4.17 erformanceof MlllLary
4.18 erformanceof LhelronLler Corps
4.19 uo you Lhlnk Lhe lronLler Corps plays a valuable role ln provldlng securlLy
ln lA1A?
4.20 lf Lralned wlLh Lhe ald of lnLernaLlonal asslsLance, would you have more or
less confldenceln LheablllLyof LhelronLler Corps Lo do Lhelr [ob?
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
age
No
LlsL of llgures
4.21 Pow could your senseof securlLybelmproved?
4.22 Paveyou been forced Lo leaveyour homedurlng LhepasL years?
4.23 Pave you been forced Lo leave your home durlng Lhe pasL years? (8teok
Jowomy oqeocy)
4.24 lf you weredlsplaced: wheredld you moveLo? (selecteJ)
4.23 Pow do you raLe Lhe level of supporL you recelved from CovernmenL of
aklsLan durlng your dlsplacemenL?
4.26 WhaL do you Lhlnkof LheaklsLan army's mlllLary offenslveln lA1A?
4.27 WhaL do you Lhlnk of Lhe aklsLan army's mlllLary offenslve ln lA1A?
(bteokJowobyteqloo)
4.28 SupporL for or opposlLlon Lo mlllLary LacLlcs
4.29 uo you supporL or opposeLhepresenceof Lhefollowlng groups ln lA1A?
4.30 WhaL do you Lhlnkof uSdronesLrlkes ln lA1A?
4.31 WhaL do you Lhlnk of uS drone sLrlkes ln lA1A? (Aqeocy wlse bteok
Jowo)(letceotoqe)
4.32 uo you Lhlnkpossesslng nuclear weapons enhances aklsLan's securlLy?
3.1 Pow much of a LhreaL, lf any, does lslamlc exLremlsm pose Lo aklsLan Lhese
days?
3.2 Pow would you descrlbeaklsLanl 1allban?
3.3 WhaL phrasebesL descrlbeAfghan 1allban?
3.4 ercepLlons on Lhe llkellhood of Lhe 1allban reLurnlng Lo power ln
AfghanlsLan
3.3 Pow would you feel abouL 1allban reLurnlng Lo power ln AfghanlsLan?
3.6 uo you know whaL Al-Caedals?
3.7 WhaL do you Lhlnkof Al-Caeda?
3.8 WhaL should happen Lo anyforelgn flghLer/!lhadl currenLlyllvlng ln lA1A?
3.9 8oleof rellglon ln lA1A
3.10 uo you Lhlnk LhaL a person has Lhe rlghL Lo klll a relaLlve Lo proLecL Lhe
honour of Lhelr famlly?
3.11 !usLlflcaLlon of sulcldebomblng ln lslam
3.12 1rusLed rellglous auLhorlLles
3.13 MosL LrusLed rellglous auLhorlLyouLsldeof aklsLan
6.1 Should all Afghan refugees llvlng ln aklsLan reLurn Lo AfghanlsLan?
6.2 1o whaL exLenL do you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln
aklsLan damageaklsLan's economy
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
III II
undersLandlng lA1A undersLandlng lA1A
40
41
43
44
43
46
46
47
48
30
33
37
39
61
62
63
64
66
68
69
70
72
74
74
73
76
76
77
77
78
79
80
82
83
83
84
86
87
88
89
90
94
93
96
97
98
98
99
100
100
101
102
103
104
110
109
76
L|st of
I|gures
L|st of
I|gures
age
No
L|st of
I|gures
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
age
No
LlsL of llgures
8.18 uS8oleln AfghanlsLan
8.19 uSand uk lmmlgraLlon ollcy
8.20 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh AfghanlsLan
8.21 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh lndla
8.22 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Chlna
8.23 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh lran
8.24 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh lran (bteokJowobyteqloo)
8.23 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Saudl Arabla
8.26 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Malaysla
8.27 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Canada, lrance, Cermany
LlsL of llgures
6.3 1o whaL exLenL do you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln
aklsLan conLrlbuLeLo LheaklsLan's economy
6.4 1o whaL exLenL you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln aklsLan
undermlneaklsLan's securlLy
6.3 1o whaL exLenL you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln aklsLan
creaLeLenslon wlLh Lhelocal aklsLanl populaLlon
7.1 WhaL areyour sources of lnformaLlon LhaL helps you Lo form your oplnlon?
7.2 Whlch sources of lnformaLlon do you valueLhemosL?
7.3 Whlch newspapers do you read regularly?
7.4 WhaL 1vSLaLlons do you waLch regularly?
7.3 Whlch 8adlo sLaLlons do you llsLen Lo regularly?
8.1 uo you Lhlnk aklsLan should accepL money from WesLern counLrles such as
Lheukand uSA for LhemlllLary bulld up?
8.2 uo you Lhlnk aklsLan should accepL money from WesLern counLrles such as
Lheukand uSA for developmenL?
8.3 1hlnklng now abouL world affalrs, do you have a very favourable, somewhaL
favourable, somewhaL unfavourable, or very unfavourable oplnlon of Lhe
governmenL of uSA?
8.4 uSaLLlLudeLowards Lhelslamlc world
8.3 1hlnklng now abouL world affalrs, do you have a very favourable, somewhaL
favourable, somewhaL unfavourable, or very unfavourable oplnlon of Lhe
governmenL of uk?
8.6 ls your oplnlon of Lhe uk generally geLLlng more favourable, less favourable
or sLayed Lhesame?
8.7 WhaL do you conslder Lo beLhesLrongesL llnks beLween Lheukand aklsLan?
8.8 Whlch of Lhefollowlng besL descrlbes Lheuk's relaLlonshlp wlLh aklsLan
8.9 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: Pelps Lo makeLheworld morepeaceful &sLable
8.10 ukaLLlLudeLowards Lhelslamlc world
8.11 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: romoLes respecL for democraLlcvalues
8.12 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: romoLes respecL for Puman 8lghLs
8.13 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: values LheunlLed naLlons-un
8.14 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: Pelps Lo makeLheworld moreprosperous
8.13 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: Pelps Lo safeguard Lheglobal envlronmenL
8.16 Whlch of Lhefollowlng besL descrlbes Lheuk's lnvolvemenL ln AfghanlsLan?
8.17 uk8oleln AfghanlsLan
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
V IV
undersLandlng lA1A undersLandlng lA1A
110
111
112
116
118
119
120
122
127
128
129
130
130
131
131
132
133
133
134
133
133
136
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
142
143
144
143
138
143
L|st of
I|gures
age
No
L|st of
I|gures
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
age
No
LlsL of llgures
8.18 uS8oleln AfghanlsLan
8.19 uSand uk lmmlgraLlon ollcy
8.20 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh AfghanlsLan
8.21 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh lndla
8.22 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Chlna
8.23 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh lran
8.24 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh lran (bteokJowobyteqloo)
8.23 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Saudl Arabla
8.26 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Malaysla
8.27 Cplnlon on relaLlons wlLh Canada, lrance, Cermany
LlsL of llgures
6.3 1o whaL exLenL do you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln
aklsLan conLrlbuLeLo LheaklsLan's economy
6.4 1o whaL exLenL you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln aklsLan
undermlneaklsLan's securlLy
6.3 1o whaL exLenL you agree or dlsagree LhaL Afghan refugees llvlng ln aklsLan
creaLeLenslon wlLh Lhelocal aklsLanl populaLlon
7.1 WhaL areyour sources of lnformaLlon LhaL helps you Lo form your oplnlon?
7.2 Whlch sources of lnformaLlon do you valueLhemosL?
7.3 Whlch newspapers do you read regularly?
7.4 WhaL 1vSLaLlons do you waLch regularly?
7.3 Whlch 8adlo sLaLlons do you llsLen Lo regularly?
8.1 uo you Lhlnk aklsLan should accepL money from WesLern counLrles such as
Lheukand uSA for LhemlllLary bulld up?
8.2 uo you Lhlnk aklsLan should accepL money from WesLern counLrles such as
Lheukand uSA for developmenL?
8.3 1hlnklng now abouL world affalrs, do you have a very favourable, somewhaL
favourable, somewhaL unfavourable, or very unfavourable oplnlon of Lhe
governmenL of uSA?
8.4 uSaLLlLudeLowards Lhelslamlc world
8.3 1hlnklng now abouL world affalrs, do you have a very favourable, somewhaL
favourable, somewhaL unfavourable, or very unfavourable oplnlon of Lhe
governmenL of uk?
8.6 ls your oplnlon of Lhe uk generally geLLlng more favourable, less favourable
or sLayed Lhesame?
8.7 WhaL do you conslder Lo beLhesLrongesL llnks beLween Lheukand aklsLan?
8.8 Whlch of Lhefollowlng besL descrlbes Lheuk's relaLlonshlp wlLh aklsLan
8.9 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: Pelps Lo makeLheworld morepeaceful &sLable
8.10 ukaLLlLudeLowards Lhelslamlc world
8.11 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: romoLes respecL for democraLlcvalues
8.12 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: romoLes respecL for Puman 8lghLs
8.13 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: values LheunlLed naLlons-un
8.14 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: Pelps Lo makeLheworld moreprosperous
8.13 uo you LhlnkLhaL Lheuk: Pelps Lo safeguard Lheglobal envlronmenL
8.16 Whlch of Lhefollowlng besL descrlbes Lheuk's lnvolvemenL ln AfghanlsLan?
8.17 uk8oleln AfghanlsLan
Descr|pt|on of I|gures
V IV
undersLandlng lA1A undersLandlng lA1A
110
111
112
116
118
119
120
122
127
128
129
130
130
131
131
132
133
133
134
133
133
136
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
142
143
144
143
138
143
L|st of
I|gures
age
No
LlsL of Acronyms
1. 1nSM-1ehrlk e nlfaz e SharlaL e Mohammadl
2. 11-1ehrlk e 1allban aklsLan
3. MMA-MuLLahldda Ma[lls e Amal
4. lA1A-lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
3. lus-lnLernally ulsplaced ersons
6. lC-lronLler Corps
7. nA1C-norLh ALlanLlc 1reaLy CrganlzaLlon
8. lC8-lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon
9. A-ollLlcal AgenL
10. nWl-norLh WesL lronLler rovlnce
11. -aklsLan eople's arLy
12. !ul-!amlaL e ulema a lslam
13. uu8-ulsarmamenL, uemoblllsaLlon and 8econsLrucLlon
14. lS-lA1A SecreLarlaL
13. luA-lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy
16. k-khyber akhLunkhwa
17. nA-noL Asked
Map of aklsLan and lA1A
VII VI
undersLandlng lA1A undersLandlng lA1A
U
J
P
N
A
B
L
S
T
B
A
U
C
H
I
A
N
IN
H
S
D
K
H
Y
B
E
R

A
H
T
U
N
K
H
W
P
K
A
LlsL of Acronyms
1. 1nSM-1ehrlk e nlfaz e SharlaL e Mohammadl
2. 11-1ehrlk e 1allban aklsLan
3. MMA-MuLLahldda Ma[lls e Amal
4. lA1A-lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas
3. lus-lnLernally ulsplaced ersons
6. lC-lronLler Corps
7. nA1C-norLh ALlanLlc 1reaLy CrganlzaLlon
8. lC8-lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon
9. A-ollLlcal AgenL
10. nWl-norLh WesL lronLler rovlnce
11. -aklsLan eople's arLy
12. !ul-!amlaL e ulema a lslam
13. uu8-ulsarmamenL, uemoblllsaLlon and 8econsLrucLlon
14. lS-lA1A SecreLarlaL
13. luA-lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy
16. k-khyber akhLunkhwa
17. nA-noL Asked
Map of aklsLan and lA1A
VII VI
undersLandlng lA1A undersLandlng lA1A
U
J
P
N
A
B
L
B
A
U
C
H
IS
T
A
N
I
H
S
N
D
H
B
E

T
N
K
H
W
K
Y
R
P
A
K
H
U
A
1he lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas (lA1A) has has been wldely quoLed by academlcs, pollcy
for many decades been marglnallsed, wlLh only very makers, wrlLers, researchers and [ournallsLs when
l l ml Led evl dence- based research bel ng produclng reporLs, books and arLlcles, lllusLraLlng lLs
commlssloned. As aresulL, pollcy makers haveofLen value ln encouraglng debaLe and undersLandlng. lL
been dependenL on romanLlc, and ulLlmaLely can also be credlLed for conLrlbuLlng Lowards Lhe
lnadequaLe prose produced by [ournallsLs, pushlng Lhrough by Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
Lravellers, advenLurers and hlsLorlans. 1hls has (led by Lhe aklsLan eople's arLy) of Lhe lA1A
l nevl Labl y generaLed a massl ve gap l n 8eform regulaLlons ln AugusL 2011.
undersLandlng, boLh wlLh regard Lo Lhe ouLslde
1hls reporL would noL have been posslble wlLhouL
world looklng lnLo Lhereglon and Lhepeopleof lA1A
Lhe dedlcaLlon of Lhe flfLy enumeraLors who carrled
looklng ouL.
ouL Lhe survey componenL. 1hese men and women,
1he 'undersLandlng lA1A' serles has endeavoured halllng from lA1A, professlonally engaged wlLh
Lo brldge Lhls gap ln knowledge by beglnnlng a respondenLs Lo bulld LrusL and accuraLely
conversaLlon wlLh local communlLles abouL Lhelr documenL daLa, whlle ofLen courageously vlslLlng
currenL concerns and asplraLlons for Lhe fuLure. very remoLeand dlfflculL areas. 1helr conLrlbuLlon ls
1hrough Lhls process of surveylng aLLlLudes, cerLalnly worLhy of pralse and appreclaLlon as Lhey
oplnlons can be formed wlLhouL drawlng on Lhe haveenabled Lhe4,000parLlclpanLs from lA1A Lo be
pre[udlces of Lhe many lnLermedlarles worklng ln heard.
lA1A. 1he resulL of whlch, ls LhaL pollcymakers ln
l also wlsh Lo show my appreclaLlon for Lhe
eshawar, lslamabad, kabul, WashlngLon and
dedlcaLlon exhlblLed by my Leam aL CAM, wlLhouL
London are empowered Lo poslLlvely engage wlLh
whom lL would noL have been posslble Lo produce
Lhe reglon over lssues of rellglon, culLure, pollLlcs
Lhls reporL. ln parLlcular, l would llke Lo Lhank my
and governance.
colleagues 1ahlr All (rogramme Manager,
As CAM has followed Lrends ln lA1A over Lhe lasL uevelopmenL) and Marlam khan (rogramme
flve years, lL ls evldenL LhaL soclal, pollLlcal and Manager, Advocacy) for Lhelr supporL, 8laz-ul-Paq
economlc percepLlons ln lA1A are consLanLly (rogramme ro[ecL Manager, 8esearch) and
evolvlng caLalysed ln large parL by Lhe confllcL ln Mar[ana (ro[ecL Manager, undersLandlng lA1A) for
nelghbourlng AfghanlsLan. 1hls edlLlon conLlnues Lo co-ordl naLl ng fl el d work, organl sl ng and
carefully documenL how lnLernal and exLernal moderaLlng focus-group dlscusslons and for
forces lnLeracL wlLh hlsLorlcal cusLoms and supervlslng daLa collecLlon, and, 8abla !ahanglr
LradlLlons Lo shapeconLemporary aLLlLudes Lowards khan (ro[ecL Cfflcer: head offlce) and Pamld !an
securlLy and developmenL. lL ls unllkely LhaL Lhls (ro[ecL Cfflcer: reglonal offlce) for asslsLlng me
reporL provldes answers Lo all of Lhe lmporLanL LhroughouL Lhepro[ecL.
quesLlons buL lL does underllne an lmporLanL
My speclal appreclaLlon also goes Lo Shahld All for
prlnclple LhaL ls Lhe people of lA1A musL be
deslgnlng Lhls years reporL and Lo nlc 8enLon
encouraged Lo speakfor Lhemselves.
(LdlLor: London, uk) for provldlng Lhe lead ln copy-
1he producLlon of Lhe 'undersLandlng lA1A' serles edlLlng LhemaLerlal presenLed.
would noL have been posslble wlLhouL Lhe acLlve
ln addlLlon, Lhls body of work would noL have been
lnvolvemenL of Lhe people of lA1A. 1hey have been
posslble wlLhouL Lhe generous flnanclal supporL of
exLremely helpful ln sharlng Lhelr knowledge and
Lhe 8rlLlsh Plgh Commlsslon (lslamabad, aklsLan).
lnslghLs, enabllng clear analysls of Lhe lssues
Speclal menLlon ls reserved for hll 8oyle (llrsL
documenLed ln Lhls reporL. 'undersLandlng lA1A'
reface
reface
Ik
1he lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas (lA1A) has has been wldely quoLed by academlcs, pollcy
for many decades been marglnallsed, wlLh only very makers, wrlLers, researchers and [ournallsLs when
l l ml Led evl dence- based research bel ng produclng reporLs, books and arLlcles, lllusLraLlng lLs
commlssloned. As aresulL, pollcy makers haveofLen value ln encouraglng debaLe and undersLandlng. lL
been dependenL on romanLlc, and ulLlmaLely can also be credlLed for conLrlbuLlng Lowards Lhe
lnadequaLe prose produced by [ournallsLs, pushlng Lhrough by Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
Lravellers, advenLurers and hlsLorlans. 1hls has (led by Lhe aklsLan eople's arLy) of Lhe lA1A
l nevl Labl y generaLed a massl ve gap l n 8eform regulaLlons ln AugusL 2011.
undersLandlng, boLh wlLh regard Lo Lhe ouLslde
1hls reporL would noL have been posslble wlLhouL
world looklng lnLo Lhereglon and Lhepeopleof lA1A
Lhe dedlcaLlon of Lhe flfLy enumeraLors who carrled
looklng ouL.
ouL Lhe survey componenL. 1hese men and women,
1he 'undersLandlng lA1A' serles has endeavoured halllng from lA1A, professlonally engaged wlLh
Lo brldge Lhls gap ln knowledge by beglnnlng a respondenLs Lo bulld LrusL and accuraLely
conversaLlon wlLh local communlLles abouL Lhelr documenL daLa, whlle ofLen courageously vlslLlng
currenL concerns and asplraLlons for Lhe fuLure. very remoLeand dlfflculL areas. 1helr conLrlbuLlon ls
1hrough Lhls process of surveylng aLLlLudes, cerLalnly worLhy of pralse and appreclaLlon as Lhey
oplnlons can be formed wlLhouL drawlng on Lhe haveenabled Lhe4,000parLlclpanLs from lA1A Lo be
pre[udlces of Lhe many lnLermedlarles worklng ln heard.
lA1A. 1he resulL of whlch, ls LhaL pollcymakers ln
l also wlsh Lo show my appreclaLlon for Lhe
eshawar, lslamabad, kabul, WashlngLon and
dedlcaLlon exhlblLed by my Leam aL CAM, wlLhouL
London are empowered Lo poslLlvely engage wlLh
whom lL would noL have been posslble Lo produce
Lhe reglon over lssues of rellglon, culLure, pollLlcs
Lhls reporL. ln parLlcular, l would llke Lo Lhank my
and governance.
colleagues 1ahlr All (rogramme Manager,
As CAM has followed Lrends ln lA1A over Lhe lasL uevelopmenL) and Marlam khan (rogramme
flve years, lL ls evldenL LhaL soclal, pollLlcal and Manager, Advocacy) for Lhelr supporL, 8laz-ul-Paq
economlc percepLlons ln lA1A are consLanLly (rogramme ro[ecL Manager, 8esearch) and
evolvlng caLalysed ln large parL by Lhe confllcL ln Mar[ana (ro[ecL Manager, undersLandlng lA1A) for
nelghbourlng AfghanlsLan. 1hls edlLlon conLlnues Lo co-ordl naLl ng fl el d work, organl sl ng and
carefully documenL how lnLernal and exLernal moderaLlng focus-group dlscusslons and for
forces lnLeracL wlLh hlsLorlcal cusLoms and supervlslng daLa collecLlon, and, 8abla !ahanglr
LradlLlons Lo shapeconLemporary aLLlLudes Lowards khan (ro[ecL Cfflcer: head offlce) and Pamld !an
securlLy and developmenL. lL ls unllkely LhaL Lhls (ro[ecL Cfflcer: reglonal offlce) for asslsLlng me
reporL provldes answers Lo all of Lhe lmporLanL LhroughouL Lhepro[ecL.
quesLlons buL lL does underllne an lmporLanL
My speclal appreclaLlon also goes Lo Shahld All for
prlnclple LhaL ls Lhe people of lA1A musL be
deslgnlng Lhls years reporL and Lo nlc 8enLon
encouraged Lo speakfor Lhemselves.
(LdlLor: London, uk) for provldlng Lhe lead ln copy-
1he producLlon of Lhe 'undersLandlng lA1A' serles edlLlng LhemaLerlal presenLed.
would noL have been posslble wlLhouL Lhe acLlve
ln addlLlon, Lhls body of work would noL have been
lnvolvemenL of Lhe people of lA1A. 1hey have been
posslble wlLhouL Lhe generous flnanclal supporL of
exLremely helpful ln sharlng Lhelr knowledge and
Lhe 8rlLlsh Plgh Commlsslon (lslamabad, aklsLan).
lnslghLs, enabllng clear analysls of Lhe lssues
Speclal menLlon ls reserved for hll 8oyle (llrsL
documenLed ln Lhls reporL. 'undersLandlng lA1A'
reface
reface
Ik
1he lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas (lA1A) ls AsslsLanL ollLlcal AgenL. 1he ollLlcal AgenLs
locaLed along aklsLan's norLh-wesLern Plmalaya perform several funcLlons aL Lhe same Llme - Lhey
zone and souLh-wesLern Sulelman MounLalns. lL acL as an execuLlve, [udge and revenue collecLor. ln
runs as a narrow LracL along Lhe rlver lndus wlLh Lhe faclllLaLlng Lhelr role Lhey are asslsLed by Lhe
parallel llnes almosL norLh Lo souLh, and conslsLs of former-colonlal Mollk sysLem (a local leader
s ev en s eml - a uL onomous a genc l es or appolnLed by Lhe governmenL Lo represenL Lhelr
admlnlsLraLlve unlLs - khyber, Mohmand, 8a[aur, communlLy). As Mollks are appolnLed by Lhe A
kurram, Crakzal, norLh and SouLh WazlrlsLan. Lhel r l ndependence and l oyal Ly can be
AddlLlonally lA1A lncludes 'fronLler reglons' LhaL quesLlonable: wlLh some acLlng ln accordance wlLh
ad[oln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of eshawar: kohaL, 8annu, Lhe wlshes of Lhe A raLher Lhan Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe
Lakkl MarwaL, 1ank and uera lsmall khan. 1hls people Lhey are supposed Lo be represenLlng.
unlLed LerrlLory ls separaLed from Lhe akhLun Cenerally, Lhe local people feel LhaL Lhey have been
Lrlbes of AfghanlsLan by Lhe uurand llne: drawn ln marglnallsed and lnequlLably LreaLed. 1he
1893byLhe8rlLlsh colonlal rulers of lndla. parLlclpaLlon of clvll socleLy ls llmlLed or non-
exlsLenL.
1he 3.2 mllllon people llvlng ln lA1A, accordlng Lo
1
Lhe akl sLan census reporL (1998) , are lurLhermore, prlor Lo Lhe slgnlng of Lhe lA1A
predomlnanLly akhLuns, whlch are largely 5oool 8eforms ln AugusL 2011 no pollLlcal represenLaLlon
Musllms by falLh, wlLh 5blo communlLles largely was allowed Lo funcLlon ln Lhe Lrlbal areas. ln Lhe
concenLraLed ln kurramand Crakzal Agencles. lA1A absence of a vlbranL pollLlcal process, Lhere has
ls characLerlsed by a sLrong Lrlbal sLrucLure and been no plaLform Lo address grlevances or Lo
culLural herlLage, supporLed by rlch eLhnlc dlverslLy. conLrlbuLe Lo local and naLlonal affalrs. 1he
1he census reporL calculaLed Lhe populaLlon negaLlve lmpacL of Lhls absence of lncluslon ls
growLh raLe aL 2.2 and Lhe populaLlon denslLy furLher compounded by adlsLlncL lack of LrusL ln Lhe
esLlmaLed aL 117 persons per sq. km (versus capaclLy of exlsLlng lnsLlLuLlons Lo fulfll people's
naLlonal and khyber akhLunkhwa [kk] average of asplraLlons. 1hls envlronmenL, allgned wlLh poor
166 and 238 respecLlvely), varylng greaLly beLween economlc developmenL has creaLed a broad
lndlvldual agencles and fronLler reglons. pollLlcal vacuum for mlllLanL groups Lo caplLallseon.
1he admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLure of lA1A ls unlque. 1he 1he economy of lA1A ls shaped by a number of
reglon ls prlmarlly governed Lhrough Lhe lronLler facLors, mosL lmporLanLly: geography and
Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), 1901 and ls managed by Lopography, soclal and culLural LradlLlons, pollLlcal
Lhe Covernor of Lhe kk provlnce, based ln lnsLablllLy, lnsecurlLy, and, soclo-economlc
eshawar, who ls a nomlnee and represenLaLlve of dynamlcs. ln general, Lhere are few llvellhood
LheresldenL of aklsLan. AL LhenaLlonal level: lA1A opporLunlLles, wlLh employmenL largely dependenL
falls under Lhe purvlew of Lhe MlnlsLry of SLaLes and on agrlculLural acLlvlLles ln Lhe reglon's few ferLlle
lronLler 8eglons (SAl8Cn) based ln lslamabad. valleys. Land use daLa from 2003-04 shows LhaL 7
of Lhe LoLal geographlc area of lA1A ls culLlvaLed,
Local admlnlsLraLlon ln each agency ls managed bya
wlLh anoLher 1 recorded as fallow, whlle more
ollLlcal AgenL (A), who ls a federal clvll servanL,
Lhan 82 of Lhe land ls noL avallable for culLlvaLlon.
and each sub-dlvlslon (1ebsll) ls headed by an
1hls puLs lnLense pressure on avallable farmland.
LxecuLlve Summary
kI
Lxecut|ve Summary
1
lL ls acknowledged by Lhe Survey 1eam LhaL Lhese 1998 flgures are daLed buL Lhey remaln Lhe laLesL offlclal numbers avallable.
1he census ls wldely quoLed and allows for some lmporLanL comparlsons Lo be posslble wlLh naLlonal sLaLlsLlcs LhaL would noL
be posslble wlLh laLer (unofflclal) approxlmaLlons. Powever, Lhe flndlngs of Lhls survey and lLs predecessors are golng someway
Lo fllllng ln Lhe gaps ln naLlonal knowledge on Lhe reglon.
undersLandlng lA1A
SecreLary ollLlcal SecLlon), Colln Plcks (Second
SecreLary ollLlcal SecLlon), Paroon khan (ro[ecL
Manager ollLlcal SecLlon) and lmran ul Passan
(ro[ecL Manager ollLlcal SecLlon) for Lhelr
consLanL co-operaLlon.
All vlews expressed ln Lhls reporL are solely mlne, as
areanymlsLakes and errors.
naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl
AuLhor and Chlef LxecuLlve
lslamabad, lebruary 2012
k
1he lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas (lA1A) ls AsslsLanL ollLlcal AgenL. 1he ollLlcal AgenLs
locaLed along aklsLan's norLh-wesLern Plmalaya perform several funcLlons aL Lhe same Llme - Lhey
zone and souLh-wesLern Sulelman MounLalns. lL acL as an execuLlve, [udge and revenue collecLor. ln
runs as a narrow LracL along Lhe rlver lndus wlLh Lhe faclllLaLlng Lhelr role Lhey are asslsLed by Lhe
parallel llnes almosL norLh Lo souLh, and conslsLs of former-colonlal Mollk sysLem (a local leader
s ev en s eml - a uL onomous a genc l es or appolnLed by Lhe governmenL Lo represenL Lhelr
admlnlsLraLlve unlLs - khyber, Mohmand, 8a[aur, communlLy). As Mollks are appolnLed by Lhe A
kurram, Crakzal, norLh and SouLh WazlrlsLan. Lhel r l ndependence and l oyal Ly can be
AddlLlonally lA1A lncludes 'fronLler reglons' LhaL quesLlonable: wlLh some acLlng ln accordance wlLh
ad[oln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of eshawar: kohaL, 8annu, Lhe wlshes of Lhe A raLher Lhan Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe
Lakkl MarwaL, 1ank and uera lsmall khan. 1hls people Lhey are supposed Lo be represenLlng.
unlLed LerrlLory ls separaLed from Lhe akhLun Cenerally, Lhe local people feel LhaL Lhey have been
Lrlbes of AfghanlsLan by Lhe uurand llne: drawn ln marglnallsed and lnequlLably LreaLed. 1he
1893byLhe8rlLlsh colonlal rulers of lndla. parLlclpaLlon of clvll socleLy ls llmlLed or non-
exlsLenL.
1he 3.2 mllllon people llvlng ln lA1A, accordlng Lo
1
Lhe akl sLan census reporL (1998) , are lurLhermore, prlor Lo Lhe slgnlng of Lhe lA1A
predomlnanLly akhLuns, whlch are largely 5oool 8eforms ln AugusL 2011 no pollLlcal represenLaLlon
Musllms by falLh, wlLh 5blo communlLles largely was allowed Lo funcLlon ln Lhe Lrlbal areas. ln Lhe
concenLraLed ln kurramand Crakzal Agencles. lA1A absence of a vlbranL pollLlcal process, Lhere has
ls characLerlsed by a sLrong Lrlbal sLrucLure and been no plaLform Lo address grlevances or Lo
culLural herlLage, supporLed by rlch eLhnlc dlverslLy. conLrlbuLe Lo local and naLlonal affalrs. 1he
1he census reporL calculaLed Lhe populaLlon negaLlve lmpacL of Lhls absence of lncluslon ls
growLh raLe aL 2.2 and Lhe populaLlon denslLy furLher compounded by adlsLlncL lack of LrusL ln Lhe
esLlmaLed aL 117 persons per sq. km (versus capaclLy of exlsLlng lnsLlLuLlons Lo fulfll people's
naLlonal and khyber akhLunkhwa [kk] average of asplraLlons. 1hls envlronmenL, allgned wlLh poor
166 and 238 respecLlvely), varylng greaLly beLween economlc developmenL has creaLed a broad
lndlvldual agencles and fronLler reglons. pollLlcal vacuum for mlllLanL groups Lo caplLallseon.
1he admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLure of lA1A ls unlque. 1he 1he economy of lA1A ls shaped by a number of
reglon ls prlmarlly governed Lhrough Lhe lronLler facLors, mosL lmporLanLly: geography and
Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), 1901 and ls managed by Lopography, soclal and culLural LradlLlons, pollLlcal
Lhe Covernor of Lhe kk provlnce, based ln lnsLablllLy, lnsecurlLy, and, soclo-economlc
eshawar, who ls a nomlnee and represenLaLlve of dynamlcs. ln general, Lhere are few llvellhood
LheresldenL of aklsLan. AL LhenaLlonal level: lA1A opporLunlLles, wlLh employmenL largely dependenL
falls under Lhe purvlew of Lhe MlnlsLry of SLaLes and on agrlculLural acLlvlLles ln Lhe reglon's few ferLlle
lronLler 8eglons (SAl8Cn) based ln lslamabad. valleys. Land use daLa from 2003-04 shows LhaL 7
of Lhe LoLal geographlc area of lA1A ls culLlvaLed,
Local admlnlsLraLlon ln each agency ls managed bya
wlLh anoLher 1 recorded as fallow, whlle more
ollLlcal AgenL (A), who ls a federal clvll servanL,
Lhan 82 of Lhe land ls noL avallable for culLlvaLlon.
and each sub-dlvlslon (1ebsll) ls headed by an
1hls puLs lnLense pressure on avallable farmland.
LxecuLlve Summary
kI
Lxecut|ve Summary
1
lL ls acknowledged by Lhe Survey 1eam LhaL Lhese 1998 flgures are daLed buL Lhey remaln Lhe laLesL offlclal numbers avallable.
1he census ls wldely quoLed and allows for some lmporLanL comparlsons Lo be posslble wlLh naLlonal sLaLlsLlcs LhaL would noL
be posslble wlLh laLer (unofflclal) approxlmaLlons. Powever, Lhe flndlngs of Lhls survey and lLs predecessors are golng someway
Lo fllllng ln Lhe gaps ln naLlonal knowledge on Lhe reglon.
undersLandlng lA1A
SecreLary ollLlcal SecLlon), Colln Plcks (Second
SecreLary ollLlcal SecLlon), Paroon khan (ro[ecL
Manager ollLlcal SecLlon) and lmran ul Passan
(ro[ecL Manager ollLlcal SecLlon) for Lhelr
consLanL co-operaLlon.
All vlews expressed ln Lhls reporL are solely mlne, as
areanymlsLakes and errors.
naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl
AuLhor and Chlef LxecuLlve
lslamabad, lebruary 2012
k
on all of Lheselssues. aklsLanl populaLlon wlll have useful, acLlonable
lnformaLlon. 1hls 2011 edlLlon of 'undersLandlng
1o opposeLheaklsLanl 1allban and forelgn flghLers,
lA1A' ls a comprehenslve assessmenL of
lncludlng Al-Caeda, Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary has
percepLlons LhaL complemenL and bulld on
conducLed more Lhan 13 offenslve operaLlons slnce
hlsLorlcal assessmenLs on several key pollcy areas
2002. AL Lhe beglnnlng, mosL of Lhese operaLlons
lncludlng governance, socleLy, rellglon and pollLlcs.
had llmlLed success, resulLlng ln compromlses and,
1he goal of whlch, ls Lo convey Lhe asplraLlons and
someLl mes l n spl Le of l nLense crl Ll cl sm,
frusLraLlons of Lhe people of lA1A so LhaL Lhese
agreemenLs. Powever, Lhe recenL mlllLary
percepLlons can dlrecLly feed lnLo governmenLal
offenslves ln 8a[aur, Mohmand, Crakzal, and SouLh
lnlLlaLlves.
WazlrlsLan agencles seem Lo have achleved
conslderablegalns for LheCovernmenL of aklsLan. volumes l and lv were more descrlpLlve, carrylng
greaLer reference maLerlal: Lhls year's reporL ls
ln Lhe recenL pasL, much analysls has been
malnly a presenLaLlon of prlmary daLa. lor furLher
conducLed on Lhe lnsurgency ln Lhe lA1A, buL mosL
lnformaLlon on lA1A see Lhe prevlous volumes,
of Lhls focus has been on Lhe number and efflclency
accesslble aL www.undersLandlngfaLa.org and
of Lhese operaLlons. 1he survey provldes a dlfferenL
www.camp.org.pk
perspecLlve based on sample sLaLlsLlcs (lnsLead of
anecdoLal evldence) of Lhe landscape of mlllLanL 'undersLandlng lA1A v 2011' ls based on boLh
groups, Lhelr percelved agenda and favourablllLy ln quallLaLlve and quanLlLaLlve daLa. Lach chapLer
Lheeyes of Lhepeopleof lA1A. presenLs background maLerlal from mulLlple
sources, LogeLher wlLh supporLlng documenLaLlon
lollowlng lmproved mlllLary operaLlons, lL appears
from Lhe experl ences of CAM, Lhl s l s
Lhe aklsLan Army ls growlng ln approval wlLhln
complemenLed byLheflndlngs of sLaLlsLlcal daLa.
lA1A, resulLlng ln lncreased accepLance and LrusL
from communlLles. Also, successes ln Lhe SwaL 1o sLrengLhen Lhe quallLaLlve lnformaLlon
valley and SouLh WazlrlsLan have earned aklsLan lncorporaLed ln Lhe survey: elghLeen focus-group
reasonable credlL and pralses from Lhe uS and dlscusslons were held Lo gaLher Lhe quallLaLlve
wesLern counLrles. ConsequenLly, Lhe flndlngs ln oplnlons of men and women from lA1A. 1ranscrlpLs
Lhls survey show LhaL wlLhln lA1A Lhe people have were recorded, analysed and uLlllsed Lo wrlLe Lhls
become lncreaslngly supporLlve of operaLlons reporL. 8rlef background and facLual maLerlal used
agalnsL mlllLanLs, lncludlng from Lhose LhaL have ln Lhe reporL came from Lhe undersLandlng lA1A
been vlcLlms of dlsplacemenL. noLwlLhsLandlng Lhls volumelvand deskresearch.
level of saLlsfacLlon, several quesLlons sLlll need Lo
1he quanLlLaLlve daLa was collecLed Lhrough
be addressed l n Ler ms of L he use of
sLrucLured quesLlonnalres wlLh addlLlonal
dlsproporLlonaLe levels of force by Lhe mlllLary,
quesLlons lncorporaLed for Lhls year. 1he ob[ecLlve
access Lo compensaLlon for crlsls hlL communlLles,
was Lo sample an equal number of adulL males and
respondlng Lo Lhe assoclaLed humanlLarlan crlses
females Lo ascerLaln Lhelr oplnlon on Lhe
arlslng from Lhe confllcL and Lhe lssue of more Lhan
consldered key lssues of Lhe people of lA1A.
3,000suspecL mlllLanLs arresLed byarmy.
Lxpandlng on prevlous daLa recorded - Lhe 2011
1he Communl Ly Appral sal & MoLl vaLl on survey conLlnues Lo Lrack core appralsal areas whlle
rogramme (CAM) has been conducLlng surveys developlng new lnformaLlon sources ln response Lo
documenLlng Lhe oplnlons of Lhe people of lA1A changlng dynamlcs and lmprovlng meLhodology.
sl nce 2007. 1haL wor k compr l ses L he
A hlerarchlcal sampllng sLraLegy was used Lo poll
'undersLandlng lA1A' serles. 1he goal of Lhls serles
adulL oplnlons across all slx lronLler 8eglons and
ls Lo map Lhe Lhlnklng and aLLlLudes wlLhln lA1A so
Lhe seven Agencles. 1he flrsL level of sampllng was
LhaL pollcy makers and lnfluenLlal acLors ln:
Lo selecL 400 vlllages from Lhe accesslble areas of
governmenL, clvll socleLy, Lhe lnLernaLlonal
lA1A. 1he second level was Lo selecL a
communlLy, academla, medla and Lhe broader
LxecuLlve Summary
kIII
Cnly, 44 of Lhls farmland ls under lrrlgaLlon, wlLh tbot tbe mooey oltlmotely eoJs op lo tbe pockets of
Lhe remalnlng culLlvaLed area relylng enLlrely on potllomeototloos ooJ o few fovootlte locol
4
coottoctots.' ralnfall (hLLp://faLa.gov.pk).
1hls lneffecLual and lnadequaLely monlLored WlLh only very llmlLed economlc opporLunlLles,
lmplemenLaLlon of developmenL has clearly mosL of Lhe populaLlon ls engaged ln prlmary-level
beneflLed LheellLe, leavlng llLLleor no opporLunlLles subslsLence acLlvlLles such as agrlculLure, llvesLock
for Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe populaLlon. Women ln rearlng or local small-scale buslnesses. CLhers are
parLlcular have remalned marglnallsed (largely due lnvolved ln Lrade wlLhln Lhe Lrlbal belL or local
Lo Lhe local LradlLlon of 'potJob'), whlle youLh and securlLy, some have (e)mlgraLed, ln Lhe hope of
mlnorlLles (boLh eLhnlc and rellglous) have llLLle or securlng greaLer economlc securlLy. ln parLlcular,
no opporLunlLy Lo express Lhemselves or skllled labourers seek Lo mlgraLe, wlLh Lhelr
parLlclpaLeln Lheplannlng processes. famllles, Lo urban cenLres ouLslde Lhe Lrlbal areas,
lncludlng: 8annu, ueralsmall khan and eshawar.
eople's soclo-economlc sLaLus has also been
affecLed by Lhe presence of large numbers of 1here are few rellable sLaLlsLlcs on soclo-economlc
Afghan refugees ln lA1A. 1he lnflux of refugees has lndlcaLors ln lA1A: Lhose LhaL do exlsL reveal
furLher burdened Lhe already oversLreLched slgnlflcanL dlsadvanLages are held by lnhablLanLs of
resources of Lhe reglon and caused dlsrupLlon Lo Lhe Lrlbal areas - wlLh governmenL esLlmaLes
culLural pracLlces. 1hls ls llkely Lo remaln a daunLlng recordlng LhaL some 60 of Lhe local populaLlon ls
2
llvlng below Lhe poverLy llne. A measure lmpedlmenL Lo securlLy and developmenL ln lA1A, lf
exacerbaLed by below average levels of llLeracy lnlLlaLlves such as Lhe unPC8 funded '8efugee
(male llLeracy sLands aL 29.3, whlle female llLeracy affecLed and PosLlng Areas rogramme' (8APA) fall
ls a very Lroubllng 3) and prlmary school Lo effecLlvely lmplemenL pollcles LhaL wlll lmprove
3
parLlclpaLlon (41.3). Cf Lhose resldenLs LhaL do llvellhoods, rehablllLaLe local envlronmenLs and
en[oy a poslLlve educaLlon, slgnlflcanL numbers enhance soclal coheslon wlLhln affecLed and hosL
end-up deserLlng lA1A looklng for superlor communlLles.
prospecLs, Lhus poLenLlal drlvers for reform or
lA1A has a unlque sLraLeglc lmporLance ln Lerms of
enLrepreneurshlp areconLlnuallyremoved.
lLs lmpacL on Lhe securlLy and sLablllLy of
LaLesL healLh lndlcaLors are unavallable buL [udglng nelghbourlng AfghanlsLan and Lhe assoclaLed 'War
from Lhe 1998 Census one docLor ls avallable for on 1error'. aklsLan and Lhe lnLernaLlonal
7,670 people ln lA1A, whlch lndlcaLes poor healLh communlLy are exLremely concerned abouL how Lo
condlLlons. WherehosplLals and cllnlcs arerunnlng, deal wlLh Lhe slLuaLlon lnslde of Lhe lA1A. 1he
Lhey are generally poorly sLaffed, under-equlpped ongolng mlllLancy ln lA1A seems Lo be conLrlbuLlng
and unhyglenlc. slgnlflcanLly Lo Lhe susLalnlng of 1allban reslsLance
agalnsL Lhe uS-led lnLervenLlon ln AfghanlsLan.
Al Lhough devel opmenL pl ans exl sL and
overLy, dlfflculL Lerraln, an archalc sysLem of
programmes have been lmplemenLed, mosL of
admlnlsLraLlon, cross-border Lrlbal and eLhnlc Lles,
Lhem have been fragmenLary and shorL-Lerm
lokbtoo LradlLlons and Lhe presence of IlboJl
soluLlons: ofLen produclng lnsenslLlve and corrupL
mlllLanLs comblne Lo creaLe a seL of overlapplng
consequences. Accordlng Lo anews reporL:
challenges for Lhe governmenLs of aklsLan and
AfghanlsLan, as well as for Lhe uS and Lhe
lotetestloqly, most cottoptloocoses sbow tbot socb
lnLernaLlonal communlLy. 1hls volume of
ptojects jlo lA1A] ote execoteJ lo socb o moooet
'undersLandlng lA1A' sheds some addlLlonal llghL
undersLandlng lA1A
kII
2
hLLp://www.adb.org/documenLs/Lars/pak/Lar_pak33268.pdf
3
ln comparlson: naLlonal averages for llLeracy and prlmary school parLlclpaLlon equal 43 and 77 respecLlvely.
4
uevelopmenL lunds: Cllanl doles ouL 8s. 30 mllllon Lo lA1A lawmakers', 1he Lxpress 1rlbune, 21 !anuary 2011.
on all of Lheselssues. aklsLanl populaLlon wlll have useful, acLlonable
lnformaLlon. 1hls 2011 edlLlon of 'undersLandlng
1o opposeLheaklsLanl 1allban and forelgn flghLers,
lA1A' ls a comprehenslve assessmenL of
lncludlng Al-Caeda, Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary has
percepLlons LhaL complemenL and bulld on
conducLed more Lhan 13 offenslve operaLlons slnce
hlsLorlcal assessmenLs on several key pollcy areas
2002. AL Lhe beglnnlng, mosL of Lhese operaLlons
lncludlng governance, socleLy, rellglon and pollLlcs.
had llmlLed success, resulLlng ln compromlses and,
1he goal of whlch, ls Lo convey Lhe asplraLlons and
someLl mes l n spl Le of l nLense crl Ll cl sm,
frusLraLlons of Lhe people of lA1A so LhaL Lhese
agreemenLs. Powever, Lhe recenL mlllLary
percepLlons can dlrecLly feed lnLo governmenLal
offenslves ln 8a[aur, Mohmand, Crakzal, and SouLh
lnlLlaLlves.
WazlrlsLan agencles seem Lo have achleved
conslderablegalns for LheCovernmenL of aklsLan. volumes l and lv were more descrlpLlve, carrylng
greaLer reference maLerlal: Lhls year's reporL ls
ln Lhe recenL pasL, much analysls has been
malnly a presenLaLlon of prlmary daLa. lor furLher
conducLed on Lhe lnsurgency ln Lhe lA1A, buL mosL
lnformaLlon on lA1A see Lhe prevlous volumes,
of Lhls focus has been on Lhe number and efflclency
accesslble aL www.undersLandlngfaLa.org and
of Lhese operaLlons. 1he survey provldes a dlfferenL
www.camp.org.pk
perspecLlve based on sample sLaLlsLlcs (lnsLead of
anecdoLal evldence) of Lhe landscape of mlllLanL 'undersLandlng lA1A v 2011' ls based on boLh
groups, Lhelr percelved agenda and favourablllLy ln quallLaLlve and quanLlLaLlve daLa. Lach chapLer
Lheeyes of Lhepeopleof lA1A. presenLs background maLerlal from mulLlple
sources, LogeLher wlLh supporLlng documenLaLlon
lollowlng lmproved mlllLary operaLlons, lL appears
from Lhe experl ences of CAM, Lhl s l s
Lhe aklsLan Army ls growlng ln approval wlLhln
complemenLed byLheflndlngs of sLaLlsLlcal daLa.
lA1A, resulLlng ln lncreased accepLance and LrusL
from communlLles. Also, successes ln Lhe SwaL 1o sLrengLhen Lhe quallLaLlve lnformaLlon
valley and SouLh WazlrlsLan have earned aklsLan lncorporaLed ln Lhe survey: elghLeen focus-group
reasonable credlL and pralses from Lhe uS and dlscusslons were held Lo gaLher Lhe quallLaLlve
wesLern counLrles. ConsequenLly, Lhe flndlngs ln oplnlons of men and women from lA1A. 1ranscrlpLs
Lhls survey show LhaL wlLhln lA1A Lhe people have were recorded, analysed and uLlllsed Lo wrlLe Lhls
become lncreaslngly supporLlve of operaLlons reporL. 8rlef background and facLual maLerlal used
agalnsL mlllLanLs, lncludlng from Lhose LhaL have ln Lhe reporL came from Lhe undersLandlng lA1A
been vlcLlms of dlsplacemenL. noLwlLhsLandlng Lhls volumelvand deskresearch.
level of saLlsfacLlon, several quesLlons sLlll need Lo
1he quanLlLaLlve daLa was collecLed Lhrough
be addressed l n Ler ms of L he use of
sLrucLured quesLlonnalres wlLh addlLlonal
dlsproporLlonaLe levels of force by Lhe mlllLary,
quesLlons lncorporaLed for Lhls year. 1he ob[ecLlve
access Lo compensaLlon for crlsls hlL communlLles,
was Lo sample an equal number of adulL males and
respondlng Lo Lhe assoclaLed humanlLarlan crlses
females Lo ascerLaln Lhelr oplnlon on Lhe
arlslng from Lhe confllcL and Lhe lssue of more Lhan
consldered key lssues of Lhe people of lA1A.
3,000suspecL mlllLanLs arresLed byarmy.
Lxpandlng on prevlous daLa recorded - Lhe 2011
1he Communl Ly Appral sal & MoLl vaLl on survey conLlnues Lo Lrack core appralsal areas whlle
rogramme (CAM) has been conducLlng surveys developlng new lnformaLlon sources ln response Lo
documenLlng Lhe oplnlons of Lhe people of lA1A changlng dynamlcs and lmprovlng meLhodology.
sl nce 2007. 1haL wor k compr l ses L he
A hlerarchlcal sampllng sLraLegy was used Lo poll
'undersLandlng lA1A' serles. 1he goal of Lhls serles
adulL oplnlons across all slx lronLler 8eglons and
ls Lo map Lhe Lhlnklng and aLLlLudes wlLhln lA1A so
Lhe seven Agencles. 1he flrsL level of sampllng was
LhaL pollcy makers and lnfluenLlal acLors ln:
Lo selecL 400 vlllages from Lhe accesslble areas of
governmenL, clvll socleLy, Lhe lnLernaLlonal
lA1A. 1he second level was Lo selecL a
communlLy, academla, medla and Lhe broader
LxecuLlve Summary
kIII
Cnly, 44 of Lhls farmland ls under lrrlgaLlon, wlLh tbot tbe mooey oltlmotely eoJs op lo tbe pockets of
Lhe remalnlng culLlvaLed area relylng enLlrely on potllomeototloos ooJ o few fovootlte locol
4
coottoctots.' ralnfall (hLLp://faLa.gov.pk).
1hls lneffecLual and lnadequaLely monlLored WlLh only very llmlLed economlc opporLunlLles,
lmplemenLaLlon of developmenL has clearly mosL of Lhe populaLlon ls engaged ln prlmary-level
beneflLed LheellLe, leavlng llLLleor no opporLunlLles subslsLence acLlvlLles such as agrlculLure, llvesLock
for Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe populaLlon. Women ln rearlng or local small-scale buslnesses. CLhers are
parLlcular have remalned marglnallsed (largely due lnvolved ln Lrade wlLhln Lhe Lrlbal belL or local
Lo Lhe local LradlLlon of 'potJob'), whlle youLh and securlLy, some have (e)mlgraLed, ln Lhe hope of
mlnorlLles (boLh eLhnlc and rellglous) have llLLle or securlng greaLer economlc securlLy. ln parLlcular,
no opporLunlLy Lo express Lhemselves or skllled labourers seek Lo mlgraLe, wlLh Lhelr
parLlclpaLeln Lheplannlng processes. famllles, Lo urban cenLres ouLslde Lhe Lrlbal areas,
lncludlng: 8annu, ueralsmall khan and eshawar.
eople's soclo-economlc sLaLus has also been
affecLed by Lhe presence of large numbers of 1here are few rellable sLaLlsLlcs on soclo-economlc
Afghan refugees ln lA1A. 1he lnflux of refugees has lndlcaLors ln lA1A: Lhose LhaL do exlsL reveal
furLher burdened Lhe already oversLreLched slgnlflcanL dlsadvanLages are held by lnhablLanLs of
resources of Lhe reglon and caused dlsrupLlon Lo Lhe Lrlbal areas - wlLh governmenL esLlmaLes
culLural pracLlces. 1hls ls llkely Lo remaln a daunLlng recordlng LhaL some 60 of Lhe local populaLlon ls
2
llvlng below Lhe poverLy llne. A measure lmpedlmenL Lo securlLy and developmenL ln lA1A, lf
exacerbaLed by below average levels of llLeracy lnlLlaLlves such as Lhe unPC8 funded '8efugee
(male llLeracy sLands aL 29.3, whlle female llLeracy affecLed and PosLlng Areas rogramme' (8APA) fall
ls a very Lroubllng 3) and prlmary school Lo effecLlvely lmplemenL pollcles LhaL wlll lmprove
3
parLlclpaLlon (41.3). Cf Lhose resldenLs LhaL do llvellhoods, rehablllLaLe local envlronmenLs and
en[oy a poslLlve educaLlon, slgnlflcanL numbers enhance soclal coheslon wlLhln affecLed and hosL
end-up deserLlng lA1A looklng for superlor communlLles.
prospecLs, Lhus poLenLlal drlvers for reform or
lA1A has a unlque sLraLeglc lmporLance ln Lerms of
enLrepreneurshlp areconLlnuallyremoved.
lLs lmpacL on Lhe securlLy and sLablllLy of
LaLesL healLh lndlcaLors are unavallable buL [udglng nelghbourlng AfghanlsLan and Lhe assoclaLed 'War
from Lhe 1998 Census one docLor ls avallable for on 1error'. aklsLan and Lhe lnLernaLlonal
7,670 people ln lA1A, whlch lndlcaLes poor healLh communlLy are exLremely concerned abouL how Lo
condlLlons. WherehosplLals and cllnlcs arerunnlng, deal wlLh Lhe slLuaLlon lnslde of Lhe lA1A. 1he
Lhey are generally poorly sLaffed, under-equlpped ongolng mlllLancy ln lA1A seems Lo be conLrlbuLlng
and unhyglenlc. slgnlflcanLly Lo Lhe susLalnlng of 1allban reslsLance
agalnsL Lhe uS-led lnLervenLlon ln AfghanlsLan.
Al Lhough devel opmenL pl ans exl sL and
overLy, dlfflculL Lerraln, an archalc sysLem of
programmes have been lmplemenLed, mosL of
admlnlsLraLlon, cross-border Lrlbal and eLhnlc Lles,
Lhem have been fragmenLary and shorL-Lerm
lokbtoo LradlLlons and Lhe presence of IlboJl
soluLlons: ofLen produclng lnsenslLlve and corrupL
mlllLanLs comblne Lo creaLe a seL of overlapplng
consequences. Accordlng Lo anews reporL:
challenges for Lhe governmenLs of aklsLan and
AfghanlsLan, as well as for Lhe uS and Lhe
lotetestloqly, most cottoptloocoses sbow tbot socb
lnLernaLlonal communlLy. 1hls volume of
ptojects jlo lA1A] ote execoteJ lo socb o moooet
'undersLandlng lA1A' sheds some addlLlonal llghL
undersLandlng lA1A
kII
2
hLLp://www.adb.org/documenLs/Lars/pak/Lar_pak33268.pdf
3
ln comparlson: naLlonal averages for llLeracy and prlmary school parLlclpaLlon equal 43 and 77 respecLlvely.
4
uevelopmenL lunds: Cllanl doles ouL 8s. 30 mllllon Lo lA1A lawmakers', 1he Lxpress 1rlbune, 21 !anuary 2011.
kLIINDINGS
prlorlLy (13.4). 1hls could mean LhaL efforLs Lo
reform local admlnlsLraLlon ls belng mls-
- D|rect|on of the country: Compared Lo lasL dlrecLed ln Lhe shorL-Lerm, and LhaL resources
year, sLaLlsLlcs for Lhe 2011 survey show a woul d be beLLer spenL empowerl ng
decllne ln opLlmlsm, wlLh more Lhan Lwo-Lhlrds developmenL and sLrengLhenlng confllcL-
of people ln lA1A feellng LhaL aklsLan ls golng resoluLlon, enabllng reform of governance
ln Lhe wrong dlrecLlon. Moreover, levels of Lhrough lnLegraLlon of lA1A lnLo malnsLream
opLlmlsm have reduced from 38.4 ln 2010 Lo pollLlcal sLrucLures. '1ackllng Lerrorlsm' aL 28
[usL 12.93 ln 2011. SupporLed by oLher daLa ls unexpecLedlylow.
seLs, Lhe wldespread pesslmlsm seems Lo be
- Iee||ng of secur|ty: 1he 2011 survey shows a
Lhe resulL of Lhe poor governance exhlblLed by
dramaLlc change ln oplnlon - wlLh [usL 43 of
Lhe rullng governmenL. Also: frusLraLlons
respondenLs declarlng LhaL Lhey felL safe, an
over Lhe lengLh of Llme belng requlred by
alarmlng decrease from 2010 levels. A change
mlllLary counLer-operaLlons Lo oppose
compounded by an accompanylng lncrease ln
lncessanL 1allban reslsLance, prlce hlkes, years
feellngs of 'lnsecurlLy'.
of reglonal lnsLablllLy ln AfghanlsLan,
humanlLarlan crlses, lneffecLual response Lo
- Su|c|de bomb|ng: 1he percepLlon ls LhaL Lhe
lu vulnerablllLy have furLher reduced
mlsLrusLed SLaLes of Lhe uS (43.4), lndla
confldenceln LhegovernmenL.
(24.3) and lsrael (13.9) were largely
responslble for moLlvaLlng sulclde bomblngs.
- ak|stan's b|ggest prob|em: Concern abouL
WlLh, Lhe lnLernal 1ehrek-e-1allban only
deLerloraLlng 'law and order' ln aklsLan
comlng fourLh wlLh 13.8. uesplLe Lhe
conLlnues: Lhls year noLed by Lwo-Lhlrds of lA1A
lnLernaLlonal focus of percepLlons regardlng
resldenLs. 1hls ls followed by 'lnflaLlon' (14.4)
moLlves - Lhe local lssues of 'unemploymenL'
and 'bad governance' (14.3). 8elaLed Lo law
(22.1), 'poverLy' (17.4) and 'lnLelllgence
and order concerns: 'bomb blasLs' conLlnue Lo
fallures' (16.7) were consldered Lhe maln
be a source of anxleLy as ldenLlfled by 8.4 of
moLlvaLor for sulcldebombers ln aklsLan.
people.
- Interna| d|sp|acement and governmenta|
- IA1A's b|ggest prob|em: WlLhln lA1A leadlng
ass|stance: uue Lo ongolng mlllLancy and
worrles conLlnue Lo lnclude 'educaLlon and
mlllLary operaLlons, lnLernal dlsplacemenL ls a
healLh servlces' plus 'employmenL'. ln 2011
conslderable area of concern. 1he survey
Lhese concerns were [olned by 'law and order'
measured Lhe percenLage of populaLlon LhaL
followlng a radlcal growLh ln lnsecurlLy
had been vlcLlms of dlsplacemenL, flndlng LhaL
ldenLlfled by 43.1 of people. uramaLlcally,
some 18 of people had had Lo leave Lhelr
fears concernlng ' 1allbanalsaLlon' have
homes. Cf Lhls percenLage, almosL half of Lhese
reduced Lo zero from 13 ln 2010. 1allban
respondenLs showed greaL dlssaLlsfacLlon ln
groups, or oLher mlllLanL groups, remaln acLlve
Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan's levels of
however mlllLary successes or lncreased
asslsLanceaL LheLlme.
accepLancehavemadeconcern negllglble.
- Is|am|c extrem|sm: Less Lhan half of lA1A
- Lssent|a| serv|ces needed |n IA1A: 'LlecLrlclLy
resldenLs (46.2) felL LhaL lslamlc exLremlsm
supply' (43) Lops Lhe llsL of Lhe mosL deslred
was a 'LhreaL' Lo aklsLan, a dramaLlc decrease
servlce requlred by lA1A resldenLs. 1hls was
from Lhe Lwo-Lhlrds recorded ln 2010. ln splLe
f o l l o we d b y ' s e c u r l L y ' ( 4 4 . 6 ) ,
of Lhls, exLremlsm remalns an area of
'educaLlon/schools' (44.2) and 'healLh
subsLanLlal concern LhaL requlres conLlnued
servlces/hosplLals' (39.9). uesplLe bad
aLLenLlon. 1he dramaLlc shlfL may be Lhe resulL
governance belng a recognlsed problem for
of lncreased accepLance of 1allban ldeology or
aklsLan, lmproved 'governance' was a low
LheresulL of 'war faLlgue'.
LxecuLlve Summary
kV
represenLaLlve sample of adulL males and females rural areas. 1hese flndlngs may also blas cerLaln
from each vlllage, as was necessary Lo creaLe a soclal and developmenLal prlorlLles, such as
robusL sample wlLh only a small margln of error (as educaLlon and empowermenL. Powever, Lhey
descrlbed ln LheAppendlx). should sLlll be consldered approprlaLe of long-Lerm
asplraLlons.
Slnce Lhe laLesL census (1998) ls ouL of daLe, a
presumpLlon had Lo be made on Lhe currenL lf a larger survey were Lo be conducLed, samples
populaLlon slze ln lA1A. lL was calculaLed LhaL Lhe would be obLalned from across a vlllage, Laklng ln
LoLal populaLlon would be clrca 4 mllllon people. people of all ranks and sLaLlons. ln Lhls survey,
1herefore, ln order Lo achleve Lhe deslred margln of however, Lhe lnLervlewers counLed off ln four
error of less Lhan 2 wlLhln a 93 confldence dlrecLlons (Lwo for males and Lwo for females) Lo
lnLerval for yes/no" Lype quesLlons, 4,000 adulLs sample a LoLal of flve males and flve females ln each
were lnLervlewed. 1hls ls llkely Lo provlde an vlllage. 1hls was achleved by lnLervlewers
exLremely robusL sample because Lhe LoLal conducLlng Lwo lnLervlews ln one dlrecLlon and
populaLlon wlll also lncludechlldren, ergo Lhe4,000 Lhen Lhreeln anoLher.
people lnLervlewed are more represenLaLlve of
lA1A has been descrlbed as a mysLerlous border-
adulL perspecLlves Lhan mlghL oLherwlse have been
land by hlsLorlans, wrlLers, Lravellers and
suggesLed.
[ournallsLs. Much of whaL has been wrlLLen was
1here are Lwo areas of sampllng blas however LhaL based on mlsconcepLlons, creaLlng furLher
musL be noLed. 1he flrsL has Lo do wlLh Lhe mlsconcepLlons from Lhe sLudenLs of Lhe analyLlcal
lnaccesslblllLy Lo cerLaln vlllages. 1hls year agaln, and descrlpLlve documenLaLlon produced. arL of
42 of Lhe 960 vlllages were noL secure enough for Lhe ob[ecLlve of Lhls long-Lerm sLudy ls Lo dlspel Lhe
enumeraLors. 1he sample of 400 vlllages was drawn noLlon LhaL Lhe lokbtoo are a qualnL and lsolaLed
from Lhe remalnlng 337 vlllages LhaL were people. And lnsLead lllusLraLe how Lhe reglon ls a
accesslble. 1hls lnLroduces a blas of undeLermlned valuable focal-polnL ln hlsLorlcal and conLemporary
lmpllcaLlons because Lhere ls no way Lo accuraLely lnLernaLlonal and domesLlc developmenLs.
represenL Lhe oplnlons of Lhe people lnhablLlng
Slnce Lhe only vlable means of senslLlslng
Lheselnsecureareas. lf onewlshed Lo becauLlous ln
governance and developmenL ls Lhrough Lhe
concluslons, one would have Lo add, ln secure
lncorporaLlon of local concerns lnLo plannlng and
areas aL Lhls Llme, Lhepeopleof lA1A belleve."
lmplemenLaLlon processes, Lhe 'undersLandlng
1he second area of blas has Lo do wlLh Lhe sLarLlng lA1A' serles ls a slncere aLLempL Lo lnform Lhose
polnL meLhod used Lo generaLe quanLlLaLlve debaLes LhaL deslre a greaLer undersLandlng of Lhe
samples ln each vlllage. 1he Lechnlque lnvolves Lhe asplraLlons of lA1A people, and posslble
selecLlon of a sLarLlng polnL followed by a opporLunlLles for local ownershlp of programmes.
subsequenL counLlng off of houses. 1he sLarLlng
1hls survey ls unllkely Lo provlde all Lhe answers Lo
polnL blas comes from an lmporLanL culLural facL,
key lssues, buL lL does underllne an lmporLanL
LhaL Lhe more lnfluenLlal famllles are closer Lo Lhe
prlnclple: LhaL Lhe people of lA1A lf encouraged Lo
bojto or mosque (or ln Lhe case of Lhe Shla areas,
speak for Lhemselves, haveavolceLhaL wlshes Lo be
Lhe lmam 8argah) LhaL were pracLlcal sLarLlng
heard.
polnLs for enumeraLors. Pence Lhere ls llkely Lo be a
blas Lowards more urban and affluenL areas ln each
vlllage. 1hls blas also leads Lo Lhe posslble
hypoLheses LhaL rural populaLlons wlll be under-
represenLed ln Lhe sample. ln Lhe analysls of
occupaLlons of Lhe respondenLs, lL can be noLed
LhaL Lhere ls a greaLer proporLlon of professlonals
and merchanLs Lhan would be expecLed for Lhe
undersLandlng lA1A
kIV
kLIINDINGS
prlorlLy (13.4). 1hls could mean LhaL efforLs Lo
reform local admlnlsLraLlon ls belng mls-
- D|rect|on of the country: Compared Lo lasL dlrecLed ln Lhe shorL-Lerm, and LhaL resources
year, sLaLlsLlcs for Lhe 2011 survey show a woul d be beLLer spenL empowerl ng
decllne ln opLlmlsm, wlLh more Lhan Lwo-Lhlrds developmenL and sLrengLhenlng confllcL-
of people ln lA1A feellng LhaL aklsLan ls golng resoluLlon, enabllng reform of governance
ln Lhe wrong dlrecLlon. Moreover, levels of Lhrough lnLegraLlon of lA1A lnLo malnsLream
opLlmlsm have reduced from 38.4 ln 2010 Lo pollLlcal sLrucLures. '1ackllng Lerrorlsm' aL 28
[usL 12.93 ln 2011. SupporLed by oLher daLa ls unexpecLedlylow.
seLs, Lhe wldespread pesslmlsm seems Lo be
- Iee||ng of secur|ty: 1he 2011 survey shows a
Lhe resulL of Lhe poor governance exhlblLed by
dramaLlc change ln oplnlon - wlLh [usL 43 of
Lhe rullng governmenL. Also: frusLraLlons
respondenLs declarlng LhaL Lhey felL safe, an
over Lhe lengLh of Llme belng requlred by
alarmlng decrease from 2010 levels. A change
mlllLary counLer-operaLlons Lo oppose
compounded by an accompanylng lncrease ln
lncessanL 1allban reslsLance, prlce hlkes, years
feellngs of 'lnsecurlLy'.
of reglonal lnsLablllLy ln AfghanlsLan,
humanlLarlan crlses, lneffecLual response Lo
- Su|c|de bomb|ng: 1he percepLlon ls LhaL Lhe
lu vulnerablllLy have furLher reduced
mlsLrusLed SLaLes of Lhe uS (43.4), lndla
confldenceln LhegovernmenL.
(24.3) and lsrael (13.9) were largely
responslble for moLlvaLlng sulclde bomblngs.
- ak|stan's b|ggest prob|em: Concern abouL
WlLh, Lhe lnLernal 1ehrek-e-1allban only
deLerloraLlng 'law and order' ln aklsLan
comlng fourLh wlLh 13.8. uesplLe Lhe
conLlnues: Lhls year noLed by Lwo-Lhlrds of lA1A
lnLernaLlonal focus of percepLlons regardlng
resldenLs. 1hls ls followed by 'lnflaLlon' (14.4)
moLlves - Lhe local lssues of 'unemploymenL'
and 'bad governance' (14.3). 8elaLed Lo law
(22.1), 'poverLy' (17.4) and 'lnLelllgence
and order concerns: 'bomb blasLs' conLlnue Lo
fallures' (16.7) were consldered Lhe maln
be a source of anxleLy as ldenLlfled by 8.4 of
moLlvaLor for sulcldebombers ln aklsLan.
people.
- Interna| d|sp|acement and governmenta|
- IA1A's b|ggest prob|em: WlLhln lA1A leadlng
ass|stance: uue Lo ongolng mlllLancy and
worrles conLlnue Lo lnclude 'educaLlon and
mlllLary operaLlons, lnLernal dlsplacemenL ls a
healLh servlces' plus 'employmenL'. ln 2011
conslderable area of concern. 1he survey
Lhese concerns were [olned by 'law and order'
measured Lhe percenLage of populaLlon LhaL
followlng a radlcal growLh ln lnsecurlLy
had been vlcLlms of dlsplacemenL, flndlng LhaL
ldenLlfled by 43.1 of people. uramaLlcally,
some 18 of people had had Lo leave Lhelr
fears concernlng ' 1allbanalsaLlon' have
homes. Cf Lhls percenLage, almosL half of Lhese
reduced Lo zero from 13 ln 2010. 1allban
respondenLs showed greaL dlssaLlsfacLlon ln
groups, or oLher mlllLanL groups, remaln acLlve
Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan's levels of
however mlllLary successes or lncreased
asslsLanceaL LheLlme.
accepLancehavemadeconcern negllglble.
- Is|am|c extrem|sm: Less Lhan half of lA1A
- Lssent|a| serv|ces needed |n IA1A: 'LlecLrlclLy
resldenLs (46.2) felL LhaL lslamlc exLremlsm
supply' (43) Lops Lhe llsL of Lhe mosL deslred
was a 'LhreaL' Lo aklsLan, a dramaLlc decrease
servlce requlred by lA1A resldenLs. 1hls was
from Lhe Lwo-Lhlrds recorded ln 2010. ln splLe
f o l l o we d b y ' s e c u r l L y ' ( 4 4 . 6 ) ,
of Lhls, exLremlsm remalns an area of
'educaLlon/schools' (44.2) and 'healLh
subsLanLlal concern LhaL requlres conLlnued
servlces/hosplLals' (39.9). uesplLe bad
aLLenLlon. 1he dramaLlc shlfL may be Lhe resulL
governance belng a recognlsed problem for
of lncreased accepLance of 1allban ldeology or
aklsLan, lmproved 'governance' was a low
LheresulL of 'war faLlgue'.
LxecuLlve Summary
kV
represenLaLlve sample of adulL males and females rural areas. 1hese flndlngs may also blas cerLaln
from each vlllage, as was necessary Lo creaLe a soclal and developmenLal prlorlLles, such as
robusL sample wlLh only a small margln of error (as educaLlon and empowermenL. Powever, Lhey
descrlbed ln LheAppendlx). should sLlll be consldered approprlaLe of long-Lerm
asplraLlons.
Slnce Lhe laLesL census (1998) ls ouL of daLe, a
presumpLlon had Lo be made on Lhe currenL lf a larger survey were Lo be conducLed, samples
populaLlon slze ln lA1A. lL was calculaLed LhaL Lhe would be obLalned from across a vlllage, Laklng ln
LoLal populaLlon would be clrca 4 mllllon people. people of all ranks and sLaLlons. ln Lhls survey,
1herefore, ln order Lo achleve Lhe deslred margln of however, Lhe lnLervlewers counLed off ln four
error of less Lhan 2 wlLhln a 93 confldence dlrecLlons (Lwo for males and Lwo for females) Lo
lnLerval for yes/no" Lype quesLlons, 4,000 adulLs sample a LoLal of flve males and flve females ln each
were lnLervlewed. 1hls ls llkely Lo provlde an vlllage. 1hls was achleved by lnLervlewers
exLremely robusL sample because Lhe LoLal conducLlng Lwo lnLervlews ln one dlrecLlon and
populaLlon wlll also lncludechlldren, ergo Lhe4,000 Lhen Lhreeln anoLher.
people lnLervlewed are more represenLaLlve of
lA1A has been descrlbed as a mysLerlous border-
adulL perspecLlves Lhan mlghL oLherwlse have been
land by hlsLorlans, wrlLers, Lravellers and
suggesLed.
[ournallsLs. Much of whaL has been wrlLLen was
1here are Lwo areas of sampllng blas however LhaL based on mlsconcepLlons, creaLlng furLher
musL be noLed. 1he flrsL has Lo do wlLh Lhe mlsconcepLlons from Lhe sLudenLs of Lhe analyLlcal
lnaccesslblllLy Lo cerLaln vlllages. 1hls year agaln, and descrlpLlve documenLaLlon produced. arL of
42 of Lhe 960 vlllages were noL secure enough for Lhe ob[ecLlve of Lhls long-Lerm sLudy ls Lo dlspel Lhe
enumeraLors. 1he sample of 400 vlllages was drawn noLlon LhaL Lhe lokbtoo are a qualnL and lsolaLed
from Lhe remalnlng 337 vlllages LhaL were people. And lnsLead lllusLraLe how Lhe reglon ls a
accesslble. 1hls lnLroduces a blas of undeLermlned valuable focal-polnL ln hlsLorlcal and conLemporary
lmpllcaLlons because Lhere ls no way Lo accuraLely lnLernaLlonal and domesLlc developmenLs.
represenL Lhe oplnlons of Lhe people lnhablLlng
Slnce Lhe only vlable means of senslLlslng
Lheselnsecureareas. lf onewlshed Lo becauLlous ln
governance and developmenL ls Lhrough Lhe
concluslons, one would have Lo add, ln secure
lncorporaLlon of local concerns lnLo plannlng and
areas aL Lhls Llme, Lhepeopleof lA1A belleve."
lmplemenLaLlon processes, Lhe 'undersLandlng
1he second area of blas has Lo do wlLh Lhe sLarLlng lA1A' serles ls a slncere aLLempL Lo lnform Lhose
polnL meLhod used Lo generaLe quanLlLaLlve debaLes LhaL deslre a greaLer undersLandlng of Lhe
samples ln each vlllage. 1he Lechnlque lnvolves Lhe asplraLlons of lA1A people, and posslble
selecLlon of a sLarLlng polnL followed by a opporLunlLles for local ownershlp of programmes.
subsequenL counLlng off of houses. 1he sLarLlng
1hls survey ls unllkely Lo provlde all Lhe answers Lo
polnL blas comes from an lmporLanL culLural facL,
key lssues, buL lL does underllne an lmporLanL
LhaL Lhe more lnfluenLlal famllles are closer Lo Lhe
prlnclple: LhaL Lhe people of lA1A lf encouraged Lo
bojto or mosque (or ln Lhe case of Lhe Shla areas,
speak for Lhemselves, haveavolceLhaL wlshes Lo be
Lhe lmam 8argah) LhaL were pracLlcal sLarLlng
heard.
polnLs for enumeraLors. Pence Lhere ls llkely Lo be a
blas Lowards more urban and affluenL areas ln each
vlllage. 1hls blas also leads Lo Lhe posslble
hypoLheses LhaL rural populaLlons wlll be under-
represenLed ln Lhe sample. ln Lhe analysls of
occupaLlons of Lhe respondenLs, lL can be noLed
LhaL Lhere ls a greaLer proporLlon of professlonals
and merchanLs Lhan would be expecLed for Lhe
undersLandlng lA1A
kIV
- Iore|gn f|ghters: 1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of can be accessed ln lsolaLlon buL lnLerweave wlLh
people ln lA1A deslre Lhe removal of each oLher ln many ways, Lherefore a compleLe
lnLernaLlonal flghLers, by forcelf necessary. 1hls sLudy wlll provlde a more comprehenslve
oplnlon ls a conLlnuaLlon of aLLlLudes expressed undersLandlng of Lhe percepLlons and asplraLlons
ln 2010. of peopleln lA1A.
- Afghan refugees: ln response Lo a quesLlon
asklng wheLher Afghan refugees should reLurn
Lo AfghanlsLan: an overwhelmlng 81.4 were
of Lheoplnlon LhaL Lheyshould.
- Sources of |nformat|on: Access Lo lnformaLlon
appears Lo be domlnaLed by men, wlLh women
Lo a large exLenL relylng on lnformal
mechanlsms. 8adlo appears Lo be Lhe mosL
valued form of accesslng news, followed by
Lelevlslon and newspapers. 1he radlo sLaLlons:
ueewo (volce of Amerlca), 88C ashLu and 88C
urdu remaln popular radlo sLaLlons. lL ls
dlfflculL Lo reconclle Lhls aLLachmenL Lo Lhese
sLaLlons wlLh Lhe apparenL negaLlve aLLlLudes
aLLached Lo Lhe counLrles LhaL fund Lhem (Lhe
uS and Lhe uk respecLlvely), however, Lhe
culLural senslLlvlLy of programmes broadcasL
mayexplaln Lhls.
- Iore|gn affa|rs: 1he flndlngs are dlverse buL lL ls
generally seen LhaL Lhe uS and lndla produce
conslderable mlsLrusL buL Lhere appears Lo be
some sofLenlng of oplnlon Lo Lhe 'WesL'. lL also
seems LhaL general percepLlons of Lhe uk
lnfluence percepLlons across all aspecLs of
dl pl omacy LhaL may affecL akl sLan.
Conslderable supporL ls recorded for Chlna and
Saudl Arabla. 1here ls also supporL for Musllm
counLrles (as exempllfled by aLLlLudes Lowards
Malaysla) and a greaLer wllllngness Lo offer an
opl nl on. l ran al so appeared Lo have
consl derabl e supporL, buL on cl oser
examlnaLlon, flndlngs appeared Lo be dlsLorLed
by exLreme supporL ln cerLaln locaLlons - a
flndlng LhaL showed LhaL conslderable
opposlLlon ls belng marglnallsed.
1hese flndlngs provlde only a gllmpse of Lhe resulLs
documenLed ln Lhe 2011 survey. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL
Lhe daLa lnLroduced ln Lhls summary ls
conLexLuallsed by referrlng Lo Lhe relevanL secLlons
as lL ls essenLlal for a hollsLlc and senslLlve analysls.
1he chapLers are segregaLed by Lheme so LhaL Lhey
LxecuLlve Summary
kVII
- numan r|ghts |n IA1A: 1he largesL group of remaln as Lo Lhe value of Lhe changes
respondenLs ln 2011 ldenLlfled 'lnablllLy Lo formallsed ln AugusL 2011.
provlde baslc amenlLles' as Lhe greaLesL human
- Support for o||t|ca| art|es Crd|nance: 1he
rlghLs concern ln lA1A.
2010 survey mapped LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy (39.7)
- L|v|ng |n IA1A: AlLhough Lhere are dlfferences of respondenLs supporLed Lhe exLenslon of Lhe
accordlng Lo Agency, ln mosL parLs of lA1A, Crdlnance ln Lo lA1A, ln comparlson Lo [usL
lndlvlduals preferred Lo remaln ln lA1A. 9.6 who opposed Lhls declslon. 1he survey of
neverLheless, one-Lhlrd (34.9) would raLher 2011, however, documenLs a surprlslng
leave lf glven Lhe chance. lnLeresLlngly, Lhe reducLlon ln supporL for Lhe ollLlcal arLles AcL
greaLesL lnLeresL ln (e)mlgraLlng came from Lo one-Lhlrd, wlLh opposlLlon Lo Lhe C rlslng
areas LhaL weremoresLable. Lo 16.
- Drone attacks: uS urone aLLacks were - Adm| r at | on f or a | | v | ng po| | t | c a |
consl dered by al mosL Lwo- Lhl rds of |eader]po||t|ca| party: lnLeresLlngly, Lhe
respondenLs Lo be 'never [usLlfled'. Cnly 4.3 popularlLy of lmran khan - founder of 1ehrek-e-
were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL 'someLlmes [usLlfled' lnsaf (1l) - has conslsLenLly rlsen from [usL
and 1.7 LhaL Lhey were 'always [usLlfled'. 4.1 ln 2008Lo ahlgh of 18.6 ln 2011. SupporL
8eLween !anuary 2008 and mld-november for lmran khan ls llkely Lo be due Lo hls
2011, 283 drone aLLacks have kllled 2,330 popularlLy wlLh lA1A youLh and hls effecLlveuse
peopleand lefL 207ln[ured. of medla.
- Support for m|||tary operat|ons |n IA1A: - IA1A Secretar|at (IS) and IA1A Deve|opment
CommunlLles appear Lo conLlnue supporLlng Author|ty (IDA): As ln prevlous surveys, 2011
mlllLary offenslves ln lA1A. ln 2011, Lwo-Lhlrds shows LhaL dlsconLenL conLlnues Lo devalue
of people ln lA1A (66.8) supporLed Lhese LrusL ln Lhe luA and lS. lL was oplned LhaL
operaLlons. CpposlLlon was expressed by only greaLer lnvolvemenL of local communlLles
18.3. would lmproveeffecLlveness.
- 1rust |n secur|ty prov|ders: 1he aklsLanl - 1a||ban: lL ls noLable LhaL some dlfferlng
mlllLary ls documenLed as havlng Lhe greaLesL aLLlLudes can be recorded beLween Lhe Afghan
supporL as acknowledged by 36.6 of Lhe lA1A and aklsLanl 1allban buL overall Lwo-Lhlrds of
populaLlon. 1hey were followed by LradlLlonal respondenLs were unfavourable Lowards Lhe
'Lrlbal communlLles/Lakhkar' wlLh 23.4. ln aklsLanl 1allban, compared Lo only one-
addlLlon, some 60 deslred Lhe aklsLanl quarLer for Lhe Afghan 1allban (Lhe resulL of a
mlllLary Lo pursue 1allban, Al Caeda and forelgn 12 polnL drop ln oplnlon). neverLheless,
flghLers wlLhouL Lhe asslsLance of lnLernaLlonal endorsemenL of Afghan 1allban as lslamlc
forces -l.e. LheuS. Powever, somesupporL was heroes flghLlng WesLern occupaLlon ln
evldenL for lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ln AfghanlsLan have slmllarly losL leglLlmacy
sLrengLhenlng LhelronLler Corps. (23.33) slnce2009(40.33).
- Iuture status of IA1A: varlaLlons of oplnlon - A| aeda: ApproxlmaLely only one-Lhlrd of
were prevalenL wlLh only 11 of respondenLs respondenLs were aware of Al Caeda. Al Caeda
deslrlng 'no reform'. Powever, more Lhan one- ls ofLen menLloned ln Lhe medla and dlscussed
Lhlrd of Lhe lA1A populaLlon were noL able Lo aL bojto gaLherlngs, Lherefore, Lhe dlscrepancy
offer an oplnlon. Cverall, only 3.4 of people ln knowledgemay noL beas sLarkas ls recorded:
supporLed LheesLabllshmenL of alA1A Councll. lnsLead fear of lnLelllgence agencles, 1allban
and Al Caeda lnformers could have lnfluenced
- Support for IA1A keform: Whlle reforms
respondenLs.
appear Lo be generally supporLed concerns
undersLandlng lA1A
kVI
- Iore|gn f|ghters: 1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of can be accessed ln lsolaLlon buL lnLerweave wlLh
people ln lA1A deslre Lhe removal of each oLher ln many ways, Lherefore a compleLe
lnLernaLlonal flghLers, by forcelf necessary. 1hls sLudy wlll provlde a more comprehenslve
oplnlon ls a conLlnuaLlon of aLLlLudes expressed undersLandlng of Lhe percepLlons and asplraLlons
ln 2010. of peopleln lA1A.
- Afghan refugees: ln response Lo a quesLlon
asklng wheLher Afghan refugees should reLurn
Lo AfghanlsLan: an overwhelmlng 81.4 were
of Lheoplnlon LhaL Lheyshould.
- Sources of |nformat|on: Access Lo lnformaLlon
appears Lo be domlnaLed by men, wlLh women
Lo a large exLenL relylng on lnformal
mechanlsms. 8adlo appears Lo be Lhe mosL
valued form of accesslng news, followed by
Lelevlslon and newspapers. 1he radlo sLaLlons:
ueewo (volce of Amerlca), 88C ashLu and 88C
urdu remaln popular radlo sLaLlons. lL ls
dlfflculL Lo reconclle Lhls aLLachmenL Lo Lhese
sLaLlons wlLh Lhe apparenL negaLlve aLLlLudes
aLLached Lo Lhe counLrles LhaL fund Lhem (Lhe
uS and Lhe uk respecLlvely), however, Lhe
culLural senslLlvlLy of programmes broadcasL
mayexplaln Lhls.
- Iore|gn affa|rs: 1he flndlngs are dlverse buL lL ls
generally seen LhaL Lhe uS and lndla produce
conslderable mlsLrusL buL Lhere appears Lo be
some sofLenlng of oplnlon Lo Lhe 'WesL'. lL also
seems LhaL general percepLlons of Lhe uk
lnfluence percepLlons across all aspecLs of
dl pl omacy LhaL may affecL akl sLan.
Conslderable supporL ls recorded for Chlna and
Saudl Arabla. 1here ls also supporL for Musllm
counLrles (as exempllfled by aLLlLudes Lowards
Malaysla) and a greaLer wllllngness Lo offer an
opl nl on. l ran al so appeared Lo have
consl derabl e supporL, buL on cl oser
examlnaLlon, flndlngs appeared Lo be dlsLorLed
by exLreme supporL ln cerLaln locaLlons - a
flndlng LhaL showed LhaL conslderable
opposlLlon ls belng marglnallsed.
1hese flndlngs provlde only a gllmpse of Lhe resulLs
documenLed ln Lhe 2011 survey. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL
Lhe daLa lnLroduced ln Lhls summary ls
conLexLuallsed by referrlng Lo Lhe relevanL secLlons
as lL ls essenLlal for a hollsLlc and senslLlve analysls.
1he chapLers are segregaLed by Lheme so LhaL Lhey
LxecuLlve Summary
kVII
- numan r|ghts |n IA1A: 1he largesL group of remaln as Lo Lhe value of Lhe changes
respondenLs ln 2011 ldenLlfled 'lnablllLy Lo formallsed ln AugusL 2011.
provlde baslc amenlLles' as Lhe greaLesL human
- Support for o||t|ca| art|es Crd|nance: 1he
rlghLs concern ln lA1A.
2010 survey mapped LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy (39.7)
- L|v|ng |n IA1A: AlLhough Lhere are dlfferences of respondenLs supporLed Lhe exLenslon of Lhe
accordlng Lo Agency, ln mosL parLs of lA1A, Crdlnance ln Lo lA1A, ln comparlson Lo [usL
lndlvlduals preferred Lo remaln ln lA1A. 9.6 who opposed Lhls declslon. 1he survey of
neverLheless, one-Lhlrd (34.9) would raLher 2011, however, documenLs a surprlslng
leave lf glven Lhe chance. lnLeresLlngly, Lhe reducLlon ln supporL for Lhe ollLlcal arLles AcL
greaLesL lnLeresL ln (e)mlgraLlng came from Lo one-Lhlrd, wlLh opposlLlon Lo Lhe C rlslng
areas LhaL weremoresLable. Lo 16.
- Drone attacks: uS urone aLLacks were - Adm| r at | on f or a | | v | ng po| | t | c a |
consl dered by al mosL Lwo- Lhl rds of |eader]po||t|ca| party: lnLeresLlngly, Lhe
respondenLs Lo be 'never [usLlfled'. Cnly 4.3 popularlLy of lmran khan - founder of 1ehrek-e-
were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL 'someLlmes [usLlfled' lnsaf (1l) - has conslsLenLly rlsen from [usL
and 1.7 LhaL Lhey were 'always [usLlfled'. 4.1 ln 2008Lo ahlgh of 18.6 ln 2011. SupporL
8eLween !anuary 2008 and mld-november for lmran khan ls llkely Lo be due Lo hls
2011, 283 drone aLLacks have kllled 2,330 popularlLy wlLh lA1A youLh and hls effecLlveuse
peopleand lefL 207ln[ured. of medla.
- Support for m|||tary operat|ons |n IA1A: - IA1A Secretar|at (IS) and IA1A Deve|opment
CommunlLles appear Lo conLlnue supporLlng Author|ty (IDA): As ln prevlous surveys, 2011
mlllLary offenslves ln lA1A. ln 2011, Lwo-Lhlrds shows LhaL dlsconLenL conLlnues Lo devalue
of people ln lA1A (66.8) supporLed Lhese LrusL ln Lhe luA and lS. lL was oplned LhaL
operaLlons. CpposlLlon was expressed by only greaLer lnvolvemenL of local communlLles
18.3. would lmproveeffecLlveness.
- 1rust |n secur|ty prov|ders: 1he aklsLanl - 1a||ban: lL ls noLable LhaL some dlfferlng
mlllLary ls documenLed as havlng Lhe greaLesL aLLlLudes can be recorded beLween Lhe Afghan
supporL as acknowledged by 36.6 of Lhe lA1A and aklsLanl 1allban buL overall Lwo-Lhlrds of
populaLlon. 1hey were followed by LradlLlonal respondenLs were unfavourable Lowards Lhe
'Lrlbal communlLles/Lakhkar' wlLh 23.4. ln aklsLanl 1allban, compared Lo only one-
addlLlon, some 60 deslred Lhe aklsLanl quarLer for Lhe Afghan 1allban (Lhe resulL of a
mlllLary Lo pursue 1allban, Al Caeda and forelgn 12 polnL drop ln oplnlon). neverLheless,
flghLers wlLhouL Lhe asslsLance of lnLernaLlonal endorsemenL of Afghan 1allban as lslamlc
forces -l.e. LheuS. Powever, somesupporL was heroes flghLlng WesLern occupaLlon ln
evldenL for lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ln AfghanlsLan have slmllarly losL leglLlmacy
sLrengLhenlng LhelronLler Corps. (23.33) slnce2009(40.33).
- Iuture status of IA1A: varlaLlons of oplnlon - A| aeda: ApproxlmaLely only one-Lhlrd of
were prevalenL wlLh only 11 of respondenLs respondenLs were aware of Al Caeda. Al Caeda
deslrlng 'no reform'. Powever, more Lhan one- ls ofLen menLloned ln Lhe medla and dlscussed
Lhlrd of Lhe lA1A populaLlon were noL able Lo aL bojto gaLherlngs, Lherefore, Lhe dlscrepancy
offer an oplnlon. Cverall, only 3.4 of people ln knowledgemay noL beas sLarkas ls recorded:
supporLed LheesLabllshmenL of alA1A Councll. lnsLead fear of lnLelllgence agencles, 1allban
and Al Caeda lnformers could have lnfluenced
- Support for IA1A keform: Whlle reforms
respondenLs.
appear Lo be generally supporLed concerns
undersLandlng lA1A
kVI
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
1
8oc|o-econom|c L|fe and
0eve|opment Needs |n FATA
6hAPTER 1
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
1
8oc|o-econom|c L|fe and
0eve|opment Needs |n FATA
6hAPTER 1
8ough Lopography - conslsLlng of llmlLed arable prlorlLy. lnsLead jostlce (73.3), eJocotloo/scbools
land and arld areas - comblned wlLh scanL publlc (64.6) ooJ beoltb/bospltols (32.1) were Lhe
lnfrasLrucLure - parLlcularly poor educaLlon and foremosL governmenLal servlces requlred ln lA1A
healLh faclllLles - help Lo explaln Lhe enormous gaps ldenLlfled by more Lhan half of Lhe respondenLs.
beLween Lhe condlLlons of Lhe people of Lhe 1he followlng year saw a change ln aLLlLudes, wlLh
lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas (lA1A) and Lhe 62.9 of respondenLs ldenLlfylng securlLy as a
resL of aklsLan. ln lA1A 60 per cenL of Lhe slgnlflcanL prlorlLy, a percepLlon LhaL perslsLed lnLo
3
populaLlon llve below Lhe naLlonal poverLy llne, a 2010. lL ls Lherefore clear, LhaL aLLlLudes have
consequence of Lhe per caplLa lncome for Lhe alLered over Lhe lasL four years, Lhe reason for
reglon belng half LhaL of Lhe naLlonal average. 1hls whlch ls Lhe fraglle and volaLlle securlLy
dlsparlLy ls lnLenslfled by per caplLa developmenL envlronmenL conLalned wlLhln lA1A.
expendlLure belng approxlmaLely one Lhlrd of LhaL
6 ln 2009 secotlty ooJ tocklloq tettotlsm peaked as
spenL ln oLher areas of aklsLan.
Lop prlorlLles, as slmulLaneous mlllLary operaLlons
were launched ln varlous parLs of lA1A and SwaL, 1hls chapLer dlscusses Lhe economlc, healLh,
and '1allbanlsaLlon' or mlllLancy began spllllng over educaLlon, and physlcal lnfrasLrucLureof lA1A. WlLh
from SouLh and norLh WazlrlsLan lnLo oLher Lrlbal survey daLa deflnlng: needs, wllllngness Lo remaln
agencles and fronLler reglons (l8s). Whlle, Lackllng ln lA1A and popular areas for mlgraLlon ln aklsLan.
Lerrorlsm ls relaLed Lo securlLy Lhe survey Leam
have dlfferenLlaLed Lhe Lwo, as securlLy (as llnked Lo
convenLlonal law and order) has long been an area
of concern ln lA1A whlle Lerrorlsm ls a posL 9/11
phenomenon. 8efore 2001 Lrlbes would defend
CuesLlons concernlng servlce provlslon and needs
Lhemselves or use kbosoJots (lrregular levles) Lo
ellclLed a mlxLure of responses, from securlLy and
Lackle low lnLenslLy crlmes. Powever, Lhe
[usLlce Lo healLh and educaLlonal servlces. ln
kbosoJots and well-armed local Lrlbes were unable
general, Lhe people of lA1A deslre a secure
Lo oppose rellglon-based mlllLancy ln lA1A.
envl ronmenL wl Lh access Lo el ecLrl cl Ly,
ConsequenLly, ln Lhe flrsL Lwo years of Lhe surveys
employmenL and local publlc healLh and
(l.e. 2008 and 2009), tocklloq tettotlsm was
educaLlonal servlces.
ldenLlfled as one of Lhe maln prlorlLles by nearly
1he survey resulLs vary conslderably over Lhe
half of LherespondenLs.
perlod 2008-2011, as shown ln flgure1.1.
Powever, for Lhe subsequenL surveys ln 2010 and
ln 2008, before Lhe launch of ma[or mlllLary
2011, Lhe lmporLance of tocklloq tettotlsm has
operaLlons ln lA1A, securlLy was noL Lhe maln
dropped Lo 26.9 and 28.0 respecLlvely. MlllLary
Most |mportant serv|ces requ|red |n
IA1A
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
3
Soc|o-econom|c L|fe and Deve|opment
Needs |n IA1A
ClAPTER 1
3
lCC Asla 8eporL no 123, enLlLled aklsLan's 1rlbal Areas: Appeaslng Lhe MlllLanLs - 11 uecember 2006 - page 9
6
lCC Asla 8eporL no 123, enLlLled aklsLan's 1rlbal Areas: Appeaslng Lhe MlllLanLs - 11 uecember 2006 - page 9
8ough Lopography - conslsLlng of llmlLed arable prlorlLy. lnsLead jostlce (73.3), eJocotloo/scbools
land and arld areas - comblned wlLh scanL publlc (64.6) ooJ beoltb/bospltols (32.1) were Lhe
lnfrasLrucLure - parLlcularly poor educaLlon and foremosL governmenLal servlces requlred ln lA1A
healLh faclllLles - help Lo explaln Lhe enormous gaps ldenLlfled by more Lhan half of Lhe respondenLs.
beLween Lhe condlLlons of Lhe people of Lhe 1he followlng year saw a change ln aLLlLudes, wlLh
lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas (lA1A) and Lhe 62.9 of respondenLs ldenLlfylng securlLy as a
resL of aklsLan. ln lA1A 60 per cenL of Lhe slgnlflcanL prlorlLy, a percepLlon LhaL perslsLed lnLo
3
populaLlon llve below Lhe naLlonal poverLy llne, a 2010. lL ls Lherefore clear, LhaL aLLlLudes have
consequence of Lhe per caplLa lncome for Lhe alLered over Lhe lasL four years, Lhe reason for
reglon belng half LhaL of Lhe naLlonal average. 1hls whlch ls Lhe fraglle and volaLlle securlLy
dlsparlLy ls lnLenslfled by per caplLa developmenL envlronmenL conLalned wlLhln lA1A.
expendlLure belng approxlmaLely one Lhlrd of LhaL
6 ln 2009 secotlty ooJ tocklloq tettotlsm peaked as
spenL ln oLher areas of aklsLan.
Lop prlorlLles, as slmulLaneous mlllLary operaLlons
were launched ln varlous parLs of lA1A and SwaL, 1hls chapLer dlscusses Lhe economlc, healLh,
and '1allbanlsaLlon' or mlllLancy began spllllng over educaLlon, and physlcal lnfrasLrucLureof lA1A. WlLh
from SouLh and norLh WazlrlsLan lnLo oLher Lrlbal survey daLa deflnlng: needs, wllllngness Lo remaln
agencles and fronLler reglons (l8s). Whlle, Lackllng ln lA1A and popular areas for mlgraLlon ln aklsLan.
Lerrorlsm ls relaLed Lo securlLy Lhe survey Leam
have dlfferenLlaLed Lhe Lwo, as securlLy (as llnked Lo
convenLlonal law and order) has long been an area
of concern ln lA1A whlle Lerrorlsm ls a posL 9/11
phenomenon. 8efore 2001 Lrlbes would defend
CuesLlons concernlng servlce provlslon and needs
Lhemselves or use kbosoJots (lrregular levles) Lo
ellclLed a mlxLure of responses, from securlLy and
Lackle low lnLenslLy crlmes. Powever, Lhe
[usLlce Lo healLh and educaLlonal servlces. ln
kbosoJots and well-armed local Lrlbes were unable
general, Lhe people of lA1A deslre a secure
Lo oppose rellglon-based mlllLancy ln lA1A.
envl ronmenL wl Lh access Lo el ecLrl cl Ly,
ConsequenLly, ln Lhe flrsL Lwo years of Lhe surveys
employmenL and local publlc healLh and
(l.e. 2008 and 2009), tocklloq tettotlsm was
educaLlonal servlces.
ldenLlfled as one of Lhe maln prlorlLles by nearly
1he survey resulLs vary conslderably over Lhe
half of LherespondenLs.
perlod 2008-2011, as shown ln flgure1.1.
Powever, for Lhe subsequenL surveys ln 2010 and
ln 2008, before Lhe launch of ma[or mlllLary
2011, Lhe lmporLance of tocklloq tettotlsm has
operaLlons ln lA1A, securlLy was noL Lhe maln
dropped Lo 26.9 and 28.0 respecLlvely. MlllLary
Most |mportant serv|ces requ|red |n
IA1A
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
3
Soc|o-econom|c L|fe and Deve|opment
Needs |n IA1A
ClAPTER 1
3
lCC Asla 8eporL no 123, enLlLled aklsLan's 1rlbal Areas: Appeaslng Lhe MlllLanLs - 11 uecember 2006 - page 9
6
lCC Asla 8eporL no 123, enLlLled aklsLan's 1rlbal Areas: Appeaslng Lhe MlllLanLs - 11 uecember 2006 - page 9
operaLlons appear Lo have galned some LrusL respondenLs (40.6). LmploymenL, lL ls consldered,
among respondenLs, allowlng for aLLenLlon Lo shlfL may help dlverL Lhe aLLenLlon of youLhs from
Lo oLher servlces. Slmllarly, evenLs ln 2011 appear crlmlnal or oLher non-producLlve acLlvlLles, Lhus,
Lo have reduced concerns regardlng securlLy for reduclng LhepoLenLlal for mlllLanLs Lo flnd recrulLs.
some people ln lA1A, however lL remalns a
ower shorLages also rank hlghly as a ma[or cause
slgnlflcanL prlorlLy as lL conLlnues Lo be Lhe mosL
for concern, wlLh blackouLs lasLlng up Lo 20 hours a
lmporLanL lssue ldenLlfled by respondenLs (44.6).
day. 1hls ls parLly because of a lack of power
lor furLher lnformaLlon on securlLy percepLlons
generaLlng capablllLy. Powever, fallure or lnablllLy
refer Lo ChapLer 4.
Lo pay elecLrlclLy bllls ls a conLrlbuLlng facLor. lor
Jocotloo ooJ beoltb remaln maln concerns for many lnhablLanLs of lA1A, provlslon of elecLrlclLy ls
respondenLs, a resulL of Lhelr belng consldered consldered Lo be falr recompense for guardlng Lhe
essenLlal requlremenLs for Lhe resolvlng of many of fronLler. LlecLrlclLy remalned a hlgh prlorlLy ln Lhree
Lhe problems faced by Lhe people of lA1A. 1hese ouL of Lhe four years recorded. ln 2010 Lhe
servlces have conslsLenLly remalned Lop prlorlLles lmporLance of elecLrlclLy dropped Lo a low of 21.0
slnce Lhe flrsL survey ln 2008. ln conLrasL, demand buL has lncreased agaln Lo 43.0 for Lhe 2011
for [usLlce has seen a conslderable decllne ln lLs survey.
percelved lmporLance - falllng from lLs poslLlon as
Lhe overwhelmlng requlremenL of respondenLs
(73.3) ln 2008 (a concern LhaL was malnLalned
CuesLlons regardlng essenLlal servlces requlred by
albelL wlLh some decllne Lhrough 2009 [46.3] and
Lhepeopleof lA1A for Lhelr chlldren wereseparaLed
2010 [46.3]) Lo a low of 21.0 ln 2011. lL appears
for male and female chlldren ln order Lo dlscover
LhaL durlng perlods of helghLened lnsecurlLy, [usLlce
gender dlsparlLles. Cverall, Lhe responses reveal
drops as an lmmedlaLeneed.
greaL dlfferences ln Lhe servlces parenLs wlsh for
mploymeot was lncluded for Lhe flrsL Llme ln Lhe
Lhelr chlldren - wlLh demand for educaLlon and
2011survey. lLs lncluslon has proven valuableas lL ls
work opporLunlLles generally favourlng male
a Lop prlorlLy for a conslderable number of
chlldren.
Lssent|a| serv|ces for ch||dren
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
S
I|gure 1.2: What do you want for your ch||dren? {Mo/e chi/dren)
6
9
.
6
8
.
9
2
1
.
3
0
.
3
1
1
.
9
2
0
.
2
--
3
6
.
1
6
.
6
-
6
2
.
0
7
.
9
1
9
.
1
1
.
8
2
.
4
6
3
.
6
3
0
.
7
0
.
6
1
.
3
4
.
6
3
.
6
0
.
6
2
.
3
2
.
6
More
educaLlon
More securlLy LmploymenL
opporLunlLles
Marrlage 8ellglous
educaLlon
CLhers uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
n
A
n
A
n
A
0
.
0
n
A
n
A
undersLandlng lA1A
4
I|gure 1.1: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng are the most |mportant serv|ces that the Go shou|d prov|de to your d|str|ct?
37.0
73.3
NA
64.6
52.1
42.4
35.5
48.0
28.0
48.9
NA
0.0
46.3
11.0
52.1
42.5
33.2
32.2
53.6
32.8
56.2
-
-
51.7
46.5
56.0
50.7
19.4
26.9
8.7
21.0
9.4
-
44.6
21.0
6.9
44.2
39.9
25.8
23.3
28.0
45.0
13.4
40.6
3.0
0.3
62.9
0.4
4.0
1.0
3.8
4.4
0.3
4.4
0.5
4.1
2.6
SecurlLy
!usLlce
ollclng
LducaLlon/schools
PealLh servlces/
hosplLals
WaLer and sanlLaLlon
8oads
1ackllng Lerrorlsm
lood Supply
LlecLrlclLy Supply
ollLlcal educaLlon
of Lhe masses
Cood governance
LmploymenL
Land reform Lo allow
for local ownershlp
8eLLer agrlculLure
asslsLance
CLher
uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
12.4
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
operaLlons appear Lo have galned some LrusL respondenLs (40.6). LmploymenL, lL ls consldered,
among respondenLs, allowlng for aLLenLlon Lo shlfL may help dlverL Lhe aLLenLlon of youLhs from
Lo oLher servlces. Slmllarly, evenLs ln 2011 appear crlmlnal or oLher non-producLlve acLlvlLles, Lhus,
Lo have reduced concerns regardlng securlLy for reduclng LhepoLenLlal for mlllLanLs Lo flnd recrulLs.
some people ln lA1A, however lL remalns a
ower shorLages also rank hlghly as a ma[or cause
slgnlflcanL prlorlLy as lL conLlnues Lo be Lhe mosL
for concern, wlLh blackouLs lasLlng up Lo 20 hours a
lmporLanL lssue ldenLlfled by respondenLs (44.6).
day. 1hls ls parLly because of a lack of power
lor furLher lnformaLlon on securlLy percepLlons
generaLlng capablllLy. Powever, fallure or lnablllLy
refer Lo ChapLer 4.
Lo pay elecLrlclLy bllls ls a conLrlbuLlng facLor. lor
Jocotloo ooJ beoltb remaln maln concerns for many lnhablLanLs of lA1A, provlslon of elecLrlclLy ls
respondenLs, a resulL of Lhelr belng consldered consldered Lo be falr recompense for guardlng Lhe
essenLlal requlremenLs for Lhe resolvlng of many of fronLler. LlecLrlclLy remalned a hlgh prlorlLy ln Lhree
Lhe problems faced by Lhe people of lA1A. 1hese ouL of Lhe four years recorded. ln 2010 Lhe
servlces have conslsLenLly remalned Lop prlorlLles lmporLance of elecLrlclLy dropped Lo a low of 21.0
slnce Lhe flrsL survey ln 2008. ln conLrasL, demand buL has lncreased agaln Lo 43.0 for Lhe 2011
for [usLlce has seen a conslderable decllne ln lLs survey.
percelved lmporLance - falllng from lLs poslLlon as
Lhe overwhelmlng requlremenL of respondenLs
(73.3) ln 2008 (a concern LhaL was malnLalned
CuesLlons regardlng essenLlal servlces requlred by
albelL wlLh some decllne Lhrough 2009 [46.3] and
Lhepeopleof lA1A for Lhelr chlldren wereseparaLed
2010 [46.3]) Lo a low of 21.0 ln 2011. lL appears
for male and female chlldren ln order Lo dlscover
LhaL durlng perlods of helghLened lnsecurlLy, [usLlce
gender dlsparlLles. Cverall, Lhe responses reveal
drops as an lmmedlaLeneed.
greaL dlfferences ln Lhe servlces parenLs wlsh for
mploymeot was lncluded for Lhe flrsL Llme ln Lhe
Lhelr chlldren - wlLh demand for educaLlon and
2011survey. lLs lncluslon has proven valuableas lL ls
work opporLunlLles generally favourlng male
a Lop prlorlLy for a conslderable number of
chlldren.
Lssent|a| serv|ces for ch||dren
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
S
I|gure 1.2: What do you want for your ch||dren? {Mo/e chi/dren)
6
9
.
6
8
.
9
2
1
.
3
0
.
3
1
1
.
9
2
0
.
2
--
3
6
.
1
6
.
6
-
6
2
.
0
7
.
9
1
9
.
1
1
.
8
2
.
4
6
3
.
6
3
0
.
7
0
.
6
1
.
3
4
.
6
3
.
6
0
.
6
2
.
3
2
.
6
More
educaLlon
More securlLy LmploymenL
opporLunlLles
Marrlage 8ellglous
educaLlon
CLhers uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
n
A
n
A
n
A
0
.
0
n
A
n
A
undersLandlng lA1A
4
I|gure 1.1: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng are the most |mportant serv|ces that the Go shou|d prov|de to your d|str|ct?
37.0
73.3
NA
64.6
52.1
42.4
35.5
48.0
28.0
48.9
NA
0.0
46.3
11.0
52.1
42.5
33.2
32.2
53.6
32.8
56.2
-
-
51.7
46.5
56.0
50.7
19.4
26.9
8.7
21.0
9.4
-
44.6
21.0
6.9
44.2
39.9
25.8
23.3
28.0
45.0
13.4
40.6
3.0
0.3
62.9
0.4
4.0
1.0
3.8
4.4
0.3
4.4
0.5
4.1
2.6
SecurlLy
!usLlce
ollclng
LducaLlon/schools
PealLh servlces/
hosplLals
WaLer and sanlLaLlon
8oads
1ackllng Lerrorlsm
lood Supply
LlecLrlclLy Supply
ollLlcal educaLlon
of Lhe masses
Cood governance
LmploymenL
Land reform Lo allow
for local ownershlp
8eLLer agrlculLure
asslsLance
CLher
uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
12.4
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
7
aLLlLudes of moLhers Lowards Lhelr chlldren's
developmenL and LhaL of faLhers. ln summary,
moLhers wlsh for mote eJocotloo, employmeot
oppottooltles ooJ mottloqe. laLhers, ln conLrasL,
varlous forelgn counLrles, lncludlng Lhe uS and Lhe
appear Lo favour more conservaLlve rellglous and
uk, have expressed Lhelr lnLeresL ln provldlng
culLural LradlLlons for Lhelr daughLers. 1hese are
developmenL asslsLance Lo lA1A. A quesLlon abouL
slgnlflcanL dlfferences LhaL have lmpllcaLlons for
developmenL prlorlLles was asked flrsL ln 2010 and
educaLlon provlslon ln Lhe communlLy and for
was repeaLed ln Lhe 2011 survey. 8espondenLs
opporLunlLles offered, as well as predlcLlng Lhe
were asked Lo sLaLe wheLher or noL Lhey LhoughL
expecLaLlons of fuLuregeneraLlons.
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance was needed, and lf so, Lo
ldenLlfy areas requlrlng developmenL asslsLance
from lnLernaLlonal parLners.
1he survey aLLempLed Lo documenL Lhe quallLaLlve
percepLlons of dlfferenL male and female resldenLs
keeplng ln mlnd LhaL Lhe currenL humanlLarlan
of lA1A Lhrough Lhe focus group dlscusslons. ln
crlsls ln lA1A ls closely llnked Lo Lhe developmenL
LoLal, Lhe survey organlsed 10 male and 8 female
and legacy of mlllLary operaLlons, some lnLeresLlng
8
lCus. Among Lhe parLlclpanLs were male elders
Lrends can be noLed. lor lnsLance, educaLlon was
and male youLhs, as well as female elders and
ldenLlfled by only 12.1 of respondenLs ln Lhe 2010
female youLhs. 1he survey lnLended Lo explore and
survey as an area requlrlng lnLernaLlonal
documenL Lhevlews of each segmenL of LhesocleLy.
asslsLance, Lhls however [umped Lo 31.4 a year
laLer. Llkewlse, help ln lmprovlng access Lo
electtlclty has rlsen from 12.2 ln 2010 Lo more
ln all lCus, parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled: securlLy as Lhe
Lhan double LhaL flgure (28.8) ln 2011. 1he
maln servlce LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
greaLesL rlse ln percelved need for lnLernaLlonal
needed Lo provlde Lo Lhe people of lA1A, along wlLh
developmenL ald relaLes Lo healLh. ln 2010 only
employmeot, jostlce, eJocotlooooJbeoltb.
3.2 of respondenLs ldenLlfled healLh provlslon as a
maln concern, buL Lhls rose Lo 23.2 for Lhe 2011
?ouLhs from norLh WazlrlsLan hlghllghLed slmllar
survey.
concerns, wlLh Lhe need for beLLer securlLy belng of
prlmary concern, followed by jostlce, beoltb ooJ
Cne of Lhe mosL sLrlklng changes ln aLLlLude
eJocotloo.
Lowards percepLlons of Lhe value of lnLernaLlonal
asslsLance ls recorded ln Lhe deslre for help ln road
consLrucLlon. 1he people of lA1A have LradlLlonally
Llder women from lA1A, llke Lhelr male counLer-
remalned very possesslve of Lhelr culLure and way
parLs, ldenLlfled securlLy as Lhelr Lop prlorlLy
of llfe and have hlsLorlcally opposed lnlLlaLlves LhaL
followed by beoltb and eJocotloo, and Lo a lesser
would mean exposlng Lhemselves Lo ouLslde
exLenL Lhelssues of employmeot, jostlceand femole
lnfluence. As a consequence, acLlvlLles such as road
empowetmeot.
consLrucLlon have hlsLorlcally been acLlvely
opposed. Clven Lhls, lL was unsurprlslng LhaL only
lor young women, eJocotloo and beoltb were Lop
3.4 respondenLs ldenLlfled roads as a prlorlLy ln
prlorlLles. 1he lmporLance of educaLlon cannoL be
Lhe 2010 survey. ln 2011 however, Lhe daLa reveals
undersLaLed as female youLhs were of Lhe oplnlon
LhaL Lhls aLLlLude may have changed as almosL a
LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan needs Lo make
quarLer of respondenLs (24.3) deslred help ln
provlslons on an emergency basls. 1hrough
lmprovlng road access ln 2011. 1he reason behlnd
dlscusslon, lmproved secotlty and jostlce were also
Lhls could be an lmprovemenL ln people's LrusL
consldered prlorlLles ln lA1A.
I|nd|ngs of focus-group d|scuss|ons (IGDs)
Ma|e IGDs
Iema|e IGDs
Deve|opment pr|or|t|es |n IA1A w|th
|nternat|ona| ass|stance
8
lor furLher deLalls refer Lo MeLhodology secLlon.
Ma|e ch||dren: 1hroughouL Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe
assoclaLlon of women as keepers of vlrLueand falLh.
survey process, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs (an
1hls dlscrepancy ln Lhe asplraLlons of parenLs
average of 62.8) deslre mote eJocotloo for Lhelr
Lowards Lhelr male and female chlldren ls shared
male chlldren. WlLh Lhe second hlghesL concern
wlLh regard Lo employmenL opporLunlLles. 1he role
(wlLh an average of 22.8 for four years) belng
of glrls ln Lhe work place ls seen Lo be a very low
employmeot oppottooltles. ln conLrasL Lo Lhe
prlorlLyfor boLh faLhers (2.1) and moLhers (3.2).
securlLy concerns hlghllghLed by adulLs: mote
secotlty has conslsLenLly ranked as a low prlorlLy.
ulsLlncLlons beLween male and female chlldren
Mottloqe also appears Lo be a low prlorlLy for
conLlnue wlLh regard Lo percepLlons of Lhe need for
parenLs wlLh regard Lo Lhelr malechlldren.
mote secotlty. A greaLer number of respondenLs
deslred lmproved securlLy provlslon for Lhelr
Iema|e ch||dren: LducaLlon for female chlldren has
daughLers. ln Lhe honour-bound Lrlbal psyche
slmllarly been a conslsLenL prlorlLy for parenLs, wlLh
on average a quarLer of respondenLs (28.2), securlLy for males ls noL openly soughL as lL ls
however Lhls flgure ls conslderably lower (by consldered very un-lokbtoo Lo noL be able Lo rely
approxlmaLely half) Lhan Lhe demand for on Lhemselves. 1hls ls noL Lhe case for females,
7
where securlLy ls lnLerpreLed dlfferenLly, lnsLead opporLunlLles for male chlldren. Powever,
securlLy ls llnked Lo Lhe concepL of lotJob or vell. tellqloos eJocotloo appears Lo have become a
1herefore, lL ls unsurprlslng LhaL concern regardlng slgnlflcanL demand for female chlldren, wlLh 23.3
securlLy for female chlldren ls approxlmaLely Lwlce of parenLs deslrlng Lhls for Lhelr daughLers
LhaL for malechlldren. accordlng Lo Lhe flndlngs of Lhe 2011 survey. 1hls
flgure ls more Lhan four Llmes LhaL recorded for
arenta| d|fferences: As already lndlcaLed, Lhere
male chlldren. 1hls ls llkely Lo be because of Lhe
appears Lo be some dlscrepancy beLween Lhe
lokbtoo culLural (whlch ls shared by mosL Lrlbes)
undersLandlng lA1A
6
7
1hls dlfference can be aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe Lrlbal naLure of socleLy, wlLh a male becomlng a source of lncome for Lhelr famlly, whlle
females are expecLed Lo leave Lhe famlly once Lhey are marrled.
3
6
.
9
3
3
.
4
8
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
1
2
8
.
6
2
2
.
1
1
6
.
3
2
1
.
2
2
7
.
3
1
4
.
4
1
.
6
4
.
7
2
.
0
2
1
.
4
1
7
.
0
2
6
.
3
1
.
2
2
.
7
0
.
1
1
3
.
82
0
.
8
3
.
2
2
.
0
2
3
.
3
1
3
.
8
0
.
7
1
3
.
4
r Mo e
e uc lo d aL n
r Mo e
securlLy
ymenL Lmplo
ppo L l o r unlL es
Mar age rl e 8 llglous
a n Lduc Llo
r a dah
vell) (
her CL s u n'L no o k w
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.3: What do you want for your ch||dren? {lemo/e chi/dern)
n
A
n
A
n
A
n
A
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
7
aLLlLudes of moLhers Lowards Lhelr chlldren's
developmenL and LhaL of faLhers. ln summary,
moLhers wlsh for mote eJocotloo, employmeot
oppottooltles ooJ mottloqe. laLhers, ln conLrasL,
varlous forelgn counLrles, lncludlng Lhe uS and Lhe
appear Lo favour more conservaLlve rellglous and
uk, have expressed Lhelr lnLeresL ln provldlng
culLural LradlLlons for Lhelr daughLers. 1hese are
developmenL asslsLance Lo lA1A. A quesLlon abouL
slgnlflcanL dlfferences LhaL have lmpllcaLlons for
developmenL prlorlLles was asked flrsL ln 2010 and
educaLlon provlslon ln Lhe communlLy and for
was repeaLed ln Lhe 2011 survey. 8espondenLs
opporLunlLles offered, as well as predlcLlng Lhe
were asked Lo sLaLe wheLher or noL Lhey LhoughL
expecLaLlons of fuLuregeneraLlons.
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance was needed, and lf so, Lo
ldenLlfy areas requlrlng developmenL asslsLance
from lnLernaLlonal parLners.
1he survey aLLempLed Lo documenL Lhe quallLaLlve
percepLlons of dlfferenL male and female resldenLs
keeplng ln mlnd LhaL Lhe currenL humanlLarlan
of lA1A Lhrough Lhe focus group dlscusslons. ln
crlsls ln lA1A ls closely llnked Lo Lhe developmenL
LoLal, Lhe survey organlsed 10 male and 8 female
and legacy of mlllLary operaLlons, some lnLeresLlng
8
lCus. Among Lhe parLlclpanLs were male elders
Lrends can be noLed. lor lnsLance, educaLlon was
and male youLhs, as well as female elders and
ldenLlfled by only 12.1 of respondenLs ln Lhe 2010
female youLhs. 1he survey lnLended Lo explore and
survey as an area requlrlng lnLernaLlonal
documenL Lhevlews of each segmenL of LhesocleLy.
asslsLance, Lhls however [umped Lo 31.4 a year
laLer. Llkewlse, help ln lmprovlng access Lo
electtlclty has rlsen from 12.2 ln 2010 Lo more
ln all lCus, parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled: securlLy as Lhe
Lhan double LhaL flgure (28.8) ln 2011. 1he
maln servlce LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
greaLesL rlse ln percelved need for lnLernaLlonal
needed Lo provlde Lo Lhe people of lA1A, along wlLh
developmenL ald relaLes Lo healLh. ln 2010 only
employmeot, jostlce, eJocotlooooJbeoltb.
3.2 of respondenLs ldenLlfled healLh provlslon as a
maln concern, buL Lhls rose Lo 23.2 for Lhe 2011
?ouLhs from norLh WazlrlsLan hlghllghLed slmllar
survey.
concerns, wlLh Lhe need for beLLer securlLy belng of
prlmary concern, followed by jostlce, beoltb ooJ
Cne of Lhe mosL sLrlklng changes ln aLLlLude
eJocotloo.
Lowards percepLlons of Lhe value of lnLernaLlonal
asslsLance ls recorded ln Lhe deslre for help ln road
consLrucLlon. 1he people of lA1A have LradlLlonally
Llder women from lA1A, llke Lhelr male counLer-
remalned very possesslve of Lhelr culLure and way
parLs, ldenLlfled securlLy as Lhelr Lop prlorlLy
of llfe and have hlsLorlcally opposed lnlLlaLlves LhaL
followed by beoltb and eJocotloo, and Lo a lesser
would mean exposlng Lhemselves Lo ouLslde
exLenL Lhelssues of employmeot, jostlceand femole
lnfluence. As a consequence, acLlvlLles such as road
empowetmeot.
consLrucLlon have hlsLorlcally been acLlvely
opposed. Clven Lhls, lL was unsurprlslng LhaL only
lor young women, eJocotloo and beoltb were Lop
3.4 respondenLs ldenLlfled roads as a prlorlLy ln
prlorlLles. 1he lmporLance of educaLlon cannoL be
Lhe 2010 survey. ln 2011 however, Lhe daLa reveals
undersLaLed as female youLhs were of Lhe oplnlon
LhaL Lhls aLLlLude may have changed as almosL a
LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan needs Lo make
quarLer of respondenLs (24.3) deslred help ln
provlslons on an emergency basls. 1hrough
lmprovlng road access ln 2011. 1he reason behlnd
dlscusslon, lmproved secotlty and jostlce were also
Lhls could be an lmprovemenL ln people's LrusL
consldered prlorlLles ln lA1A.
I|nd|ngs of focus-group d|scuss|ons (IGDs)
Ma|e IGDs
Iema|e IGDs
Deve|opment pr|or|t|es |n IA1A w|th
|nternat|ona| ass|stance
8
lor furLher deLalls refer Lo MeLhodology secLlon.
Ma|e ch||dren: 1hroughouL Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe
assoclaLlon of women as keepers of vlrLueand falLh.
survey process, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs (an
1hls dlscrepancy ln Lhe asplraLlons of parenLs
average of 62.8) deslre mote eJocotloo for Lhelr
Lowards Lhelr male and female chlldren ls shared
male chlldren. WlLh Lhe second hlghesL concern
wlLh regard Lo employmenL opporLunlLles. 1he role
(wlLh an average of 22.8 for four years) belng
of glrls ln Lhe work place ls seen Lo be a very low
employmeot oppottooltles. ln conLrasL Lo Lhe
prlorlLyfor boLh faLhers (2.1) and moLhers (3.2).
securlLy concerns hlghllghLed by adulLs: mote
secotlty has conslsLenLly ranked as a low prlorlLy.
ulsLlncLlons beLween male and female chlldren
Mottloqe also appears Lo be a low prlorlLy for
conLlnue wlLh regard Lo percepLlons of Lhe need for
parenLs wlLh regard Lo Lhelr malechlldren.
mote secotlty. A greaLer number of respondenLs
deslred lmproved securlLy provlslon for Lhelr
Iema|e ch||dren: LducaLlon for female chlldren has
daughLers. ln Lhe honour-bound Lrlbal psyche
slmllarly been a conslsLenL prlorlLy for parenLs, wlLh
on average a quarLer of respondenLs (28.2), securlLy for males ls noL openly soughL as lL ls
however Lhls flgure ls conslderably lower (by consldered very un-lokbtoo Lo noL be able Lo rely
approxlmaLely half) Lhan Lhe demand for on Lhemselves. 1hls ls noL Lhe case for females,
7
where securlLy ls lnLerpreLed dlfferenLly, lnsLead opporLunlLles for male chlldren. Powever,
securlLy ls llnked Lo Lhe concepL of lotJob or vell. tellqloos eJocotloo appears Lo have become a
1herefore, lL ls unsurprlslng LhaL concern regardlng slgnlflcanL demand for female chlldren, wlLh 23.3
securlLy for female chlldren ls approxlmaLely Lwlce of parenLs deslrlng Lhls for Lhelr daughLers
LhaL for malechlldren. accordlng Lo Lhe flndlngs of Lhe 2011 survey. 1hls
flgure ls more Lhan four Llmes LhaL recorded for
arenta| d|fferences: As already lndlcaLed, Lhere
male chlldren. 1hls ls llkely Lo be because of Lhe
appears Lo be some dlscrepancy beLween Lhe
lokbtoo culLural (whlch ls shared by mosL Lrlbes)
undersLandlng lA1A
6
7
1hls dlfference can be aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe Lrlbal naLure of socleLy, wlLh a male becomlng a source of lncome for Lhelr famlly, whlle
females are expecLed Lo leave Lhe famlly once Lhey are marrled.
3
6
.
9
3
3
.
4
8
.
0
0
.
2
0
.
1
2
8
.
6
2
2
.
1
1
6
.
3
2
1
.
2
2
7
.
3
1
4
.
4
1
.
6
4
.
7
2
.
0
2
1
.
4
1
7
.
0
2
6
.
3
1
.
2
2
.
7
0
.
1
1
3
.
82
0
.
8
3
.
2
2
.
0
2
3
.
3
1
3
.
8
0
.
7
1
3
.
4
r Mo e
o educaLl n
More
s ur Ly ec l
LmploymenL
o opp rLunlLles
ar a e M rl g 8ellglous
LducaLlon
r a dah
v l) ( el
her CL s n' no uo L k w
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.3: What do you want for your ch||dren? {lemo/e chi/dern)
n
A
n
A
n
A
n
A
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
9
Iema|e IGDs
lemales from khyber and Mohmand Agency were
of Lhe vlew LhaL no lnLernaLlonal asslsLance was
needed for Lhelr local developmenL. lnsLead Lhey
felL LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan should be
responslble for provlslon of all servlces. lemale
parLlclpanLs from 8a[aur Agency were of Lhe
opposlLe oplnlon and welcomed asslsLance,
hlghllghLlng employmenL opporLunlLles for boLh
men and women as key lssues LhaL could be
prlorlLlsed.
lemales from l8 eshawar and kohaL lndlcaLed
LhaL asslsLance was of llmlLed value because
beneflLs were largely conflned Lo Lrlbal elders,
wlLhouL Lrlckllng down Lo LhepopulaLlon aL large.
parLlclpaLlon was essenLlal ln plannlng Lhe klnds of
1he 2011 survey asked 4,000 respondenLs
lnLernaLlonal lnLervenLlon offered so LhaL
wheLher Lhey knew how developmenL prlorlLles
asslsLance was approprlaLe Lo Lhelr needs. ln
were declded ln lA1A, and how pro[ecLs were
parLlcular, youLhs from norLh WazlrlsLan deslred
selecLed". 1he greaLesL number of respondenLs
LhaL local peace commlLLees should be more
(37.3) was unsure, wlLh a furLher 21.1 lndlcaLlng
lnvolved. lCu parLlclpanLs from khyber and
LhaL Lhey were unable Lo say how Lhese declslons
Mohmand Agencles also emphaslsed LhaL capaclLy
were reached. Cnly a quarLer (26.6) of Lhose
bulldlng supporL was a necessary requlremenL for
surveyed answered yes Lo LhequesLlon.
local organlsaLlons Lo Lake a greaLer role ln
supporLlng lnlLlaLlves.
lL should also be noLed LhaL many respondenLs
echoed Lhe flndlngs of Lhe Male lCus, ln LhaL
lor some parLlclpanLs lL was oplned LhaL forelgn ald
pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon, parLlcularly LhaL lnvolvlng
should be channelled Lhrough Lhe aklsLan Army.
luA and lS, was vlewed negaLlvely. lL was deslred
1hls ls because respondenLs percelved governmenL
deparLmenLs - lncludlng: pollLlcal admlnlsLraLors,
LhelA1A SecreLarlaL (lS) and LhelA1A uevelopmenL
AuLhorlLy (luA) - Lo becorrupL and lack LhecapaclLy
Lo lmplemenL large-scaleprogrammes (see ChapLer
3).
lL was felL LhaL Lhe prlorlLles of Lhe lnLernaLlonal
communlLy should be focused on addresslng
problems regardlng Lhe fulfllmenL of essenLlal
servlces. 1herefore, asslsLance was mosL deslred ln
addresslng securlLy concerns, lmprovlng [usLlce,
educaLlon and healLh poLenLlal of lA1A. lL was also
observed LhaL asslsLance would be besL uLlllsed ln
supporLl ng Lhe rehabl l l LaLl on of exl sLl ng
lnfrasLrucLure, such as roads and brldges, hosplLals
and schools.
Understand|ng of deve|opment
pr|or|t|es and pro[ect se|ect|on
3
.
3
8
.
3
1
0
.
0
9
.
4
no lnLernaLlonal
asslsLance ls needed
no asslsLance ls needed
from uS or uk
I|gure 1.S: Is there |nternat|ona| ass|stance requ|red?
2011 (%)
2
1
.
1
2
6
.
6
1
3
.
1
3
7
.
3
?es no uon'L know no
8esponse
2011 ()
I|gure 1.6: Do you understand how deve|opment
pr|or|t|es are dec|ded |n IA1A and pro[ects se|ected?
2010 (%) 2011 (%)
undersLandlng lA1A
8
Lowards Lhe governmenL, especlally aklsLan Army developlng employmenL opporLunlLles, a sharp rlse
(seeChapLer 4). from Lhe approxlmaLe 10.0 documenLed ln 2010.
1hls lncrease ls llkely llnked Lo Lhe undersLandlng
ln addlLlon, respondenLs ldenLlfled humanlLarlan
LhaL a lack of employmenL has conLrlbuLed Lo
asslsLance as a developmenL prlorlLy. WhllsL Lhls
ml l l LanLs expl ol Ll ng dl saffecLed youLhs.
was seen as Lhe maln need ln lA1A durlng Lhe 2010
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhls, expecLaLlons regardlng
survey, and has dropped only a couple of polnLs ln
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance for Lhe developmenL of
2011 survey, oLher needs appear Lo have Laken
llvellhood opLlons have noL lncreased, remalnlng aL
prlorlLyLhls year.
approxlmaLely13.0 for boLh 2010and 2011.
ercepLlons regardlng Lhe need for greaLer securlLy
Powever, Lhere remaln a slgnlflcanL number of
asslsLance have also lncreased beLween surveys. ln
peopleln lA1A (nearly 10.0 ln 2011, arlsefrom Lhe
2010 only 8.6 of Lhose surveyed deslred
3.3 ln 2010) who belleve LhaL no lnLernaLlonal
lnLernaLlonal ald ln provldlng securlLy ln lA1A buL
asslsLance ls requlred. lL ls noLable LhaL parLlcular
Lhls had more Lhan doubled by Lhe concluslon of
hosLlllLy ls held Lowards Lhe uS and uk, Lhls ls llkely
because of concerns LhaL Lhese counLrles have ln Lhe 2011 survey Lo 19.6. 1hls ls llkely Lo be
facL worsened Lhe aLLempLs Lo lmprove law and becauseLheaklsLanl mlllLary has yeL Lo achlevefull
order across aklsLan, lncludlng ln lA1A. conLrol over Lhe reglon, wlLh many mlllLanLs
remalnlng aL large, a reallLy whlch has creaLed
Ma|e IGDs
lncreased lnsecurlLy. 1hls lncrease ln Lhe deslre for
1he lCu respondenLs were asked Lo share Lhelr
help ln lmprovlng Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon ln lA1A ls
prlorlLles concernlng lnLernaLlonal asslsLance. 1he
also llkely Lo beaconsequenceof general feellngs of
ma[orlLy of Lhe parLlclpanLs agreed LhaL
dlsquleL Lowards securlLyalreadydocumenLed.
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ls needed Lo asslsL Lhe
Calls for greaLer lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ls also
CovernmenL of aklsLan ln provldlng baslc
documenLed wl Lh respecL Lo soppottl oq
amenlLles for Lhe beneflL of Lhe local populaLlon of
employmeot. 1he 2011 survey has found LhaL
lA1A. 8uL Lhey sLressed LhaL communlLy
almosL 30.0 of respondenLs deslre greaLer ald ln
3
.
4
1
2
.
2
1
2
.
7
9
.
3
1
3
.
0
8
.
6
7
.
1
2
8
.
8
1
2
.
9
1
9
.
6
3
.
3
1
4
.
6
0
.
4
2
.
4
3
.
2
1
2
.
1
0
.
3
2
4
.
3
2
3
.
22
9
.
7
1
2
.
0
3
1
.
4
8
o
a
d
s
L
l
e
c
L
r
l
c
l
L
y
L
d
u
c
a
L
l
o
n
P
e
a
l
L
h
L
l
v
e
l
l
h
o
o
d
s
S
u
p
p
o
r
L
l
n
g
e
m
p
l
o
y
m
e
n
L
P
u
m
a
n
l
L
a
r
l
a
n
a
s
s
l
s
L
a
n
c
e
S
e
c
u
r
l
L
y
n
o

o
p
l
n
l
o
n
C
L
h
e
r
(
s
p
e
c
l
f
y
)
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.4: Var|ous fore|gn countr|es, |nc|ud|ng US & Uk, have expressed an |nterest |n prov|d|ng deve|opment
ass|stance for IA1A. now do you th|nk that ass|stance cou|d be most va|uab|e?
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
9
Iema|e IGDs
lemales from khyber and Mohmand Agency were
of Lhe vlew LhaL no lnLernaLlonal asslsLance was
needed for Lhelr local developmenL. lnsLead Lhey
felL LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan should be
responslble for provlslon of all servlces. lemale
parLlclpanLs from 8a[aur Agency were of Lhe
opposlLe oplnlon and welcomed asslsLance,
hlghllghLlng employmenL opporLunlLles for boLh
men and women as key lssues LhaL could be
prlorlLlsed.
lemales from l8 eshawar and kohaL lndlcaLed
LhaL asslsLance was of llmlLed value because
beneflLs were largely conflned Lo Lrlbal elders,
wlLhouL Lrlckllng down Lo LhepopulaLlon aL large.
parLlclpaLlon was essenLlal ln plannlng Lhe klnds of
1he 2011 survey asked 4,000 respondenLs
lnLernaLlonal lnLervenLlon offered so LhaL
wheLher Lhey knew how developmenL prlorlLles
asslsLance was approprlaLe Lo Lhelr needs. ln
were declded ln lA1A, and how pro[ecLs were
parLlcular, youLhs from norLh WazlrlsLan deslred
selecLed". 1he greaLesL number of respondenLs
LhaL local peace commlLLees should be more
(37.3) was unsure, wlLh a furLher 21.1 lndlcaLlng
lnvolved. lCu parLlclpanLs from khyber and
LhaL Lhey were unable Lo say how Lhese declslons
Mohmand Agencles also emphaslsed LhaL capaclLy
were reached. Cnly a quarLer (26.6) of Lhose
bulldlng supporL was a necessary requlremenL for
surveyed answered yes Lo LhequesLlon.
local organlsaLlons Lo Lake a greaLer role ln
supporLlng lnlLlaLlves.
lL should also be noLed LhaL many respondenLs
echoed Lhe flndlngs of Lhe Male lCus, ln LhaL
lor some parLlclpanLs lL was oplned LhaL forelgn ald
pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon, parLlcularly LhaL lnvolvlng
should be channelled Lhrough Lhe aklsLan Army.
luA and lS, was vlewed negaLlvely. lL was deslred
1hls ls because respondenLs percelved governmenL
deparLmenLs - lncludlng: pollLlcal admlnlsLraLors,
LhelA1A SecreLarlaL (lS) and LhelA1A uevelopmenL
AuLhorlLy (luA) - Lo becorrupL and lack LhecapaclLy
Lo lmplemenL large-scaleprogrammes (see ChapLer
3).
lL was felL LhaL Lhe prlorlLles of Lhe lnLernaLlonal
communlLy should be focused on addresslng
problems regardlng Lhe fulfllmenL of essenLlal
servlces. 1herefore, asslsLance was mosL deslred ln
addresslng securlLy concerns, lmprovlng [usLlce,
educaLlon and healLh poLenLlal of lA1A. lL was also
observed LhaL asslsLance would be besL uLlllsed ln
supporLl ng Lhe rehabl l l LaLl on of exl sLl ng
lnfrasLrucLure, such as roads and brldges, hosplLals
and schools.
Understand|ng of deve|opment
pr|or|t|es and pro[ect se|ect|on
3
.
3
8
.
3
1
0
.
0
9
.
4
no lnLernaLlonal
asslsLance ls needed
no asslsLance ls needed
from uS or uk
I|gure 1.S: Is there |nternat|ona| ass|stance requ|red?
2011 (%)
2
1
.
1
2
6
.
6
1
3
.
1
3
7
.
3
?es no uon'L know no
8esponse
2011 ()
I|gure 1.6: Do you understand how deve|opment
pr|or|t|es are dec|ded |n IA1A and pro[ects se|ected?
2010 (%) 2011 (%)
undersLandlng lA1A
8
Lowards Lhe governmenL, especlally aklsLan Army developlng employmenL opporLunlLles, a sharp rlse
(seeChapLer 4). from Lhe approxlmaLe 10.0 documenLed ln 2010.
1hls lncrease ls llkely llnked Lo Lhe undersLandlng
ln addlLlon, respondenLs ldenLlfled humanlLarlan
LhaL a lack of employmenL has conLrlbuLed Lo
asslsLance as a developmenL prlorlLy. WhllsL Lhls
ml l l LanLs expl ol Ll ng dl saffecLed youLhs.
was seen as Lhe maln need ln lA1A durlng Lhe 2010
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhls, expecLaLlons regardlng
survey, and has dropped only a couple of polnLs ln
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance for Lhe developmenL of
2011 survey, oLher needs appear Lo have Laken
llvellhood opLlons have noL lncreased, remalnlng aL
prlorlLyLhls year.
approxlmaLely13.0 for boLh 2010and 2011.
ercepLlons regardlng Lhe need for greaLer securlLy
Powever, Lhere remaln a slgnlflcanL number of
asslsLance have also lncreased beLween surveys. ln
peopleln lA1A (nearly 10.0 ln 2011, arlsefrom Lhe
2010 only 8.6 of Lhose surveyed deslred
3.3 ln 2010) who belleve LhaL no lnLernaLlonal
lnLernaLlonal ald ln provldlng securlLy ln lA1A buL
asslsLance ls requlred. lL ls noLable LhaL parLlcular
Lhls had more Lhan doubled by Lhe concluslon of
hosLlllLy ls held Lowards Lhe uS and uk, Lhls ls llkely
because of concerns LhaL Lhese counLrles have ln Lhe 2011 survey Lo 19.6. 1hls ls llkely Lo be
facL worsened Lhe aLLempLs Lo lmprove law and becauseLheaklsLanl mlllLary has yeL Lo achlevefull
order across aklsLan, lncludlng ln lA1A. conLrol over Lhe reglon, wlLh many mlllLanLs
remalnlng aL large, a reallLy whlch has creaLed
Ma|e IGDs
lncreased lnsecurlLy. 1hls lncrease ln Lhe deslre for
1he lCu respondenLs were asked Lo share Lhelr
help ln lmprovlng Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon ln lA1A ls
prlorlLles concernlng lnLernaLlonal asslsLance. 1he
also llkely Lo beaconsequenceof general feellngs of
ma[orlLy of Lhe parLlclpanLs agreed LhaL
dlsquleL Lowards securlLyalreadydocumenLed.
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ls needed Lo asslsL Lhe
Calls for greaLer lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ls also
CovernmenL of aklsLan ln provldlng baslc
documenLed wl Lh respecL Lo soppottl oq
amenlLles for Lhe beneflL of Lhe local populaLlon of
employmeot. 1he 2011 survey has found LhaL
lA1A. 8uL Lhey sLressed LhaL communlLy
almosL 30.0 of respondenLs deslre greaLer ald ln
3
.
4
1
2
.
2
1
2
.
7
9
.
3
1
3
.
0
8
.
6
7
.
1
2
8
.
8
1
2
.
9
1
9
.
6
3
.
3
1
4
.
6
0
.
4
2
.
4
3
.
2
1
2
.
1
0
.
3
2
4
.
3
2
3
.
22
9
.
7
1
2
.
0
3
1
.
4
8
o
a
d
s
L
l
e
c
L
r
l
c
l
L
y
L
d
u
c
a
L
l
o
n
P
e
a
l
L
h
L
l
v
e
l
l
h
o
o
d
s
S
u
p
p
o
r
L
l
n
g
e
m
p
l
o
y
m
e
n
L
P
u
m
a
n
l
L
a
r
l
a
n
a
s
s
l
s
L
a
n
c
e
S
e
c
u
r
l
L
y
n
o

o
p
l
n
l
o
n
C
L
h
e
r
(
s
p
e
c
l
f
y
)
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.4: Var|ous fore|gn countr|es, |nc|ud|ng US & Uk, have expressed an |nterest |n prov|d|ng deve|opment
ass|stance for IA1A. now do you th|nk that ass|stance cou|d be most va|uab|e?
I|gure 1.7: In your op|n|on what |s the most |mportant human r|ghts |ssue |n ak|stan today?
11.3
13.1
nA
68.2
42.3
13.0
17.4
38.4
-
22.1
1.8
3.0
2.7
3.6
3.8
13.3
18.0
3.7
10.4
6.9
13.2
9.7
0.4
2.4
2.3
3.2
10.1
2.3
17.6
29.9
7.2
0.9
vlolence agalnsL women
vlolence agalnsL chlldren
vlolaLlon of mlnorlLy rlghLs
Lack of lreedom of
expresslon
Lack of lreedom of
movemenL
SLaLe's lnablllLy Lo provlde
baslc amenlLles requlred
for llfe
Lack of educaLlon and
healLh
Lxcesslve vlolence by
Lhe sLaLe
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
11
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
LhaL lA1A communlLles be afforded lncreased expresslon lndlcaLes LhaL people's grlevances
declslon-maklng power because governmenL agalnsL governance ln lA1A perslsL and Lhere
lnsLlLuLlons were consldered Lo be worklng for Lhelr remalns a deslre for more parLlclpaLlon ln declslon-
own beneflL and noL for LhelnLeresLs of lA1A. maklng. Moreover, lL ls lmporLanL Lo noLe LhaL
[ournallsLs are prohlblLed from en[oylng free access
Lo lA1A, Lhelr movemenL ls conLlnuously conLrolled
by ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLors and by Lhe mlllLary.
ln all of Lhe undersLandlng lA1A" surveys
Powever, Lhere ls some hope for Lhe fuLure as 14
underLaken, Lhe lssue of human rlghLs has been a
press clubs have recenLly been esLabllshed by Lhe
consLanL area of enqulry. 1he governance sLrucLure
1rlbal unlon of !ournallsLs (1u!) and encouraged by
ln lA1A does noL allow Lhe Superlor !udlclary of
Lhe Covernor of khyber akhLunkhwa, whlch may
aklsLan Lo proLecL Lhe rlghLs of Lhe people llvlng ln
lnfluence Lhe poLenLlal for lmproved freedom of
lA1A under ArLlcle 247 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of
expresslon ln LhefuLure.
aklsLan, even Lhough Lhese rlghLs are enshrlned
lL ls a maLLer of greaL concern LhaL fears regardlng
elsewhere ln Lhe consLlLuLlon. Powever, lL can be
vlolence have rlsen among Lhe lA1A populaLlon.
sLrongly argued LhaL Lhe vlolenL slLuaLlon ln lA1A, as
vlolence agalnsL women was ldenLlfled by 11.3
a resulL of boLh lnLernal and exLernal lnfluences,
respondenLs ln 2008 as a human rlghLs lssue. 1hls
requlres LhaL Lhe CenLral CovernmenL, whlch
flgure rose Lo 18.0 ln 2009 and remalned hlgh for
possesses Lhe auLhorlLy and responslblllLy for
Lhe 2010 survey (17.4). 1hls flgure has rlsen by
safeguardlng Lhe people of lA1A, Lake acLlon Lo
almosL 3.0 for Lhe 2011 survey Lo 22.1.
proLecL vulnerable lA1A resldenLs. 1he flgures
ercepLlons of LheLhreaL of vlolenceLo chlldren and
ouLllned below show LheevoluLlon of Lhls sub[ecL as
mlnorlLles, as well as excesslveforceadopLed byLhe
asourceof concern over LhelasL four years.
sLaLe, are slgnlflcanLly lower Lhan Lhose expressed
lollowlng Lhe 2008 and 2009 surveys ln whlch Lhe
wlLh regard Lo vlolence agalnsL women, yeL Lhe
greaLesL human rlghLs concerns were noL clearly
2011 survey flnds LhaL cumulaLlvely 10 of people
dlsaggregaLed, Lhe2010survey learnL LhaL Lhemaln
are worrled abouL vlolence regardlng Lhese groups.
human rlghLs lssue faclng Lhe people of lA1A was
WhllsL lncreases ln concerns abouL vlolence are
tbe 5totes looblllty to ptovlJe boslc omeoltles
Lroubllng, some poslLlves may be derlved from Lhe
tepolteJ fot llfe, Lhls concern should be undersLood
poLenLlal consequenceLhaL peopleof arebecomlng
as Lhose baslc human servlces requlred for llvlng.
moreawareof Lhelr personal and communal rlghLs.
1hls concern was ldenLlfled by over a Lhlrd (38.4)
Ma|e IGDs of respondenLs. rovlslon of Lhese servlces ls Lhe
Male lCu parLlclpanLs shared concerns over Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL, as lL ls
prevalllng human rlghLs slLuaLlon ln lA1A. 1he mandaLed Lo lead on developmenLal lssues ln
ma[orlLy of respondenLs ldenLlfled Lhe need for general.
greaLer proLecLlon of Lhelr rlghL 'Lo llfe, llberLy and
1hls anxleLy was repeaLed ln Lhe 2011 survey,
securlLy of person', as enshrlned ln ArLlcle 2 of Lhe
where lL was agaln Lhe mosL presslng lssue ralsed,
unlversal ueclaraLlon of Puman 8lghLs (uuP8). lL
wlLh more Lhan quarLer of LoLal respondenLs
was commonly held LhaL, aL presenL, Lhese baslc
(29.9) hlghllghLlng lL as an lssueln lA1A.
human rlghLs remaln mlsslng and Lhere was a
shared mlsglvlng over Lhe governmenL's ablllLy Lo
Concerns regardlng freedom of expresslon have
provldedevelopmenL and poslLlvereforms.
been conslsLenLly hlghllghLed slnce 2008, wlLh
concern varylng beLween 13.0 (as recorded ln
Iema|e IGDs
boLh 2008 and 2010) and 13.0 (2009). 1hls flgure
lemale respondenLs conLlnued Lo emphaslse
has however, dropped for Lhe 2011 survey, wlLh
securlLy as Lhelr maln concern, perhaps surprlslngly
only 7.2 of respondenLs ldenLlfylng lL as
noL ln regard Lo vlolenceagalnsL women buL lnsLead
slgnlflcanL human rlghLs problem. lrrespecLlve of
expresslng Lhe concern LhaL a male famlly member
Lhls fall, Lhe conLlnued reference Lo freedom of
numank|ghts |ssues |nIA1A
undersLandlng lA1A
10
I|gure 1.7: In your op|n|on what |s the most |mportant human r|ghts |ssue |n ak|stan today?
11.3
13.1
nA
68.2
42.3
13.0
17.4
38.4
-
22.1
1.8
3.0
2.7
3.6
3.8
13.3
18.0
3.7
10.4
6.9
13.2
9.7
0.4
2.4
2.3
3.2
10.1
2.3
17.6
29.9
7.2
0.9
vlolence agalnsL women
vlolence agalnsL chlldren
vlolaLlon of mlnorlLy rlghLs
Lack of lreedom of
expresslon
Lack of lreedom of
movemenL
SLaLe's lnablllLy Lo provlde
baslc amenlLles requlred
for llfe
Lack of educaLlon and
healLh
Lxcesslve vlolence by
Lhe sLaLe
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
11
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
nA
LhaL lA1A communlLles be afforded lncreased expresslon lndlcaLes LhaL people's grlevances
declslon-maklng power because governmenL agalnsL governance ln lA1A perslsL and Lhere
lnsLlLuLlons were consldered Lo be worklng for Lhelr remalns a deslre for more parLlclpaLlon ln declslon-
own beneflL and noL for LhelnLeresLs of lA1A. maklng. Moreover, lL ls lmporLanL Lo noLe LhaL
[ournallsLs are prohlblLed from en[oylng free access
Lo lA1A, Lhelr movemenL ls conLlnuously conLrolled
by ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLors and by Lhe mlllLary.
ln all of Lhe undersLandlng lA1A" surveys
Powever, Lhere ls some hope for Lhe fuLure as 14
underLaken, Lhe lssue of human rlghLs has been a
press clubs have recenLly been esLabllshed by Lhe
consLanL area of enqulry. 1he governance sLrucLure
1rlbal unlon of !ournallsLs (1u!) and encouraged by
ln lA1A does noL allow Lhe Superlor !udlclary of
Lhe Covernor of khyber akhLunkhwa, whlch may
aklsLan Lo proLecL Lhe rlghLs of Lhe people llvlng ln
lnfluence Lhe poLenLlal for lmproved freedom of
lA1A under ArLlcle 247 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of
expresslon ln LhefuLure.
aklsLan, even Lhough Lhese rlghLs are enshrlned
lL ls a maLLer of greaL concern LhaL fears regardlng
elsewhere ln Lhe consLlLuLlon. Powever, lL can be
vlolence have rlsen among Lhe lA1A populaLlon.
sLrongly argued LhaL Lhe vlolenL slLuaLlon ln lA1A, as
vlolence agalnsL women was ldenLlfled by 11.3
a resulL of boLh lnLernal and exLernal lnfluences,
respondenLs ln 2008 as a human rlghLs lssue. 1hls
requlres LhaL Lhe CenLral CovernmenL, whlch
flgure rose Lo 18.0 ln 2009 and remalned hlgh for
possesses Lhe auLhorlLy and responslblllLy for
Lhe 2010 survey (17.4). 1hls flgure has rlsen by
safeguardlng Lhe people of lA1A, Lake acLlon Lo
almosL 3.0 for Lhe 2011 survey Lo 22.1.
proLecL vulnerable lA1A resldenLs. 1he flgures
ercepLlons of LheLhreaL of vlolenceLo chlldren and
ouLllned below show LheevoluLlon of Lhls sub[ecL as
mlnorlLles, as well as excesslveforceadopLed byLhe
asourceof concern over LhelasL four years.
sLaLe, are slgnlflcanLly lower Lhan Lhose expressed
lollowlng Lhe 2008 and 2009 surveys ln whlch Lhe
wlLh regard Lo vlolence agalnsL women, yeL Lhe
greaLesL human rlghLs concerns were noL clearly
2011 survey flnds LhaL cumulaLlvely 10 of people
dlsaggregaLed, Lhe2010survey learnL LhaL Lhemaln
are worrled abouL vlolence regardlng Lhese groups.
human rlghLs lssue faclng Lhe people of lA1A was
WhllsL lncreases ln concerns abouL vlolence are
tbe 5totes looblllty to ptovlJe boslc omeoltles
Lroubllng, some poslLlves may be derlved from Lhe
tepolteJ fot llfe, Lhls concern should be undersLood
poLenLlal consequenceLhaL peopleof arebecomlng
as Lhose baslc human servlces requlred for llvlng.
moreawareof Lhelr personal and communal rlghLs.
1hls concern was ldenLlfled by over a Lhlrd (38.4)
Ma|e IGDs of respondenLs. rovlslon of Lhese servlces ls Lhe
Male lCu parLlclpanLs shared concerns over Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL, as lL ls
prevalllng human rlghLs slLuaLlon ln lA1A. 1he mandaLed Lo lead on developmenLal lssues ln
ma[orlLy of respondenLs ldenLlfled Lhe need for general.
greaLer proLecLlon of Lhelr rlghL 'Lo llfe, llberLy and
1hls anxleLy was repeaLed ln Lhe 2011 survey,
securlLy of person', as enshrlned ln ArLlcle 2 of Lhe
where lL was agaln Lhe mosL presslng lssue ralsed,
unlversal ueclaraLlon of Puman 8lghLs (uuP8). lL
wlLh more Lhan quarLer of LoLal respondenLs
was commonly held LhaL, aL presenL, Lhese baslc
(29.9) hlghllghLlng lL as an lssueln lA1A.
human rlghLs remaln mlsslng and Lhere was a
shared mlsglvlng over Lhe governmenL's ablllLy Lo
Concerns regardlng freedom of expresslon have
provldedevelopmenL and poslLlvereforms.
been conslsLenLly hlghllghLed slnce 2008, wlLh
concern varylng beLween 13.0 (as recorded ln
Iema|e IGDs
boLh 2008 and 2010) and 13.0 (2009). 1hls flgure
lemale respondenLs conLlnued Lo emphaslse
has however, dropped for Lhe 2011 survey, wlLh
securlLy as Lhelr maln concern, perhaps surprlslngly
only 7.2 of respondenLs ldenLlfylng lL as
noL ln regard Lo vlolenceagalnsL women buL lnsLead
slgnlflcanL human rlghLs problem. lrrespecLlve of
expresslng Lhe concern LhaL a male famlly member
Lhls fall, Lhe conLlnued reference Lo freedom of
numank|ghts |ssues |nIA1A
undersLandlng lA1A
10
I|gure 1.9: Wou|d you ||ve outs|de the IA1A |f g|ven the opportun|ty? {breok down by reqion)
31.8
76.3
44.4
37.3
43.0
70.0
28.7
41.8
33.2
26.1
33.6
26.3
71.2
30.2
66.7
34.8
69.6
0.1
10.0
31.7
33.0
26.3
67.9
23.8
60.0
30.0
33.0
68.4
0.3
2.3
4.3
28.1
-
-
3.0
10.0
1.7
3.8
3.3
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
n. WazlrlsLan Agency
S. WazlrlsLan Agency
?es no uon'L know
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
13
0.0
0.0
1hls daLa however, cannoL be Laken aL face value as
could be endangered by mlllLanLs or aklsLanl
oplnlons dlffer wldely accordlng Lo agency (see
mlllLary operaLlons. CLher areas of concern lnclude:
llgure1.9).
fteeJomof speecbooJtlqbt toeJocotloo.
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed, lL ls evldenL LhaL
AnxleLles were also shared over women's sLaLus ln
Lhe agencles/l8s, where Lhe greaLesL numbers of
Lrlbal socleLy. A lack of empowermenL was LhoughL
people wlsh Lo mlgraLe from (LhaL ls more Lhan half
Lo prevenL women from havlng a volce or declslon-
of Lhe local populaLlon wlsh Lo relocaLe), are areas
maklng poLenLlal, even aL Lhefamlllal level as awlfe,
of confllcL. l8 ul khan, for example, possesses Lhe
moLher, slsLer and/or daughLer.
hlghesL number of people wlshlng Lo leave lA1A
wlLh 76.3 declarlng Lhey would go lf Lhey could.
1he areas of l8 ul khan, kurram, l8 eshawar and
A lack of economlc opporLunlLles has compelled a l8 kohaL can all be descrlbed as locaLlons sufferlng
ma[or porLlon of Lhe lA1A populaLlon Lo mlgraLe, from confllcL where Lhe mlllLary has yeL Lo esLabllsh
elLher Lo oLher clLles ln aklsLan or Lo forelgn lLs full conLrol. ln conLrasL areas consldered under
counLrles (especlally ln Lhe Mlddle LasL). 1hls aklsLanl mlllLary conLrol, such as 8a[aur and SouLh
mlgraLlon has conLrlbuLed slgnlflcanLly Lo local WazlrlsLan, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs lndlcaLed a
economles, Lhrough Lhe lnLernaLlonal remlLLances wllllngness Lo sLay.
senL Lo famllyremalnlng ln lA1A.
1he concluslon ls LhaL lA1A as an area ls made up of
uesplLe Lhe lmpllcaLlons of Lhe securlLy and dlsparaLe communlLles - each possesslng varylng
developmenL concerns ldenLlfled by Lhls survey, moLlvaLlons for remalnlng or mlgraLlng from Lhelr
37.3 of Lhe respondenLs sLlll wanL Lo conLlnue Lrlbal areas. 1hls ls noL unlque Lo lA1A as slmllar
llvlng ln lA1A. As lndlcaLed ln llgure 1.8: lock of Lrends can be ldenLlfled ln oLher developlng
fteeJomof movemeot ls noL a slgnlflcanL barrler as socleLles as parL of rural-Lo-urban mlgraLlon.
only 2.3 of respondenLs recognlse Lhls as a
If no: why wou|dyouprefer to ||ve |nIA1A?
problem. ?eL, a very slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy (34.9) of
1hose who dld noL wanL Lo leave lA1A were asked
respondenLs would leavelf glven LheopporLunlLy.
subsequenLly why Lhey preferred Lo remaln. 1he
largesL group of respondenLs, 30.6 replled LhaL
tbey llke tbe woy tbey llve lo tbelt ttlbol coltote ooJ
ttoJltloo, whlle 28.9 preferred Lo llve wltblo tbelt
owo vllloqes ooJ commooltles. A furLher 20.1
argued LhaL Lhey had been llvlng ln lA1A for so long
LhaL lL would be hard for Lhem Lo leave Lhe area.
Whlle Lhere ls some flucLuaLlon ln Lhe LoLal
percenLages over Lhe lasL Lhree years, Lhe same
reasons appear Lo be generally accepLed, wlLh
respondenLs offerlng dlfferenL perspecLlves each
year raLher Lhan lL belng symbollc of shlfLlng
aLLlLudes.
L|v|ng outs|de of IA1A
3
3
.
6
3
4
.
9
3
3
.
1
1
3
.
3
3
8
.
1
3
.
9
3
8
.
0
3
7
.
3
7
.
7
?es no uon'L know
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.8: Wou|d you ||ve outs|de IA1A, |f g|ven the
opt|on to?
undersLandlng lA1A
12
I|gure 1.9: Wou|d you ||ve outs|de the IA1A |f g|ven the opportun|ty? {breok down by reqion)
31.8
76.3
44.4
37.3
43.0
70.0
28.7
41.8
33.2
26.1
33.6
26.3
71.2
30.2
66.7
34.8
69.6
0.1
10.0
31.7
33.0
26.3
67.9
23.8
60.0
30.0
33.0
68.4
0.3
2.3
4.3
28.1
-
-
3.0
10.0
1.7
3.8
3.3
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
n. WazlrlsLan Agency
S. WazlrlsLan Agency
?es no uon'L know
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
13
0.0
0.0
1hls daLa however, cannoL be Laken aL face value as
could be endangered by mlllLanLs or aklsLanl
oplnlons dlffer wldely accordlng Lo agency (see
mlllLary operaLlons. CLher areas of concern lnclude:
llgure1.9).
fteeJomof speecbooJtlqbt toeJocotloo.
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed, lL ls evldenL LhaL
AnxleLles were also shared over women's sLaLus ln
Lhe agencles/l8s, where Lhe greaLesL numbers of
Lrlbal socleLy. A lack of empowermenL was LhoughL
people wlsh Lo mlgraLe from (LhaL ls more Lhan half
Lo prevenL women from havlng a volce or declslon-
of Lhe local populaLlon wlsh Lo relocaLe), are areas
maklng poLenLlal, even aL Lhefamlllal level as awlfe,
of confllcL. l8 ul khan, for example, possesses Lhe
moLher, slsLer and/or daughLer.
hlghesL number of people wlshlng Lo leave lA1A
wlLh 76.3 declarlng Lhey would go lf Lhey could.
1he areas of l8 ul khan, kurram, l8 eshawar and
A lack of economlc opporLunlLles has compelled a l8 kohaL can all be descrlbed as locaLlons sufferlng
ma[or porLlon of Lhe lA1A populaLlon Lo mlgraLe, from confllcL where Lhe mlllLary has yeL Lo esLabllsh
elLher Lo oLher clLles ln aklsLan or Lo forelgn lLs full conLrol. ln conLrasL areas consldered under
counLrles (especlally ln Lhe Mlddle LasL). 1hls aklsLanl mlllLary conLrol, such as 8a[aur and SouLh
mlgraLlon has conLrlbuLed slgnlflcanLly Lo local WazlrlsLan, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs lndlcaLed a
economles, Lhrough Lhe lnLernaLlonal remlLLances wllllngness Lo sLay.
senL Lo famllyremalnlng ln lA1A.
1he concluslon ls LhaL lA1A as an area ls made up of
uesplLe Lhe lmpllcaLlons of Lhe securlLy and dlsparaLe communlLles - each possesslng varylng
developmenL concerns ldenLlfled by Lhls survey, moLlvaLlons for remalnlng or mlgraLlng from Lhelr
37.3 of Lhe respondenLs sLlll wanL Lo conLlnue Lrlbal areas. 1hls ls noL unlque Lo lA1A as slmllar
llvlng ln lA1A. As lndlcaLed ln llgure 1.8: lock of Lrends can be ldenLlfled ln oLher developlng
fteeJomof movemeot ls noL a slgnlflcanL barrler as socleLles as parL of rural-Lo-urban mlgraLlon.
only 2.3 of respondenLs recognlse Lhls as a
If no: why wou|dyouprefer to ||ve |nIA1A?
problem. ?eL, a very slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy (34.9) of
1hose who dld noL wanL Lo leave lA1A were asked
respondenLs would leavelf glven LheopporLunlLy.
subsequenLly why Lhey preferred Lo remaln. 1he
largesL group of respondenLs, 30.6 replled LhaL
tbey llke tbe woy tbey llve lo tbelt ttlbol coltote ooJ
ttoJltloo, whlle 28.9 preferred Lo llve wltblo tbelt
owo vllloqes ooJ commooltles. A furLher 20.1
argued LhaL Lhey had been llvlng ln lA1A for so long
LhaL lL would be hard for Lhem Lo leave Lhe area.
Whlle Lhere ls some flucLuaLlon ln Lhe LoLal
percenLages over Lhe lasL Lhree years, Lhe same
reasons appear Lo be generally accepLed, wlLh
respondenLs offerlng dlfferenL perspecLlves each
year raLher Lhan lL belng symbollc of shlfLlng
aLLlLudes.
L|v|ng outs|de of IA1A
3
3
.
6
3
4
.
9
3
3
.
1
1
3
.
3
3
8
.
1
3
.
9
3
8
.
0
3
7
.
3
7
.
7
?es no uon'L know
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.8: Wou|d you ||ve outs|de IA1A, |f g|ven the
opt|on to?
undersLandlng lA1A
12
opporLunlLles ouLslde of lA1A as Lhelr prlmary mlllLancy and mlllLary operaLlons. 1hey sald LhaL lf Lhey
moLlvaLlon. ln addlLlon, 3.4 polnLed ouL LhaL had Lo leave lA1A because of mlllLary operaLlons Lhey
developmenL condlLlons were lnsufflclenL Lo lnsplre had only done so for a llmlLed Llme and had reLurned Lo
Lhem Lo llveln lA1A. Lhelr homes onceLheslLuaLlon had normallsed.
A slmllar number of survey parLlclpanLs sLaLed LhaL
1allban bruLallLy or resulLlng mlllLary operaLlons were
1hose who wanLed Lo leave lA1A were asked Lo ldenLlfy
Lhelr prlmary moLlvaLor. 1he llnked use of drones
Lhelr preferred desLlnaLlon. 1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs
appears Lo be slgnlflcanL, desplLe represenLlng [usL 3.4,
preferred Lo remaln ln aklsLan, chooslng Lo mlgraLe Lo
because Lhey are concenLraLed ln a parLlcular reglon of
eshawar (approxlmaLely one Lhlrd (29.3) of Lhe
n. Wazl rl sLan. 1herefore, Lhl s percenLage l s
respondenLs favoured Lhls opLlon ln 2010), Lheprovlnclal
dlsproporLlonaLely large conslderlng lLs overall lnfluence
caplLal of khyber akhLunkhwa. eshawar ls a cenLral
across lA1A. Whlle Lhe presence of Lhe 1allban ls of
commerclal and culLural polnL for Lhe lA1A people, Lhey
greaLer concern Lo resldenLs of lA1A, Al Caeda flghLers
frequenLly vlslL eshawar for many reasons, for example
arealso aconcern for 1.7 respondenLs.
healLh LreaLmenL, employmenL, buslness, educaLlon,
eLc. CLher unldenLlfled clLles ln aklsLan recelved a
Ma|e IGDs
slmllar number of endorsemenLs (29.2) ln 2010. 1he
1he lssue of leavlng Lhe lA1A was dlscussed by lCu
close proxlmlLy of Lhese flgures may be Lhe resulL of
parLlclpanLs, wlLh some showlng a wllllngness Lo mlgraLe
parLlclpanLs belng allowed Lo make more Lhan one
Lo oLher clLles of aklsLan, especlally eshawar. Powever,
cholce, accordlngly Lhose who preferred eshawar could
an equal number consldered LhaL no clLy ln aklsLan was
also menLlon oLher clLles.
safeanymore, Lhus Lheywould prefer Lo leaveaklsLan.
lavoured overseas desLlnaLlons are Saudl Arabla and
Iema|e IGDs uubal, wlLh Lheremalnder of Lhosedeslrlng Lo leavelA1A
opLlng for desLlnaLlons ln Lhe wesLern world. 1hls Surprlslngly, no female respondenLs wanLed Lo leave
dlvlslon of supporL beLween aklsLan and Lhe resL of Lhe lA1A, even afLer havlng faced Lhe negaLlve lmpacLs of
referreddest|nat|on|f |eav|ng IA1A
23.7
3.4
7.2
0.2
3.0
1.7
12.3
3.7
3.4
8ecause lA1A ls no longer a
peaceful place Lo llve
8ecause Lhere aren'L many economlc
opporLunlLles avallable ln lA1A
8ecause of consLanL mlllLary
engagemenL ln lA1A
8ecause of drone aLLacks
8ecause of bruLal LreaLmenL
by Lhe 1allban
8ecause of Lhe presence of Al-Caeda and
Lhelr assoclaLed flghLers
8ecause developmenL condlLlons ln lA1A
are noL conduclve
8ecause Lhere are many more
opporLunlLles avallable ouLslde of lA1A
CLher (speclfy)
2011 ()
I|gure 1.12: If es: why wou|d you prefer to ||ve outs|de?
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
1S
L|v|ng outs|de of IA1Aby age group
If yes: why wou|dyouprefer to ||veouts|de of IA1A?
1he2011surveyhas aLLempLed Lo documenL Lhereasons
1o furLher dlsaggregaLe Lhe flndlngs of Lhe survey,
moLlvaLlng Lhose who wanL Lo leave lA1A lf Lhe chance
responses were grouped by age. ln 2011, lL appears LhaL
arose. AlmosL a quarLer (23.7) of respondenLs belleved
Lhe young and mlddle-aged groups seem Lo be more
LhaL lA1A ls no longer a peaceful placeLo llve, whllesome
wllllng Lo leave lA1A Lhan Lhey were ln 2010 where Lhe
20.0 ldenLlfled Lhe greaLer poLenLlal Lo flnd
older generaLlons appeared Lo bemuch morewllllng.
2
6
.
3
2
4
.
6
7
.
7
2
.
6
2
2
.
3
7
.
0
1
.
1
4
1
.
3
1
1
.
3
0
.
3
3
9
.
0
3
3
.
8
3
0
.
6
7
.
2
2
0
.
1
0
.
3
2
.
2
2
8
.
9
l llke Lo llve
wlLhln my own
vlllage and
communlLy
l llke Lhe way we
llve ln our Lrlbal
culLure and
LradlLlon
l feel more
secure ln lA1A
We have been
llvlng ln lA1A for
a long Llme
uon'L know CLher (speclfy)
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 1.10: If no, wou|d you a|ways prefer to ||ve |n IA1A and why?
1
4
.
1
0
.
6
4
.
2
1
6
.
0
2
1
.
3
1
.
3
7
.
4
2
7
.
1
3
.
6
0
.
1
0
.
9
3
.
1
18 - 29 years 30 - 49 years 30 - 64 years 63 + years
?es no uon'L know
I|gure 1.11: Wou|d you ||ve outs|de the IA1A, |f g|ven the opt|on to? {breok down by oqe qroup)
undersLandlng lA1A
14
opporLunlLles ouLslde of lA1A as Lhelr prlmary mlllLancy and mlllLary operaLlons. 1hey sald LhaL lf Lhey
moLlvaLlon. ln addlLlon, 3.4 polnLed ouL LhaL had Lo leave lA1A because of mlllLary operaLlons Lhey
developmenL condlLlons were lnsufflclenL Lo lnsplre had only done so for a llmlLed Llme and had reLurned Lo
Lhem Lo llveln lA1A. Lhelr homes onceLheslLuaLlon had normallsed.
A slmllar number of survey parLlclpanLs sLaLed LhaL
1allban bruLallLy or resulLlng mlllLary operaLlons were
1hose who wanLed Lo leave lA1A were asked Lo ldenLlfy
Lhelr prlmary moLlvaLor. 1he llnked use of drones
Lhelr preferred desLlnaLlon. 1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs
appears Lo be slgnlflcanL, desplLe represenLlng [usL 3.4,
preferred Lo remaln ln aklsLan, chooslng Lo mlgraLe Lo
because Lhey are concenLraLed ln a parLlcular reglon of
eshawar (approxlmaLely one Lhlrd (29.3) of Lhe
n. Wazl rl sLan. 1herefore, Lhl s percenLage l s
respondenLs favoured Lhls opLlon ln 2010), Lheprovlnclal
dlsproporLlonaLely large conslderlng lLs overall lnfluence
caplLal of khyber akhLunkhwa. eshawar ls a cenLral
across lA1A. Whlle Lhe presence of Lhe 1allban ls of
commerclal and culLural polnL for Lhe lA1A people, Lhey
greaLer concern Lo resldenLs of lA1A, Al Caeda flghLers
frequenLly vlslL eshawar for many reasons, for example
arealso aconcern for 1.7 respondenLs.
healLh LreaLmenL, employmenL, buslness, educaLlon,
eLc. CLher unldenLlfled clLles ln aklsLan recelved a
Ma|e IGDs
slmllar number of endorsemenLs (29.2) ln 2010. 1he
1he lssue of leavlng Lhe lA1A was dlscussed by lCu
close proxlmlLy of Lhese flgures may be Lhe resulL of
parLlclpanLs, wlLh some showlng a wllllngness Lo mlgraLe
parLlclpanLs belng allowed Lo make more Lhan one
Lo oLher clLles of aklsLan, especlally eshawar. Powever,
cholce, accordlngly Lhose who preferred eshawar could
an equal number consldered LhaL no clLy ln aklsLan was
also menLlon oLher clLles.
safeanymore, Lhus Lheywould prefer Lo leaveaklsLan.
lavoured overseas desLlnaLlons are Saudl Arabla and
Iema|e IGDs uubal, wlLh Lheremalnder of Lhosedeslrlng Lo leavelA1A
opLlng for desLlnaLlons ln Lhe wesLern world. 1hls Surprlslngly, no female respondenLs wanLed Lo leave
dlvlslon of supporL beLween aklsLan and Lhe resL of Lhe lA1A, even afLer havlng faced Lhe negaLlve lmpacLs of
referreddest|nat|on|f |eav|ng IA1A
23.7
3.4
7.2
0.2
3.0
1.7
12.3
3.7
3.4
8ecause lA1A ls no longer a
peaceful place Lo llve
8ecause Lhere aren'L many economlc
opporLunlLles avallable ln lA1A
8ecause of consLanL mlllLary
engagemenL ln lA1A
8ecause of drone aLLacks
8ecause of bruLal LreaLmenL
by Lhe 1allban
8ecause of Lhe presence of Al-Caeda and
Lhelr assoclaLed flghLers
8ecause developmenL condlLlons ln lA1A
are noL conduclve
8ecause Lhere are many more
opporLunlLles avallable ouLslde of lA1A
CLher (speclfy)
2011 ()
I|gure 1.12: If es: why wou|d you prefer to ||ve outs|de?
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
1S
L|v|ng outs|de of IA1Aby age group
If yes: why wou|dyouprefer to ||veouts|de of IA1A?
1he2011surveyhas aLLempLed Lo documenL Lhereasons
1o furLher dlsaggregaLe Lhe flndlngs of Lhe survey,
moLlvaLlng Lhose who wanL Lo leave lA1A lf Lhe chance
responses were grouped by age. ln 2011, lL appears LhaL
arose. AlmosL a quarLer (23.7) of respondenLs belleved
Lhe young and mlddle-aged groups seem Lo be more
LhaL lA1A ls no longer a peaceful placeLo llve, whllesome
wllllng Lo leave lA1A Lhan Lhey were ln 2010 where Lhe
20.0 ldenLlfled Lhe greaLer poLenLlal Lo flnd
older generaLlons appeared Lo bemuch morewllllng.
2
6
.
3
2
4
.
6
7
.
7
2
.
6
2
2
.
3
7
.
0
1
.
1
4
1
.
3
1
1
.
3
0
.
3
3
9
.
0
3
3
.
8
3
0
.
6
7
.
2
2
0
.
1
0
.
3
2
.
2
2
8
.
9
l llke Lo llve
wlLhln my own
vlllage and
communlLy
l llke Lhe way we
llve ln our Lrlbal
culLure and
LradlLlon
l feel more
secure ln lA1A
We have been
llvlng ln lA1A for
a long Llme
uon'L know CLher (speclfy)
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 1.10: If no, wou|d you a|ways prefer to ||ve |n IA1A and why?
1
4
.
1
0
.
6
4
.
2
1
6
.
0
2
1
.
3
1
.
3
7
.
4
2
7
.
1
3
.
6
0
.
1
0
.
9
3
.
1
18 - 29 years 30 - 49 years 30 - 64 years 63 + years
?es no uon'L know
I|gure 1.11: Wou|d you ||ve outs|de the IA1A, |f g|ven the opt|on to? {breok down by oqe qroup)
undersLandlng lA1A
14
world appears Lo corroboraLe Lhe flndlngs from Lhe male
lCu ouLllned above, where equal numbers of
respondenLs supporLed LheseopLlons.
Many developmenL lssues have been ldenLlfled ln Lhls
chapLer, and desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhey are noL unlque Lo
aklsLan and lA1A, Lhe daLa ls of lmporLance ln LhaL lL
slgnals Lhe areas LhaL are ln need of slgnlflcanL aLLenLlon
and wlll help pollcy makers prlorlLlse lnLervenLlons. 1o
Lhls end, lL ls clear LhaL demands regardlng securlLy and
peace remaln hlgh, whlle educaLlon, healLh, and oLher
baslc amenlLles are ln need of developmenL ln order Lo
meeL Lhe needs of lA1A communlLles. lor Lhls Lo be
achleved, Lo some exLenL, culLural aLLlLudes Lowards
men and women need Lo be addressed, wlLh a greaLer
emphasls on lncluslon, boLh economlcally and pollLlcally
belng requlred.
Moreover, Lhe wllllngness of lA1A resldenLs Lo seek
employmenL opporLunlLles ouLslde of aklsLan ls also
slgnlflcanL ln hlghllghLlng dlsconLenL, buL also an
opporLunlLy Lo develop local economles Lhrough Lhe
lnflux of remlLLances from abroad.
Conc|us|on
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
17
12.9
0.0
6.0
4.3
0.2
13.6
4.4
22.8
0.9
22.7
8.70
0.2
1.6
1.4
1.2
3.8
4.8
1.4
0.1
0.3
2.2
1.8
2.4
29.2
6.6
6.4
6.7
8.3
29.3
0.9
0.3
0.1
0.3
19.3
4.8
-
1.3
0.2
2.4
0.7
3.6
eshawar
CLher clLles of
aklsLan
uSA
uk
Cermany
Canada
lran
Saudl Arabla
AfghanlsLan
uubal
CLher Mlddle
LasLern counLrles
CLher Luropean
counLrles
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.13: If yes, where wou|d you prefer to ||ve?
undersLandlng lA1A
16
nA
nA
0.0
world appears Lo corroboraLe Lhe flndlngs from Lhe male
lCu ouLllned above, where equal numbers of
respondenLs supporLed LheseopLlons.
Many developmenL lssues have been ldenLlfled ln Lhls
chapLer, and desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhey are noL unlque Lo
aklsLan and lA1A, Lhe daLa ls of lmporLance ln LhaL lL
slgnals Lhe areas LhaL are ln need of slgnlflcanL aLLenLlon
and wlll help pollcy makers prlorlLlse lnLervenLlons. 1o
Lhls end, lL ls clear LhaL demands regardlng securlLy and
peace remaln hlgh, whlle educaLlon, healLh, and oLher
baslc amenlLles are ln need of developmenL ln order Lo
meeL Lhe needs of lA1A communlLles. lor Lhls Lo be
achleved, Lo some exLenL, culLural aLLlLudes Lowards
men and women need Lo be addressed, wlLh a greaLer
emphasls on lncluslon, boLh economlcally and pollLlcally
belng requlred.
Moreover, Lhe wllllngness of lA1A resldenLs Lo seek
employmenL opporLunlLles ouLslde of aklsLan ls also
slgnlflcanL ln hlghllghLlng dlsconLenL, buL also an
opporLunlLy Lo develop local economles Lhrough Lhe
lnflux of remlLLances from abroad.
Conc|us|on
ChapLer 1: Soclo-economlc Llfe and uevelopmenL needs ln lA1A
17
12.9
0.0
6.0
4.3
0.2
13.6
4.4
22.8
0.9
22.7
8.70
0.2
1.6
1.4
1.2
3.8
4.8
1.4
0.1
0.3
2.2
1.8
2.4
29.2
6.6
6.4
6.7
8.3
29.3
0.9
0.3
0.1
0.3
19.3
4.8
-
1.3
0.2
2.4
0.7
3.6
eshawar
CLher clLles of
aklsLan
uSA
uk
Cermany
Canada
lran
Saudl Arabla
AfghanlsLan
uubal
CLher Mlddle
LasLern counLrles
CLher Luropean
counLrles
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 1.13: If yes, where wou|d you prefer to ||ve?
undersLandlng lA1A
16
nA
nA
0.0
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
19
6onst|tut|ona| 8tatus of FATA
6hAPTER 2
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
19
6onst|tut|ona| 8tatus of FATA
6hAPTER 2
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
21
Cn 12 AugusL 2011, resldenL Aslf All Zardarl slgned annulled Lhe speclal LreaLles held beLween Lhe
Lhe l ong awal Led lA1A reform package, 1rlbal Areas and Lhe 8rlLlsh 8a[, allowlng aklsLan Lo
lncorporaLlng Lwo orders LhaL exLended aklsLan's negoLlaLe new relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhe LerrlLory. ln
ollLlcal arLles Crder of 2002 Lo Lhe 1rlbal Areas reLurn for conLlnued loyalLy, Lhe CovernmenL of
and amended lA1A's lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon aklsLan - represenLed by Mohammad All !lnnah,
(lC8). 1hese reforms are hoped Lo encourage Lhe founder and flrsL Covernor Ceneral of aklsLan
greaLer lnLegraLlon of lA1A lnLo malnsLream - agreed Lo allow Lhe lA1A reglon's 200 Mollks Lo
aklsLanl llfe, as lL wlll allow pollLlcal parLles Lo form reLaln Lhelr rlghLs and prlvlleges. 1he recognlLlon of
and operaLe ln Lhe reglon for Lhe flrsL Llme. 1hese lA1A as a seml -auLonomous regl on was
regulaLlons have however, meL wlLh some subsequenLly formallsed ln Lhe consLlLuLlon of
opposlLlon wlLh a slgnlflcanL number of local ellLes aklsLan, under ArLlcle 1 lA1A ls ldenLlfled as belng
10
parL of LheLerrlLory LhaL comprlses aklsLan. publlcly quesLlonlng wheLher Lhe reform package
wlll brlng abouL any slgnlflcanL reforms Lo Lhe
ln ArLlcle246, Lheagencles and fronLler reglons LhaL
overall governance sLrucLure. 1hls chapLer
form lA1A wereformallsed and lnclude: 1rlbal Areas
dlscusses Lhe consLlLuLlonal sLaLus of lA1A and
ad[olnlng eshawar dlsLrlcL, 1rlbal Areas ad[olnlng
Lracks Lhe lasL four years of survey daLa, ln order Lo
kohaL dlsLrlcL, 1rlbal Areas ad[olnlng 8annu dlsLrlcL,
undersLand how respondenLs percelve Lhe
1rlbal Areas ad[olnlng Lakkl MarwaL ulsLrlcL, 1rlbal
malnsLreamlng of lA1A lnLo aklsLan's pollLlcal
Areas ad[olnlng uera lsmall khan dlsLrlcL, 1rlbal
sLrucLures.
Areas ad[olnlng 1ank ulsLrlcL, 8a[aur Agency,
Crakzal Agency, Mohmand Agency, khyber Agency, CAM has been underLaklng oplnlon polls ln lA1A
kurram Agency, norLh WazlrlsLan Agency and slnce 2007 for lLs 'undersLandlng lA1A' reporL and
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency. has covered Lhe lssues of: lA1A's consLlLuLlonal
sLaLus, ollLlcal arLles Crdlnance 2011, Lhe fuLure
AdmlnlsLraLlon of Lhese LerrlLorles ls prescrlbed ln
of lC8, pollLlcal parLles and Lhelr leaders and
ArLlcle 247, whlch sLaLes LhaL 'Lhe execuLlve
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe declslon maklng process. 1hls
auLhorlLy of Lhe lederaLlon shall exLend Lo Lhe
year Lhe survey has added Lo Lhe scope of lLs
11
lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas' and 'no AcL
flndlngs by poslng new quesLlons relaLlng Lo Lhe
of Ma[lls-e-Shoora (arllamenL) shall apply Lo any
sub[ecL, whlch wlll help Lo develop an lncreased
lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Area or Lo any parL
undersLandlng of LheLoplc.
12
Lhereof, unless Lhe resldenL so dlrecLs.'
lurLhermore, Clause 7 of Lhe arLlcle, bars Lhe
exLenslon of superlor courLs, lncludlng Supreme
CourL and Plgh CourL, Lo lA1A unless Lhe arllamenL
1he lndlan lndependence AcL of 3 !une 1947
Governance |nIA1A
9
Const|tut|ona| Status of IA1A
ClAPTER 2
9
1he lnLroducLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal sLaLus of and admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLure ls exLracLed from Lhe volume lv of Lhe same
reporL. lor more deLalls please refer Lo undersLandlng lA1A volume lv (www.undersLandlngfaLa.org)
10
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 1c: ArLlcle 1 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-1-Lhe-republlc-and-lLs-LerrlLorles/
11
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 1: ArLlcle 247 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-247-admlnlsLraLlon-of-Lrlbal-areas/
12
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 3: ArLlcle 247 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-247-admlnlsLraLlon-of-Lrlbal-areas/
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
21
Cn 12 AugusL 2011, resldenL Aslf All Zardarl slgned annulled Lhe speclal LreaLles held beLween Lhe
Lhe l ong awal Led lA1A reform package, 1rlbal Areas and Lhe 8rlLlsh 8a[, allowlng aklsLan Lo
lncorporaLlng Lwo orders LhaL exLended aklsLan's negoLlaLe new relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhe LerrlLory. ln
ollLlcal arLles Crder of 2002 Lo Lhe 1rlbal Areas reLurn for conLlnued loyalLy, Lhe CovernmenL of
and amended lA1A's lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon aklsLan - represenLed by Mohammad All !lnnah,
(lC8). 1hese reforms are hoped Lo encourage Lhe founder and flrsL Covernor Ceneral of aklsLan
greaLer lnLegraLlon of lA1A lnLo malnsLream - agreed Lo allow Lhe lA1A reglon's 200 Mollks Lo
aklsLanl llfe, as lL wlll allow pollLlcal parLles Lo form reLaln Lhelr rlghLs and prlvlleges. 1he recognlLlon of
and operaLe ln Lhe reglon for Lhe flrsL Llme. 1hese lA1A as a seml -auLonomous regl on was
regulaLlons have however, meL wlLh some subsequenLly formallsed ln Lhe consLlLuLlon of
opposlLlon wlLh a slgnlflcanL number of local ellLes aklsLan, under ArLlcle 1 lA1A ls ldenLlfled as belng
10
parL of LheLerrlLory LhaL comprlses aklsLan. publlcly quesLlonlng wheLher Lhe reform package
wlll brlng abouL any slgnlflcanL reforms Lo Lhe
ln ArLlcle246, Lheagencles and fronLler reglons LhaL
overall governance sLrucLure. 1hls chapLer
form lA1A wereformallsed and lnclude: 1rlbal Areas
dlscusses Lhe consLlLuLlonal sLaLus of lA1A and
ad[olnlng eshawar dlsLrlcL, 1rlbal Areas ad[olnlng
Lracks Lhe lasL four years of survey daLa, ln order Lo
kohaL dlsLrlcL, 1rlbal Areas ad[olnlng 8annu dlsLrlcL,
undersLand how respondenLs percelve Lhe
1rlbal Areas ad[olnlng Lakkl MarwaL ulsLrlcL, 1rlbal
malnsLreamlng of lA1A lnLo aklsLan's pollLlcal
Areas ad[olnlng uera lsmall khan dlsLrlcL, 1rlbal
sLrucLures.
Areas ad[olnlng 1ank ulsLrlcL, 8a[aur Agency,
Crakzal Agency, Mohmand Agency, khyber Agency, CAM has been underLaklng oplnlon polls ln lA1A
kurram Agency, norLh WazlrlsLan Agency and slnce 2007 for lLs 'undersLandlng lA1A' reporL and
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency. has covered Lhe lssues of: lA1A's consLlLuLlonal
sLaLus, ollLlcal arLles Crdlnance 2011, Lhe fuLure
AdmlnlsLraLlon of Lhese LerrlLorles ls prescrlbed ln
of lC8, pollLlcal parLles and Lhelr leaders and
ArLlcle 247, whlch sLaLes LhaL 'Lhe execuLlve
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe declslon maklng process. 1hls
auLhorlLy of Lhe lederaLlon shall exLend Lo Lhe
year Lhe survey has added Lo Lhe scope of lLs
11
lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas' and 'no AcL
flndlngs by poslng new quesLlons relaLlng Lo Lhe
of Ma[lls-e-Shoora (arllamenL) shall apply Lo any
sub[ecL, whlch wlll help Lo develop an lncreased
lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Area or Lo any parL
undersLandlng of LheLoplc.
12
Lhereof, unless Lhe resldenL so dlrecLs.'
lurLhermore, Clause 7 of Lhe arLlcle, bars Lhe
exLenslon of superlor courLs, lncludlng Supreme
CourL and Plgh CourL, Lo lA1A unless Lhe arllamenL
1he lndlan lndependence AcL of 3 !une 1947
Governance |nIA1A
9
Const|tut|ona| Status of IA1A
ClAPTER 2
9
1he lnLroducLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal sLaLus of and admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLure ls exLracLed from Lhe volume lv of Lhe same
reporL. lor more deLalls please refer Lo undersLandlng lA1A volume lv (www.undersLandlngfaLa.org)
10
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 1c: ArLlcle 1 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-1-Lhe-republlc-and-lLs-LerrlLorles/
11
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 1: ArLlcle 247 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-247-admlnlsLraLlon-of-Lrlbal-areas/
12
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 3: ArLlcle 247 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-247-admlnlsLraLlon-of-Lrlbal-areas/
20.8
34.3
1.6
0.0
19.0
18.7
30.7
22.0
11.0
26.7
3.4
36.6
1.9
28.7
12.8
34.0
19.8
22.3
0.3
0.2
23.4
16.7
23.9
21.8
24.9
19.4
0.5
2.9
13.8
7.9
0.3
8e fully lnLegraLed lnLo
khyber akhLunkhwa
(formerly Lhe norLh
WesL lronLler
rovlnce [nWl])
keep lLs currenL
governlng
arrangemenLs
8rlng more
amendmenL
ln lC8
8e esLabllshed as
separaLe provlnce
of aklsLan
8e esLabllshed as a
lA1A Councll
CLhers
uon'L know
no oplnlon
2007 () 2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.1 - Shou|d ak|stan's Iedera||y Adm|n|stered 1r|ba| Areas...
23
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.0
0.0
0.0
13
so provldes under law. ln splLe of Lhe llberLles 1he llnks beLween Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL and Lrlbal
afforded lA1A, mosL laws - clvll, crlmlnal, elecLoral sLrucLures ls malnLalned Lhrough local leaders -
and flscal - have been lncorporaLed lnLo local holdlng Lhe LlLles of Mollkl or looql. 1hese leaders
governancesLrucLures. are pald wlLh allowances (Mojlb) so LhaL Lhey
remaln loyal Lo Lhe ollLlcal AgenLs LhaL besLow Lhls
lA1A ls represenLed ln Lhe Lower (naLlonal
sLaLus (wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe Covernor-Ceneral)
Assembly) and upper (SenaLe) Pouses of Lhe
upon Lhem. Should a Mollkl or looql noL bedeemed
arllamenL by 12 and 8 lndependenL members
Lo be fulfllllng Lhelr purpose, ollLlcal AgenLs can
respecLlvely. Powever, because Lhe parllamenL has
also reLaln auLhorlLy by wlLhdrawlng, suspendlng or
no [urlsdlcLlon over lA1A lL ls noL clear whaL
cancelllng Lhls sLaLus.
l nfl uence Lhese represenLaLl ves possess,
parLlcularly slnce Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of 1973 does noL 1he ollLlcal AgenLs, Lhrough Lhe Mollks, malnLaln
afford Lhe people of lA1A full parLlclpaLory sLaLus ln securlLy Lhrough Lhe use of kbosoJots, pollce-llke
pollLlcal processes. As a resulL, lL can be argued LhaL agenLs ln Lrlbal LradlLlon, or losbkots, a sysLem by
Lhe people of lA1A have effecLlvely been whlch Lrlbal members are called LogeLher Lo form a
marglnallsed from malnsLream pollLlcs ln aklsLan. mlllLla Lo defend Lhelr communlLy or Lo apprehend
crlmlnals.
1o lmplemenL Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslons
descrlbed above, Lhe resldenL and lA1A ln splLe of Lhe debaLe LhaL has cenLred on Lhe
SecreLarlaL musL be llnked Lo local Lrlbal sLrucLures. sub[ecL of lA1A's sLaLus, more Lhan one Lhlrd of
PlsLorlcally, colonlal sLrucLures co-opLed Lhe local respondenLs (36.6) quesLloned ln Lhe 2011survey
leadershlp ln order Lo annex Lrlbal sLrucLures. A do noL know or have an oplnlon on Lhe pollLlcal
leadlng legal scholar summarlses Lhe naLure of Lhls fuLure of Lhe Lrlbal areas. 1hls flgure has rlsen
sysLem of governance: dramaLlcally over Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe survey process
- from a low of 0.3 ln 2008 - whlch lndlcaLes LhaL
1be teqloo bos o pecollot systemof oJmlolsttotloo.
Lhere appears Lo be wlde spread confuslon on Lhe
1be people ote qovetoeJ tbtooqb tbelt locol
lssue. 1he reason for Lhls ls llkely Lo be because of a
cbleftolos colleJ Mollks, tbtooqb floooclol
lack of undersLandlng regardlng Lhe consLlLuLlonal
compeosotloo coottolleJ by leJetol Covetomeot
sLaLus of lA1A raLher Lhan an lncrease ln apaLhy, as
ooJ exetclseJ by tbe l5 offlclol colleJ o lolltlcol
only11.0 of respondenLs deslreno reform.
14
Aqeot.
ConslsLenLly, respondenLs have advocaLed for
1hls sLyle of governmenL has formed Lhe LemplaLe
subsLanLlal change Lo Lhe sysLem of governance
for susLalnlng relaLlons beLween lA1A and Lhe
used ln lA1A. uemands have generally focused on
CovernmenL of aklsLan.
full lnLegraLlon of lA1A lnLo Lhe khyber
akhLunkhwa or lLs asslmllaLlon as separaLe
1he local admlnlsLraLlon ln each agency ls managed
provlnce of aklsLan, en[oylng equal consLlLuLlonal
by a ollLlcal AgenL, who ls a federal clvll servanL,
rlghLs and guaranLees.
and each sub-dlvlslon (1ebsll) ls headed by an
AsslsLanL ollLlcal AgenL. 1he ollLlcal AgenL
SupporL for keeploq lA1As cotteot qovetoloq
performs several funcLlons aL Lhe same Llme - Lhey
ottooqemeots has been gradually decllnlng. ln 2008
acL as an execuLlve, [udge and revenue collecLor.
and 2009 approxlmaLely one ln flve respondenLs
1hey also head Lhe Agency Councll and oversee
favoured Lhls opLlon buL by 2010 Lhls had reduced
developmenL pro[ecLs.
Lo less Lhan one ln Len. ln 2011, desplLe a small
1he Structure of IA1AAdm|n|strat|on
Ma|nstream|ng IA1A- Iuture status
13
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 7: ArLlcle 247 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-247-admlnlsLraLlon-of-Lrlbal-areas/
14
lA1A: Challenges and 8esponse by ur. laqlr Pussaln, SecreLary Law & !usLlce Commlsslon of aklsLan - un-publlshed paper
undersLandlng lA1A
22
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
20.8
34.3
1.6
0.0
19.0
18.7
30.7
22.0
11.0
26.7
3.4
36.6
1.9
28.7
12.8
34.0
19.8
22.3
0.3
0.2
23.4
16.7
23.9
21.8
24.9
19.4
0.5
2.9
13.8
7.9
0.3
8e fully lnLegraLed lnLo
khyber akhLunkhwa
(formerly Lhe norLh
WesL lronLler
rovlnce [nWl])
keep lLs currenL
governlng
arrangemenLs
8rlng more
amendmenL
ln lC8
8e esLabllshed as
separaLe provlnce
of aklsLan
8e esLabllshed as a
lA1A Councll
CLhers
uon'L know
no oplnlon
2007 () 2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.1 - Shou|d ak|stan's Iedera||y Adm|n|stered 1r|ba| Areas...
23
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.0
0.0
0.0
13
so provldes under law. ln splLe of Lhe llberLles 1he llnks beLween Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL and Lrlbal
afforded lA1A, mosL laws - clvll, crlmlnal, elecLoral sLrucLures ls malnLalned Lhrough local leaders -
and flscal - have been lncorporaLed lnLo local holdlng Lhe LlLles of Mollkl or looql. 1hese leaders
governancesLrucLures. are pald wlLh allowances (Mojlb) so LhaL Lhey
remaln loyal Lo Lhe ollLlcal AgenLs LhaL besLow Lhls
lA1A ls represenLed ln Lhe Lower (naLlonal
sLaLus (wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe Covernor-Ceneral)
Assembly) and upper (SenaLe) Pouses of Lhe
upon Lhem. Should a Mollkl or looql noL bedeemed
arllamenL by 12 and 8 lndependenL members
Lo be fulfllllng Lhelr purpose, ollLlcal AgenLs can
respecLlvely. Powever, because Lhe parllamenL has
also reLaln auLhorlLy by wlLhdrawlng, suspendlng or
no [urlsdlcLlon over lA1A lL ls noL clear whaL
cancelllng Lhls sLaLus.
l nfl uence Lhese represenLaLl ves possess,
parLlcularly slnce Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of 1973 does noL 1he ollLlcal AgenLs, Lhrough Lhe Mollks, malnLaln
afford Lhe people of lA1A full parLlclpaLory sLaLus ln securlLy Lhrough Lhe use of kbosoJots, pollce-llke
pollLlcal processes. As a resulL, lL can be argued LhaL agenLs ln Lrlbal LradlLlon, or losbkots, a sysLem by
Lhe people of lA1A have effecLlvely been whlch Lrlbal members are called LogeLher Lo form a
marglnallsed from malnsLream pollLlcs ln aklsLan. mlllLla Lo defend Lhelr communlLy or Lo apprehend
crlmlnals.
1o lmplemenL Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslons
descrlbed above, Lhe resldenL and lA1A ln splLe of Lhe debaLe LhaL has cenLred on Lhe
SecreLarlaL musL be llnked Lo local Lrlbal sLrucLures. sub[ecL of lA1A's sLaLus, more Lhan one Lhlrd of
PlsLorlcally, colonlal sLrucLures co-opLed Lhe local respondenLs (36.6) quesLloned ln Lhe 2011survey
leadershlp ln order Lo annex Lrlbal sLrucLures. A do noL know or have an oplnlon on Lhe pollLlcal
leadlng legal scholar summarlses Lhe naLure of Lhls fuLure of Lhe Lrlbal areas. 1hls flgure has rlsen
sysLem of governance: dramaLlcally over Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe survey process
- from a low of 0.3 ln 2008 - whlch lndlcaLes LhaL
1be teqloo bos o pecollot systemof oJmlolsttotloo.
Lhere appears Lo be wlde spread confuslon on Lhe
1be people ote qovetoeJ tbtooqb tbelt locol
lssue. 1he reason for Lhls ls llkely Lo be because of a
cbleftolos colleJ Mollks, tbtooqb floooclol
lack of undersLandlng regardlng Lhe consLlLuLlonal
compeosotloo coottolleJ by leJetol Covetomeot
sLaLus of lA1A raLher Lhan an lncrease ln apaLhy, as
ooJ exetclseJ by tbe l5 offlclol colleJ o lolltlcol
only11.0 of respondenLs deslreno reform.
14
Aqeot.
ConslsLenLly, respondenLs have advocaLed for
1hls sLyle of governmenL has formed Lhe LemplaLe
subsLanLlal change Lo Lhe sysLem of governance
for susLalnlng relaLlons beLween lA1A and Lhe
used ln lA1A. uemands have generally focused on
CovernmenL of aklsLan.
full lnLegraLlon of lA1A lnLo Lhe khyber
akhLunkhwa or lLs asslmllaLlon as separaLe
1he local admlnlsLraLlon ln each agency ls managed
provlnce of aklsLan, en[oylng equal consLlLuLlonal
by a ollLlcal AgenL, who ls a federal clvll servanL,
rlghLs and guaranLees.
and each sub-dlvlslon (1ebsll) ls headed by an
AsslsLanL ollLlcal AgenL. 1he ollLlcal AgenL
SupporL for keeploq lA1As cotteot qovetoloq
performs several funcLlons aL Lhe same Llme - Lhey
ottooqemeots has been gradually decllnlng. ln 2008
acL as an execuLlve, [udge and revenue collecLor.
and 2009 approxlmaLely one ln flve respondenLs
1hey also head Lhe Agency Councll and oversee
favoured Lhls opLlon buL by 2010 Lhls had reduced
developmenL pro[ecLs.
Lo less Lhan one ln Len. ln 2011, desplLe a small
1he Structure of IA1AAdm|n|strat|on
Ma|nstream|ng IA1A- Iuture status
13
CovernmenL of aklsLan, Clause 7: ArLlcle 247 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe lslamlc 8epubllc of aklsLan (1973)
hLLp://paklsLanconsLlLuLlon-law.org/arLlcle-247-admlnlsLraLlon-of-Lrlbal-areas/
14
lA1A: Challenges and 8esponse by ur. laqlr Pussaln, SecreLary Law & !usLlce Commlsslon of aklsLan - un-publlshed paper
undersLandlng lA1A
22
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
keasons for estab||shment of a IA1A
Counc|| keasons for IA1A to be estab||shed as
a separate prov|nce of ak|stan
provlnce have conslsLenLly lncreased over Lhe lasL
four years, afLer an lnlLlal decllne from a hlgh of
34.3 ln 2007Lo 19.8 ln 2008.
Cf Lhe parLlclpanLs LhaL wanLed lA1A Lo be
esLabllshed as a separaLe provlnce, over half (887
respondenLs) were moved Lo Lhls declslon because
Lhey wanLed greaLer conLrol of Lhelr resources, an
evenLuallLy LhaL could noL be achleved Lhrough
unlon wlLh kk and lLs more powerful ellLes (a
concern of afurLher 183respondenLs).
Accesslon of provlnclal sLaLus was also favoured by
a slgnlflcanL 28.2 (or some 10.0 of Lhe LoLal
number of people surveyed) because Lhey belleved
lL would allow lA1A to be molostteomeJ loto
loklstoo wblle ptesetvloq locol coltotes ooJ
ttoJltloos. Agaln, lL ls evldenL LhaL lnhablLanLs of
lA1A are very possesslve of Lhelr culLure, and wlsh
Lo safeguard lL from exLernal lnfluence.
As lllusLraLed by llgure 2.1: only a very small
percenLage of lA1A respondenLs (3.4) belleved ln
1hls opLlon was supporLed by Lhe greaLesL number
Lhe esLabllshmenL of a lA1A Councll - wlLh elecLed
of respondenLs, (26.7), parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe 2011
members, and wlLh Lhe resldenL of aklsLan
survey. Calls for lA1A Lo evolve lnLo a separaLe
reLalnlng consLlLuLlonal powers under ArLlcle 247.
2
3
.
2
7
.
3
3
1
.
1
1
3
.
7
0
.
3
T
h
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

o
f

F
C
R

s
u
i
t
s

o
u
r

c
u
l
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
O
t
h
e
r

(
s
p
e
c
i
f
y
)
D
o
n
'
t

k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 2.3: keasons that IA1A shou|d keep |ts
current govern|ng arrangements
T
h
e

p
o
l
i
t
i
c
a
l

s
y
s
t
e
m

i
n

t
h
e

r
e
s
t

o
f

P
a
k
i
s
t
a
n
i
s

n
o
t

a
s

g
o
o
d

W
e

h
a
v
e

b
e
e
n

l
i
v
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

t
h
i
s

s
y
s
t
e
m

f
o
r

a

l
o
n
g

t
i
m
e
28.2
2.3
0.3
11.9
37.0
lL wlll be posslble for lA1A Lo be malnsLreamed lnLo
aklsLan, whllsL preservlng local culLures and
LradlLlons
uomlnaLlon from kk would noL be accepLable
We wanL conLrol over our own resources
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 2.4: keasons for IA1A to be estab||shed as a separate prov|nce of ak|stan
2S
lncrease ln supporL, only 11.0 of respondenLs opporLunlLles (13.6), whlle, 19.1 of respondenLs
supporLed malnLalnlng Lhe currenL sLaLus quo ln favoured closer Lles wlLh kkbecauseLhey percelve
lA1A. ln 2010 an addlLlonal quesLlon was added Lo Lhe Lwo reglons Lo be lnexorably llnked by
Lhe survey, asklng respondenLs lf Lhey would geography.
supporL a lA1A Councll wlLh an elecLed assembly.
lL ls lmporLanL Lo menLlon LhaL Lhe merger of lA1A
Whlle, Lhls opLlon appears Lo have some supporL
wlLh kkls supporLed byLheAwaml naLlonal arLy.
from ellLes, [usL 2.9 of people ln 2010 and only
3.4 supporLed Lhls developmenL.
Cf Lhe11.0 who belleved LhaL LhepresenL pollLlcal
sysLem ln lA1A should be malnLalned (see llgure
As shown ln llgure 2.1: 22.0 of respondenLs
2.1), over half of Lhe 360 respondenLs (or 7.2 of
belleved LhaL lA1A should be folly loteqtoteJ loto
Lhe LoLal number of people surveyed) were of Lhe
klk, Lhese 1,729 respondenLs were Lhen asked why
oplnlon LhaL Lhls should be Lhe case because Lhey
Lhey belleved Lhls Lo be a poslLlve ouLcome. 1he
had beeo llvloq wltb tbls systemfot o looq tlme and
ma[orlLy of respondenLs 30.7 (or 13.3 of Lhe
LhaL Lhey were used Lo lL. A quarLer of respondenLs
overall survey) belleved LhaL lA1A and kk are
oplned LhaL tbe systemof lck solts oot coltote ooJ
hlsLorlcally one and Lhe same area, whlle 22.3 (or
eovltoomeot. 1hls oplnlon ls surprlslng as lC8 ls a
9.6 of Lhe overall survey) were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
draconlan sysLem, lnLroduced by Colonlal 8rlLaln,
kk and lA1A shared eLhnlc llnks Lo each oLher.
and works Lo LhedeLrlmenL of local Lrlbes.
varlous Lrlbes or clans llve on boLh sldes of Lhe
border beLween kk and lA1A - for example Lhe
lurLhermore, some 13.7 belleve LhaL tbe polltlcol
uLman khel Lrlbe of 8a[aur ls also locaLed ln Lower
systemlo tbe test of loklstoo ls oot os qooJ and are
ulr, a conslderable number of Lhe Wazlr Lrlbe are
Lherefore happy Lo malnLaln Lhe currenL
resldenL ln 8annu, and, Mohmands have occupled
admlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A. 1hls vlew appears Lo be
mosL parL of Shabqadar 1ehsll ln Charsadda.
parLl cul arl y proml nenL among Lhe ol der
generaLlon. 1hls was becauseof concerns regardlng
AddlLlonally, a quarLer of Lhe respondenLs who
pollce and [udlclal sysLems lnLroduced ln seLLled
favoured unlLlng lA1A and kk lnLo one provlnce,
dlsLrlcLs, lL was feared LhaL slmllar sysLems lmposed
dld so because Lhey belleved LhaL merglng kk and
ln lA1A would undermlne Lhelr valued culLure and
lA1A would make elLher admlnlsLraLlve sense
LradlLlons.
(10.0) or lmprove economlc and soclal
keasons that IA1A shou|d keep |ts
current govern|ng arrangements keasons for support|ng fu|| |ntegrat|on
|nto khyber akhtunkhwa (kk)
3
0
.
7
1
0
.
9
1
3
.
6
1
.
3
1
9
.
1
2
2
.
3
lL was
hlsLorlcally one
and Lhe same
area
lL ls
geographlcally
llnked
lL ls eLhnlcally
llnked
lL would be easy
Lo govern
We would have
beLLer economlc,
soclal and
pollLlcal
opporLunlLles
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 2.2 - keasons for support|ng fu|| |ntegrat|on |nto kk
undersLandlng lA1A
24
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
keasons for estab||shment of a IA1A
Counc|| keasons for IA1A to be estab||shed as
a separate prov|nce of ak|stan
provlnce have conslsLenLly lncreased over Lhe lasL
four years, afLer an lnlLlal decllne from a hlgh of
34.3 ln 2007Lo 19.8 ln 2008.
Cf Lhe parLlclpanLs LhaL wanLed lA1A Lo be
esLabllshed as a separaLe provlnce, over half (887
respondenLs) were moved Lo Lhls declslon because
Lhey wanLed greaLer conLrol of Lhelr resources, an
evenLuallLy LhaL could noL be achleved Lhrough
unlon wlLh kk and lLs more powerful ellLes (a
concern of afurLher 183respondenLs).
Accesslon of provlnclal sLaLus was also favoured by
a slgnlflcanL 28.2 (or some 10.0 of Lhe LoLal
number of people surveyed) because Lhey belleved
lL would allow lA1A to be molostteomeJ loto
loklstoo wblle ptesetvloq locol coltotes ooJ
ttoJltloos. Agaln, lL ls evldenL LhaL lnhablLanLs of
lA1A are very possesslve of Lhelr culLure, and wlsh
Lo safeguard lL from exLernal lnfluence.
As lllusLraLed by llgure 2.1: only a very small
percenLage of lA1A respondenLs (3.4) belleved ln
1hls opLlon was supporLed by Lhe greaLesL number
Lhe esLabllshmenL of a lA1A Councll - wlLh elecLed
of respondenLs, (26.7), parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe 2011
members, and wlLh Lhe resldenL of aklsLan
survey. Calls for lA1A Lo evolve lnLo a separaLe
reLalnlng consLlLuLlonal powers under ArLlcle 247.
2
3
.
2
7
.
3
3
1
.
1
1
3
.
7
0
.
3
T
h
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

o
f

F
C
R

s
u
i
t
s

o
u
r

c
u
l
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
O
t
h
e
r

(
s
p
e
c
i
f
y
)
D
o
n
'
t

k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 2.3: keasons that IA1A shou|d keep |ts
current govern|ng arrangements
T
h
e

p
o
l
i
t
i
c
a
l

s
y
s
t
e
m

i
n

t
h
e

r
e
s
t

o
f

P
a
k
i
s
t
a
n
i
s

n
o
t

a
s

g
o
o
d

W
e

h
a
v
e

b
e
e
n

l
i
v
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

t
h
i
s

s
y
s
t
e
m

f
o
r

a

l
o
n
g

t
i
m
e
28.2
2.3
0.3
11.9
37.0
lL wlll be posslble for lA1A Lo be malnsLreamed lnLo
aklsLan, whllsL preservlng local culLures and
LradlLlons
uomlnaLlon from kk would noL be accepLable
We wanL conLrol over our own resources
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 2.4: keasons for IA1A to be estab||shed as a separate prov|nce of ak|stan
2S
lncrease ln supporL, only 11.0 of respondenLs opporLunlLles (13.6), whlle, 19.1 of respondenLs
supporLed malnLalnlng Lhe currenL sLaLus quo ln favoured closer Lles wlLh kkbecauseLhey percelve
lA1A. ln 2010 an addlLlonal quesLlon was added Lo Lhe Lwo reglons Lo be lnexorably llnked by
Lhe survey, asklng respondenLs lf Lhey would geography.
supporL a lA1A Councll wlLh an elecLed assembly.
lL ls lmporLanL Lo menLlon LhaL Lhe merger of lA1A
Whlle, Lhls opLlon appears Lo have some supporL
wlLh kkls supporLed byLheAwaml naLlonal arLy.
from ellLes, [usL 2.9 of people ln 2010 and only
3.4 supporLed Lhls developmenL.
Cf Lhe11.0 who belleved LhaL LhepresenL pollLlcal
sysLem ln lA1A should be malnLalned (see llgure
As shown ln llgure 2.1: 22.0 of respondenLs
2.1), over half of Lhe 360 respondenLs (or 7.2 of
belleved LhaL lA1A should be folly loteqtoteJ loto
Lhe LoLal number of people surveyed) were of Lhe
klk, Lhese 1,729 respondenLs were Lhen asked why
oplnlon LhaL Lhls should be Lhe case because Lhey
Lhey belleved Lhls Lo be a poslLlve ouLcome. 1he
had beeo llvloq wltb tbls systemfot o looq tlme and
ma[orlLy of respondenLs 30.7 (or 13.3 of Lhe
LhaL Lhey were used Lo lL. A quarLer of respondenLs
overall survey) belleved LhaL lA1A and kk are
oplned LhaL tbe systemof lck solts oot coltote ooJ
hlsLorlcally one and Lhe same area, whlle 22.3 (or
eovltoomeot. 1hls oplnlon ls surprlslng as lC8 ls a
9.6 of Lhe overall survey) were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
draconlan sysLem, lnLroduced by Colonlal 8rlLaln,
kk and lA1A shared eLhnlc llnks Lo each oLher.
and works Lo LhedeLrlmenL of local Lrlbes.
varlous Lrlbes or clans llve on boLh sldes of Lhe
border beLween kk and lA1A - for example Lhe
lurLhermore, some 13.7 belleve LhaL tbe polltlcol
uLman khel Lrlbe of 8a[aur ls also locaLed ln Lower
systemlo tbe test of loklstoo ls oot os qooJ and are
ulr, a conslderable number of Lhe Wazlr Lrlbe are
Lherefore happy Lo malnLaln Lhe currenL
resldenL ln 8annu, and, Mohmands have occupled
admlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A. 1hls vlew appears Lo be
mosL parL of Shabqadar 1ehsll ln Charsadda.
parLl cul arl y proml nenL among Lhe ol der
generaLlon. 1hls was becauseof concerns regardlng
AddlLlonally, a quarLer of Lhe respondenLs who
pollce and [udlclal sysLems lnLroduced ln seLLled
favoured unlLlng lA1A and kk lnLo one provlnce,
dlsLrlcLs, lL was feared LhaL slmllar sysLems lmposed
dld so because Lhey belleved LhaL merglng kk and
ln lA1A would undermlne Lhelr valued culLure and
lA1A would make elLher admlnlsLraLlve sense
LradlLlons.
(10.0) or lmprove economlc and soclal
keasons that IA1A shou|d keep |ts
current govern|ng arrangements keasons for support|ng fu|| |ntegrat|on
|nto khyber akhtunkhwa (kk)
3
0
.
7
1
0
.
9
1
3
.
6
1
.
3
1
9
.
1
2
2
.
3
lL was
hlsLorlcally one
and Lhe same
area
lL ls
geographlcally
llnked
lL ls eLhnlcally
llnked
lL would be easy
Lo govern
We would have
beLLer economlc,
soclal and
pollLlcal
opporLunlLles
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 2.2 - keasons for support|ng fu|| |ntegrat|on |nto kk
undersLandlng lA1A
24
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
LhaL are fully supporLlve (an aLLlLude shared by a Lhose calllng for lLs abollLlon. ln 2010, 43.4
quarLer of respondenLs, an lncrease of over 7.0), wanLed Lhe lC8 Lo be abollshed, Lhls flgure has
whlle opposlLlon has slgnlflcanLly reduced, less reduced Lo 30.0 (sLlll a very slgnlflcanL number as
Lhan 4.0 of peopleexpressed open opposlLlon. lL equals nearly a Lhlrd of all respondenLs) ln 2011.
Calls for fundamenLal reform have remalned sLeady
wlLh approxlmaLely 23.0 of people calllng for Lhls
ln boLh 2010and 2011.
arLlal reform of Lhe lC8 remalns a largely
As lndlcaLed by llgure 2.7: conLlnued supporL for
unsupporLed opLlon wlLh [usL 8.4 of people
Lhe lC8 ls held by only a very small mlnorlLy of
offerlng Lhls response. Agaln, a slzeable number of
survey respondenLs. ln 2010, only 3.4 of people
respondenLs, 16.3, agaln dld noL know Lheanswer
would choose Lo tetolo lt lo lts pteseot fotm. ln
or wereundeclded.
2011, Lhls flgure, whlle en[oylng some more
supporL, remalns aL only 4.9. ln conLrasL, a
lL appears LhaL confuslon has lncreased wlLh regard
slzeable ma[orlLy deslre slgnlflcanL change. lL ls
Lo admlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A as over a quarLer of
noLeablehowever, LhaL beLween Lhe2010and 2011
respondenLs were unable Lo answer. Powever, Lhe
surveys, Lhere has been a dramaLlc reducLlon ln
1he future of the Iront|er Cr|mes
kegu|at|on (ICk)
1
7
.
1
6
.
9
1
1
.
1
2
2
.
6
1
0
.
9
1
3
.
6
2
6
.
7
2
4
.
6
1
.
4
4
3
.
8
2
.
3
1
6
.
9
lully supporL arLly supporL lully oppose arLly oppose no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.6: What do you th|nk of the Government of ak|stan's current proposa|s for reformof the ICk?
4
3
.
4
3
.
4
2
.
9
1
6
.
3
3
.
3
2
3
.
7
8
.
4
2
4
.
0
6
.
8
2
8
.
8
4
.
9
3
0
.
0
lL should be
abollshed
lundamenLally
reformed
arLly reformed 8eLaln ln lLs
presenL form
no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.7: What do you th|nk of ICk?
27
Cf Lhe 220 respondenLs LhaL preferred Lhls esLabllshed, prlor Lo Lhe formaLlon of agency level
developmenL, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs (some Advlsory Counclls. 1hey were parLlcularly
43.8 represenLlng 2.4 of Lhe overall survey) supporLlve of curLalllng Lhe powers of Lhe ollLlcal
belleved LhaL Lhe esLabllshmenL of a lA1A Councll AgenL.
would help Lo prepare Lhe leadershlp, as well as Lhe
Iema|e IGDs
local populaLlon, for fuLure pollLlcal changes,
1he ma[orlLy of female respondenLs were unhappy
namely, Lhe full malnsLreamlng of lA1A lnLo Lhe resL
wlLh Lhe presenL pollLlcal sysLem ln place ln lA1A
of aklsLan. 1hls noLlon of faclllLaLlng a gradual
and Lherefore deslred change. 1here was a
change was shared by a furLher 61 respondenLs
commonly shared vlew LhaL Lhey were unsure how
(comprlslng 28.4) who felL LhaL a lA1A Councll
besL Lo achleve Lhls, however, some preferred Lhe
would empower a sLeady LranslLlon from an old
esLabllshmenL of lA1A as aseparaLeprovlnce.
sysLem Lo anew one.
A furLher mlnorlLy oplned LhaL deallng wlLh one
declslon maker, l.e. Lhe resldenL of aklsLan, was
easler Lhan deallng wlLh Lhe whole parllamenL - a
poLenLlal causeof numerous delays and confuslons.
Whlle reforms appear Lo be generally supporLed,
concerns remaln as Lo Lhe value of Lhe changes
Ma|e IGDs
lnlLlally proposed by presldenLlal decree ln AugusL
All male respondenLs from Lhe lCus were lnvlLed Lo
2009and subsequenLlyformallsed ln AugusL 2011.
share Lhelr oplnlons relaLlng Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal
sLaLus of lA1A. 1he mosL commonly ldenLlfled
ln 2010, some 43.0 of Lhe respondenLs were
Lheory was LhaL lA1A should be esLabllshed as a
supporLlve, aL leasL ln parL, wlLh 17.1 ln foll
separaLe provlnce, raLher Lhan merged wlLh kk.
soppott and 26.7 pottly soppottloq Lhe noLlon.
Powever, respondenLs from 8a[aur and Mohmand
Powever, slgnlflcanL mlnorlLles of 13.6 (folly) and
Agencles unanlmously agreed LhaL [olnlng kk was
6.9 (pottly) opposed Lhe ldea. ApproxlmaLely one
preferenLlal. 1hls ls llkely Lo be because of close
Lhlrd of respondenLs were undeclded or unable Lo
eLhnlc Lles wlLh communlLles ln kk.
answer.
Male respondenLs from norLh WazlrlsLan Agency
ln 2011, slmllar numbers of people have remalned
suggesLed LhaL a lA1A Advlsory Councll be
supporLlve, buL wlLh a noLable lncrease ln Lhose
Support for the Government of
ak|stan on ICk reform
21.4
8.4
28.4
43.8
ueallng wlLh one declslon maker (resldenL of aklsLan)
ls easler Lhan deallng wlLh Lhe whole arllamenL
lL would be a gradual shlfL from old Lo new sysLem
1hls wlll prepare us for Lhe fuLure pollLlcal change
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 2.S: keasons for estab||shment of a IA1A Counc|| ak|stan
undersLandlng lA1A
26
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
LhaL are fully supporLlve (an aLLlLude shared by a Lhose calllng for lLs abollLlon. ln 2010, 43.4
quarLer of respondenLs, an lncrease of over 7.0), wanLed Lhe lC8 Lo be abollshed, Lhls flgure has
whlle opposlLlon has slgnlflcanLly reduced, less reduced Lo 30.0 (sLlll a very slgnlflcanL number as
Lhan 4.0 of peopleexpressed open opposlLlon. lL equals nearly a Lhlrd of all respondenLs) ln 2011.
Calls for fundamenLal reform have remalned sLeady
wlLh approxlmaLely 23.0 of people calllng for Lhls
ln boLh 2010and 2011.
arLlal reform of Lhe lC8 remalns a largely
As lndlcaLed by llgure 2.7: conLlnued supporL for
unsupporLed opLlon wlLh [usL 8.4 of people
Lhe lC8 ls held by only a very small mlnorlLy of
offerlng Lhls response. Agaln, a slzeable number of
survey respondenLs. ln 2010, only 3.4 of people
respondenLs, 16.3, agaln dld noL know Lheanswer
would choose Lo tetolo lt lo lts pteseot fotm. ln
or wereundeclded.
2011, Lhls flgure, whlle en[oylng some more
supporL, remalns aL only 4.9. ln conLrasL, a
lL appears LhaL confuslon has lncreased wlLh regard
slzeable ma[orlLy deslre slgnlflcanL change. lL ls
Lo admlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A as over a quarLer of
noLeablehowever, LhaL beLween Lhe2010and 2011
respondenLs were unable Lo answer. Powever, Lhe
surveys, Lhere has been a dramaLlc reducLlon ln
1he future of the Iront|er Cr|mes
kegu|at|on (ICk)
1
7
.
1
6
.
9
1
1
.
1
2
2
.
6
1
0
.
9
1
3
.
6
2
6
.
7
2
4
.
6
1
.
4
4
3
.
8
2
.
3
1
6
.
9
lully supporL arLly supporL lully oppose arLly oppose no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.6: What do you th|nk of the Government of ak|stan's current proposa|s for reformof the ICk?
4
3
.
4
3
.
4
2
.
9
1
6
.
3
3
.
3
2
3
.
7
8
.
4
2
4
.
0
6
.
8
2
8
.
8
4
.
9
3
0
.
0
lL should be
abollshed
lundamenLally
reformed
arLly reformed 8eLaln ln lLs
presenL form
no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.7: What do you th|nk of ICk?
27
Cf Lhe 220 respondenLs LhaL preferred Lhls esLabllshed, prlor Lo Lhe formaLlon of agency level
developmenL, Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs (some Advlsory Counclls. 1hey were parLlcularly
43.8 represenLlng 2.4 of Lhe overall survey) supporLlve of curLalllng Lhe powers of Lhe ollLlcal
belleved LhaL Lhe esLabllshmenL of a lA1A Councll AgenL.
would help Lo prepare Lhe leadershlp, as well as Lhe
Iema|e IGDs
local populaLlon, for fuLure pollLlcal changes,
1he ma[orlLy of female respondenLs were unhappy
namely, Lhe full malnsLreamlng of lA1A lnLo Lhe resL
wlLh Lhe presenL pollLlcal sysLem ln place ln lA1A
of aklsLan. 1hls noLlon of faclllLaLlng a gradual
and Lherefore deslred change. 1here was a
change was shared by a furLher 61 respondenLs
commonly shared vlew LhaL Lhey were unsure how
(comprlslng 28.4) who felL LhaL a lA1A Councll
besL Lo achleve Lhls, however, some preferred Lhe
would empower a sLeady LranslLlon from an old
esLabllshmenL of lA1A as aseparaLeprovlnce.
sysLem Lo anew one.
A furLher mlnorlLy oplned LhaL deallng wlLh one
declslon maker, l.e. Lhe resldenL of aklsLan, was
easler Lhan deallng wlLh Lhe whole parllamenL - a
poLenLlal causeof numerous delays and confuslons.
Whlle reforms appear Lo be generally supporLed,
concerns remaln as Lo Lhe value of Lhe changes
Ma|e IGDs
lnlLlally proposed by presldenLlal decree ln AugusL
All male respondenLs from Lhe lCus were lnvlLed Lo
2009and subsequenLlyformallsed ln AugusL 2011.
share Lhelr oplnlons relaLlng Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal
sLaLus of lA1A. 1he mosL commonly ldenLlfled
ln 2010, some 43.0 of Lhe respondenLs were
Lheory was LhaL lA1A should be esLabllshed as a
supporLlve, aL leasL ln parL, wlLh 17.1 ln foll
separaLe provlnce, raLher Lhan merged wlLh kk.
soppott and 26.7 pottly soppottloq Lhe noLlon.
Powever, respondenLs from 8a[aur and Mohmand
Powever, slgnlflcanL mlnorlLles of 13.6 (folly) and
Agencles unanlmously agreed LhaL [olnlng kk was
6.9 (pottly) opposed Lhe ldea. ApproxlmaLely one
preferenLlal. 1hls ls llkely Lo be because of close
Lhlrd of respondenLs were undeclded or unable Lo
eLhnlc Lles wlLh communlLles ln kk.
answer.
Male respondenLs from norLh WazlrlsLan Agency
ln 2011, slmllar numbers of people have remalned
suggesLed LhaL a lA1A Advlsory Councll be
supporLlve, buL wlLh a noLable lncrease ln Lhose
Support for the Government of
ak|stan on ICk reform
21.4
8.4
28.4
43.8
ueallng wlLh one declslon maker (resldenL of aklsLan)
ls easler Lhan deallng wlLh Lhe whole arllamenL
lL would be a gradual shlfL from old Lo new sysLem
1hls wlll prepare us for Lhe fuLure pollLlcal change
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 2.S: keasons for estab||shment of a IA1A Counc|| ak|stan
undersLandlng lA1A
26
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
resldenLs of lA1A from abuses. 1hls ls lllusLraLed by lokbtoo Lrlbes percelve Iltqo Lo be Lhe mosL
Lhe excluslon of Lhe superlor [udlclary from rullng efflclenL mechanlsm for [usLlce dlspensaLlon ln
on lssues ln lA1A. lA1A. lurLhermore, 13.3 respondenLs oplned LhaL
Lhe Mollks/Lrlbes should remaln responslble for
CollecLlve ArresL and 1errlLorlal 8esponslblllLy
managlng law and order ln Lhelr area.
clauses of Lhe lC8 are very much lnLerLwlned. Law
and order ln a LerrlLory ls Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe lnLeresLlngly, 19.4 of Lhe respondenLs LhoughL
local Lrlbeor clan buL ln exLraordlnary slLuaLlons Lhe LhaL lA1A people should be glven Lhe rlghL Lo
LerrlLorlal ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon can enforce pracLlce Lhelr cusLoms and LradlLlons wlLhouL any
Lhese clauses. ApproxlmaLely one ln Len of exLernal lnLerference. 1hls ls surprlslng as only flve
respondenLs deslred LhaL Lhese clauses be per cenL of respondenLs opposereforms Lo lC8 (see
compleLely removed, however, lL should be noLed llgure2.7).
LhaL lf Lhls were Lo be faclllLaLed no oLher
8eLalnlng any or all of Lhese elemenLs under lC8
mechanlsm exlsLs by whlch securlLy can be
would requlre some changes Lo lmprove
provlded Lo local communlLles agalnsL forms of
lmplemenLaLlon, for lnsLance, lL ls evldenL from Lhe
lnLernal or exLernal aggresslon. 1hese clauses
fl ndl ngs documenLed l n ChapLer 1 LhaL
remaln parL of lC8 (Amended).
Mollks/Lrlbes have falled Lo address securlLy
concerns ln lA1A. 1he[usLlcesysLem represenLed by
Iltqo also ralses several concerns, lncludlng Lhe
represenLaLlon of women and mlnorlLles, Lhe
safeguardlng of human rlghLs, capaclLy Lo deal wlLh
8espondenLs were asked whaL aspecLs are mosL
complex cases of aclvll and crlmlnal naLure.
lmporLanL Lo reLaln ln Lhe lC8"? 1he mosL deslred
aspecL of Lhe lC8 ls Lhe Iltqo sysLem, a mechanlsm
Ma|e IGDs
supporLed by a quarLer of respondenLs. 1he
ln all male lCus Lhe ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs
What aspects are most |mportant to
reta|n |n the ICk
23.8
34.7
0.6
13.3
19.4
0.0
1he !lrga sysLemunder lC8 should remaln lnLacL
Mallks/Lrlbes should remaln responslble for law and order
lA1A people should be glven Lhe rlghL Lo pracLlce Lhelr
cusLoms and LradlLlons wlLhouL any lnLerference
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
no oplnlon
2011 ()
I|gure 2.9: What aspects are most |mportant to amend |n the ICk?
13
lC8 (Amended) 2011 had yeL Lo be slgned when CAM faclllLaLed Lhe lCus for Lhe 2011 reporL
29
AddlLlonally, 18.1 of survey parLlclpanLs deslred
daLaposlLlvely shows LhaL Lherels an overwhelmlng
Lhe removal of Lhe collecLlve responslblllLy/arresL
deslre for change even Lhough Lhe exacL naLure of
clause. AmendmenLs Lo Lhe lC8, lnLroduced ln
Lhe change ls noL as clear. lL ls Lherefore necessary
2011, have gone someway Lo faclllLaLlng Lhls end,
LhaL, Lhere should be a voLe on Lhls lssue and launch
wlLh women, chlldren and elderly (age 63 and
of publlc educaLlon programmes explalnlng Lhe
above) belng granLed exempLlon buL conslderable
opLlons needed Lo belnLroduced.
expecLaLlons remaln on lA1A males. 13.3 deslred
LhaL Lhe people of lA1A be glven Lhe rlghL Lo appeal
agalnsL Lhe declslons of Lhe ollLlcal AgenL.
SubsequenL Lo Lhe concluslon of Lhe research for
Lhls survey Lhe lC8 (Amended) 2011 has addressed
lollowlng Lhe flndlngs of Lhe 2010 survey an
Lhls lssue.
addlLlonal quesLlon was asked ln 2011Lo llllclL Lhose
aspecLs of Lhe lC8 LhaL respondenLs felL were ln
Among respondenLs (11.3), Lhere also appears Lo
mosL need of change. 1he daLa shows LhaL more
Lhan one Lhlrd of respondenLs (33.4) are be a greaLer deslre for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
undeclded or dld noL know. Cf Lhose who dld fundamenLal rlghLs - an lssue whlch has noL been
answer, Lhe mosL supporLed vlew (held by 20.6 of addressed by Lhe lC8 (Amended) 2011. 1he people
respondenLs) was LhaL Lhe powers of Lhe ollLlcal of lA1A are supposed Lo possess all fundamenLal
AgenL should beconslderablycurLalled. rlghLs as enshrlned ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of aklsLan:
however, Lhere ls no mechanlsm for safeguardlng
What aspects of the ICk are |n most
need of change?
I|gure 2.8: What aspects are most |mportant to change |n the ICk?
20.6
9.4
5.1
13.5
0.0
35.4
0.7
4.3
18.1
11.3
owers of Lhe ollLlcal AgenL should be
curLalled conslderably
lundamenLal rlghLs should be addressed
ln Lhe lC8
CollecLlve responslblllLy/arresL clause
should be removed
1errlLorlal responslblllLy clause should
be removed
uemollLlon of properLy clause should
be removed
1he rlghL Lo appeal agalnsL Lhe declslons of Lhe
ollLlcal AgenLshould be glven Lo Lhe lA1A resldenLs
!lrga under lC8 should be free of Lhe lnfluence
of Lhe ollLlcal AgenL
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
no oplnlon
2011 ()
undersLandlng lA1A
28
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
resldenLs of lA1A from abuses. 1hls ls lllusLraLed by lokbtoo Lrlbes percelve Iltqo Lo be Lhe mosL
Lhe excluslon of Lhe superlor [udlclary from rullng efflclenL mechanlsm for [usLlce dlspensaLlon ln
on lssues ln lA1A. lA1A. lurLhermore, 13.3 respondenLs oplned LhaL
Lhe Mollks/Lrlbes should remaln responslble for
CollecLlve ArresL and 1errlLorlal 8esponslblllLy
managlng law and order ln Lhelr area.
clauses of Lhe lC8 are very much lnLerLwlned. Law
and order ln a LerrlLory ls Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe lnLeresLlngly, 19.4 of Lhe respondenLs LhoughL
local Lrlbeor clan buL ln exLraordlnary slLuaLlons Lhe LhaL lA1A people should be glven Lhe rlghL Lo
LerrlLorlal ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon can enforce pracLlce Lhelr cusLoms and LradlLlons wlLhouL any
Lhese clauses. ApproxlmaLely one ln Len of exLernal lnLerference. 1hls ls surprlslng as only flve
respondenLs deslred LhaL Lhese clauses be per cenL of respondenLs opposereforms Lo lC8 (see
compleLely removed, however, lL should be noLed llgure2.7).
LhaL lf Lhls were Lo be faclllLaLed no oLher
8eLalnlng any or all of Lhese elemenLs under lC8
mechanlsm exlsLs by whlch securlLy can be
would requlre some changes Lo lmprove
provlded Lo local communlLles agalnsL forms of
lmplemenLaLlon, for lnsLance, lL ls evldenL from Lhe
lnLernal or exLernal aggresslon. 1hese clauses
fl ndl ngs documenLed l n ChapLer 1 LhaL
remaln parL of lC8 (Amended).
Mollks/Lrlbes have falled Lo address securlLy
concerns ln lA1A. 1he[usLlcesysLem represenLed by
Iltqo also ralses several concerns, lncludlng Lhe
represenLaLlon of women and mlnorlLles, Lhe
safeguardlng of human rlghLs, capaclLy Lo deal wlLh
8espondenLs were asked whaL aspecLs are mosL
complex cases of aclvll and crlmlnal naLure.
lmporLanL Lo reLaln ln Lhe lC8"? 1he mosL deslred
aspecL of Lhe lC8 ls Lhe Iltqo sysLem, a mechanlsm
Ma|e IGDs
supporLed by a quarLer of respondenLs. 1he
ln all male lCus Lhe ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs
What aspects are most |mportant to
reta|n |n the ICk
23.8
34.7
0.6
13.3
19.4
0.0
1he !lrga sysLemunder lC8 should remaln lnLacL
Mallks/Lrlbes should remaln responslble for law and order
lA1A people should be glven Lhe rlghL Lo pracLlce Lhelr
cusLoms and LradlLlons wlLhouL any lnLerference
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
no oplnlon
2011 ()
I|gure 2.9: What aspects are most |mportant to amend |n the ICk?
13
lC8 (Amended) 2011 had yeL Lo be slgned when CAM faclllLaLed Lhe lCus for Lhe 2011 reporL
29
AddlLlonally, 18.1 of survey parLlclpanLs deslred
daLaposlLlvely shows LhaL Lherels an overwhelmlng
Lhe removal of Lhe collecLlve responslblllLy/arresL
deslre for change even Lhough Lhe exacL naLure of
clause. AmendmenLs Lo Lhe lC8, lnLroduced ln
Lhe change ls noL as clear. lL ls Lherefore necessary
2011, have gone someway Lo faclllLaLlng Lhls end,
LhaL, Lhere should be a voLe on Lhls lssue and launch
wlLh women, chlldren and elderly (age 63 and
of publlc educaLlon programmes explalnlng Lhe
above) belng granLed exempLlon buL conslderable
opLlons needed Lo belnLroduced.
expecLaLlons remaln on lA1A males. 13.3 deslred
LhaL Lhe people of lA1A be glven Lhe rlghL Lo appeal
agalnsL Lhe declslons of Lhe ollLlcal AgenL.
SubsequenL Lo Lhe concluslon of Lhe research for
Lhls survey Lhe lC8 (Amended) 2011 has addressed
lollowlng Lhe flndlngs of Lhe 2010 survey an
Lhls lssue.
addlLlonal quesLlon was asked ln 2011Lo llllclL Lhose
aspecLs of Lhe lC8 LhaL respondenLs felL were ln
Among respondenLs (11.3), Lhere also appears Lo
mosL need of change. 1he daLa shows LhaL more
Lhan one Lhlrd of respondenLs (33.4) are be a greaLer deslre for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
undeclded or dld noL know. Cf Lhose who dld fundamenLal rlghLs - an lssue whlch has noL been
answer, Lhe mosL supporLed vlew (held by 20.6 of addressed by Lhe lC8 (Amended) 2011. 1he people
respondenLs) was LhaL Lhe powers of Lhe ollLlcal of lA1A are supposed Lo possess all fundamenLal
AgenL should beconslderablycurLalled. rlghLs as enshrlned ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of aklsLan:
however, Lhere ls no mechanlsm for safeguardlng
What aspects of the ICk are |n most
need of change?
I|gure 2.8: What aspects are most |mportant to change |n the ICk?
20.6
9.4
5.1
13.5
0.0
35.4
0.7
4.3
18.1
11.3
owers of Lhe ollLlcal AgenL should be
curLalled conslderably
lundamenLal rlghLs should be addressed
ln Lhe lC8
CollecLlve responslblllLy/arresL clause
should be removed
1errlLorlal responslblllLy clause should
be removed
uemollLlon of properLy clause should
be removed
1he rlghL Lo appeal agalnsL Lhe declslons of Lhe
ollLlcal AgenLshould be glven Lo Lhe lA1A resldenLs
!lrga under lC8 should be free of Lhe lnfluence
of Lhe ollLlcal AgenL
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
no oplnlon
2011 ()
undersLandlng lA1A
28
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
4.1
42.3
14.4
0.0
38.8
12.3
-
13.1
10.2
18.6
1.6
1.8
1.2
4.9
10.3
9.9
2.9
12.9
3.1
1.3
1.60
14.9
8.4
2.1
2.6
3.1
1.40
3.9
43.8
4.4
28.8
3.6
1.20
1.1
2.0
3.4
6.7
4.3
20.3
lmran khan
Aslf All Zardarl
nawaz Sharlf
lazal ur 8ehman
Cazl Pussaln Ahmad
?ousaf 8aza Clllanl
Asfandlyar Wall khan
none
uon'L know
no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.11: Adm|rat|on for a ||v|ng nat|ona| po||t|c|an (5electeJ)
31
nA
nA
nA
lL can Lherefore be surmlsed LhaL followlng Lhe
supporLed Lhe reforms Lo Lhe lC8 announced on 14
13
announcemenL ln 2009, delays ln lmplemenLaLlon
AugusL 2009, alLhough Lhere was llLLle knowledge
have had a deLrlmenLal lmpacL on percepLlons
of preclselywhaL reforms werebelng proposed.
resulLlng ln aloss of confldenceln LhegovernmenL.
Iema|e IGDs
lL ls lmporLanL Lo menLlon LhaL, prlor Lo Lhe
ln all femalelCus, Lheoverwhelmlng ma[orlLy were
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe ollLlcal arLles AcL 2011,
unsure whaL aspecLs of Lhe lC8 needed reform. A
represenLaLlves from lA1A ln Lhe parllamenLary
lack of female empowermenL may explaln Lhls
houses had been lndependenL and wlLhouL parLy
uncerLalnLy, wlLh any lnformaLlon on Lhe reforms
afflllaLlon. lollowlng Lhe accepLance of Lhe C,
largely derlved from male members of Lhelr
parLy afflllaLlon may help Lhe elecLoraLe of lA1A
famllles, who, as shown by Lhe prevlous daLa may
command greaLer lnfluence ln formlng parLy
havebeen slmllarlyunaware.
agendas for changeand developmenL.
Ma|e IGDs
MalerespondenLs from all lCus, wlLh LheexcepLlon
of Lhose from Crakzal Agency, supporLed Lhe
1he 2011 survey aLLempLed Lo gauge Lhe level of
exLenslon of Lhe C Lo lA1A. lL was felL LhaL Lhls
agreemenL wlLh Lhe (Lhen-currenL) proposal Lo
reform would empower communlLles Lo become
exLend Lhe ollLlcal arLles AcL 2002 Lo lA1A. As
lncreaslngly aware of Lhelr pollLlcal rlghLs and
prevlously noLed, Lhe survey was conducLed prlor
become more engaged ln declslon-maklng
Lo 12AugusL 2011.
processes.
As seen ln llgure 2.10: Lhe 2010 survey ldenLlfled
8espondenLs from Crakzal Agency remalned
LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy (39.7) of respondenLs agreed
cauLlous, as Lhey feared LhaL Lhe Ccould resulL ln
LhaL Lhe Crdlnance should be exLended Lo lA1A,
lncreased confllcL, by maklng reference Lo Lhe
whlle only 9.6 of respondenLs opposed Lhls
pollLlcally moLlvaLed vlolence LhaL has been
declslon. 1he survey of 2011, however, has seen a
experlenced ln oLher areas of aklsLan, especlally
surprlslng reducLlon ln Lhose supporLlng Lhe
durlng elecLlons.
ollLlcal arLles AcL. uesplLe reLalnlng slgnlflcanL
backlng (wlLh one-Lhlrd [34.9] conLlnulng Lo
Iema|e IGDS
supporL Lhe AcL) Lhe flgure has dropped by almosL
AlmosL all Lhe female respondenLs were unsure of
23.0. 1hls reducLlon ls compounded by Lhe
Lhe beneflLs of C represenLed. 8uL Lhey were
growLh ln opposlLlon Lo LheCrlslng Lo 16.0.
aware LhaL acLlvlsLs from aklsLan eople's arLy
() and LheMusllm LeaguewerepresenL ln lA1A.
Slnce C has been exLended Lo lA1A, all pollLlcal
parLles appear Lo be lnLeresLed ln esLabllshlng a
presence ln lA1A. ln order Lo gauge Lhe lnLeresL and
awareness of pollLlcal llfe ln aklsLan, respondenLs
have been asked Lo ldenLlfy Lhe pollLlclan whom
LheymosL admlred.
lor Lhe survey years LhaL Lhls quesLlon has been
asked, Lhe mosL dramaLlc flndlng has been LhaL Lhe
ma[orlLy, (36.7 ln 2008, 31.1 ln 2009, 34.0 ln
2010, 34.7 ln 2011), elLher dld noL know a
Lxtend|ng the o||t|ca| art|es
Crd|nance (C) to IA1A
Adm|rat|on for a ||v|ng nat|ona|
po||t|c|an
3
9
.
7
3
0
.
8
9
.
6
3
4
.
9
4
9
.
2
1
6
.
0
?es no uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.10: Lxtend|ng the o||t|ca| art|es
Crd|nance (C) to IA1A
undersLandlng lA1A
30
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
4.1
42.3
14.4
0.0
38.8
12.3
-
13.1
10.2
18.6
1.6
1.8
1.2
4.9
10.3
9.9
2.9
12.9
3.1
1.3
1.60
14.9
8.4
2.1
2.6
3.1
1.40
3.9
43.8
4.4
28.8
3.6
1.20
1.1
2.0
3.4
6.7
4.3
20.3
lmran khan
Aslf All Zardarl
nawaz Sharlf
lazal ur 8ehman
Cazl Pussaln Ahmad
?ousaf 8aza Clllanl
Asfandlyar Wall khan
none
uon'L know
no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.11: Adm|rat|on for a ||v|ng nat|ona| po||t|c|an (5electeJ)
31
nA
nA
nA
lL can Lherefore be surmlsed LhaL followlng Lhe
supporLed Lhe reforms Lo Lhe lC8 announced on 14
13
announcemenL ln 2009, delays ln lmplemenLaLlon
AugusL 2009, alLhough Lhere was llLLle knowledge
have had a deLrlmenLal lmpacL on percepLlons
of preclselywhaL reforms werebelng proposed.
resulLlng ln aloss of confldenceln LhegovernmenL.
Iema|e IGDs
lL ls lmporLanL Lo menLlon LhaL, prlor Lo Lhe
ln all femalelCus, Lheoverwhelmlng ma[orlLy were
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe ollLlcal arLles AcL 2011,
unsure whaL aspecLs of Lhe lC8 needed reform. A
represenLaLlves from lA1A ln Lhe parllamenLary
lack of female empowermenL may explaln Lhls
houses had been lndependenL and wlLhouL parLy
uncerLalnLy, wlLh any lnformaLlon on Lhe reforms
afflllaLlon. lollowlng Lhe accepLance of Lhe C,
largely derlved from male members of Lhelr
parLy afflllaLlon may help Lhe elecLoraLe of lA1A
famllles, who, as shown by Lhe prevlous daLa may
command greaLer lnfluence ln formlng parLy
havebeen slmllarlyunaware.
agendas for changeand developmenL.
Ma|e IGDs
MalerespondenLs from all lCus, wlLh LheexcepLlon
of Lhose from Crakzal Agency, supporLed Lhe
1he 2011 survey aLLempLed Lo gauge Lhe level of
exLenslon of Lhe C Lo lA1A. lL was felL LhaL Lhls
agreemenL wlLh Lhe (Lhen-currenL) proposal Lo
reform would empower communlLles Lo become
exLend Lhe ollLlcal arLles AcL 2002 Lo lA1A. As
lncreaslngly aware of Lhelr pollLlcal rlghLs and
prevlously noLed, Lhe survey was conducLed prlor
become more engaged ln declslon-maklng
Lo 12AugusL 2011.
processes.
As seen ln llgure 2.10: Lhe 2010 survey ldenLlfled
8espondenLs from Crakzal Agency remalned
LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy (39.7) of respondenLs agreed
cauLlous, as Lhey feared LhaL Lhe Ccould resulL ln
LhaL Lhe Crdlnance should be exLended Lo lA1A,
lncreased confllcL, by maklng reference Lo Lhe
whlle only 9.6 of respondenLs opposed Lhls
pollLlcally moLlvaLed vlolence LhaL has been
declslon. 1he survey of 2011, however, has seen a
experlenced ln oLher areas of aklsLan, especlally
surprlslng reducLlon ln Lhose supporLlng Lhe
durlng elecLlons.
ollLlcal arLles AcL. uesplLe reLalnlng slgnlflcanL
backlng (wlLh one-Lhlrd [34.9] conLlnulng Lo
Iema|e IGDS
supporL Lhe AcL) Lhe flgure has dropped by almosL
AlmosL all Lhe female respondenLs were unsure of
23.0. 1hls reducLlon ls compounded by Lhe
Lhe beneflLs of C represenLed. 8uL Lhey were
growLh ln opposlLlon Lo LheCrlslng Lo 16.0.
aware LhaL acLlvlsLs from aklsLan eople's arLy
() and LheMusllm LeaguewerepresenL ln lA1A.
Slnce C has been exLended Lo lA1A, all pollLlcal
parLles appear Lo be lnLeresLed ln esLabllshlng a
presence ln lA1A. ln order Lo gauge Lhe lnLeresL and
awareness of pollLlcal llfe ln aklsLan, respondenLs
have been asked Lo ldenLlfy Lhe pollLlclan whom
LheymosL admlred.
lor Lhe survey years LhaL Lhls quesLlon has been
asked, Lhe mosL dramaLlc flndlng has been LhaL Lhe
ma[orlLy, (36.7 ln 2008, 31.1 ln 2009, 34.0 ln
2010, 34.7 ln 2011), elLher dld noL know a
Lxtend|ng the o||t|ca| art|es
Crd|nance (C) to IA1A
Adm|rat|on for a ||v|ng nat|ona|
po||t|c|an
3
9
.
7
3
0
.
8
9
.
6
3
4
.
9
4
9
.
2
1
6
.
0
?es no uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 2.10: Lxtend|ng the o||t|ca| art|es
Crd|nance (C) to IA1A
undersLandlng lA1A
30
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
aklsLan 1eher-e-lnsaf (1l), lmran khan's parLy, perlods ln offlce. uurlng resldenL larooq Lagharl's
remalns Lhe popular cholce, recelvlng approval careLaker governmenL ln 1996, Lhe AdulL lranchlse
from 20.6 of respondenLs. 1he came second Crdlnance was exLended Lo lA1A, allowlng for
wlLh 8.2. lL ls qulLe surprlslng Lo see how low resldenLs Lo voLe ln Lhe 1997 elecLlons.
supporL appears Lo be for aL Lhls Llme, as Lhey lurLhermore, lC8 (Amended) 2011 and Lhe
have generally supporLed some poslLlve changes ln exLenslon of Lhe C have been esLabllshed durlng
lA1A durlng Lhelr perlods ln offlce. lA1A durlng Lhelr Lhelr laLesL rule.
20.6
8.2
7.2
6.2
3.4
3.1
3.3
0.3
0.3
0.7
0.8
19.3
13.9
2.3
6.1
aklsLan 1ehreek-e-lnsaf (1l)
uon'L know
none
aklsLan eople's arLy ()
aklsLan Musllm League
(ML-n)
Wlll noL voLe
lndependenLs
!amlaL ulema-e-lslam (!ul)
no response
!amaaL-e-lslaml (!l)
Awaml naLlonal arLy (An)
CLher (speclfy)
aklsLan Musllm League
(ML-C)
1ehrlk-l-1allban aklsLan
(11) (aklsLanl 1allban)
MuLLahlda Cauml MovemenL
(MCM)
2011 ()
I|gure 2.12: Iavour|te po||t|ca| party for the next genera| e|ect|ons
33
naLlonal pollLlclan, consldered none Lo be leaders have en[oyed gradual lmprovemenLs ln
admlrable or falled Lo respond Lo Lhe quesLlon. As popularlLy, however, lL could be argued LhaL Lhey
shown ln llgure 2.11: Lhere ls clearly a greaL deal of remaln perlpheral flgures ln Lhe eyes of
work Lo be done before lA1A can fully lnLegraLe lnLo respondenLs. lazal ur 8ehman, for example,
Lhe pollLlcal malnsLream. 1he llgure carrles a greaL recelved [usL 1.6 of respondenLs' supporL ln 2008
number of pollLlclans however Lhe followlng buL Lhls lncreased 3.1 ln 2009 and 2010 before
analysls wlll focus on Lhe mosL promlnenL leaders. rlslng sllghLly ln 2011 Lo 3.6. 1hls growLh ln
lrom Lhe surveys lL appears LhaL a dramaLlc shlfL popularlLy ls mlrrored by Cazl Pussaln Ahmad,
has been recorded ln respondenLs' percepLlons. former Amlr of !umaaL-e-lslaml (!l), whose raLlng
has rlsen from 1.8 (2008) Lo 2.0 ln 2011.
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe popularlLy of lmran khan -
founder of 1ehrek-e-lnsaf (1l) - has conslsLenLly As lnlLlally sLaLed, Lhe answers (oooe, Jo oot koow,
rlsen from [usL 4.1 ln 2008 Lo a hlgh of 18.6 ln ooJ oo tespoose) conLlnually represenL Lhe
2011. SupporL for lmran khan ls llkely Lo be due Lo ma[orlLy. 1hls suggesLs LhaL aklsLanl pollLlclans
hls popularlLy wlLh lA1A youLh and hls effecLlve use have noL endeared Lhemselves Lo Lhe lA1A
of medla. populaLlon and LhaL pollLlcal parLles need Lo
underLake exLenslve acLlvlLles Lo engage wlLh local
Conversely, nawaz Sharlf of Lhe aklsLan Musllm
communlLles.
League (nawaz Croup) - ML (n), who was Lhe
mosL admlred pollLlclan ln 2008 (10.3 of
Ma|e IGDs
respondenLs supporLlng hls repuLaLlon) and 2009
8esponses from Lhe lCus supporL Lhe survey daLa
(wlLh 14.9) saw hls sLandlng decllne subsLanLlally
presenLed l n ll gure 2. 11. ar L l cl panL s
ln 2010 (Lo a low of 3.9). ln 2011, nawaz Sharlf's
overwhelmlngly supporLed lmran khan, wlLh
repuLaLlon has lmproved buL remalns low aL 6.7.
almosL 80.0 of respondenLs ldenLlfylng hlm as Lhe
Concerns appear Lo have been ralsed LhaL he ls noL
conLemporary pollLlcal flgure ln aklsLan LhaL Lhey
ableLo affecL unpopular governmenL declslons.
mosL admlred. Pels followed byAslf All Zardarl Lhen
nawaz Shahlrf and lasLlybyAsfandyar Wall khan.
Aslf All Zardarl, resldenL of aklsLan and Co-chalr
of aklsLan eople's arLy () has seen slmllar
Iema|e IGDs
drops ln hls popularlLy followlng sLrong lnlLlal
1hough female respondenLs were noL as confldenL
supporL ln 2008 (9.9) and 2009 (8.4). ln 2011,
ln ldenLlfylng a llvlng pollLlclan whom Lhey admlred,
supporL for Aslf All Zardarl remalned largely
mosL respecLed Lhe laLe 8enazlr 8huLLo. Cf Lhose
unchanged from hls 2010 low (4.4) aL 4.3, less
conLemporary pollLlclans LhaL were ldenLlfled: Aslf
Lhan half LhaL of hls lnlLlal raLlng.
All Zardarl, nawaz Shahrlf, ?ousaf 8aza Clllanl and
Asfandlyar Wall khan feaLured mosL promlnenLly.
8espondenLs' admlraLlon for Asfandyar Wall khan,
lmran khan was noL menLloned by any female
head of Lhe Awaml naLlonal arLy, who led Lhe
respondenL, excepL ln SouLh WazlrlsLan where
coallLlon governmenL ln kk, has undergone
respondenLs provlded unanlmous supporL.
conslsLenL decllne. Pe was Lhe Lhlrd mosL admlred
pollLlclan ln 2008 (4.9) buL hls followlng dropped
Lo [usL 1.6 ln 2009 and Lhen 1.4 ln 2010.
Asfandyar Wall khan's repuLaLlon ln 2011 has
reached a new low of [usL 1.2. 1hls negaLlve
As noLed, lmran khan has Lhe greaLesL supporL
percepLlon ls ln keeplng wlLh a general decllne ln
wlLhln lA1A, Lhe survey soughL Lo undersLand
LrusL Lowards An. uesplLe havlng a hlsLorlcal
wheLher Lhls was mlrrored wlLh respecL Lo pollLlcal
presence ln lA1A, An ls overwhelmlngly percelved
parLypreference.
Lo becorrupL ln lLs managemenL of kk.
8espondenLs were asked who Lhey would voLe for
Whlle supporL for pollLlcal parLy leaders, wlLh Lhe
ln Lhe nexL general-elecLlons. 1he daLa shows LhaL
excepLlon of lmran khan, ls wanlng, rellglous
Iavour|te po||t|ca| party for the next
genera| e|ect|ons
undersLandlng lA1A
32
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
aklsLan 1eher-e-lnsaf (1l), lmran khan's parLy, perlods ln offlce. uurlng resldenL larooq Lagharl's
remalns Lhe popular cholce, recelvlng approval careLaker governmenL ln 1996, Lhe AdulL lranchlse
from 20.6 of respondenLs. 1he came second Crdlnance was exLended Lo lA1A, allowlng for
wlLh 8.2. lL ls qulLe surprlslng Lo see how low resldenLs Lo voLe ln Lhe 1997 elecLlons.
supporL appears Lo be for aL Lhls Llme, as Lhey lurLhermore, lC8 (Amended) 2011 and Lhe
have generally supporLed some poslLlve changes ln exLenslon of Lhe C have been esLabllshed durlng
lA1A durlng Lhelr perlods ln offlce. lA1A durlng Lhelr Lhelr laLesL rule.
20.6
8.2
7.2
6.2
3.4
3.1
3.3
0.3
0.3
0.7
0.8
19.3
13.9
2.3
6.1
aklsLan 1ehreek-e-lnsaf (1l)
uon'L know
none
aklsLan eople's arLy ()
aklsLan Musllm League
(ML-n)
Wlll noL voLe
lndependenLs
!amlaL ulema-e-lslam (!ul)
no response
!amaaL-e-lslaml (!l)
Awaml naLlonal arLy (An)
CLher (speclfy)
aklsLan Musllm League
(ML-C)
1ehrlk-l-1allban aklsLan
(11) (aklsLanl 1allban)
MuLLahlda Cauml MovemenL
(MCM)
2011 ()
I|gure 2.12: Iavour|te po||t|ca| party for the next genera| e|ect|ons
33
naLlonal pollLlclan, consldered none Lo be leaders have en[oyed gradual lmprovemenLs ln
admlrable or falled Lo respond Lo Lhe quesLlon. As popularlLy, however, lL could be argued LhaL Lhey
shown ln llgure 2.11: Lhere ls clearly a greaL deal of remaln perlpheral flgures ln Lhe eyes of
work Lo be done before lA1A can fully lnLegraLe lnLo respondenLs. lazal ur 8ehman, for example,
Lhe pollLlcal malnsLream. 1he llgure carrles a greaL recelved [usL 1.6 of respondenLs' supporL ln 2008
number of pollLlclans however Lhe followlng buL Lhls lncreased 3.1 ln 2009 and 2010 before
analysls wlll focus on Lhe mosL promlnenL leaders. rlslng sllghLly ln 2011 Lo 3.6. 1hls growLh ln
lrom Lhe surveys lL appears LhaL a dramaLlc shlfL popularlLy ls mlrrored by Cazl Pussaln Ahmad,
has been recorded ln respondenLs' percepLlons. former Amlr of !umaaL-e-lslaml (!l), whose raLlng
has rlsen from 1.8 (2008) Lo 2.0 ln 2011.
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe popularlLy of lmran khan -
founder of 1ehrek-e-lnsaf (1l) - has conslsLenLly As lnlLlally sLaLed, Lhe answers (oooe, Jo oot koow,
rlsen from [usL 4.1 ln 2008 Lo a hlgh of 18.6 ln ooJ oo tespoose) conLlnually represenL Lhe
2011. SupporL for lmran khan ls llkely Lo be due Lo ma[orlLy. 1hls suggesLs LhaL aklsLanl pollLlclans
hls popularlLy wlLh lA1A youLh and hls effecLlve use have noL endeared Lhemselves Lo Lhe lA1A
of medla. populaLlon and LhaL pollLlcal parLles need Lo
underLake exLenslve acLlvlLles Lo engage wlLh local
Conversely, nawaz Sharlf of Lhe aklsLan Musllm
communlLles.
League (nawaz Croup) - ML (n), who was Lhe
mosL admlred pollLlclan ln 2008 (10.3 of
Ma|e IGDs
respondenLs supporLlng hls repuLaLlon) and 2009
8esponses from Lhe lCus supporL Lhe survey daLa
(wlLh 14.9) saw hls sLandlng decllne subsLanLlally
presenLed l n ll gure 2. 11. ar L l cl panL s
ln 2010 (Lo a low of 3.9). ln 2011, nawaz Sharlf's
overwhelmlngly supporLed lmran khan, wlLh
repuLaLlon has lmproved buL remalns low aL 6.7.
almosL 80.0 of respondenLs ldenLlfylng hlm as Lhe
Concerns appear Lo have been ralsed LhaL he ls noL
conLemporary pollLlcal flgure ln aklsLan LhaL Lhey
ableLo affecL unpopular governmenL declslons.
mosL admlred. Pels followed byAslf All Zardarl Lhen
nawaz Shahlrf and lasLlybyAsfandyar Wall khan.
Aslf All Zardarl, resldenL of aklsLan and Co-chalr
of aklsLan eople's arLy () has seen slmllar
Iema|e IGDs
drops ln hls popularlLy followlng sLrong lnlLlal
1hough female respondenLs were noL as confldenL
supporL ln 2008 (9.9) and 2009 (8.4). ln 2011,
ln ldenLlfylng a llvlng pollLlclan whom Lhey admlred,
supporL for Aslf All Zardarl remalned largely
mosL respecLed Lhe laLe 8enazlr 8huLLo. Cf Lhose
unchanged from hls 2010 low (4.4) aL 4.3, less
conLemporary pollLlclans LhaL were ldenLlfled: Aslf
Lhan half LhaL of hls lnlLlal raLlng.
All Zardarl, nawaz Shahrlf, ?ousaf 8aza Clllanl and
Asfandlyar Wall khan feaLured mosL promlnenLly.
8espondenLs' admlraLlon for Asfandyar Wall khan,
lmran khan was noL menLloned by any female
head of Lhe Awaml naLlonal arLy, who led Lhe
respondenL, excepL ln SouLh WazlrlsLan where
coallLlon governmenL ln kk, has undergone
respondenLs provlded unanlmous supporL.
conslsLenL decllne. Pe was Lhe Lhlrd mosL admlred
pollLlclan ln 2008 (4.9) buL hls followlng dropped
Lo [usL 1.6 ln 2009 and Lhen 1.4 ln 2010.
Asfandyar Wall khan's repuLaLlon ln 2011 has
reached a new low of [usL 1.2. 1hls negaLlve
As noLed, lmran khan has Lhe greaLesL supporL
percepLlon ls ln keeplng wlLh a general decllne ln
wlLhln lA1A, Lhe survey soughL Lo undersLand
LrusL Lowards An. uesplLe havlng a hlsLorlcal
wheLher Lhls was mlrrored wlLh respecL Lo pollLlcal
presence ln lA1A, An ls overwhelmlngly percelved
parLypreference.
Lo becorrupL ln lLs managemenL of kk.
8espondenLs were asked who Lhey would voLe for
Whlle supporL for pollLlcal parLy leaders, wlLh Lhe
ln Lhe nexL general-elecLlons. 1he daLa shows LhaL
excepLlon of lmran khan, ls wanlng, rellglous
Iavour|te po||t|ca| party for the next
genera| e|ect|ons
undersLandlng lA1A
32
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
I|gure 2.13: What wou|d you be w||||ng to part|c|pate |n?
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
16.8
9.6
21.2
0.0
0.0
6.3
13.1
4.3
32.8
12.8
23.8
0.2
0.9
40.1
13.8
0.4
18.6
8.7
-
3.9
27.7
19.2
3.9
2.1
13.6
21.1
1.4
3.8
11.7
8.1
23.2
1.3
3.2
10.0
16.4
AcLlvlLles of pollLlcal
parLles
LlecLlons
ClLlzen forums Lo dlscuss
local lssues
Agency Counclls
MonlLorlng of governmenL
servlce dellvery
rocess of developmenL
none
CLhers
uon'L know
3S
nA
nA
nA
nA
's llmlLed endorsemenL ls llkely Lo be because of respondenLs' oplnlons on varlous pollLlcal and
percelved llmlLaLlons concernlng lssues such as developmenLal declslon-maklng processes. 1he
governance, energy managemenL, lnflaLlon, drone resulLs are shown ln Lhe flgure of responses Lo Lhe
aLLacks. Powever, lL should be noLed LhaL parLy quesLlon: wbot woolJ yoo be wlllloq to pottlclpote
approval ls hlgher Lhan LhaL for lLs leader (seellgure lo?
2.11). Lqually, 1l's sLance on lmprovlng
LffecLlvedevelopmenL needs Lo belncluslveboLh Lo
governance and addresslng corrupLlon appear Lo
supporL Lhe needs of Lhe recelvlng communlLy and
havelncreased parLyapproval.
Lo ensure LhaL lL ls senslLlve Lo Lhe local conLexL. lL ls
ML (n) has a slmllar followlng as Lhe wlLh 7.2 encouraglng Lherefore, LhaL ln 2010 one Lhlrd
of respondenLs declarlng Lhelr supporL for fuLure (32.8) of Lhe respondenLs deslred lncluslon ln Lhls
elecLlons. 1hls flgure ls roughly equal Lo aLLlLudes declslon-maklng acLlvlLy, whlle Lhe 2011 flgure ls
expressed Lowards ML (n) leader nawaz Sharlf. lower lL remalns slgnlflcanL - wlLh a quarLer of
ALLlLudes Lowards An remaln very low, en[oylng respondenLs (23.8) calllng for lncluslon. 1hls
[usL 2.3 of respondenL voLes, however, lL should decllne ls llkely Lo be due Lo oLher lssues galnlng
be noLed LhaL Lhls flgure ls approxlmaLely double greaLer slgnlflcance raLher Lhan developmenL
Lhe level of supporL dlrecLed Lowards Asfandyar declslon-maklng loslng lmporLance, especlally as
Wall khan. cltlzeo fotoms to Jlscoss locol lssoes have
malnLalned Lhelr value.
As was Lhe case when clarlfylng percepLlons
Lowards pollLlcal flgures, more Lhan one Lhlrd of lor lnsLance, Lhe deslre Lo lnfluence Lhe octlvltles of
respondenLs dld noL selecL a parLy. 1hls agaln polltlcol pottles has rlsen dramaLlcally from lLs 2010
reflecLs Lhe need for lmproved pollLlcal lnLeracLlon low of 4.3 Lo 11.7 ln 2011. 1hls may be a dlrecL
ln lA1A and lncreased educaLlon aL Lhe grassrooLs resulL of debaLesurroundlng LheC.
level.
AnoLher lnLeresLlng Lrend, LhaL should be noLed, ls
LhaL Lhe number of respondenLs deslrlng greaLer
Ma|e IGDs
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe mooltotloq of qovetomeot
1here was less clarlLy as Lo Lhe level of supporL for
setvlce Jellvety has fallen sLeadlly slnce 2008. ln
pollLlcal parLles, buL Lhe lCus hlghllghLed LhaL Lhe
2008, over 20.0 of Lhose quesLloned called for
problem of pollLlcal lndeclslon ls unllkely Lo be
lncreased lnvolvemenL ln Lhls area buL by 2011 Lhls
because of apaLhy, as sLrong oplnlons were evldenL
flgure had dropped Lo 3.2. 1he lmplemenLaLlon of
and has ellclLed sLrong debaLe.
a monlLorlng sysLem for governmenL pro[ecLs
Iema|e IGDs would be challenglng Lo achleve, keeplng ln mlnd
Lhe ongolng sLruggle wlLh mlllLancy ln mosL parLs of lemale parLlclpanLs were noL aware of Lhe 1l as a
lA1A, however Lhls decllne ls llkely llnked Lo pollLlcal parLy buL sLaLed supporL for Lhe 'parLy' of
percelved dlsenchanLmenL wlLh governmenL lmran khan lf glven acholce.
efforLs Lo supporL such aprocess.
Ma|e IGDs
All parLlclpanLs complalned LhaL Lhe CovernmenL
excluded lA1A communlLles from declslon-maklng
1hepeopleof lA1A havelargely been excluded from
processes and demanded reforms LhaL would
declslon-maklng processes. 1he lC8 admlnlsLraLlve
empower lnvolvemenL as a maLLer of urgency,
sysLem esLabllshed by 8rlLlsh colonlal rule ln 1901
however, Lhe exLenslon of Lhe C was welcomed
was reafflrmed by a fledgllng aklsLan ln 1947. 1he
as asLarL.
marglnallsaLlon of Lhe lA1A people conLlnues Lo be
a problem, ln splLe Lhe facL LhaL local people deslre
Iema|e IGDs
greaLer lnvolvemenL.
MosL of Lhe female parLlclpanLs were unsure of
Lhelr rlghLs and belleved LhaL male famlly members
Slnce 2008, CAM has soughL Lo documenL
art|c|pat|on |n the dec|s|on-mak|ng
process
undersLandlng lA1A
34
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
I|gure 2.13: What wou|d you be w||||ng to part|c|pate |n?
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
16.8
9.6
21.2
0.0
0.0
6.3
13.1
4.3
32.8
12.8
23.8
0.2
0.9
40.1
13.8
0.4
18.6
8.7
-
3.9
27.7
19.2
3.9
2.1
13.6
21.1
1.4
3.8
11.7
8.1
23.2
1.3
3.2
10.0
16.4
AcLlvlLles of pollLlcal
parLles
LlecLlons
ClLlzen forums Lo dlscuss
local lssues
Agency Counclls
MonlLorlng of governmenL
servlce dellvery
rocess of developmenL
none
CLhers
uon'L know
3S
nA
nA
nA
nA
's llmlLed endorsemenL ls llkely Lo be because of respondenLs' oplnlons on varlous pollLlcal and
percelved llmlLaLlons concernlng lssues such as developmenLal declslon-maklng processes. 1he
governance, energy managemenL, lnflaLlon, drone resulLs are shown ln Lhe flgure of responses Lo Lhe
aLLacks. Powever, lL should be noLed LhaL parLy quesLlon: wbot woolJ yoo be wlllloq to pottlclpote
approval ls hlgher Lhan LhaL for lLs leader (seellgure lo?
2.11). Lqually, 1l's sLance on lmprovlng
LffecLlvedevelopmenL needs Lo belncluslveboLh Lo
governance and addresslng corrupLlon appear Lo
supporL Lhe needs of Lhe recelvlng communlLy and
havelncreased parLyapproval.
Lo ensure LhaL lL ls senslLlve Lo Lhe local conLexL. lL ls
ML (n) has a slmllar followlng as Lhe wlLh 7.2 encouraglng Lherefore, LhaL ln 2010 one Lhlrd
of respondenLs declarlng Lhelr supporL for fuLure (32.8) of Lhe respondenLs deslred lncluslon ln Lhls
elecLlons. 1hls flgure ls roughly equal Lo aLLlLudes declslon-maklng acLlvlLy, whlle Lhe 2011 flgure ls
expressed Lowards ML (n) leader nawaz Sharlf. lower lL remalns slgnlflcanL - wlLh a quarLer of
ALLlLudes Lowards An remaln very low, en[oylng respondenLs (23.8) calllng for lncluslon. 1hls
[usL 2.3 of respondenL voLes, however, lL should decllne ls llkely Lo be due Lo oLher lssues galnlng
be noLed LhaL Lhls flgure ls approxlmaLely double greaLer slgnlflcance raLher Lhan developmenL
Lhe level of supporL dlrecLed Lowards Asfandyar declslon-maklng loslng lmporLance, especlally as
Wall khan. cltlzeo fotoms to Jlscoss locol lssoes have
malnLalned Lhelr value.
As was Lhe case when clarlfylng percepLlons
Lowards pollLlcal flgures, more Lhan one Lhlrd of lor lnsLance, Lhe deslre Lo lnfluence Lhe octlvltles of
respondenLs dld noL selecL a parLy. 1hls agaln polltlcol pottles has rlsen dramaLlcally from lLs 2010
reflecLs Lhe need for lmproved pollLlcal lnLeracLlon low of 4.3 Lo 11.7 ln 2011. 1hls may be a dlrecL
ln lA1A and lncreased educaLlon aL Lhe grassrooLs resulL of debaLesurroundlng LheC.
level.
AnoLher lnLeresLlng Lrend, LhaL should be noLed, ls
LhaL Lhe number of respondenLs deslrlng greaLer
Ma|e IGDs
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe mooltotloq of qovetomeot
1here was less clarlLy as Lo Lhe level of supporL for
setvlce Jellvety has fallen sLeadlly slnce 2008. ln
pollLlcal parLles, buL Lhe lCus hlghllghLed LhaL Lhe
2008, over 20.0 of Lhose quesLloned called for
problem of pollLlcal lndeclslon ls unllkely Lo be
lncreased lnvolvemenL ln Lhls area buL by 2011 Lhls
because of apaLhy, as sLrong oplnlons were evldenL
flgure had dropped Lo 3.2. 1he lmplemenLaLlon of
and has ellclLed sLrong debaLe.
a monlLorlng sysLem for governmenL pro[ecLs
Iema|e IGDs would be challenglng Lo achleve, keeplng ln mlnd
Lhe ongolng sLruggle wlLh mlllLancy ln mosL parLs of lemale parLlclpanLs were noL aware of Lhe 1l as a
lA1A, however Lhls decllne ls llkely llnked Lo pollLlcal parLy buL sLaLed supporL for Lhe 'parLy' of
percelved dlsenchanLmenL wlLh governmenL lmran khan lf glven acholce.
efforLs Lo supporL such aprocess.
Ma|e IGDs
All parLlclpanLs complalned LhaL Lhe CovernmenL
excluded lA1A communlLles from declslon-maklng
1hepeopleof lA1A havelargely been excluded from
processes and demanded reforms LhaL would
declslon-maklng processes. 1he lC8 admlnlsLraLlve
empower lnvolvemenL as a maLLer of urgency,
sysLem esLabllshed by 8rlLlsh colonlal rule ln 1901
however, Lhe exLenslon of Lhe C was welcomed
was reafflrmed by a fledgllng aklsLan ln 1947. 1he
as asLarL.
marglnallsaLlon of Lhe lA1A people conLlnues Lo be
a problem, ln splLe Lhe facL LhaL local people deslre
Iema|e IGDs
greaLer lnvolvemenL.
MosL of Lhe female parLlclpanLs were unsure of
Lhelr rlghLs and belleved LhaL male famlly members
Slnce 2008, CAM has soughL Lo documenL
art|c|pat|on |n the dec|s|on-mak|ng
process
undersLandlng lA1A
34
ChapLer 2: ConsLlLuLlonal SLaLus of lA1A
37
Assessment of Covernance and
0eve|opment Agenc|es
6hAPTER 3
dlcLaLe declslon-maklng. Powever, Lhey, llke Lhelr
male counLer-parLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhe
exLenslon of LheCLo lA1A was poslLlve.
1hesurveydaLafor 2011agaln documenLs LhegreaL
deslre for change possessed by large secLlons of
lA1A socl eLy, from Lhe l ong-esLabl l shed
Adml nl sL raL l ve model ( LxecuL l ve non-
represenLaLlve) and Lhe regulaLory sysLem (lC8) Lo
a new sysLem - noL as yeL deflned - LhaL champlons
Lhe level of governance en[oyed by oLher
aklsLanls.
lurLhermore, lL ls apparenL LhaL ln comblnaLlon
wlLh pollLlcal reforms, a programme of pollLlcal
educaLlon ls requlred ln order Lo lmprove debaLe
surroundlng pollLlcal leaders and Lhe parLles Lhey
represenL. Accordlngly, well-deflned opLlons musL
be presenLed Lo Lhe people so LhaL Lhey can emerge
from belng an 'admlnlsLered people' Lo one capable
of fullylnLeracLlng ln LhepollLlcal process.
8espondenLs also showed Lhelr supporL for Lhe C
and exhlblLed a deslre for lncreased declslon-
maklng powers Lo be besLowed on lA1A. Powever,
slgnlflcanL numbers also showed dlsLlncL
frusLraLlon and dlsappolnLmenL wlLh governmenLal
fal l ures Lo address concerns regardl ng
empowermenL.
Conc|us|on
undersLandlng lA1A
36
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
37
Assessment of Covernance and
0eve|opment Agenc|es
6hAPTER 3
dlcLaLe declslon-maklng. Powever, Lhey, llke Lhelr
male counLer-parLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhe
exLenslon of LheCLo lA1A was poslLlve.
1hesurveydaLafor 2011agaln documenLs LhegreaL
deslre for change possessed by large secLlons of
lA1A socl eLy, from Lhe l ong-esLabl l shed
Adml nl sL raL l ve model ( LxecuL l ve non-
represenLaLlve) and Lhe regulaLory sysLem (lC8) Lo
a new sysLem - noL as yeL deflned - LhaL champlons
Lhe level of governance en[oyed by oLher
aklsLanls.
lurLhermore, lL ls apparenL LhaL ln comblnaLlon
wlLh pollLlcal reforms, a programme of pollLlcal
educaLlon ls requlred ln order Lo lmprove debaLe
surroundlng pollLlcal leaders and Lhe parLles Lhey
represenL. Accordlngly, well-deflned opLlons musL
be presenLed Lo Lhe people so LhaL Lhey can emerge
from belng an 'admlnlsLered people' Lo one capable
of fullylnLeracLlng ln LhepollLlcal process.
8espondenLs also showed Lhelr supporL for Lhe C
and exhlblLed a deslre for lncreased declslon-
maklng powers Lo be besLowed on lA1A. Powever,
slgnlflcanL numbers also showed dlsLlncL
frusLraLlon and dlsappolnLmenL wlLh governmenLal
fal l ures Lo address concerns regardl ng
empowermenL.
Conc|us|on
undersLandlng lA1A
36
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
1here are several lnsLlLuLlons LhaL manage of respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
governance and developmenL lssues ln lA1A. 1he performance was saLlsfacLory, a furLher 9.7
2011survey has soughL Lo documenL percepLlons ln descrlbed performance as good. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL
lA1A of Lhe performance of Lhese organlsaLlons and almosL half (47.3) of Lhe respondenLs lnLervlewed
Lhe exLenL Lo whlch communlLles lnLeracL wlLh percelved Lhelr admlnlsLraLlon ln a poslLlve llghL.
leadershlp mechanlsms. Powever, a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy opposed Lhls vlew,
as one Lhlrd (34.3) of respondenLs descrlbed Lhelr
lnformaLlon has been collecLed on a range of
admlnlsLraLlon as poor (13.8) or very poor
depar L menL s , l nc l udl ng: L he ol l L l cal
(20.3). ApproxlmaLely one ln flve (18.2) of
AdmlnlsLraLlon, lA1A SecreLarlaL and lA1A
respondenLs wereundeclded.
uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy. 1hls daLa provldes a basls
for undersLandlng effecLlveness and offers lnslghLs
lnLo how Lhese bodles can lmprove Lhelr
performance Lo beLLer meeL Lhe needs of Lhe
peopleLheyareservlng.
As menLloned ln prevlous chapLers, a ollLlcal AgenL
leads Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ln each Lrlbal
agency, Lhls senlor clvll servanL operaLes as an

agenL of Lhe Covernor of khyber akhLunkhwa
provlnce. ln addlLlon Lo headlng admlnlsLraLlon,
Lhey also manage Lhelr agency's [udlclary, revenue
16
collecLlon and developmenL agencles. 1here ls
Cverall, Lhe daLa shows LhaL respondenLs were
consl derabl e opposl Ll on l n lA1A Lo Lhl s
generally saLlsfled buL urgenL sLeps aresLlll requlred
cenLrallsaLlon of auLhorlLy, as lL ls sLrongly belleved
Lo lmprove performance. 1he 'War on 1error' has
LhaL besLowlng so much power on one person has
seen a conslderable amounL of flnanclal ald
lncreased lnsecurlLy among Lhe populaLlon. ln
provlded Lo aklsLan ln order Lo lmprove lLs
order Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhls asserLlon furLher
auLhorlLy ln lA1A, and Lhls appears Lo have been
respondenLs were asked Lo evaluaLe Lhe
successful Lo some exLenL wlLh regard Lo Lhe
performanceof Lhelr local ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
performance of ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon buL ls less
compelllng ln oLher daLaseLs. 1he daLa derlved from Lhe 2011 survey appears Lo
be encouraglng for local admlnlsLraLlons, as 37.8
Assessment of the performance of
o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on
Assessment of Governance and Deve|opment
Agenc|es
ClAPTER 3
9
.
7
2
0
.
3
1
8
.
2
1
3
.
8
3
7
.
8
Cood SaLlsfacLory oor very
r poo
u 'L know on
2011 ()
I|gure 3.1: Assessment on the performance of
o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on
16
ollLlcal AgenLs, beLween 2004 and 2007, were also responslble for leadlng Lhe Agency Councll.
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
39
1here are several lnsLlLuLlons LhaL manage of respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
governance and developmenL lssues ln lA1A. 1he performance was saLlsfacLory, a furLher 9.7
2011survey has soughL Lo documenL percepLlons ln descrlbed performance as good. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL
lA1A of Lhe performance of Lhese organlsaLlons and almosL half (47.3) of Lhe respondenLs lnLervlewed
Lhe exLenL Lo whlch communlLles lnLeracL wlLh percelved Lhelr admlnlsLraLlon ln a poslLlve llghL.
leadershlp mechanlsms. Powever, a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy opposed Lhls vlew,
as one Lhlrd (34.3) of respondenLs descrlbed Lhelr
lnformaLlon has been collecLed on a range of
admlnlsLraLlon as poor (13.8) or very poor
depar L menL s , l nc l udl ng: L he ol l L l cal
(20.3). ApproxlmaLely one ln flve (18.2) of
AdmlnlsLraLlon, lA1A SecreLarlaL and lA1A
respondenLs wereundeclded.
uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy. 1hls daLa provldes a basls
for undersLandlng effecLlveness and offers lnslghLs
lnLo how Lhese bodles can lmprove Lhelr
performance Lo beLLer meeL Lhe needs of Lhe
peopleLheyareservlng.
As menLloned ln prevlous chapLers, a ollLlcal AgenL
leads Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ln each Lrlbal
agency, Lhls senlor clvll servanL operaLes as an

agenL of Lhe Covernor of khyber akhLunkhwa
provlnce. ln addlLlon Lo headlng admlnlsLraLlon,
Lhey also manage Lhelr agency's [udlclary, revenue
16
collecLlon and developmenL agencles. 1here ls
Cverall, Lhe daLa shows LhaL respondenLs were
consl derabl e opposl Ll on l n lA1A Lo Lhl s
generally saLlsfled buL urgenL sLeps aresLlll requlred
cenLrallsaLlon of auLhorlLy, as lL ls sLrongly belleved
Lo lmprove performance. 1he 'War on 1error' has
LhaL besLowlng so much power on one person has
seen a conslderable amounL of flnanclal ald
lncreased lnsecurlLy among Lhe populaLlon. ln
provlded Lo aklsLan ln order Lo lmprove lLs
order Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhls asserLlon furLher
auLhorlLy ln lA1A, and Lhls appears Lo have been
respondenLs were asked Lo evaluaLe Lhe
successful Lo some exLenL wlLh regard Lo Lhe
performanceof Lhelr local ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
performance of ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon buL ls less
compelllng ln oLher daLaseLs. 1he daLa derlved from Lhe 2011 survey appears Lo
be encouraglng for local admlnlsLraLlons, as 37.8
Assessment of the performance of
o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on
Assessment of Governance and Deve|opment
Agenc|es
ClAPTER 3
9
.
7
2
0
.
3
1
8
.
2
1
3
.
8
3
7
.
8
Cood SaLlsfacL ry o oor very
poor
'L kn w uon o
2011 ()
I|gure 3.1: Assessment on the performance of
o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on
16
ollLlcal AgenLs, beLween 2004 and 2007, were also responslble for leadlng Lhe Agency Councll.
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
39
What cou|d the o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on do to
Lheaccuracyof LhesedaLa.
|mprove the|r performance?
Ma|e IGDs
1hls quesLlon soughL Lo hlghllghL areas of concern
Male parLlclpanLs were very expllclL ln Lhelr vlews:
hel d by respondenLs LhaL l ocal pol l Ll cal
Lhey oplned LhaL over Lhe course of Lhe lasL couple
admlnlsLraLlon could address ln order Lo lmprove
of years some developmenL had Laken place ln
performance and consequenLl y supporL.
cerLaln areas buL were unable Lo deflne whaL had
unsurprlslngly, glven Lhe flndlngs ouLllned ln
been done. 1hls has changed aLLlLudes a llLLle ln
ChapLer 1 of Lhls survey, Lhe response LhaL recelved
favour of ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon, however, as
Lhe greaLesL supporL was concerned wlLh securlLy.
shown above Lhls change has been lnsufflclenL Lo
32.8 of respondenLs belleved LhaL ollLlcal
lmprove overall percepLlon, wlLh parLlclpanLs
AdmlnlsLraLlon should concenLraLe on lmptovloq
demandlng greaLer developmenLs.
tbe low ooJotJet sltootlooln Lhelr area.
An equally large number of respondenLs (30.7) Iema|e IGDs
wanLed Lhel r pol l Ll cal adml nl sLraLl on Lo lemale parLlclpanLs were generally unaware of
concenLraLe on lmptovloq llvloq cooJltloos. lL ls noL lmprovemenLs ln pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon, a
enLlrely evldenL whaL respondenLs would requlre consequence of gaps ln knowledge raLher Lhan an
from ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon buL some examples oplnlon of Lhlngs stoyloq tbe some. Some however,
may be dlscerned from Lhe answers provlded by especlally Lhose from khyber Agency, declared LhaL
parLlclpanLs of Lhe lCus documenLed below. 10.0 Lhe performance of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ln
of respondenLs ldenLlfled employmenL, and a Lhel r l ocal l Ly had l mproved because of
comparable number called for lmptovemeots to developmenLs ln lmprovlng road lnfrasLrucLure.
30.7
11.3
6.1
2.2
4.0
0.9
32.8
10.0
2.2
lmprove llvlng condlLlons
lmprove Lhe law and order slLuaLlon
lmprove Lhe [usLlce dlspensaLlon
sysLem
CeneraLe employmenL
lmprove educaLlon and healLh
condlLlons
lmprove Lhe human rlghLs slLuaLlon
Lnsure communlLy parLlclpaLlon ln
declslon-maklng processes
uon'L know
CLher (speclfy)
2011 ()
I|gure 3.3: What cou|d o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on do to |mprove the|r performance?
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
41
uonors, especlally Lhe unlLed SLaLes of Amerlca however, Lhey were less confldenL ln Lhelr analysls,
(uS), Cermany, Lhe unlLed klngdom (uk) and as Lhelr knowledge of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon
SwlLzerland have asslsLed pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon sysLem appeared Lo be generally derlved from
Lhrough Lhe provlslon of developmenL granLs: oLhers.
almed aL resLorlng governmenL lnfluence ln remoLe
now has the performance of the o||t|ca|
areas of lA1A. 1he Cfflce of 1ranslLlon lnlLlaLlves,
Adm|n|strat|onchangedover the past 12months?
parL of uSAlu, has lmplemenLed around 1,300qulck
lmpacL pro[ecLs across lA1A ln collaboraLlon wlLh
1o beLLer undersLand aLLlLudes Lowards ollLlcal
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon. ueuLsche CesellschafL fur
AdmlnlsLraLlon, respondenLs were asked Lo
lnLernaLlonale ZusammenarbelL (ClZ), a Cerman
evaluaLe Lhe performance of Lhelr pollLlcal
developmenL agency, has slmllarly lmplemenLed
admlnlsLraLlon over Lhe pasL 12 monLhs.
lA1A Llvellhood rogrammes ln khyber and l8
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe daLa appears Lo supporL Lhe
eshawar. 1hese combl ned wl L h oL her
poslLlve aLLlLudes hlghllghLed ln llgure 3.1. lf Lhe
lnLernaLlonally supporLed lnlLlaLlves may explaln
daLa for Lhose LhaL answered lmptoveJ o lot (8.0)
some of Lhe changes ln percepLlon Lowards Lhe
and lmptoveJ o llttle (32.8) are comblned lL
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
appears LhaL a conslderable number of people
(40.8) have noLlced a poslLlve change. 1hls clearly
Ma|e IGDs
shows LhaL ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ls galnlng
1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs offered
supporL. lL ls also encouraglng LhaL Lhls flgure ls
negaLlve vlews on Lhe performance of ollLlcal
almosL Lwlce LhaL for Lhose LhaL consldered
AdmlnlsLraLlon. 1hey belleved LhaL ollLlcal
performance Lo have worsened Lo some degree
AdmlnlsLraLlon ls skewed ln favour of ellLes,
(21.3).
especlally Mollks, and have never champloned Lhe
lnLeresLs of Lhe people llvlng ln lA1A. lL was argued
Powever, Lhls lndlcaLlon of growlng supporL for
LhaL ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon was unable Lo resolve
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A does need Lo be
Lhe slmplesL of lssues of local communlLles.
Lempered, as over half of Lhe respondenLs have noL
arLlclpanLs also negaLlvely referred Lo Lhe ongolng
noLl ced l mprovemenLs l f Lhe number of
law and order slLuaLlon ln lA1A, sLaLlng LhaL ollLlcal
respondenLs who belleve no change has occurred
AdmlnlsLraLlons were falllng and LhaL Lhe aklsLanl
(31.1) wlLh LhoseLhaL hold anegaLlvepercepLlon.
mlllLary should lnLervene.
lL ls noL posslble Lo compare aLLlLudes Lowards
Iema|e IGDs
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon over prevlous years, as Lhls
1he vlews offered by female parLlclpanLs were
ls Lhe flrsL survey Lo conducL quanLlLaLlve research
slmllar Lo Lhose expressed ln Lhe male lCus,
on Lhe sub[ecL. lL ls Lherefore dlfflculL Lo evaluaLe
8
.
0
8
.
91
2
.
4
0
.
1
3
2
.
8
3
1
.
1
6
.
9
lmproved
a loL
lmproved
a llLLle
SLayed Lhe
same
Worsened
a llLLle
Worsened
a loL
uon'L know no
8esponse
2011 ()
I|gure 3.2: now has the performance of the o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on changed over the past 12 months?
undersLandlng lA1A
40
What cou|d the o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on do to
Lheaccuracyof LhesedaLa.
|mprove the|r performance?
Ma|e IGDs
1hls quesLlon soughL Lo hlghllghL areas of concern
Male parLlclpanLs were very expllclL ln Lhelr vlews:
hel d by respondenLs LhaL l ocal pol l Ll cal
Lhey oplned LhaL over Lhe course of Lhe lasL couple
admlnlsLraLlon could address ln order Lo lmprove
of years some developmenL had Laken place ln
performance and consequenLl y supporL.
cerLaln areas buL were unable Lo deflne whaL had
unsurprlslngly, glven Lhe flndlngs ouLllned ln
been done. 1hls has changed aLLlLudes a llLLle ln
ChapLer 1 of Lhls survey, Lhe response LhaL recelved
favour of ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon, however, as
Lhe greaLesL supporL was concerned wlLh securlLy.
shown above Lhls change has been lnsufflclenL Lo
32.8 of respondenLs belleved LhaL ollLlcal
lmprove overall percepLlon, wlLh parLlclpanLs
AdmlnlsLraLlon should concenLraLe on lmptovloq
demandlng greaLer developmenLs.
tbe low ooJotJet sltootlooln Lhelr area.
An equally large number of respondenLs (30.7) Iema|e IGDs
wanLed Lhel r pol l Ll cal adml nl sLraLl on Lo lemale parLlclpanLs were generally unaware of
concenLraLe on lmptovloq llvloq cooJltloos. lL ls noL lmprovemenLs ln pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon, a
enLlrely evldenL whaL respondenLs would requlre consequence of gaps ln knowledge raLher Lhan an
from ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon buL some examples oplnlon of Lhlngs stoyloq tbe some. Some however,
may be dlscerned from Lhe answers provlded by especlally Lhose from khyber Agency, declared LhaL
parLlclpanLs of Lhe lCus documenLed below. 10.0 Lhe performance of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ln
of respondenLs ldenLlfled employmenL, and a Lhel r l ocal l Ly had l mproved because of
comparable number called for lmptovemeots to developmenLs ln lmprovlng road lnfrasLrucLure.
30.7
11.3
6.1
2.2
4.0
0.9
32.8
10.0
2.2
lmprove llvlng condlLlons
lmprove Lhe law and order slLuaLlon
lmprove Lhe [usLlce dlspensaLlon
sysLem
CeneraLe employmenL
lmprove educaLlon and healLh
condlLlons
lmprove Lhe human rlghLs slLuaLlon
Lnsure communlLy parLlclpaLlon ln
declslon-maklng processes
uon'L know
CLher (speclfy)
2011 ()
I|gure 3.3: What cou|d o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on do to |mprove the|r performance?
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
41
uonors, especlally Lhe unlLed SLaLes of Amerlca however, Lhey were less confldenL ln Lhelr analysls,
(uS), Cermany, Lhe unlLed klngdom (uk) and as Lhelr knowledge of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon
SwlLzerland have asslsLed pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon sysLem appeared Lo be generally derlved from
Lhrough Lhe provlslon of developmenL granLs: oLhers.
almed aL resLorlng governmenL lnfluence ln remoLe
now has the performance of the o||t|ca|
areas of lA1A. 1he Cfflce of 1ranslLlon lnlLlaLlves,
Adm|n|strat|onchangedover the past 12months?
parL of uSAlu, has lmplemenLed around 1,300qulck
lmpacL pro[ecLs across lA1A ln collaboraLlon wlLh
1o beLLer undersLand aLLlLudes Lowards ollLlcal
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon. ueuLsche CesellschafL fur
AdmlnlsLraLlon, respondenLs were asked Lo
lnLernaLlonale ZusammenarbelL (ClZ), a Cerman
evaluaLe Lhe performance of Lhelr pollLlcal
developmenL agency, has slmllarly lmplemenLed
admlnlsLraLlon over Lhe pasL 12 monLhs.
lA1A Llvellhood rogrammes ln khyber and l8
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe daLa appears Lo supporL Lhe
eshawar. 1hese combl ned wl L h oL her
poslLlve aLLlLudes hlghllghLed ln llgure 3.1. lf Lhe
lnLernaLlonally supporLed lnlLlaLlves may explaln
daLa for Lhose LhaL answered lmptoveJ o lot (8.0)
some of Lhe changes ln percepLlon Lowards Lhe
and lmptoveJ o llttle (32.8) are comblned lL
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
appears LhaL a conslderable number of people
(40.8) have noLlced a poslLlve change. 1hls clearly
Ma|e IGDs
shows LhaL ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ls galnlng
1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs offered
supporL. lL ls also encouraglng LhaL Lhls flgure ls
negaLlve vlews on Lhe performance of ollLlcal
almosL Lwlce LhaL for Lhose LhaL consldered
AdmlnlsLraLlon. 1hey belleved LhaL ollLlcal
performance Lo have worsened Lo some degree
AdmlnlsLraLlon ls skewed ln favour of ellLes,
(21.3).
especlally Mollks, and have never champloned Lhe
lnLeresLs of Lhe people llvlng ln lA1A. lL was argued
Powever, Lhls lndlcaLlon of growlng supporL for
LhaL ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon was unable Lo resolve
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A does need Lo be
Lhe slmplesL of lssues of local communlLles.
Lempered, as over half of Lhe respondenLs have noL
arLlclpanLs also negaLlvely referred Lo Lhe ongolng
noLl ced l mprovemenLs l f Lhe number of
law and order slLuaLlon ln lA1A, sLaLlng LhaL ollLlcal
respondenLs who belleve no change has occurred
AdmlnlsLraLlons were falllng and LhaL Lhe aklsLanl
(31.1) wlLh LhoseLhaL hold anegaLlvepercepLlon.
mlllLary should lnLervene.
lL ls noL posslble Lo compare aLLlLudes Lowards
Iema|e IGDs
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon over prevlous years, as Lhls
1he vlews offered by female parLlclpanLs were
ls Lhe flrsL survey Lo conducL quanLlLaLlve research
slmllar Lo Lhose expressed ln Lhe male lCus,
on Lhe sub[ecL. lL ls Lherefore dlfflculL Lo evaluaLe
8
.
0
8
.
91
2
.
4
0
.
1
3
2
.
8
3
1
.
1
6
.
9
lmproved
a loL
lmproved
a llLLle
SLayed Lhe
same
Worsened
a llLLle
Worsened
a loL
uon'L know no
8esponse
2011 ()
I|gure 3.2: now has the performance of the o||t|ca| Adm|n|strat|on changed over the past 12 months?
undersLandlng lA1A
40
Powever, Lhe capaclLy of lS Lo effecLlvely co- lL ls clear LhaL Lhe lS needs Lo lmprove lLs
ordl naLe l mpl emenLaLl on of l arge- scal e communlcaLlon wlLh communlLles ln order Lo
developmenL pro[ecLs ls yeL Lo be seen, and beLLer promoLe lLs acLlvlLles and Lo ensure pro[ecLs'
lmparLlal overslghL may be dlfflculL Lo lnsLlLuLe relevancy. 1hls managemenL of pro[ecLs could be
because of Lhe presenL securlLy slLuaLlon ln lA1A. lmmedlaLely lmproved wlLh Lhe adopLlon of
1hls ls essenLlal, boLh ln Lerms of ensurlng quallLy pollcles LhaL encourage wldespread use of
and conLexL senslLlvlLy, buL also ln Lhe pollclng of parLlclpaLory plannlng - Lo encourage lmproved
corrupLlon - for example, Lhe dlverslon of sLaLe and lmplemenLaLlon and faclllLaLe effecLlve monlLorlng
donor resources bygovernmenL agenLs and Mollks. and evaluaLlon of developmenL efforLs.
1he survey resulLs presenLed below show Lhe
Ma|e IGDs
recorded percepLlons of Lhese admlnlsLraLlve
Ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs were aware of Lhe
sLrucLures ln lA1A.
exlsLence of lS: however, Lhey were unable Lo
properly evaluaLe lLs performance. ln response Lo
erformance of the IS
quesLlons regardlng lS performance, mosL
percelved lL negaLlvely. 1hls ln parL, was because
1he mosL remarkable flndlng ls LhaL Lwo-Lhlrds
focus group members were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL lS
(66.6) of respondenLs were unable Lo provlde an
was noL LreaLlng Lhem falrly, for example, a
oplnlon on Lhe performance of Lhe lS, a flgure LhaL
complalnL was ralsed agalnsL lS because
ls Lwlce LhaL documenLed ln 2010. Clven Lhe
parLlclpanLs had been barred from enLerlng lLs
resources aL Lhe dlsposal of Lhe lS and lLs dlrecL
bulldlng. lL was also noLed LhaL lA1A clLlzens were
llnks Lo locals and Lhelr LradlLlonal leadershlp
noL properlyrepresenLed aL Lhepollcylevel.
sLrucLures, lL ls essenLlal LhaL quesLlons be asked as
Lo whyLhls ls Lhecase.
lL ls also Lroubllng LhaL Lhe number of people LhaL
Iema|e IGDs
vlewed Lhe lS ln a poslLlve llghL has reduced from
1here was only llmlLed knowledge of lS. 8uL
22.6 ln 2010 (3.1 percelvlng lLs performance Lo
concern was ralsed LhaL Lhe body was llkely Lo be
be excelleot and 19.3 as qooJ) Lo only 14.8 ln
blased Lowards ellLes. lemale parLlclpanLs asserLed
2011(3.7 as excellenL and 11.1 as good). 1hls ls a
LhaL Lhe lS needed Lo be more acLlvely lnvolved ln
reducLlon of approxlmaLelyone-Lhlrd.
provldlng clean waLer, educaLlon, healLh care, roads
3
.
1
1
4
.
6
7
.
6
3
4
.
4
8
.
9
1
9
.
3
2
0
.
8
1
1
.
1
3
.
8
6
6
.
6
4
.
0
3
.
7
LxcellenL Cood lalr oor very poor uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 3.4: erformance of the IA1A Secretar|at
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
43
jostlce Jlspeosotloosystems. A furLher 6.1 deslred lnfrasLrucLure (l.e. roads, schools and hosplLals)
lmptovemeots loeJocotlooooJbeoltbcooJltloos. whlch would help Lo lmprove llvlng condlLlons, and
should Lherefore be Lhe prlorlLy of pollLlcal
Cnly 2.2 of respondenLs requlred LhaL Lhelr
admlnlsLraLlons.
pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon eosote commoolty
pottlclpotloo lo Jeclsloo-mokloq ptocesses. 1hls ls
surprlslng as lncluslon and empowermenL have
been common deslres LhroughouL Lhe survey (see
1he lA1A SecreLarlaL (lS) ls a governmenL
ChapLer 1 and llgure 2.13). lL ls clear LhaL local
lnsLlLuLlon worklng on developmenL programmes
parLlclpaLlon ls weak ln lnfluenclng pollLlcal and
ln Lhe lA1A reglon. 1he lS was esLabllshed ln 2002,
developmenL admlnlsLraLlons and ls llkelyLo remaln
flrsL under Lhe lannlng and uevelopmenL
so ln Lhe near fuLure, buL Lhls ls a necessary reform
ueparLmenL of Lhe khyber akhLunkhwa
Lo lmprove governance and Lhe senslLlve
CovernmenL, and Lhen, ln 2006, esLabllshed as an
lmplemenLaLlon of developmenL acLlvlLles.
lndependenL secreLarlaL.
lmptovloq bomoo tlqbts recelved an equal number
1he lS has admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLy for healLh,
of responses, however changes Lo Lhls slLuaLlon
e d u c a L l o n , l l v e l l h o o d , s e c u r l L y ,
may be expedlLed by greaLer lncluslon and
communlcaLlon/roads, lnfrasLrucLure and Lhe
lmprovemenLs ln LheoLher condlLlons ldenLlfled.
general well-belng of Lhe people of lA1A. Powever,
Ma|e IGDs
lL ls yeL Lo be properly recognlsed by resldenLlal
ulfferenL vlews were expressed on Lhls sub[ecL buL Crdlnance, as requlred by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of
general consensus focused on Lhe lssues of aklsLan.
educaLlon and healLh, also Lackllng Lhe lssue of
lS, ln a very shorL number of years, has had Lo
corrupLlon was seen as essenLlal ln lmprovlng Lhe
conLesL wlLh sLlgmaLlsed percepLlons of neglecL
lmageof ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
formed from Lhe successlve marglnallsaLlon of lA1A
8epresenLaLlves from 8a[aur Agency added LhaL by governmenLs ln aklsLan. lA1A ls one of Lhe mosL
confldence ln pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon could be under-developed reglons of aklsLan. Powever, as a
resLored only afLer compensaLlon had been consequence of Lhe 'War on 1error' Lhe
provlded Lo Lhe vlcLlms of mlllLary offences. CovernmenL of aklsLan has dramaLlcally lncreased
lurLhermore, lL was oplned LhaL Lhe heredlLary lLs lnvolvemenL ln lA1A's developmenL.
Mollkl sysLem be abollshed and replaced wlLh a
ln Lhe 2003-04 flscal year, Lhe CovernmenL of
sysLem LhaL allowed for equal opporLunlLles Lo be
aklsLan, Lhrough Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL, allocaLed
provlded Lo all.
k8 3,236 mllllon Lo encourage developmenL ln
arLlclpanLs from khyber Agency were of Lhe vlew lA1A. 1hls allocaLlon of funds was more Lhan
LhaL Lhe pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlons should allocaLe doubled by Lhe 2008-09 budgeL when lL was
funds for developmenLal works only afLer Lhe local lncreased Lo k8 8,662 mllllon - an annual lncrease
communlLyhad been consulLed. of 266. lor Lhe flscal year 2010-11, Lhls flgure has
agaln lncreased Lo k8 13,000 mllllon. 1he
ln Mohmand Agency, lL was belleved LhaL Lhelr
lnLernaLlonal communlLy, especlally Lhe uS and
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon needed Lo lmprove ln
uk,, Cermany and Lhe Cerman uevelopmenL 8ank,
provldlng baslc servlces, aroleLhaL had so far had Lo
along wlLh Lhe lnLernaLlonal organlsaLlons of Lhe
befllled bynon-governmenLal organlsaLlons.
unlLed naLlons and World 8ank, have lnvesLed
heavlly ln lA1A developmenL, and provlded some
Iema|e IGDs
addlLlonal humanlLarlan asslsLance Lo refugee
Areas of concern ldenLlfled lncluded bulldlng local
camps.
17
1he IA1ASecretar|at (IS)
17
1hls lnformaLlon ls exLracLed from undersLandlng lA1A - volume lv. lor more deLall please vlslL (www.undersLandlngfaLa.org)
undersLandlng lA1A
42
Powever, Lhe capaclLy of lS Lo effecLlvely co- lL ls clear LhaL Lhe lS needs Lo lmprove lLs
ordl naLe l mpl emenLaLl on of l arge- scal e communlcaLlon wlLh communlLles ln order Lo
developmenL pro[ecLs ls yeL Lo be seen, and beLLer promoLe lLs acLlvlLles and Lo ensure pro[ecLs'
lmparLlal overslghL may be dlfflculL Lo lnsLlLuLe relevancy. 1hls managemenL of pro[ecLs could be
because of Lhe presenL securlLy slLuaLlon ln lA1A. lmmedlaLely lmproved wlLh Lhe adopLlon of
1hls ls essenLlal, boLh ln Lerms of ensurlng quallLy pollcles LhaL encourage wldespread use of
and conLexL senslLlvlLy, buL also ln Lhe pollclng of parLlclpaLory plannlng - Lo encourage lmproved
corrupLlon - for example, Lhe dlverslon of sLaLe and lmplemenLaLlon and faclllLaLe effecLlve monlLorlng
donor resources bygovernmenL agenLs and Mollks. and evaluaLlon of developmenL efforLs.
1he survey resulLs presenLed below show Lhe
Ma|e IGDs
recorded percepLlons of Lhese admlnlsLraLlve
Ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs were aware of Lhe
sLrucLures ln lA1A.
exlsLence of lS: however, Lhey were unable Lo
properly evaluaLe lLs performance. ln response Lo
erformance of the IS
quesLlons regardlng lS performance, mosL
percelved lL negaLlvely. 1hls ln parL, was because
1he mosL remarkable flndlng ls LhaL Lwo-Lhlrds
focus group members were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL lS
(66.6) of respondenLs were unable Lo provlde an
was noL LreaLlng Lhem falrly, for example, a
oplnlon on Lhe performance of Lhe lS, a flgure LhaL
complalnL was ralsed agalnsL lS because
ls Lwlce LhaL documenLed ln 2010. Clven Lhe
parLlclpanLs had been barred from enLerlng lLs
resources aL Lhe dlsposal of Lhe lS and lLs dlrecL
bulldlng. lL was also noLed LhaL lA1A clLlzens were
llnks Lo locals and Lhelr LradlLlonal leadershlp
noL properlyrepresenLed aL Lhepollcylevel.
sLrucLures, lL ls essenLlal LhaL quesLlons be asked as
Lo whyLhls ls Lhecase.
lL ls also Lroubllng LhaL Lhe number of people LhaL
Iema|e IGDs
vlewed Lhe lS ln a poslLlve llghL has reduced from
1here was only llmlLed knowledge of lS. 8uL
22.6 ln 2010 (3.1 percelvlng lLs performance Lo
concern was ralsed LhaL Lhe body was llkely Lo be
be excelleot and 19.3 as qooJ) Lo only 14.8 ln
blased Lowards ellLes. lemale parLlclpanLs asserLed
2011(3.7 as excellenL and 11.1 as good). 1hls ls a
LhaL Lhe lS needed Lo be more acLlvely lnvolved ln
reducLlon of approxlmaLelyone-Lhlrd.
provldlng clean waLer, educaLlon, healLh care, roads
3
.
1
1
4
.
6
7
.
6
3
4
.
4
8
.
9
1
9
.
3
2
0
.
8
1
1
.
1
3
.
8
6
6
.
6
4
.
0
3
.
7
LxcellenL Cood lalr oor very poor uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 3.4: erformance of the IA1A Secretar|at
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
43
jostlce Jlspeosotloosystems. A furLher 6.1 deslred lnfrasLrucLure (l.e. roads, schools and hosplLals)
lmptovemeots loeJocotlooooJbeoltbcooJltloos. whlch would help Lo lmprove llvlng condlLlons, and
should Lherefore be Lhe prlorlLy of pollLlcal
Cnly 2.2 of respondenLs requlred LhaL Lhelr
admlnlsLraLlons.
pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon eosote commoolty
pottlclpotloo lo Jeclsloo-mokloq ptocesses. 1hls ls
surprlslng as lncluslon and empowermenL have
been common deslres LhroughouL Lhe survey (see
1he lA1A SecreLarlaL (lS) ls a governmenL
ChapLer 1 and llgure 2.13). lL ls clear LhaL local
lnsLlLuLlon worklng on developmenL programmes
parLlclpaLlon ls weak ln lnfluenclng pollLlcal and
ln Lhe lA1A reglon. 1he lS was esLabllshed ln 2002,
developmenL admlnlsLraLlons and ls llkelyLo remaln
flrsL under Lhe lannlng and uevelopmenL
so ln Lhe near fuLure, buL Lhls ls a necessary reform
ueparLmenL of Lhe khyber akhLunkhwa
Lo lmprove governance and Lhe senslLlve
CovernmenL, and Lhen, ln 2006, esLabllshed as an
lmplemenLaLlon of developmenL acLlvlLles.
lndependenL secreLarlaL.
lmptovloq bomoo tlqbts recelved an equal number
1he lS has admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLy for healLh,
of responses, however changes Lo Lhls slLuaLlon
e d u c a L l o n , l l v e l l h o o d , s e c u r l L y ,
may be expedlLed by greaLer lncluslon and
communlcaLlon/roads, lnfrasLrucLure and Lhe
lmprovemenLs ln LheoLher condlLlons ldenLlfled.
general well-belng of Lhe people of lA1A. Powever,
Ma|e IGDs
lL ls yeL Lo be properly recognlsed by resldenLlal
ulfferenL vlews were expressed on Lhls sub[ecL buL Crdlnance, as requlred by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of
general consensus focused on Lhe lssues of aklsLan.
educaLlon and healLh, also Lackllng Lhe lssue of
lS, ln a very shorL number of years, has had Lo
corrupLlon was seen as essenLlal ln lmprovlng Lhe
conLesL wlLh sLlgmaLlsed percepLlons of neglecL
lmageof ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
formed from Lhe successlve marglnallsaLlon of lA1A
8epresenLaLlves from 8a[aur Agency added LhaL by governmenLs ln aklsLan. lA1A ls one of Lhe mosL
confldence ln pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon could be under-developed reglons of aklsLan. Powever, as a
resLored only afLer compensaLlon had been consequence of Lhe 'War on 1error' Lhe
provlded Lo Lhe vlcLlms of mlllLary offences. CovernmenL of aklsLan has dramaLlcally lncreased
lurLhermore, lL was oplned LhaL Lhe heredlLary lLs lnvolvemenL ln lA1A's developmenL.
Mollkl sysLem be abollshed and replaced wlLh a
ln Lhe 2003-04 flscal year, Lhe CovernmenL of
sysLem LhaL allowed for equal opporLunlLles Lo be
aklsLan, Lhrough Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL, allocaLed
provlded Lo all.
k8 3,236 mllllon Lo encourage developmenL ln
arLlclpanLs from khyber Agency were of Lhe vlew lA1A. 1hls allocaLlon of funds was more Lhan
LhaL Lhe pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlons should allocaLe doubled by Lhe 2008-09 budgeL when lL was
funds for developmenLal works only afLer Lhe local lncreased Lo k8 8,662 mllllon - an annual lncrease
communlLyhad been consulLed. of 266. lor Lhe flscal year 2010-11, Lhls flgure has
agaln lncreased Lo k8 13,000 mllllon. 1he
ln Mohmand Agency, lL was belleved LhaL Lhelr
lnLernaLlonal communlLy, especlally Lhe uS and
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon needed Lo lmprove ln
uk,, Cermany and Lhe Cerman uevelopmenL 8ank,
provldlng baslc servlces, aroleLhaL had so far had Lo
along wlLh Lhe lnLernaLlonal organlsaLlons of Lhe
befllled bynon-governmenLal organlsaLlons.
unlLed naLlons and World 8ank, have lnvesLed
heavlly ln lA1A developmenL, and provlded some
Iema|e IGDs
addlLlonal humanlLarlan asslsLance Lo refugee
Areas of concern ldenLlfled lncluded bulldlng local
camps.
17
1he IA1ASecretar|at (IS)
17
1hls lnformaLlon ls exLracLed from undersLandlng lA1A - volume lv. lor more deLall please vlslL (www.undersLandlngfaLa.org)
undersLandlng lA1A
42
IA1ADeve|opment Author|ty (IDA)
Powever, as wlll beshown from LhesurveydaLa, llke
Lhe lS, noL many people ln lA1A are aware of Lhe
1he lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy (luA) was exlsLenceof LheluA.
esLabllshed as a speclallsed developmenL
erformance of the IDA
organlsaLlon ln 2006 Lhrough a resldenLlal
uaLa reveals LhaL oplnlons dlrecLed Lowards Lhe
Crdlnance. lLs ob[ecLlve was Lo promoLe a more
luA are slmllar Lo Lhose documenLed on Lhe lS (see
lnnovaLlve, fasL movlng and parLlclpaLory approach
llgure 3.4). An overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of
Lo developmenL and replace Lhe convenLlonal
respondenLs (70.3) were unable Lo provlde an
sLralghL-[ackeLed sysLem LhaL Lhe lS ls percelved Lo
oplnlon on performance, a doubllng of 2010 flgure
use.
of 33.8.
Accordlngly, Lhe goals of Lhe luA - as enshrlned ln
Agaln lL ls clear LhaL greaLer overLures need Lo be
lLs SLaLuLory 8egulaLlons - are Lo plan, execuLe and
underLaken by Lhe luA Lo communlcaLe wlLh local
admlnlsLer susLalnable developmenL pro[ecLs ln:
communlLles Lo lmprove awareness and lncrease
mlnerals, lndusLrles, skllls developmenL, small
local ownershlp of acLlvlLles. Confuslon ln
dams, Lownshlp developmenL and Lourlsm. 1he alm
dlsLlngulshlng Lhe responslblllLles beLween lS and
was Lo harness abundanL human and naLural
luA may conLrlbuLe Lo a loss ln confldence ln
resources ln lA1A Lo creaLe lncreased economlc and
offerlng an oplnlon. lurLhermore, apparenL local
employmenL opporLunlLles for Lrlbal area
emphasls on Lhe role of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon
communlLles.
may also have conLrlbuLed Lo Lhls emphasls (see
I|gure 3.6: In what way has IA1A Secretar|at performed bad|y?
2011 ()
5.6
5.6
3.3
7.7
44.8
5.9
4.8
lS does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
plannlng process
lS does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
managemenL of pro[ecLs
lS has noL successfully lmplemenLed
pro[ecLs ln lA1A
lS sLaff are noL cooperaLlve
lS pro[ecLs do noL have a long-LermlmpacL
lS ls lnefflclenL ln uslng developmenL granLs
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
0.5
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
4S
and women-cenLred vocaLlonal Lralnlng. well ln lncludlng lA1A people ln Lhe plannlng
processes. 1hls flgure may be Lhe resulL of locallsed
Inwhat way has ISperformedwe||?
lnvolvemenL by parLlclpanLs ln pro[ecLs raLher Lhan
1o ellclL oplnlons on lS performance respondenLs
an lnsLlLuLlonallsed pracLlse. noneLheless, Lhls daLa
were asked a mulLlple-cholce quesLlon and llgure
should noL dlsLracL from Lhe compelllng calls for
3.3 documenLs Lhe answers provlded by
greaLer lncluslon documenLed before.
parLlclpanLs. redlcLably, Lhe mosL common
response, expressed by 42.4 was an lnablllLy Lo Inwhat way has ISperformedbad|y?
answer. 1hls ls llkely Lo be a dlrecL resulL of survey ln comparlson, respondenLs were also asked whaL
parLlclpanLs noL belng able Lo provlde a unlversal aspecLs of lScould belmproved.
oplnlon on lS.
Agaln we see close Lo half Lhe number of Lhe
Cf Lhose LhaL were able Lo ldenLlfy a parLlcular lS respondenLs noL belng ableLo shareLhelr oplnlon.
value: 10.0 of respondenLs shared Lhe oplnlon
lnLeresLlngly, Lhere are no dramaLlc dlfferences
LhaL lS sLaff were co-operaLlve wlLh lA1A
beLween poslLlve and negaLlve aLLlLudes, buL lL ls
worLh noLlng LhaL concern relaLlng Lo lncluslon ls ln communlLles, whlle 6.8 declared LhaL lS had been
excess of 10.0, wlLh 3.6 of people lndlcaLlng LhaL successful ln lmplemenLlng pro[ecLs ln lA1A. A
l5 Joes oot lovolve lA1A people lo tbe ploooloq furLher 2.8 belleved LhaL pro[ecLs lmplemenLed
ptocess and 3.9 declarlng l5 Joes oot lovolve lA1A by lS have a long-Lerm lmpacL on Lhe reglon. 3.4
people lo tbe moooqemeot of ptojects. A furLher of respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL lS had
lndlcaLlon LhaL local empowermenL regardlng used granLs senslbly.
developmenL programmes should be prlorlLlsed ln
Arguably, an unexpecLed flndlng ls LhaL over 6.0 of
LhefuLure.
parLlclpanLs belleved LhaL Lhe lS had performed
I|gure 3.S: In what way has IA1A Secretar|at performed we||?
3.9
2.8
3.4
1.2
6.8
10.0
lS lnvolves lA1A people ln plannlng processes
lS has been successfully lmplemenLlng pro[ecLs
ln lA1A
lS sLaff are co-operaLlve
lS pro[ecLs have long-Lerm lmpacL
lS ls efflclenL ln uslng developmenL granLs
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
42.4
undersLandlng lA1A
44
IA1ADeve|opment Author|ty (IDA)
Powever, as wlll beshown from LhesurveydaLa, llke
Lhe lS, noL many people ln lA1A are aware of Lhe
1he lA1A uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy (luA) was exlsLenceof LheluA.
esLabllshed as a speclallsed developmenL
erformance of the IDA
organlsaLlon ln 2006 Lhrough a resldenLlal
uaLa reveals LhaL oplnlons dlrecLed Lowards Lhe
Crdlnance. lLs ob[ecLlve was Lo promoLe a more
luA are slmllar Lo Lhose documenLed on Lhe lS (see
lnnovaLlve, fasL movlng and parLlclpaLory approach
llgure 3.4). An overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of
Lo developmenL and replace Lhe convenLlonal
respondenLs (70.3) were unable Lo provlde an
sLralghL-[ackeLed sysLem LhaL Lhe lS ls percelved Lo
oplnlon on performance, a doubllng of 2010 flgure
use.
of 33.8.
Accordlngly, Lhe goals of Lhe luA - as enshrlned ln
Agaln lL ls clear LhaL greaLer overLures need Lo be
lLs SLaLuLory 8egulaLlons - are Lo plan, execuLe and
underLaken by Lhe luA Lo communlcaLe wlLh local
admlnlsLer susLalnable developmenL pro[ecLs ln:
communlLles Lo lmprove awareness and lncrease
mlnerals, lndusLrles, skllls developmenL, small
local ownershlp of acLlvlLles. Confuslon ln
dams, Lownshlp developmenL and Lourlsm. 1he alm
dlsLlngulshlng Lhe responslblllLles beLween lS and
was Lo harness abundanL human and naLural
luA may conLrlbuLe Lo a loss ln confldence ln
resources ln lA1A Lo creaLe lncreased economlc and
offerlng an oplnlon. lurLhermore, apparenL local
employmenL opporLunlLles for Lrlbal area
emphasls on Lhe role of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon
communlLles.
may also have conLrlbuLed Lo Lhls emphasls (see
I|gure 3.6: In what way has IA1A Secretar|at performed bad|y?
2011 ()
5.6
5.6
3.3
7.7
44.8
5.9
4.8
lS does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
plannlng process
lS does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
managemenL of pro[ecLs
lS has noL successfully lmplemenLed
pro[ecLs ln lA1A
lS sLaff are noL cooperaLlve
lS pro[ecLs do noL have a long-LermlmpacL
lS ls lnefflclenL ln uslng developmenL granLs
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
0.5
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
4S
and women-cenLred vocaLlonal Lralnlng. well ln lncludlng lA1A people ln Lhe plannlng
processes. 1hls flgure may be Lhe resulL of locallsed
Inwhat way has ISperformedwe||?
lnvolvemenL by parLlclpanLs ln pro[ecLs raLher Lhan
1o ellclL oplnlons on lS performance respondenLs
an lnsLlLuLlonallsed pracLlse. noneLheless, Lhls daLa
were asked a mulLlple-cholce quesLlon and llgure
should noL dlsLracL from Lhe compelllng calls for
3.3 documenLs Lhe answers provlded by
greaLer lncluslon documenLed before.
parLlclpanLs. redlcLably, Lhe mosL common
response, expressed by 42.4 was an lnablllLy Lo Inwhat way has ISperformedbad|y?
answer. 1hls ls llkely Lo be a dlrecL resulL of survey ln comparlson, respondenLs were also asked whaL
parLlclpanLs noL belng able Lo provlde a unlversal aspecLs of lScould belmproved.
oplnlon on lS.
Agaln we see close Lo half Lhe number of Lhe
Cf Lhose LhaL were able Lo ldenLlfy a parLlcular lS respondenLs noL belng ableLo shareLhelr oplnlon.
value: 10.0 of respondenLs shared Lhe oplnlon
lnLeresLlngly, Lhere are no dramaLlc dlfferences
LhaL lS sLaff were co-operaLlve wlLh lA1A
beLween poslLlve and negaLlve aLLlLudes, buL lL ls
worLh noLlng LhaL concern relaLlng Lo lncluslon ls ln communlLles, whlle 6.8 declared LhaL lS had been
excess of 10.0, wlLh 3.6 of people lndlcaLlng LhaL successful ln lmplemenLlng pro[ecLs ln lA1A. A
l5 Joes oot lovolve lA1A people lo tbe ploooloq furLher 2.8 belleved LhaL pro[ecLs lmplemenLed
ptocess and 3.9 declarlng l5 Joes oot lovolve lA1A by lS have a long-Lerm lmpacL on Lhe reglon. 3.4
people lo tbe moooqemeot of ptojects. A furLher of respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL lS had
lndlcaLlon LhaL local empowermenL regardlng used granLs senslbly.
developmenL programmes should be prlorlLlsed ln
Arguably, an unexpecLed flndlng ls LhaL over 6.0 of
LhefuLure.
parLlclpanLs belleved LhaL Lhe lS had performed
I|gure 3.S: In what way has IA1A Secretar|at performed we||?
3.9
2.8
3.4
1.2
6.8
10.0
lS lnvolves lA1A people ln plannlng processes
lS has been successfully lmplemenLlng pro[ecLs
ln lA1A
lS sLaff are co-operaLlve
lS pro[ecLs have long-Lerm lmpacL
lS ls efflclenL ln uslng developmenL granLs
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
42.4
undersLandlng lA1A
44
WlLh regard Lo poslLlve percepLlons of luA
barrlers Lo lncluslon, Lhls resulL means LhaL
supporLlng local communlLy parLlclpaLlon and
approxlmaLely 130 parLlclpanLs were noL as
lnvolvemenL, 3.6 of respondenLs belleved Lhls Lo
negaLlveLowards LheluA as LheywereLo LhelS.
be Lhe case. 1hls flgure almosL exacLly flLs Lhose
oplnlons expressed favourablyLowards LhelS.
lL ls evldenL LhaL, desplLe luA belng creaLed as
Cver Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe survey process,
speclallsed deparLmenL Lo lmplemenL lnnovaLlve,
respondenLs have been lnvlLed Lo respond Lo a
parLlclpaLory pro[ecLs, lL has falled Lo subsLanLlally
mulLlple-cholce quesLlon on Lhelr lnLeracLlon wlLh
lmproveon LhedevelopmenL lnlLlaLlves underLaken
dlfferenL leadershlp flgures. As shown ln llgure
byLhelS.
3.10: Lwo lmporLanL Lrends can be charLed: 1) A
decllne ln regular conLacL wlLh Lhe ollLlcal AgenL,
Inwhat way has IDAperformedbad|y?
and 2) A reducLlon ln conLacL wlLh Mollobs. 1he flrsL
ln comparlson, respondenLs were also asked whaL
flndlng ls probably llnked Lo weaknesses ln Lhe
aspecLs of luA could belmproved
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ouLllned above. 1he second
flndlng reflecLs a decllne ln presLlge held by local
Agaln, close Lo half of Lhe respondenLs (43.0)
rellglous leaders as asourceof advlceand guldance.
were unable Lo offer an oplnlon. lnLeresLlngly, all of
Lhecholces, wlLh LheexcepLlon of aLLlLudes Lowards
1he evenLs of Lhe lasL few years have undoubLedly
Lhe long-Lerm lmpacL of a pro[ecL, were lower Lhan
lnfluenced aLLlLudes held by local people Lowards
Lhose expressed Lowards Lhe lS. ln parLlcular, less
Lhelr leaders, wlLh Lhe repuLaLlon of Mollobs has
Lhan elghL per cenL of respondenLs ldenLlfled
suffered becauseof Lhelr weak responseLo LerrorlsL
C|osest |nteract|onw|th|eadersh|p
3.9
3.3
4.3
5.3
45.0
3.7
4.0
luA does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
plannlng process
luA does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
managemenL of pro[ecLs
luA has noL successfully lmplemenLed
pro[ecLs ln lA1A
luA sLaff are noL co-operaLlve
luA pro[ecLs do noL have a long-Lerm lmpacL
luA ls lnefflclenL ln uslng developmenL granLs
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 3.9: In what way has IA1A Deve|opment Author|ty (IDA) performed bad|y?
0.4
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
47
llgure3.3). 9.8 oplned LhaL Lhe sLaff of luA were co-operaLlve
- a slmllar number Lo LhaL of lS sLaff. A greaLer
Inwhat way has IDAperformedwe||?
number of respondenLs supporLed luA's usage of
1o ellclL oplnlons on luA performance respondenLs
developmenL granLs, ln comparlson Lo Lhe lS - 8.7
were asked a mulLlple-cholce quesLlon and llgure
versus 3.4. A furLher 8.0 consldered luA
3.8 documenLs a sample of Lhe answers provlded.
pro[ecLs Lo be lmplemenLed successfully ln lA1A.
redlcLably, LhemosL common response, expressed
1hls ls a sllghL lncrease on Lhe same percepLlon
by40.7 was an lnablllLyLo answer.
assoclaLed wlLh LhelS.
2
.
6
1
2
.
7
9
.
9
3
3
.
8
3
.
3
2
2
.
9
1
6
.
2
3
.
1
2
.
8
7
0
.
3
3
.
2
1
1
.
0
LxcellenL Cood lalr oor very poor uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 3.7: erformance of the IA1A Deve|opment Author|ty (IDA)
luA lnvolves
lA1A people ln
plannlng
processes
luA has been
successfully
lmplemenLlng
pro[ecLs ln lA1A
luA sLaff are
co-operaLlve
luA pro[ecLs
have long-Lerm
lmpacL
luA ls efflclenL
ln uslng
developmenL
granLs
CLher (speclfy) uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 3.8: In what way has IA1A Deve|opment Author|ty (IDA) performed we||?
3
.
6
8
.
0
9
.
8
2
.
3
8
.
7
0
.
4
4
0
.
7
undersLandlng lA1A
46
WlLh regard Lo poslLlve percepLlons of luA
barrlers Lo lncluslon, Lhls resulL means LhaL
supporLlng local communlLy parLlclpaLlon and
approxlmaLely 130 parLlclpanLs were noL as
lnvolvemenL, 3.6 of respondenLs belleved Lhls Lo
negaLlveLowards LheluA as LheywereLo LhelS.
be Lhe case. 1hls flgure almosL exacLly flLs Lhose
oplnlons expressed favourablyLowards LhelS.
lL ls evldenL LhaL, desplLe luA belng creaLed as
Cver Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe survey process,
speclallsed deparLmenL Lo lmplemenL lnnovaLlve,
respondenLs have been lnvlLed Lo respond Lo a
parLlclpaLory pro[ecLs, lL has falled Lo subsLanLlally
mulLlple-cholce quesLlon on Lhelr lnLeracLlon wlLh
lmproveon LhedevelopmenL lnlLlaLlves underLaken
dlfferenL leadershlp flgures. As shown ln llgure
byLhelS.
3.10: Lwo lmporLanL Lrends can be charLed: 1) A
decllne ln regular conLacL wlLh Lhe ollLlcal AgenL,
Inwhat way has IDAperformedbad|y?
and 2) A reducLlon ln conLacL wlLh Mollobs. 1he flrsL
ln comparlson, respondenLs were also asked whaL
flndlng ls probably llnked Lo weaknesses ln Lhe
aspecLs of luA could belmproved
ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon ouLllned above. 1he second
flndlng reflecLs a decllne ln presLlge held by local
Agaln, close Lo half of Lhe respondenLs (43.0)
rellglous leaders as asourceof advlceand guldance.
were unable Lo offer an oplnlon. lnLeresLlngly, all of
Lhecholces, wlLh LheexcepLlon of aLLlLudes Lowards
1he evenLs of Lhe lasL few years have undoubLedly
Lhe long-Lerm lmpacL of a pro[ecL, were lower Lhan
lnfluenced aLLlLudes held by local people Lowards
Lhose expressed Lowards Lhe lS. ln parLlcular, less
Lhelr leaders, wlLh Lhe repuLaLlon of Mollobs has
Lhan elghL per cenL of respondenLs ldenLlfled
suffered becauseof Lhelr weak responseLo LerrorlsL
C|osest |nteract|onw|th|eadersh|p
3.9
3.3
4.3
5.3
45.0
3.7
4.0
luA does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
plannlng process
luA does noL lnvolve lA1A people ln Lhe
managemenL of pro[ecLs
luA has noL successfully lmplemenLed
pro[ecLs ln lA1A
luA sLaff are noL co-operaLlve
luA pro[ecLs do noL have a long-Lerm lmpacL
luA ls lnefflclenL ln uslng developmenL granLs
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 3.9: In what way has IA1A Deve|opment Author|ty (IDA) performed bad|y?
0.4
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
47
llgure3.3). 9.8 oplned LhaL Lhe sLaff of luA were co-operaLlve
- a slmllar number Lo LhaL of lS sLaff. A greaLer
Inwhat way has IDAperformedwe||?
number of respondenLs supporLed luA's usage of
1o ellclL oplnlons on luA performance respondenLs
developmenL granLs, ln comparlson Lo Lhe lS - 8.7
were asked a mulLlple-cholce quesLlon and llgure
versus 3.4. A furLher 8.0 consldered luA
3.8 documenLs a sample of Lhe answers provlded.
pro[ecLs Lo be lmplemenLed successfully ln lA1A.
redlcLably, LhemosL common response, expressed
1hls ls a sllghL lncrease on Lhe same percepLlon
by40.7 was an lnablllLyLo answer.
assoclaLed wlLh LhelS.
2
.
6
1
2
.
7
9
.
9
3
3
.
8
3
.
3
2
2
.
9
1
6
.
2
3
.
1
2
.
8
7
0
.
3
3
.
2
1
1
.
0
LxcellenL Cood lalr oor very poor uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 3.7: erformance of the IA1A Deve|opment Author|ty (IDA)
luA lnvolves
lA1A people ln
plannlng
processes
luA has been
successfully
lmplemenLlng
pro[ecLs ln lA1A
luA sLaff are
co-operaLlve
luA pro[ecLs
have long-Lerm
lmpacL
luA ls efflclenL
ln uslng
developmenL
granLs
CLher (speclfy) uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 3.8: In what way has IA1A Deve|opment Author|ty (IDA) performed we||?
3
.
6
8
.
0
9
.
8
2
.
3
8
.
7
0
.
4
4
0
.
7
undersLandlng lA1A
46
aLLacks perpeLraLed by Lhe 11 and Al OoeJo. of Mollobs, Leachers, parllamenLarlans, or nCCs.
Powever, Lhe sllghL recovery ln 2011 lnLeracLlon
Iema|e IGDs
wlLh Mollobs may lndlcaLe LhaL people may agaln
1he general consensus among Lhe slx female focus
seek Lhelr supporL lf oLher lnsLlLuLlons are noL able
groups was LhaL male famlly members, ln
Lo meeL LheasplraLlons of LhelA1A people.
accordance wlLh Lrlbal lokbtoo socleLy, provlded
1tlbol elJets appear Lo be a sLrong source of
leadershlp. ln addlLlon, some menLlon was made of
leadershlp for a quarLer of respondenLs (26.6), a
docLors and Leachers: wlLh whom guldance was
flgure LhaL almosL doubles daLa recorded ln 2010.
soughL for aparLlcular healLh or educaLlonal lssue.
1hls growLh ln supporL may lndlcaLe LhaL
respondenLs are lncreaslngly Lurnlng Lowards
LradlLlonal leadershlp mechanlsms, LhaL ls, seeklng
guldance from exlsLlng admlnlsLraLlve and Lrlbal
sLrucLures Lo resolve local lssues and resLore
1he surveys conducLed beLween 2008 and 2010
communal harmony. lnLeracLlon wlLh teocbets also
allowed for respondenLs Lo choose a slngle answer
appears Lo have grown ln slgnlflcance. 8esponses
Lo Lhe quesLlon of whlch lnsLlLuLlon or leader was
over Lhe lasL Lhree years have remalned conslsLenL,
mosL LrusLed - for Lhe 2011 survey respondenLs
rlslng Lo 20.2 ln 2011.
were lnvlLed Lo selecL more Lhan one opLlon. 1he
daLa conLalned ln llgure 3.11 largely supporLs Lhe
lollowlng a sLeady decllne ln recenL years,
fl ndl ngs defl ned by ll gure 3. 10. 1hose
lnLeracLlon wlLh nCCs has lmproved ln 2011 (l.e.
represenLaLlves LhaL had had mosL lnLeracLlon were
from 1.6 ln 2010 Lo 3.0 ln 2011). 1he decllne ln
largelyconsldered LhemosL LrusLworLhy.
prevlous years ls llkely Lo be because Lhe securlLy
slLuaLlon consLrlcLed Lhelr ablllLy Lo operaLe, very
ALLlLudes Lowards ollLlcal AgenLs mlrror LhaL of Lhe
few nCCs are able Lo work ln Lhe challenglng lA1A
level of lnLeracLlon documenLed above. Powever, lL
envlronmenL.
ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL levels of LrusL ln Lhls
governmenL represenLaLlvehavenoL flucLuaLed Loo
lL ls encouraglng LhaL less Lhan 1.0 of respondenLs
greaLly, whlle lnLeracLlon has decreased over Llme.
have soughL lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhe 1ollboo (0.8) or
1hls lndlcaLes LhaL cerLaln mlsLrusL has been felL
fotelqo flqbtets (0.1). Whlle ln conLrasL, LrusL
Lowards Lhe ollLlcal AgenL, a flndlng LhaL needs Lo
seems Lo be growlng Lowards aklsLanl forces: wlLh
be addressed lf Lhey are Lo become a source of
boLh Lhe mllltoty and ltootlet cotp en[oylng
guldance.
lncreased supporL
SubsLanLlal LrusL appears Lo be afforded Lo boLh Lhe
lL ls concernlng however, LhaL a flfLh of survey
mlllLary and lronLler Corps, wlLh almosL LhreeLlmes
parLlclpanLs (21.3) had noL lnLeracLed wlLh a
Lhenumber of peopledeclarlng LrusL ln LhemlllLary,
leadershlp flgure. ollLlcal and developmenL
Lhan Lhe number of Lhose LhaL had had dlrecL
organlsaLlons need Lo be aware of Lhls dlscouraglng
conLacL wlLh Lhem ln 2011. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL
flndlng as lL may be symbollc of communlLles
mlllLary lnLervenLlon, ln order Lo provlde securlLy, ls
exhlblLlng a lack of LrusL or dlsenchanLmenL wlLh
noL anLagonlslng Lhe lA1A populaLlon, and as
progress. Also lL may lndlcaLe LhaL large proporLlon
shown ln ChapLer 1ls supporLed.
of Lhe lA1A populaLlon ls noL belng effecLlvely
represenLed, for example, because of local lssues of
ulsLurblngly, levels of dlsLrusL remaln hlgh, wlLh Lhe
gender lnequallLyor of fear.
percepLlon LhaL none were LrusLworLhy rlslng from
13.3 ln 2010 Lo 18.7 ln 2011. Also Lhe number of
Ma|e IGDs
Lhose LhaL were unable Lo answer has rlsen sharply
1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs
from 6.2 (2010) Lo 13.1 (2011). 1hls absence of
ldenLlfled Lrlbal elders as Lhe flgures LhaL Lhey had
LrusL needs Lo be addressed oLherwlse lssues such
had mosL lnLeracLlon wlLh, followed by ollLlcal
as Lhe lnsurgency ln lA1A may perslsL because
AdmlnlsLraLlon. Surprlslngly, no menLlon was made
Most trusted |nst|tut|ons]|eaders |n
IA1A
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
49
I|gure 3.10: C|osest |nteract|on w|th |eadersh|p
28.3
NA
NA
6.3
9.4
5.9
19.1
37.2
4.0
3.1
22.4
13.5
4.1
3.0
14.5
0.8
0.1
35.2
4.4
3.5
4.0
15.2
4.1
8.6
5.7
1.5
1.6
1.3
14.7
17.4
0.6
0.1
4.6
7.4
10.9
3.0
4.8
1.6
6.7
15.7
21.5
10.5
6.7
6.4
1.8
20.2
0.3
4.6
9.0
26.6
16.5
3.0
3.0
ollLlcal AgenL
MlllLary
lronLler Corps
MnAs
1eachers
uocLors
SenaLors
1allban
Medla
1rlbal elders
Mullahs
nCCs
CovernmenL
offlclals
lorelgn flghLers
none
CLhers
uon'L know
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
undersLandlng lA1A
48
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aLLacks perpeLraLed by Lhe 11 and Al OoeJo. of Mollobs, Leachers, parllamenLarlans, or nCCs.
Powever, Lhe sllghL recovery ln 2011 lnLeracLlon
Iema|e IGDs
wlLh Mollobs may lndlcaLe LhaL people may agaln
1he general consensus among Lhe slx female focus
seek Lhelr supporL lf oLher lnsLlLuLlons are noL able
groups was LhaL male famlly members, ln
Lo meeL LheasplraLlons of LhelA1A people.
accordance wlLh Lrlbal lokbtoo socleLy, provlded
1tlbol elJets appear Lo be a sLrong source of
leadershlp. ln addlLlon, some menLlon was made of
leadershlp for a quarLer of respondenLs (26.6), a
docLors and Leachers: wlLh whom guldance was
flgure LhaL almosL doubles daLa recorded ln 2010.
soughL for aparLlcular healLh or educaLlonal lssue.
1hls growLh ln supporL may lndlcaLe LhaL
respondenLs are lncreaslngly Lurnlng Lowards
LradlLlonal leadershlp mechanlsms, LhaL ls, seeklng
guldance from exlsLlng admlnlsLraLlve and Lrlbal
sLrucLures Lo resolve local lssues and resLore
1he surveys conducLed beLween 2008 and 2010
communal harmony. lnLeracLlon wlLh teocbets also
allowed for respondenLs Lo choose a slngle answer
appears Lo have grown ln slgnlflcance. 8esponses
Lo Lhe quesLlon of whlch lnsLlLuLlon or leader was
over Lhe lasL Lhree years have remalned conslsLenL,
mosL LrusLed - for Lhe 2011 survey respondenLs
rlslng Lo 20.2 ln 2011.
were lnvlLed Lo selecL more Lhan one opLlon. 1he
daLa conLalned ln llgure 3.11 largely supporLs Lhe
lollowlng a sLeady decllne ln recenL years,
fl ndl ngs defl ned by ll gure 3. 10. 1hose
lnLeracLlon wlLh nCCs has lmproved ln 2011 (l.e.
represenLaLlves LhaL had had mosL lnLeracLlon were
from 1.6 ln 2010 Lo 3.0 ln 2011). 1he decllne ln
largelyconsldered LhemosL LrusLworLhy.
prevlous years ls llkely Lo be because Lhe securlLy
slLuaLlon consLrlcLed Lhelr ablllLy Lo operaLe, very
ALLlLudes Lowards ollLlcal AgenLs mlrror LhaL of Lhe
few nCCs are able Lo work ln Lhe challenglng lA1A
level of lnLeracLlon documenLed above. Powever, lL
envlronmenL.
ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL levels of LrusL ln Lhls
governmenL represenLaLlvehavenoL flucLuaLed Loo
lL ls encouraglng LhaL less Lhan 1.0 of respondenLs
greaLly, whlle lnLeracLlon has decreased over Llme.
have soughL lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhe 1ollboo (0.8) or
1hls lndlcaLes LhaL cerLaln mlsLrusL has been felL
fotelqo flqbtets (0.1). Whlle ln conLrasL, LrusL
Lowards Lhe ollLlcal AgenL, a flndlng LhaL needs Lo
seems Lo be growlng Lowards aklsLanl forces: wlLh
be addressed lf Lhey are Lo become a source of
boLh Lhe mllltoty and ltootlet cotp en[oylng
guldance.
lncreased supporL
SubsLanLlal LrusL appears Lo be afforded Lo boLh Lhe
lL ls concernlng however, LhaL a flfLh of survey
mlllLary and lronLler Corps, wlLh almosL LhreeLlmes
parLlclpanLs (21.3) had noL lnLeracLed wlLh a
Lhenumber of peopledeclarlng LrusL ln LhemlllLary,
leadershlp flgure. ollLlcal and developmenL
Lhan Lhe number of Lhose LhaL had had dlrecL
organlsaLlons need Lo be aware of Lhls dlscouraglng
conLacL wlLh Lhem ln 2011. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL
flndlng as lL may be symbollc of communlLles
mlllLary lnLervenLlon, ln order Lo provlde securlLy, ls
exhlblLlng a lack of LrusL or dlsenchanLmenL wlLh
noL anLagonlslng Lhe lA1A populaLlon, and as
progress. Also lL may lndlcaLe LhaL large proporLlon
shown ln ChapLer 1ls supporLed.
of Lhe lA1A populaLlon ls noL belng effecLlvely
represenLed, for example, because of local lssues of
ulsLurblngly, levels of dlsLrusL remaln hlgh, wlLh Lhe
gender lnequallLyor of fear.
percepLlon LhaL none were LrusLworLhy rlslng from
13.3 ln 2010 Lo 18.7 ln 2011. Also Lhe number of
Ma|e IGDs
Lhose LhaL were unable Lo answer has rlsen sharply
1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs
from 6.2 (2010) Lo 13.1 (2011). 1hls absence of
ldenLlfled Lrlbal elders as Lhe flgures LhaL Lhey had
LrusL needs Lo be addressed oLherwlse lssues such
had mosL lnLeracLlon wlLh, followed by ollLlcal
as Lhe lnsurgency ln lA1A may perslsL because
AdmlnlsLraLlon. Surprlslngly, no menLlon was made
Most trusted |nst|tut|ons]|eaders |n
IA1A
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
49
I|gure 3.10: C|osest |nteract|on w|th |eadersh|p
28.3
NA
NA
6.3
9.4
5.9
19.1
37.2
4.0
3.1
22.4
13.5
4.1
3.0
14.5
0.8
0.1
35.2
4.4
3.5
4.0
15.2
4.1
8.6
5.7
1.5
1.6
1.3
14.7
17.4
0.6
0.1
4.6
7.4
10.9
3.0
4.8
1.6
6.7
15.7
21.5
10.5
6.7
6.4
1.8
20.2
0.3
4.6
9.0
26.6
16.5
3.0
3.0
ollLlcal AgenL
MlllLary
lronLler Corps
MnAs
1eachers
uocLors
SenaLors
1allban
Medla
1rlbal elders
Mullahs
nCCs
CovernmenL
offlclals
lorelgn flghLers
none
CLhers
uon'L know
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
undersLandlng lA1A
48
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
leaders are unable Lo lnsplre supporL from
communlLles Lo address pollLlcal and developmenL
shorLcomlngs.
Ma|e IGDs
Male parLlclpanLs greaLly valued Lhe role of Lhe
mlllLary ln safeguardlng securlLy, and Lhls LrusL was
cenLred on Lhelr ablllLy Lo oppose1allban forces and
reclalm land, excesslve use of force was however
quesLloned buL LrusL was largely based on resulLs
and noL human rlghLs.
lurLhermore, some respondenLs ldenLlfled Lhe
Iltqo sysLem of Lrlbal elders as a mosL LrusLed
lnsLlLuLlon, dlspenslng Llmely resoluLlons on [usLlce
and communal lssues.
Iema|e IGDs
1he aklsLan MlllLary and Lhe lronLler Corps were
slmllarly consldered Lhe mosL LrusLed lnsLlLuLlon,
however Lhls was noL unlversal, wlLh some
parLlclpanLs noL belng fully aware of Lhe parLles
under dlscusslon.
1hls chapLer has examlned oplnlons regardlng Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve sysLems of governance ln lA1A. lL
shows, from Lhe varlous perspecLlves, LhaL
dlsconLenL remalns slgnlflcanL, wlLh need for
changebelng qulLeevldenLlylllusLraLed.
1hls problem ls compounded by Lhe lack of a
predomlnanL leader LhaL Lhe people of lA1A LrusL.
WlLh so many lnsLlLuLlons provldlng leadershlp, a
lack of coherence ls lnevlLable, and generaLes
confuslon amongsL Lhe communlLy abouL who
should be expecLed Lo provlde parLlcular servlces.
As expressed above, Lhe lS and luA musL make
greaLer efforLs Lo engage wlLh communlLles Lo
communlcaLe whaL Lhey are dolng and Lo empower
lncreased local ownershlp of pro[ecLs, a necesslLy
for conLexL-senslLlve developmenL. Powever, some
Lrends regardlng LrusL can be consldered
encouraglng - LrusL ln Lhe mlllLary wlll be explored
furLher ln ChapLer 4.
Conc|us|on
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
S1
10.2
6.2
14.3
0.2
1.4
1.3
20.4
18.7
17.9
13.1
14.8
12.2
10.7
8.1
3.3
4.0
3.7
2.3
1.9
1.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
nA
nA
0.2
nA
nA
7.2
20.3
13.3
nA
11.8
nA
1rlbal Llders
none
MlllLary
uon'L know
Mullahs
1eachers
ollLlcal AgenL
lronLler Corps
uocLors
CLhers
Medla
nCCs
CovernmenL ServanLs
MnA
1allban
SenaLor
lorelgn flghLers
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 3.11: Most trusted |nst|tut|ons]|eaders |n IA1A
undersLandlng lA1A
S0
leaders are unable Lo lnsplre supporL from
communlLles Lo address pollLlcal and developmenL
shorLcomlngs.
Ma|e IGDs
Male parLlclpanLs greaLly valued Lhe role of Lhe
mlllLary ln safeguardlng securlLy, and Lhls LrusL was
cenLred on Lhelr ablllLy Lo oppose1allban forces and
reclalm land, excesslve use of force was however
quesLloned buL LrusL was largely based on resulLs
and noL human rlghLs.
lurLhermore, some respondenLs ldenLlfled Lhe
Iltqo sysLem of Lrlbal elders as a mosL LrusLed
lnsLlLuLlon, dlspenslng Llmely resoluLlons on [usLlce
and communal lssues.
Iema|e IGDs
1he aklsLan MlllLary and Lhe lronLler Corps were
slmllarly consldered Lhe mosL LrusLed lnsLlLuLlon,
however Lhls was noL unlversal, wlLh some
parLlclpanLs noL belng fully aware of Lhe parLles
under dlscusslon.
1hls chapLer has examlned oplnlons regardlng Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve sysLems of governance ln lA1A. lL
shows, from Lhe varlous perspecLlves, LhaL
dlsconLenL remalns slgnlflcanL, wlLh need for
changebelng qulLeevldenLlylllusLraLed.
1hls problem ls compounded by Lhe lack of a
predomlnanL leader LhaL Lhe people of lA1A LrusL.
WlLh so many lnsLlLuLlons provldlng leadershlp, a
lack of coherence ls lnevlLable, and generaLes
confuslon amongsL Lhe communlLy abouL who
should be expecLed Lo provlde parLlcular servlces.
As expressed above, Lhe lS and luA musL make
greaLer efforLs Lo engage wlLh communlLles Lo
communlcaLe whaL Lhey are dolng and Lo empower
lncreased local ownershlp of pro[ecLs, a necesslLy
for conLexL-senslLlve developmenL. Powever, some
Lrends regardlng LrusL can be consldered
encouraglng - LrusL ln Lhe mlllLary wlll be explored
furLher ln ChapLer 4.
Conc|us|on
ChapLer 3: AssessmenL of Covernance and uevelopmenL Agencles
S1
10.2
6.2
14.3
0.2
1.4
1.3
20.4
18.7
17.9
13.1
14.8
12.2
10.7
8.1
3.3
4.0
3.7
2.3
1.9
1.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
nA
nA
0.2
nA
nA
7.2
20.3
13.3
nA
11.8
nA
1rlbal Llders
none
MlllLary
uon'L know
Mullahs
1eachers
ollLlcal AgenL
lronLler Corps
uocLors
CLhers
Medla
nCCs
CovernmenL ServanLs
MnA
1allban
SenaLor
lorelgn flghLers
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 3.11: Most trusted |nst|tut|ons]|eaders |n IA1A
undersLandlng lA1A
S0
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
S3
FATA |n the 6ontext of
|nternat|ona| 6onf||ct
6hAPTER 4
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
S3
FATA |n the 6ontext of
|nternat|ona| 6onf||ct
6hAPTER 4
1hls chapLer ls organlsed lnLo flve Lhemes: 1) 1he
lA1A assess Lhe counLry's overall slLuaLlon. 1he
overall dlrecLlon of aklsLan and lA1A speclflc
quesLlon was, 'uo you belleve LhaL Lhe counLry ls
lssues, 2) SecurlLy ln general, 3) ercelved securlLy
golng ln LherlghL or wrong dlrecLlon?'
LhreaLs Lo lndlvlduals, 4) Cplnlons on securlLy
llndlngs from 2009appear Lo show qulLe a negaLlve
provlders, and 3) SupporL for Lhe mlllLary and Lhe
percepLlon of aklsLan's overall dlrecLlon by Lhe
LacLlcs Lheyemploy.
people of lA1A. AL Lhls Llme, lA1A was fully overrun
1he sLaLlsLlcal flndlngs are based on random,
wlLh mlllLanLs and remalned so, unLll aklsLanl
sLraLlfled samples Laken ln Lhe lA1A agencles uslng
mlllLary operaLlons were sLarLed ln many Lrlbal
Lhe meLhodology descrlbed ln Lhe MeLhodology
areas, a process LhaL was meL wlLh some dlsquleL as
Appendlx. Where comparable daLa from 2008,
lA1A communlLles had been dlsLrusLful of mlllLary
2009, 2010 and 2011 ls avallable, lL ls used Lo show
lnLervenLlon.
changes ln oplnlon. CLherwlse slngle-year daLa ls
lL ls lmporLanL Lo menLlon here LhaL ln Lhe
used and descrlbed.
beglnnlng, probably afLer 2004, 1allban groups
were seen Lo be very co-operaLlve wlLh local
communlLles and had provlded a [usLlce servlce Lo
Lhe people: resolvlng very complex, decades-old
confllcLs. 1hls lnLeracLlon won Lhe 1allban much
supporL among locals. Powever, as 1allban bruLallLy
lncreased, whlch lncluded Lhe forceful recrulLmenL
1he survey soughL Lo deLermlne how Lhe people of
of lA1A locals for IlboJ ln AfghanlsLan, and local
resources were conflscaLed, Lhelr presLlge
meanlngfully decllned, a process acceleraLed afLer
lmposed 5botlo courL rullngs resulLed ln Lhe
beheadlng of several lnnocenL peopleln lA1A.
Pundreds of Lrlbal elders were also bruLally kllled
and humlllaLed ln WazlrlsLan, 8a[aur, and
Mohmand agencles, whlch creaLed a huge gap ln
leadershlp. Several sulclde bomb blasLs LargeLlng,
among oLhers, Iltqo sesslons, funerals and
mosques lnLenslfled feellngs of lnsecurlLy among
local Lrlbes.
uesplLe growlng opposlLlon, lA1A communlLles
were unable Lo reslsL Lhe mlllLanLs, as Lhe 1allban
were Loo sLrong and beLLer equlpped when
compared wlLh Lrlbal losbkots. 1herefore, Lhe
people of lA1A sLarLed looklng Lowards Lhe
aklsLanl mlllLary for supporL. ln Lhls envlronmenL lL
4.1 1he overa|| d|rect|on of ak|stan
and IA1A spec|f|c |ssues
ak|stan - opt|m|sm versus pess|m|sm
IA1A |n the Context of Internat|ona| Conf||ct
ClAPTER 1
8
l
g
h
L
W
r
o
n
g
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
n
o
8
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.1: Do you be||eve that the country |s go|ng |n
the r|ght or wrong d|rect|on?
1
6
.
7
3
8
.
4
1
3
.
0
3
3
.
3
4
8
.
3
7
0
.
9
1
4
.
0
1
3
.
1
1
6
.
2
1
4
.
0
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
SS
n
A
1hls chapLer ls organlsed lnLo flve Lhemes: 1) 1he
lA1A assess Lhe counLry's overall slLuaLlon. 1he
overall dlrecLlon of aklsLan and lA1A speclflc
quesLlon was, 'uo you belleve LhaL Lhe counLry ls
lssues, 2) SecurlLy ln general, 3) ercelved securlLy
golng ln LherlghL or wrong dlrecLlon?'
LhreaLs Lo lndlvlduals, 4) Cplnlons on securlLy
llndlngs from 2009appear Lo show qulLe a negaLlve
provlders, and 3) SupporL for Lhe mlllLary and Lhe
percepLlon of aklsLan's overall dlrecLlon by Lhe
LacLlcs Lheyemploy.
people of lA1A. AL Lhls Llme, lA1A was fully overrun
1he sLaLlsLlcal flndlngs are based on random,
wlLh mlllLanLs and remalned so, unLll aklsLanl
sLraLlfled samples Laken ln Lhe lA1A agencles uslng
mlllLary operaLlons were sLarLed ln many Lrlbal
Lhe meLhodology descrlbed ln Lhe MeLhodology
areas, a process LhaL was meL wlLh some dlsquleL as
Appendlx. Where comparable daLa from 2008,
lA1A communlLles had been dlsLrusLful of mlllLary
2009, 2010 and 2011 ls avallable, lL ls used Lo show
lnLervenLlon.
changes ln oplnlon. CLherwlse slngle-year daLa ls
lL ls lmporLanL Lo menLlon here LhaL ln Lhe
used and descrlbed.
beglnnlng, probably afLer 2004, 1allban groups
were seen Lo be very co-operaLlve wlLh local
communlLles and had provlded a [usLlce servlce Lo
Lhe people: resolvlng very complex, decades-old
confllcLs. 1hls lnLeracLlon won Lhe 1allban much
supporL among locals. Powever, as 1allban bruLallLy
lncreased, whlch lncluded Lhe forceful recrulLmenL
1he survey soughL Lo deLermlne how Lhe people of
of lA1A locals for IlboJ ln AfghanlsLan, and local
resources were conflscaLed, Lhelr presLlge
meanlngfully decllned, a process acceleraLed afLer
lmposed 5botlo courL rullngs resulLed ln Lhe
beheadlng of several lnnocenL peopleln lA1A.
Pundreds of Lrlbal elders were also bruLally kllled
and humlllaLed ln WazlrlsLan, 8a[aur, and
Mohmand agencles, whlch creaLed a huge gap ln
leadershlp. Several sulclde bomb blasLs LargeLlng,
among oLhers, Iltqo sesslons, funerals and
mosques lnLenslfled feellngs of lnsecurlLy among
local Lrlbes.
uesplLe growlng opposlLlon, lA1A communlLles
were unable Lo reslsL Lhe mlllLanLs, as Lhe 1allban
were Loo sLrong and beLLer equlpped when
compared wlLh Lrlbal losbkots. 1herefore, Lhe
people of lA1A sLarLed looklng Lowards Lhe
aklsLanl mlllLary for supporL. ln Lhls envlronmenL lL
4.1 1he overa|| d|rect|on of ak|stan
and IA1A spec|f|c |ssues
ak|stan - opt|m|sm versus pess|m|sm
IA1A |n the Context of Internat|ona| Conf||ct
ClAPTER 1
8
l
g
h
L
W
r
o
n
g
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
n
o
8
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.1: Do you be||eve that the country |s go|ng |n
the r|ght or wrong d|rect|on?
1
6
.
7
3
8
.
4
1
3
.
0
3
3
.
3
4
8
.
3
7
0
.
9
1
4
.
0
1
3
.
1
1
6
.
2
1
4
.
0
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
SS
n
A
2.6
1.4
5.6
16.7
0.3
7.2
0.0
45.1
1.7
3.2
4.7
5.5
2.5
-
0.1
1.7
35.1
14.4
8.4
2.8
2.0
0.1
2.3
6.1
2.5
NA
2.1
12.0
2.4
1.2
10.3
2.7
39.2
14.6
0.6
14.3
2.6
0.1
0.9
1.0
4.8
2.2
1.7
1.7
5.4
Law and order
8ad governance
CorrupLlon
ollLlcal lnsLablllLy
oor economy
lnflaLlon
Lnergy crlsls
Amerlcan lnfluence
8omb blasLs
overLy
Puman rlghLs vlolaLlons
lnadequaLe roads &
LransporLaLlon faclllLles
resence of 1allban flghLers
resence of forelgn flghLers
lnLernal dlsplacemenL
Afghan refugees comlng
lnLo Lhe area
Plgh unemploymenL
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.2: What are ak|stan's and IA1A's b|ggest prob|ems?
8.7
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
S7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
was predlcLable LhaL only a mlnorlLy of people Iema|e IGDs
(16.7) belleved LhaL Lhe counLry was golng ln Lhe
Slmllarly, all female focus groups, wlLh Lhe
rlghL dlrecLlon. Powever, as mlllLary operaLlons
excepLlon of 8a[aur, agreed LhaL Lhe counLry was
grew ln success and 1ehrlk-l-1allban aklsLan (11)
golng ln Lhe wrong dlrecLlon. 8espondenLs from
began Lo lose lnfluence levels of LrusL sLarLed Lo
8a[aur agency remalned qulLe opLlmlsLlc abouL Lhe
lncrease slgnlflcanLly. Looklng aL Lhe 2010 survey
pollLlcal slLuaLlon and dlrecLlon of LhecounLry.
more Lhan one-Lhlrd of Lhe respondenLs LhoughL
CpLlmlsm from 8a[aur ls surprlslng, as locals have
LhaL Lhe counLry was headlng ln Lhe rlghL dlrecLlon.
suffered exLenslve hardshlp as a resulL of mlllLanL
1hls supporL has dramaLlcally dropped Lo [usL 13.0
and mlllLary operaLlons. ApproxlmaLely half of Lhe
ln 2011, lLs lowesL raLlng. eople's percepLlons Lend
populaLlon have been lnLernally dlsplaced and Lhelr
Lo change ln accordance wlLh exLernal lnfluences
properLles have been damaged ln flghLlng. ln splLe
and Lherefore, Lhere could be several reasons
of Lhls, success ln flghLlng Lhe mlllLanLs appears Lo
behlnd Lhls decllne. 1hese could lnclude: falled
bemorelnfluenLlal.
mlllLary operaLlons ln lA1A - allowlng mlllLanLs Lo
conLlnue Lo lmpose Lhemselves on vulnerable and
lnnocenL people, kllllng and humlllaLlon of Lrlbal
elders aL Lhe hands of mlllLanLs, lndlfferenL
governmenLal LreaLmenL agalnsL lnLernally
1he survey aLLempLed Lo hlghllghL oplnlons
dlsplaced person (lus) from lA1A as compared Lo
regardlng Lhe blggesL problems faclng aklsLan as a
Lhose from SwaL, Lhe use of excesslve force by Lhe
whole, and lA1A ln parLlcular. roblems llsLed are
aklsLanl mlllLary and alr force resulLlng ln local
repeaLed for boLh aklsLan and lA1A, wlLh a few
cl vl l l an l nsecur l L y, and L he conL l nued
excepLlons.
marglnallsaLlon of lA1A (see ChapLer 2 for more
deLalls) ls LoLallylgnored.
ak|stan's b|ggest prob|ems:
ln 2009, 43.1 of respondenLs offered a varleLy of
As supporL has dropped pesslmlsm has lnevlLably
unclasslflable problems aL Lhe naLlonal level. 1he
lncreased. ln 2009, 33.3 respondenLs belleved
reason for Lhls was resLrlcLed number of opLlons
LhaL Lhe counLry was headlng ln Lhe wrong
avallable for respondenLs Lo ldenLlfy wlLhln Lhe llsL.
dlrecLlon, a flgure LhaL lowered Lo 48.3 ln 2010,
Slnce2010LhellsL has been expanded allowlng for a
buL hls radlcally lncreased 70.9 ln 2011. 1hese
morecomprehenslvesLudy Lo beunderLaken.
sLaLlsLlcs show, LhaL desplLemlllLary successes, over
Lwo-Lhlrds of people from lA1A conLlnue Lo
1he maln problem ldenLlfled by 33.1 of
percelve aklsLan as headlng ln Lhe wrong
respondenLs was low ooJ otJet, an unsurprlslng
dlrecLlon. 1hls aLLlLude may dlrecLly conLrlbuLe Lo
cholce glven Lhe conLexL. ln Lhe 2009 survey, by
Lhe flndlngs documenLed ln ChapLer 1, ln whlch lL
comparlson, only 2.6 of Lhe respondenLs
was recorded LhaL approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of
ldenLlfled Lhls lssue as Lhe blggesL problem faclng
respondenLs would, lf lL were vlable, leave Lhe lA1A
aklsLan. 1hls rlse ln ldenLlflcaLlon of law and order
reglon (seellgure1.9, 1.11and 1.12).
as a problem corresponds wlLh changes ln
percepLlon Lowards mlllLanLs. An addlLlonal reason
Ma|e IGDs
could be LhaL respondenLs are no longer as fearful
Cverwhelmlngly parLlclpanLs from across Lhe
of expresslng Lhelr vlews openly.
ma[orlLy of lA1A, excepL Mohmand agency,
belleved LhaL Lhe counLry was golng ln Lhe wrong
CLher slgnlflcanL prlorlLles remaln Lhe hlsLorlcal
dlrecLlon. Concerns were ralsed over securlLy,
lssues of loflotloo (14.4) and boJ qovetoooce
lnflaLlon, corrupLlon and a lack of pollLlcal vlslon.
(14.3) ln aklsLan. Covernance ls a complex lssue
locus group parLlclpanLs from Mohmand Agency
and ofLen dlfflculL Lo undersLand, yeL lL ls apparenL
were qulLe opLlmlsLlc abouL Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe
LhaL lncreased awareness of Lhe sysLem has
counLry, however, LheywereunableLo deflnewhy.
lnfluenced publlc consclousness concernlng lLs
What are ak|stan's, b|ggest prob|ems
and IA1A's |n part|cu|ar?
undersLandlng lA1A
S6
2.6
1.4
5.6
16.7
0.3
7.2
0.0
45.1
1.7
3.2
4.7
5.5
2.5
-
0.1
1.7
35.1
14.4
8.4
2.8
2.0
0.1
2.3
6.1
2.5
NA
2.1
12.0
2.4
1.2
10.3
2.7
39.2
14.6
0.6
14.3
2.6
0.1
0.9
1.0
4.8
2.2
1.7
1.7
5.4
Law and order
8ad governance
CorrupLlon
ollLlcal lnsLablllLy
oor economy
lnflaLlon
Lnergy crlsls
Amerlcan lnfluence
8omb blasLs
overLy
Puman rlghLs vlolaLlons
lnadequaLe roads &
LransporLaLlon faclllLles
resence of 1allban flghLers
resence of forelgn flghLers
lnLernal dlsplacemenL
Afghan refugees comlng
lnLo Lhe area
Plgh unemploymenL
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.2: What are ak|stan's and IA1A's b|ggest prob|ems?
8.7
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
S7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
was predlcLable LhaL only a mlnorlLy of people Iema|e IGDs
(16.7) belleved LhaL Lhe counLry was golng ln Lhe
Slmllarly, all female focus groups, wlLh Lhe
rlghL dlrecLlon. Powever, as mlllLary operaLlons
excepLlon of 8a[aur, agreed LhaL Lhe counLry was
grew ln success and 1ehrlk-l-1allban aklsLan (11)
golng ln Lhe wrong dlrecLlon. 8espondenLs from
began Lo lose lnfluence levels of LrusL sLarLed Lo
8a[aur agency remalned qulLe opLlmlsLlc abouL Lhe
lncrease slgnlflcanLly. Looklng aL Lhe 2010 survey
pollLlcal slLuaLlon and dlrecLlon of LhecounLry.
more Lhan one-Lhlrd of Lhe respondenLs LhoughL
CpLlmlsm from 8a[aur ls surprlslng, as locals have
LhaL Lhe counLry was headlng ln Lhe rlghL dlrecLlon.
suffered exLenslve hardshlp as a resulL of mlllLanL
1hls supporL has dramaLlcally dropped Lo [usL 13.0
and mlllLary operaLlons. ApproxlmaLely half of Lhe
ln 2011, lLs lowesL raLlng. eople's percepLlons Lend
populaLlon have been lnLernally dlsplaced and Lhelr
Lo change ln accordance wlLh exLernal lnfluences
properLles have been damaged ln flghLlng. ln splLe
and Lherefore, Lhere could be several reasons
of Lhls, success ln flghLlng Lhe mlllLanLs appears Lo
behlnd Lhls decllne. 1hese could lnclude: falled
bemorelnfluenLlal.
mlllLary operaLlons ln lA1A - allowlng mlllLanLs Lo
conLlnue Lo lmpose Lhemselves on vulnerable and
lnnocenL people, kllllng and humlllaLlon of Lrlbal
elders aL Lhe hands of mlllLanLs, lndlfferenL
governmenLal LreaLmenL agalnsL lnLernally
1he survey aLLempLed Lo hlghllghL oplnlons
dlsplaced person (lus) from lA1A as compared Lo
regardlng Lhe blggesL problems faclng aklsLan as a
Lhose from SwaL, Lhe use of excesslve force by Lhe
whole, and lA1A ln parLlcular. roblems llsLed are
aklsLanl mlllLary and alr force resulLlng ln local
repeaLed for boLh aklsLan and lA1A, wlLh a few
cl vl l l an l nsecur l L y, and L he conL l nued
excepLlons.
marglnallsaLlon of lA1A (see ChapLer 2 for more
deLalls) ls LoLallylgnored.
ak|stan's b|ggest prob|ems:
ln 2009, 43.1 of respondenLs offered a varleLy of
As supporL has dropped pesslmlsm has lnevlLably
unclasslflable problems aL Lhe naLlonal level. 1he
lncreased. ln 2009, 33.3 respondenLs belleved
reason for Lhls was resLrlcLed number of opLlons
LhaL Lhe counLry was headlng ln Lhe wrong
avallable for respondenLs Lo ldenLlfy wlLhln Lhe llsL.
dlrecLlon, a flgure LhaL lowered Lo 48.3 ln 2010,
Slnce2010LhellsL has been expanded allowlng for a
buL hls radlcally lncreased 70.9 ln 2011. 1hese
morecomprehenslvesLudy Lo beunderLaken.
sLaLlsLlcs show, LhaL desplLemlllLary successes, over
Lwo-Lhlrds of people from lA1A conLlnue Lo
1he maln problem ldenLlfled by 33.1 of
percelve aklsLan as headlng ln Lhe wrong
respondenLs was low ooJ otJet, an unsurprlslng
dlrecLlon. 1hls aLLlLude may dlrecLly conLrlbuLe Lo
cholce glven Lhe conLexL. ln Lhe 2009 survey, by
Lhe flndlngs documenLed ln ChapLer 1, ln whlch lL
comparlson, only 2.6 of Lhe respondenLs
was recorded LhaL approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of
ldenLlfled Lhls lssue as Lhe blggesL problem faclng
respondenLs would, lf lL were vlable, leave Lhe lA1A
aklsLan. 1hls rlse ln ldenLlflcaLlon of law and order
reglon (seellgure1.9, 1.11and 1.12).
as a problem corresponds wlLh changes ln
percepLlon Lowards mlllLanLs. An addlLlonal reason
Ma|e IGDs
could be LhaL respondenLs are no longer as fearful
Cverwhelmlngly parLlclpanLs from across Lhe
of expresslng Lhelr vlews openly.
ma[orlLy of lA1A, excepL Mohmand agency,
belleved LhaL Lhe counLry was golng ln Lhe wrong
CLher slgnlflcanL prlorlLles remaln Lhe hlsLorlcal
dlrecLlon. Concerns were ralsed over securlLy,
lssues of loflotloo (14.4) and boJ qovetoooce
lnflaLlon, corrupLlon and a lack of pollLlcal vlslon.
(14.3) ln aklsLan. Covernance ls a complex lssue
locus group parLlclpanLs from Mohmand Agency
and ofLen dlfflculL Lo undersLand, yeL lL ls apparenL
were qulLe opLlmlsLlc abouL Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe
LhaL lncreased awareness of Lhe sysLem has
counLry, however, LheywereunableLo deflnewhy.
lnfluenced publlc consclousness concernlng lLs
What are ak|stan's, b|ggest prob|ems
and IA1A's |n part|cu|ar?
undersLandlng lA1A
S6
1.6
27.6
6.2
7.4
0.0
8.0
14.1
0.0
21.6
0.5
6.0
3.9
2.9
1.5
6.6
15.8
2.3
2.5
0.7
0.4
1.1
43.1
NA
8.4
-
0.4
0.9
9.2
1.0
2.1
3.3
4.8
0.1
0.1
0.3
2.2
1.2
0.2
0.5
9.6
4.5
0.9
5.0
3.0
6.6
1.3
32.2
3.1
4.0
4.3
1.0
8.8
2.6
2.8
0.6
Law and order
Outdated governance
Corruption
Unemployment
Drone attacks
Military operations
Bomb blasts
Lack of development
Social injustice
Human rights violations
Water
Poverty
Talibanisation
Presence of foreigners
Lack of education and
health services
Extremism
Frontier Crimes
Regulation (FCR)
Political instability
Poor economy
High inflation
Energy crisis
American influence
nadequate roads and
transportation facilities
Presence of Taliban fighters
nternal displacement
Afghan refugees coming
into the area
Other (specify)
Don't know
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 4.3: What are IA1A's b|ggest prob|ems?
1.5
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
S9
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
problems. ln 2009, only 2.3 of respondenLs 1hls ls llkely due Lo Lhelr experlences ln llvlng wlLh
recognlsed corrupLlon as a problem buL Lhls has mlllLancyand mlllLary counLer-operaLlons.
rlsen Lo 14.J ln 2011. 1hls lssue ls also compelllng
as lL lndlcaLes LhaL local complalnLs regardlng un[usL
governmenL (as descrlbed ln ChapLer 2) are
WlLh regard Lo local concerns ln lA1A: eJocotloo,
consldered Lo be shared by oLher communlLles
beoltb setvlces ooJ employmeot were Lhe leadlng
across aklsLan.
concerns ln 2009, however, subsequenL years have
CLher noLable concerns are bomb blosts, whlch
wlLnessed a radlcal change ln percepLlons wlLh
were ldenLlfled by 8.4 of respondenLs, whlle Lhe
conLemporary concerns focusslng on low ooJ
level of lnsecurlLy caused by Lhls form of vlolence
otJet. Law and order was recognlsed by [usL 1.6 of
remalns Lroubllng lL ls noLable LhaL Lhe level of
people ln 2009 buL has conslsLenLly rlsen Lo a new
concern has reduced by over 3.0 polnLs from LhaL
hlgh of 43.1 ln 2011.
recorded ln 2010. 1hese changes are dlrecLly llnked
1allban remaln a conslderable source of lnsecurlLy
Lo lnsLances of LerrorlsL acLlvlLy. uue Lo lncreases ln
ln lA1A buL mlllLary engagemenL and local advocacy
bomb blasLs beLween 2009 and 2010 concern
by medla and nCCs appear Lo have reduced
ralsed from an lnlLlal low of 2.1 Lo 14.6. ln 2011,
concern byengaglng youLhs ln producLlveacLlvlLles.
followlng a subsLanLlal decrease ln LerrorlsL aLLacks,
Powever, changlng percepLlons Lowards Lhe
fear of bomb blasLs has reduced.
1allban (l.e. Lhey are flghLlng for freedom, lslam and
Ma|e IGDs Lrlbal culLures) by some parLlclpanLs may also
1he percepLlons shared ln lCus are documenLed explaln Lhls change(seeChapLer 3).
above. 1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs conflrmed
1he naLure of Lhe confllcL ln lA1A has seen fears
securlLy, Lerrorlsm, and desLablllsaLlon as Lhe
regardlng bomb blosts sLeadlly rlse. ln 2009 only
challenglng lssues for aklsLan.
1.3 of respondenLs ldenLlfled Lhls LhreaL as belng
lurLher concerns were ralsed aL parLlcular lmporLanL, buL Lhls lncreased Lo 3.0 ln 2010and Lo
locaLlons: some parLlclpanLs from khyber sald LhaL 8.8 ln 2011.
LhaL corrupLlon was a slgnlflcanL problem, whlle
JocotlooooJbeoltbsetvlces wereama[or concern
parLlclpanLs from l8 kohaL and l8 eshawar
for 21.6 of respondenLs ln 2009 buL Lhls dropped
ldenLlfled wldespread unemploymenL ln Lhe
dramaLlcally ln 2010 (Lo 2.3) Lhls does noL mean
counLry as LheblggesL challenge.
LhaL educaLlon and healLh are noL causes for
Among young parLlclpanLs, concern over a lack of concern, as lmprovemenLs remaln an urgenL
slncere pollLlcal leadershlp ln aklsLan was a demand for large porLlons of Lhe lA1A populaLlon
conslderableproblem. (seellgure1.1and 1.4).
1he overall daLa ldenLlfles LhaL Lhe people of lA1A
are more concerned wlLh securlLy, lnflaLlon,
lnLeresLlngly, female parLlclpanLs offered dlfferenL
presence of forelgn flghLers and 1allban as Lhelr
concerns. 1he general consensus was LhaL povetty
prlmary concern, raLher Lhan baslc servlces.
ooJ ooemploymeot were ma[or lssues LhaL need Lo
lurLhermore, governmenLal lncreases ln annual
be addressed across Lhe counLry. As prevlously
spendlng ln lA1A may have allowed people Lo sLarL
lllusLraLed female empowermenL ls a problem ln
bellevlng LhaL problems concernlng baslc servlces
lA1A and lL ls unclear whaL exposure women have
are belng gradually resolved by local pollLlcal
had Lo naLlonal problems, Lherefore Lhese concerns
admlnlsLraLlons and lnLernaLlonal ald agencles.
may reflecL famlly concerns as much as Lhey do an
analysls of naLlonal concerns.
Ma|e IGDs
neverLheless, female members from SouLh
A number of lssues were ldenLlfed Lhrough Lhe
WazlrlsLan shared Lhe concern of low ooJ otJet.
Iema|e IGDs
IA1A's b|ggest prob|ems
undersLandlng lA1A
S8
1.6
27.6
6.2
7.4
0.0
8.0
14.1
0.0
21.6
0.5
6.0
3.9
2.9
1.5
6.6
15.8
2.3
2.5
0.7
0.4
1.1
43.1
NA
8.4
-
0.4
0.9
9.2
1.0
2.1
3.3
4.8
0.1
0.1
0.3
2.2
1.2
0.2
0.5
9.6
4.5
0.9
5.0
3.0
6.6
1.3
32.2
3.1
4.0
4.3
1.0
8.8
2.6
2.8
0.6
Law and order
Outdated governance
Corruption
Unemployment
Drone attacks
Military operations
Bomb blasts
Lack of development
Social injustice
Human rights violations
Water
Poverty
Talibanisation
Presence of foreigners
Lack of education and
health services
Extremism
Frontier Crimes
Regulation (FCR)
Political instability
Poor economy
High inflation
Energy crisis
American influence
nadequate roads and
transportation facilities
Presence of Taliban fighters
nternal displacement
Afghan refugees coming
into the area
Other (specify)
Don't know
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 4.3: What are IA1A's b|ggest prob|ems?
1.5
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
S9
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
problems. ln 2009, only 2.3 of respondenLs 1hls ls llkely due Lo Lhelr experlences ln llvlng wlLh
recognlsed corrupLlon as a problem buL Lhls has mlllLancyand mlllLary counLer-operaLlons.
rlsen Lo 14.J ln 2011. 1hls lssue ls also compelllng
as lL lndlcaLes LhaL local complalnLs regardlng un[usL
governmenL (as descrlbed ln ChapLer 2) are
WlLh regard Lo local concerns ln lA1A: eJocotloo,
consldered Lo be shared by oLher communlLles
beoltb setvlces ooJ employmeot were Lhe leadlng
across aklsLan.
concerns ln 2009, however, subsequenL years have
CLher noLable concerns are bomb blosts, whlch
wlLnessed a radlcal change ln percepLlons wlLh
were ldenLlfled by 8.4 of respondenLs, whlle Lhe
conLemporary concerns focusslng on low ooJ
level of lnsecurlLy caused by Lhls form of vlolence
otJet. Law and order was recognlsed by [usL 1.6 of
remalns Lroubllng lL ls noLable LhaL Lhe level of
people ln 2009 buL has conslsLenLly rlsen Lo a new
concern has reduced by over 3.0 polnLs from LhaL
hlgh of 43.1 ln 2011.
recorded ln 2010. 1hese changes are dlrecLly llnked
1allban remaln a conslderable source of lnsecurlLy
Lo lnsLances of LerrorlsL acLlvlLy. uue Lo lncreases ln
ln lA1A buL mlllLary engagemenL and local advocacy
bomb blasLs beLween 2009 and 2010 concern
by medla and nCCs appear Lo have reduced
ralsed from an lnlLlal low of 2.1 Lo 14.6. ln 2011,
concern byengaglng youLhs ln producLlveacLlvlLles.
followlng a subsLanLlal decrease ln LerrorlsL aLLacks,
Powever, changlng percepLlons Lowards Lhe
fear of bomb blasLs has reduced.
1allban (l.e. Lhey are flghLlng for freedom, lslam and
Ma|e IGDs Lrlbal culLures) by some parLlclpanLs may also
1he percepLlons shared ln lCus are documenLed explaln Lhls change(seeChapLer 3).
above. 1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs conflrmed
1he naLure of Lhe confllcL ln lA1A has seen fears
securlLy, Lerrorlsm, and desLablllsaLlon as Lhe
regardlng bomb blosts sLeadlly rlse. ln 2009 only
challenglng lssues for aklsLan.
1.3 of respondenLs ldenLlfled Lhls LhreaL as belng
lurLher concerns were ralsed aL parLlcular lmporLanL, buL Lhls lncreased Lo 3.0 ln 2010and Lo
locaLlons: some parLlclpanLs from khyber sald LhaL 8.8 ln 2011.
LhaL corrupLlon was a slgnlflcanL problem, whlle
JocotlooooJbeoltbsetvlces wereama[or concern
parLlclpanLs from l8 kohaL and l8 eshawar
for 21.6 of respondenLs ln 2009 buL Lhls dropped
ldenLlfled wldespread unemploymenL ln Lhe
dramaLlcally ln 2010 (Lo 2.3) Lhls does noL mean
counLry as LheblggesL challenge.
LhaL educaLlon and healLh are noL causes for
Among young parLlclpanLs, concern over a lack of concern, as lmprovemenLs remaln an urgenL
slncere pollLlcal leadershlp ln aklsLan was a demand for large porLlons of Lhe lA1A populaLlon
conslderableproblem. (seellgure1.1and 1.4).
1he overall daLa ldenLlfles LhaL Lhe people of lA1A
are more concerned wlLh securlLy, lnflaLlon,
lnLeresLlngly, female parLlclpanLs offered dlfferenL
presence of forelgn flghLers and 1allban as Lhelr
concerns. 1he general consensus was LhaL povetty
prlmary concern, raLher Lhan baslc servlces.
ooJ ooemploymeot were ma[or lssues LhaL need Lo
lurLhermore, governmenLal lncreases ln annual
be addressed across Lhe counLry. As prevlously
spendlng ln lA1A may have allowed people Lo sLarL
lllusLraLed female empowermenL ls a problem ln
bellevlng LhaL problems concernlng baslc servlces
lA1A and lL ls unclear whaL exposure women have
are belng gradually resolved by local pollLlcal
had Lo naLlonal problems, Lherefore Lhese concerns
admlnlsLraLlons and lnLernaLlonal ald agencles.
may reflecL famlly concerns as much as Lhey do an
analysls of naLlonal concerns.
Ma|e IGDs
neverLheless, female members from SouLh
A number of lssues were ldenLlfed Lhrough Lhe
WazlrlsLan shared Lhe concern of low ooJ otJet.
Iema|e IGDs
IA1A's b|ggest prob|ems
undersLandlng lA1A
S8
37.0
64.6
52.1
42.4
35.5
48.0
28.0
48.9
0.0
42.5
53.6
32.8
56.2
51.7
19.4
8.7
9.4
-
44.6
13.4
40.6
73.3
0.0
3.0
NA
46.3
11.0
32.2
33.2
52.1
0.3
62.9
46.5
26.9
0.4
4.0
1.0
3.8
12.4
56.0
50.7
21.0
4.4
21.0
6.9
28.0
39.9
0.3
4.4
0.5
4.1
2.6
25.8
23.3
44.2
45.0
Security
Justice
Policing
Education/schools
Health services/hospitals
Water and sanitation
Roads
Tackling terrorism
Food supply
Electricity supply
Political education
of the masses
Good governance
Employment
Land reform to allow
for local ownership
Better agriculture
assistance
Other
Don't know
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 4.4: Serv|ces that the government shou|d prov|de
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
61
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
-
NA
NA
-
NA
NA
NA
-
NA
NA
lCus buL prlmarlly peace and securlLy and 1ocklloq tettotlsmwas ldenLlfled by 28 of people.
Lerrorlsm were consldered Lhe maln causes for 1hls flgure could be consldered low glven concerns
concern l n lA1A. 1hl s was fol l owed by regardlng securlLy, Lhe 1allban and bomb blasLs buL
unemploymenL, low llLeracy, poverLy and Lhe soclal ls ln acLuallLy reflecLlve of common percepLlons
ln[usLlce LhaL ls lnherenL ln Lhe exlsLlng regardlng tbteot and Jooqet. 1hls sub[ecL ls
admlnlsLraLlvesLrucLures ln lA1A. analysed ln greaLer deLall ln Lhe nexL secLlon.
Powever, Lhls should noL dlmlnlsh Lhe facL LhaL
arLlclpanLs from norLh WazlrlsLan also polnLed ouL
tocklloq tettotlsm remalns an expecLaLlon of
Lhe lssues of Lhe weak pollLlcal awareness, healLh
governmenL for over aquarLer of respondenLs.
and undemocraLlc governanceprocesses.
Ma|e IGDs
Iema|e IGDs
5ecotlty remalned Lhe leadlng concern of
lemale respondenLs from Lhe agencles of 8a[aur,
parLlclpanLs. 1hls deslre was followed by Lhe
kurram, SouLh WazlrlsLan and khyber ldenLlfled
expecLaLlon LhaL governmenL should provlde peoce
mlllLancy and Lhe 1allbanlsaLlon of Lrlbal socleLy as
ooJ secotlty ln Lhelr reglon, enabllng buslnesses Lo
lA1A's blggesL problem (ln conLradlcLlon of Lhe
operaLe unmolesLed and for oLher llvellhood
flndlngs ouLllned ln llgure 4.3). 1hls was followed
acLlvlLles Lo be made avallable. 1hls concern
by unemploymenL, poverLy, lnflaLlon and weak
hlghllghLs LhaL Lhe specLre of Lerrorlsm remalns of
educaLlon and healLh servlces as Lhe blggesL
conslderable concern for large parLs of Lhe lA1A
problems of lA1A.
populaLlon. ln addlLlon, many oLher lssues were
hlghllghLed, lncludlng Lhe expecLaLlon LhaL
governmenL should be responslble for: roads,
hosplLals, schools, esLabllshmenL of lndusLrlal unlLs,
and provlslon of elecLrlclLy.
ln order Lo focus more on Lhe speclflc needs of Lhe
lL was shared, however, LhaL expecLaLlons of
people of lA1A Lhe followlng quesLlon was asked:
governmenL may be lnfluenced by Lhe shared
'whaL are Lhe mosL lmporLanL servlces LhaL Lhe
feellng LhaL lA1A remalns a neglecLed parL of
CovernmenL of aklsLan should provlde Lo your
aklsLan, lL was consldered essenLlal LhaL Lhe
dlsLrlcL?' MulLlpleresponses wereallowed.
CovernmenL of aklsLan address Lhls as a maLLer of
8espondenLs were largely of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
supremeurgency.
CovernmenL was responslble for provldlng servlces
LhaL address Lhe concerns hlghllghLed ln llgure 4.3, Iema|e IGDs
lemale parLlclpanLs regarded employmeot and wlLh Lhe lssues of securlLy (44.6), educaLlon
l l vel l booJ oppottool tl es Lo be Lhe key (44.2) and healLh (39.9). Powever, lL was
responslblllLles of governmenL. 1hey also shared documenLed LhaL Lhe greaLesL expecLaLlon from
Lhe oplnlon of Lhelr male counLerparLs LhaL governmenL ls for elecLrlclLy supply, whlch was
provldlng peoce ooJ secotlty needed Lo be a deslred by43.0 of LhoselnLervlewed.
prlmary responslblllLyof governmenL.
Agaln, governance ls a low expecLaLlon aL 13.4.
lemales from kurram Agency also ralsed Lhe lssue 1hls may be due Lo llmlLed knowledge buL lL may
of secLarlanlsm ln lA1A, especlally ln Lhelr locallLy, also reflecL a lack of concern. Meanlng
where flghLlng beLween Shla and Sunnl secLs has governmenLal efforLs Lo reform pol l Ll cal
been an lssuefor LhelasL four years. admlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A ls belng mlsdlrecLed and
should be redlrecLed Lowards developmenL and
confllcL resoluLlon. 1hls may, ln Lhe shorL-Lerm,
allow for Lhe lmproved lnLegraLlon of lA1A and lay
LhefoundaLlon for reforms ln Lhelong-Lerm.
Serv|ces that the government shou|d
prov|de
undersLandlng lA1A
60
37.0
64.6
52.1
42.4
35.5
48.0
28.0
48.9
0.0
42.5
53.6
32.8
56.2
51.7
19.4
8.7
9.4
-
44.6
13.4
40.6
73.3
0.0
3.0
NA
46.3
11.0
32.2
33.2
52.1
0.3
62.9
46.5
26.9
0.4
4.0
1.0
3.8
12.4
56.0
50.7
21.0
4.4
21.0
6.9
28.0
39.9
0.3
4.4
0.5
4.1
2.6
25.8
23.3
44.2
45.0
Security
Justice
Policing
Education/schools
Health services/hospitals
Water and sanitation
Roads
Tackling terrorism
Food supply
Electricity supply
Political education
of the masses
Good governance
Employment
Land reform to allow
for local ownership
Better agriculture
assistance
Other
Don't know
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 4.4: Serv|ces that the government shou|d prov|de
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
61
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
-
NA
NA
-
NA
NA
NA
-
NA
NA
lCus buL prlmarlly peace and securlLy and 1ocklloq tettotlsmwas ldenLlfled by 28 of people.
Lerrorlsm were consldered Lhe maln causes for 1hls flgure could be consldered low glven concerns
concern l n lA1A. 1hl s was fol l owed by regardlng securlLy, Lhe 1allban and bomb blasLs buL
unemploymenL, low llLeracy, poverLy and Lhe soclal ls ln acLuallLy reflecLlve of common percepLlons
ln[usLlce LhaL ls lnherenL ln Lhe exlsLlng regardlng tbteot and Jooqet. 1hls sub[ecL ls
admlnlsLraLlvesLrucLures ln lA1A. analysed ln greaLer deLall ln Lhe nexL secLlon.
Powever, Lhls should noL dlmlnlsh Lhe facL LhaL
arLlclpanLs from norLh WazlrlsLan also polnLed ouL
tocklloq tettotlsm remalns an expecLaLlon of
Lhe lssues of Lhe weak pollLlcal awareness, healLh
governmenL for over aquarLer of respondenLs.
and undemocraLlc governanceprocesses.
Ma|e IGDs
Iema|e IGDs
5ecotlty remalned Lhe leadlng concern of
lemale respondenLs from Lhe agencles of 8a[aur,
parLlclpanLs. 1hls deslre was followed by Lhe
kurram, SouLh WazlrlsLan and khyber ldenLlfled
expecLaLlon LhaL governmenL should provlde peoce
mlllLancy and Lhe 1allbanlsaLlon of Lrlbal socleLy as
ooJ secotlty ln Lhelr reglon, enabllng buslnesses Lo
lA1A's blggesL problem (ln conLradlcLlon of Lhe
operaLe unmolesLed and for oLher llvellhood
flndlngs ouLllned ln llgure 4.3). 1hls was followed
acLlvlLles Lo be made avallable. 1hls concern
by unemploymenL, poverLy, lnflaLlon and weak
hlghllghLs LhaL Lhe specLre of Lerrorlsm remalns of
educaLlon and healLh servlces as Lhe blggesL
conslderable concern for large parLs of Lhe lA1A
problems of lA1A.
populaLlon. ln addlLlon, many oLher lssues were
hlghllghLed, lncludlng Lhe expecLaLlon LhaL
governmenL should be responslble for: roads,
hosplLals, schools, esLabllshmenL of lndusLrlal unlLs,
and provlslon of elecLrlclLy.
ln order Lo focus more on Lhe speclflc needs of Lhe
lL was shared, however, LhaL expecLaLlons of
people of lA1A Lhe followlng quesLlon was asked:
governmenL may be lnfluenced by Lhe shared
'whaL are Lhe mosL lmporLanL servlces LhaL Lhe
feellng LhaL lA1A remalns a neglecLed parL of
CovernmenL of aklsLan should provlde Lo your
aklsLan, lL was consldered essenLlal LhaL Lhe
dlsLrlcL?' MulLlpleresponses wereallowed.
CovernmenL of aklsLan address Lhls as a maLLer of
8espondenLs were largely of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
supremeurgency.
CovernmenL was responslble for provldlng servlces
LhaL address Lhe concerns hlghllghLed ln llgure 4.3, Iema|e IGDs
lemale parLlclpanLs regarded employmeot and wlLh Lhe lssues of securlLy (44.6), educaLlon
l l vel l booJ oppottool tl es Lo be Lhe key (44.2) and healLh (39.9). Powever, lL was
responslblllLles of governmenL. 1hey also shared documenLed LhaL Lhe greaLesL expecLaLlon from
Lhe oplnlon of Lhelr male counLerparLs LhaL governmenL ls for elecLrlclLy supply, whlch was
provldlng peoce ooJ secotlty needed Lo be a deslred by43.0 of LhoselnLervlewed.
prlmary responslblllLyof governmenL.
Agaln, governance ls a low expecLaLlon aL 13.4.
lemales from kurram Agency also ralsed Lhe lssue 1hls may be due Lo llmlLed knowledge buL lL may
of secLarlanlsm ln lA1A, especlally ln Lhelr locallLy, also reflecL a lack of concern. Meanlng
where flghLlng beLween Shla and Sunnl secLs has governmenLal efforLs Lo reform pol l Ll cal
been an lssuefor LhelasL four years. admlnlsLraLlon ln lA1A ls belng mlsdlrecLed and
should be redlrecLed Lowards developmenL and
confllcL resoluLlon. 1hls may, ln Lhe shorL-Lerm,
allow for Lhe lmproved lnLegraLlon of lA1A and lay
LhefoundaLlon for reforms ln Lhelong-Lerm.
Serv|ces that the government shou|d
prov|de
undersLandlng lA1A
60
personnel have seen Lhls flrsL-hand ln Lhe case of lokbtoo men LradlLlonally suppress fears because
8a[aur Agency lus, who preferred Lo leave Lhelr of lokbtoowoll. Cn Lhe oLher hand, lL may also
lu camps qulLe early - desplLe mlllLary operaLlon reflecL LhaL women ln lA1A are more vulnerable Lo
conLlnulng ln Lhelr reglon - raLher Lhan remaln. securlLyLhan Lhelr malecounLerparLs.
8espondenLs quesLloned Lhe quallLy of Lhe supporL
belng provlded by Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan and
LhelnLernaLlonal ald communlLy.
Ma|e IGDs
1he survey aLLempLed Lo ellclL percepLlons on Lhe
Male parLlclpanLs shared mlxed feellngs wlLh Lhe
changlng securlLy condlLlons ln Lhelr respecLlve
survey Leam. Palf felL lnsecure whlle an equal
Lrlbal areas. 1he responses remaln qulLe conslsLenL
number felL more secure. ln areas where Lhe
ln Lerms of respondenLs' undersLandlng of
aklsLanl mlllLary has exLended lLs conLrol,
lmprovemenLs ln securlLy. lL needs Lo be
parLlclpanLs appeared Lo have an lmproved
acknowledged LhaL Lhe survey was llmlLed ln lLs
percepLlon of securlLy, parLlcularly Lhose from
ablllLy Lo lnLervlew respondenLs ln cerLaln Lrlbal
khyber and norLh WazlrlsLan agencles and Lhe
areas Lherefore Lhey could be consldered an
lronLler 8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl, 1ank and ul khan.
absLracLlon of Lrue levels, furLhermore, Lhe survey
arLlclpanLs from Crakzal Agency however,
was only able Lo charL Lhe percepLlons of Lhose
remalned qulLe pesslmlsLlc, noLlng LhaL Lhe
currenLly llvlng ln lA1A, and Lherefore does noL Lake
governmenL had been unable Lo secure Lhelr Lrlbal
lnLo accounL Lhe percepLlons of Lhe large numbers
areafrom mlllLanLs.
of people who remaln dlsplaced - a proporLlon of
socleLy LhaL would presumably noL currenLly
Iema|e IGDs
conslder Lhe local securlLy envlronmenL Lo be
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe ma[orlLy of female parLlclpanLs ln
conduclveLo reLurn.
lCus were concerned abouL Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon
ln lA1A. 1hls response, lL could be argued, reflecLs a
As shown ln llgure 4.6: over Lhe lasL Lwo years
more reallsLlc perspecLlve of concerns ln lA1A as
slgnlflcanL numbers of people have declared LhaL
Improvements |n the secur|ty
s|tuat|on
Much beLLer SomewhaL
beLLer
no dlfference SomewhaL
worse
Much worse no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.6: Compared to |ast year, do you fee| your secur|ty |s gett|ng better or worse?
1
0
.
3
1
2
.
2
4
0
.
3
3
0
.
3
3
2
.
2
3
0
.
8
3
.
9
9
.
0
7
.
3
1
1
.
6
0
.
71
.
8
2
.
9
4
.
2
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
63
4.2Secur|ty |nGenera|
ln 2011, feellngs of securlLy remalned hlgh, wlLh
13.1 sLaLlng LhaL Lhey were vety secote and 27.9
As noLed aboveln llgures 4.2and 4.3: low ooJotJet LhaL Lhey were somewbot secote buL lL has Lo be
has been Lhe maln concern ln lA1A for Lhe lasL Lwo noLed LhaL Lhe LoLal number of Lhose feellng secure
years. We now seek Lo beLLer undersLand Lhls has dropped alarmlngly by nearly 20 polnLs, a
concern. change compounded by daLa equally showlng LhaL
feellngs of lnsecurlLy have rlsen. ln 2011, around
lA1A ls known as a 'no-go area' for non-lA1A
30 of respondenLs lnformed Lhe survey Leam LhaL
resldenLs, however, lL ls home Lo more Lhan 4
Lhey felL lnsecure (32.0 were vety losecote and
mllllon people. 1hebruLal excesses of 11 and oLher
18.8 were somewbot losecote). 1hls ls a
mlllLanL groups and mlllLary counLer-operaLlons
slgnlflcanL rlse from Lhe LoLal of lnsecure (36) ln
have drlven an lmporLanL proporLlon of Lhe local
2010.
populaLlon ouL of lA1A, Lhus glvlng Lhe lmpresslon
LhaL lA1A ls an lnsecurearea. ln areas under aklsLanl mlllLary conLrol:
respondenLs conslsLenLly noLed feellngs of securlLy.
Powever, Lhls exLernal percepLlon may need Lo be
Conversely, ln areas of confllcL respondenLs
revaluaLed followlng Lheflndlng LhaL ln 2010, 61.4
remalned qulLe pesslmlsLlc - noLlng governmenLal
respondenLs felL secure (6.2 sLaLlng Lhey were
lnablllLy Lo secure Lhelr locallLy from lnfluence by
vety secote and 33.2 LhaL Lhey were somewhaL
mlllLanLs. llgure 4.7 provldes some lnslghLs lnLo
secure). When Lhe 2010 survey lnLroduced Lhe
feellngs of securlLy, buL lL musL be noLed LhaL lL
quesLlon of 'feellngs of securlLy' some opLlmlsm
refers Lo percepLlons regardlng lmprovemenLs ln
was recorded, probably due Lo confldence belng
Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon and noL overall feellngs of
expressed due Lo Lhe success of mlllLary operaLlons
securlLyln general.
SwaL, 8a[aur and uara Adam khel, as well as ln parLs
of Mohmand, Crakzal and lower kurram agencles. lL 1hls shlfL ln oplnlon ls undersLandable. 8efugee
was hoped LhaL Lhese operaLlons would conLlnue Lo camps, Lhe only vlable alLernaLlve Lo llvlng ln one's
succeed and resulL ln Lhe reLurn of auLhorlLy Lo vulnerable local communlLy, expose people Lo
18
many alLernaLlve rlsks and challenges. CAM clvlllan admlnlsLraLlons.
6
.
2
1
8
.
3
1
.
6
1
.
1
1
.
8
3
3
.
2
1
7
.
7
2
7
.
9
3
2
.
0
4
.
3
1
8
.
8
1
3
.
1
very secure SomewhaL
secure
SomewhaL
lnsecure
very lnsecure no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.S: now secure do you fee| |n your da||y ||fe?
18
18.9 of respondenLs had lndlcaLed LhaL Lhey had had Lo flee from Lhelr home ln Lhe recenL pasL.
undersLandlng lA1A
62
personnel have seen Lhls flrsL-hand ln Lhe case of lokbtoo men LradlLlonally suppress fears because
8a[aur Agency lus, who preferred Lo leave Lhelr of lokbtoowoll. Cn Lhe oLher hand, lL may also
lu camps qulLe early - desplLe mlllLary operaLlon reflecL LhaL women ln lA1A are more vulnerable Lo
conLlnulng ln Lhelr reglon - raLher Lhan remaln. securlLyLhan Lhelr malecounLerparLs.
8espondenLs quesLloned Lhe quallLy of Lhe supporL
belng provlded by Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan and
LhelnLernaLlonal ald communlLy.
Ma|e IGDs
1he survey aLLempLed Lo ellclL percepLlons on Lhe
Male parLlclpanLs shared mlxed feellngs wlLh Lhe
changlng securlLy condlLlons ln Lhelr respecLlve
survey Leam. Palf felL lnsecure whlle an equal
Lrlbal areas. 1he responses remaln qulLe conslsLenL
number felL more secure. ln areas where Lhe
ln Lerms of respondenLs' undersLandlng of
aklsLanl mlllLary has exLended lLs conLrol,
lmprovemenLs ln securlLy. lL needs Lo be
parLlclpanLs appeared Lo have an lmproved
acknowledged LhaL Lhe survey was llmlLed ln lLs
percepLlon of securlLy, parLlcularly Lhose from
ablllLy Lo lnLervlew respondenLs ln cerLaln Lrlbal
khyber and norLh WazlrlsLan agencles and Lhe
areas Lherefore Lhey could be consldered an
lronLler 8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl, 1ank and ul khan.
absLracLlon of Lrue levels, furLhermore, Lhe survey
arLlclpanLs from Crakzal Agency however,
was only able Lo charL Lhe percepLlons of Lhose
remalned qulLe pesslmlsLlc, noLlng LhaL Lhe
currenLly llvlng ln lA1A, and Lherefore does noL Lake
governmenL had been unable Lo secure Lhelr Lrlbal
lnLo accounL Lhe percepLlons of Lhe large numbers
areafrom mlllLanLs.
of people who remaln dlsplaced - a proporLlon of
socleLy LhaL would presumably noL currenLly
Iema|e IGDs
conslder Lhe local securlLy envlronmenL Lo be
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe ma[orlLy of female parLlclpanLs ln
conduclveLo reLurn.
lCus were concerned abouL Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon
ln lA1A. 1hls response, lL could be argued, reflecLs a
As shown ln llgure 4.6: over Lhe lasL Lwo years
more reallsLlc perspecLlve of concerns ln lA1A as
slgnlflcanL numbers of people have declared LhaL
Improvements |n the secur|ty
s|tuat|on
Much beLLer SomewhaL
beLLer
no dlfference SomewhaL
worse
Much worse no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.6: Compared to |ast year, do you fee| your secur|ty |s gett|ng better or worse?
1
0
.
3
1
2
.
2
4
0
.
3
3
0
.
3
3
2
.
2
3
0
.
8
3
.
9
9
.
0
7
.
3
1
1
.
6
0
.
71
.
8
2
.
9
4
.
2
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
63
4.2Secur|ty |nGenera|
ln 2011, feellngs of securlLy remalned hlgh, wlLh
13.1 sLaLlng LhaL Lhey were vety secote and 27.9
As noLed aboveln llgures 4.2and 4.3: low ooJotJet LhaL Lhey were somewbot secote buL lL has Lo be
has been Lhe maln concern ln lA1A for Lhe lasL Lwo noLed LhaL Lhe LoLal number of Lhose feellng secure
years. We now seek Lo beLLer undersLand Lhls has dropped alarmlngly by nearly 20 polnLs, a
concern. change compounded by daLa equally showlng LhaL
feellngs of lnsecurlLy have rlsen. ln 2011, around
lA1A ls known as a 'no-go area' for non-lA1A
30 of respondenLs lnformed Lhe survey Leam LhaL
resldenLs, however, lL ls home Lo more Lhan 4
Lhey felL lnsecure (32.0 were vety losecote and
mllllon people. 1hebruLal excesses of 11 and oLher
18.8 were somewbot losecote). 1hls ls a
mlllLanL groups and mlllLary counLer-operaLlons
slgnlflcanL rlse from Lhe LoLal of lnsecure (36) ln
have drlven an lmporLanL proporLlon of Lhe local
2010.
populaLlon ouL of lA1A, Lhus glvlng Lhe lmpresslon
LhaL lA1A ls an lnsecurearea. ln areas under aklsLanl mlllLary conLrol:
respondenLs conslsLenLly noLed feellngs of securlLy.
Powever, Lhls exLernal percepLlon may need Lo be
Conversely, ln areas of confllcL respondenLs
revaluaLed followlng Lheflndlng LhaL ln 2010, 61.4
remalned qulLe pesslmlsLlc - noLlng governmenLal
respondenLs felL secure (6.2 sLaLlng Lhey were
lnablllLy Lo secure Lhelr locallLy from lnfluence by
vety secote and 33.2 LhaL Lhey were somewhaL
mlllLanLs. llgure 4.7 provldes some lnslghLs lnLo
secure). When Lhe 2010 survey lnLroduced Lhe
feellngs of securlLy, buL lL musL be noLed LhaL lL
quesLlon of 'feellngs of securlLy' some opLlmlsm
refers Lo percepLlons regardlng lmprovemenLs ln
was recorded, probably due Lo confldence belng
Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon and noL overall feellngs of
expressed due Lo Lhe success of mlllLary operaLlons
securlLyln general.
SwaL, 8a[aur and uara Adam khel, as well as ln parLs
of Mohmand, Crakzal and lower kurram agencles. lL 1hls shlfL ln oplnlon ls undersLandable. 8efugee
was hoped LhaL Lhese operaLlons would conLlnue Lo camps, Lhe only vlable alLernaLlve Lo llvlng ln one's
succeed and resulL ln Lhe reLurn of auLhorlLy Lo vulnerable local communlLy, expose people Lo
18
many alLernaLlve rlsks and challenges. CAM clvlllan admlnlsLraLlons.
6
.
2
1
8
.
3
1
.
6
1
.
1
1
.
8
3
3
.
2
1
7
.
7
2
7
.
9
3
2
.
0
4
.
3
1
8
.
8
1
3
.
1
very secure SomewhaL
secure
SomewhaL
lnsecure
very lnsecure no oplnlon uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.S: now secure do you fee| |n your da||y ||fe?
18
18.9 of respondenLs had lndlcaLed LhaL Lhey had had Lo flee from Lhelr home ln Lhe recenL pasL.
undersLandlng lA1A
62
Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon has been lmprovlng. 1hls, ln slLuaLlon ln SouLh WazlrlsLan was beLLer, lmplylng
con[uncLlon wlLh Lhe daLa documenLed ln llgure lncreased confldence ln Lhe efforLs of Lhe aklsLanl
4.3, lmplles LhaL many lA1A communlLles feel aL mlllLary Lo lmpose securlLy ln Lhe Lrlbal area. ln
leasL some sense of securlLy, ln splLe of Lhe vlolence 8a[aur Agency 43 of respondenLs noLed
LhaL engulfs much of Lhereglon. ?eL, lL ls noL evldenL lmprovemenLs ln securlLy, Lhls ln parL may be Lhe
whaL Lhe Lrue meanlng of Lhls lnformaLlon ls, as lL ls resulL of Lhe repaLrlaLlon of slgnlflcanL numbers
noL clear wheLher respondenLs were answerlng ln (approxlmaLely Lwo-Lhlrds) of lus, forced ouL of
Lerms of year-on-year lmprovemenLs, or over a Lhelr homes byflghLlng ln Lhereglon.
longer perlod. 1haL ls, some 40 of respondenLs
1hese galns are noL guaranLees of shlfLlng
acknowledglng conLlnued developmenLs on Lop of
percepLlons however, as lllusLraLed by flndlngs from
Lhoserecorded byhalf of lnLervlewees ln 2010or do
kurram Agency. ln 2010, 80 of respondenLs from
Lhey refer Lo a changlng of aLLlLude of Lhose LhaL
Lhls Agency, scene of some of Lhe greaLesL
wereless Lhan favourableln Lhesameperlod?
(secLarlan) vlolence ln lA1A, noLlced lmprovemenLs
ConsequenLly, Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan musL ln securlLy. 1hls flgure has dropped dramaLlcally Lo
noL allow Lhe lmprovemenLs Lo Lrlgger over- 24.9 ln 2011.
confldence, parLlcularly as approxlmaLely one-flfLh
Cverall, Lhe galns of 2010 appear Lo have been
of respondenLs ln 2011 consldered Lhe securlLy
reversed for some 27 of Lhe populaLlon. 1he
slLuaLlon Lo be aL leasL somewbot wotse (an
openlng of roads lasL year appeared Lo have ralsed
lncrease of approxlmaLely seven percenLage polnLs
hopes for Lhe fuLure, buL subsLanLlal delays ln
on levels recorded Lheyear before).
reachlng agreemenL and a lack of LrusL has
luLure sLudles musL Lherefore, seek Lo ellclL Lhe lncreased levels of frusLraLlon. lL ls essenLlal Lo noLe
exLenL Lo whlch Lhe oplnlons recorded are Lherefore, LhaL lmprovemenLs ln percepLlons of
concerned wlLh year-on-year changes ln aLLlLude or securlLy do noL necessarlly equaLe Lo changes ln
longer-Lerm changes ln securlLy. Also addlLlonal general feellngs of securlLy. SecurlLy concerns ln
evldence ls needed Lo undersLand wheLher oo lA1A remaln a conslderable cause for concern (see
cbooqe has poslLlve, negaLlve or neuLral ChapLer 1) and conLlnued governmenLal acLlvlLy
connoLaLlons for respondenLs. needs Lo be applled, Lo ensure Lhls momenLum
exLends ln Lo Lhe long-Lerm and Lo ensure LhaL Lhe
1o beLLer undersLand dlfferences ln oplnlon on
worrles of Lhose LhaL see oo Jlffeteoce or belleve
securlLy by geographlcal locaLlon, llgure 4.7 has
Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon Lo have goL worse are
been produced. A word of cauLlon ls necessary as lL
addressed.
ls lmporLanL Lo sLaLe LhaL only vlllages and Lowns
LhaL wereaccesslblearelncluded ln Lhesample(see
Iocus groupd|scuss|ons
MeLhodology Appendlx): accordlngly, responses
Slmllarly Lo Lhe lasL quesLlon, respondenLs shared
may represenL a more opLlmlsLlc percepLlon Lhan
mlxed vlews. Agaln equal numbers of respondenLs
mlghL oLherwlse be expecLed as percepLlons of
showed elLher opLlmlsm or pesslmlsm. 1hose
securlLy wlll dlffer for Lhose llvlng ln peaceful areas
parLlclpanLs who felL mosL unhappy wlLh progress
compared Lo oLhers llvlng ln moreunsLableareas.
ln Lhelr Lrlbal area were from Crakzal and norLh
WazlrlsLan, boLh of whlch were conLlnulng Lo suffer
uurlng Lhe lasL Lhree years (2009 - 2011) SouLh
from 1allban lnLerference. lemale lCus were less
WazlrlsLan, Crakzal, 8a[aur, Mohmand and khyber
ableor wllllng Lo provldeoplnlons on Lhls sub[ecL.
agencles have wlLnessed hlgh levels of confllcL -
resulLlng ln slgnlflcanL numbers of lus - yeL Lhese
reglons seem Lo be en[oylng some levels of
lmprovemenL ln percepLlons of securlLy. ln SouLh
WazlrlsLan, for example, of Lhe 280 respondenLs
1he lasL secLlon concenLraLed on aLLlLudes Lo
67 of respondenLs LhoughL LhaL Lhe securlLy
securlLy for lA1A, and local Lrlbal areas, as a whole -
4.3 erce|ved secur|ty threats to
|nd|v|dua|s
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
6S
8.9
11.3
0.6
20.0
5.0
7.5
22.2
0.9
1.1
25.0
5.6
62.5
23.0
24.0
32.2
32.5
42.1
36.8
15.0
24.3
35.2
14.3
3.9
4.5
1.1
5.7
42.5
3.1
2.5
2.5
12.0
14.9
28.6
21.1
6.1
2.5
0.1
NA
5.0
2.5
2.5
1.3
0.7
2.2
1.9
0.9
7.1
0.7
4.0
2.5
22.5
0.6
7.5
5.0
8.8
1.8
6.3
4.2
4.5
4.3
3.1
12.5
24.1
41.4
55.0
47.5
77.5
26.3
27.1
39.4
65.0
11.3
50
10.0
14.2
20.0
41.0
12.4
NA
5.0
15.8
20.0
NA
6.3
3.7
15.9
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan Agency
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency
Much better Somewhat better No difference Somewhat worse Much worse No opinion Don't know
Figure 4.7: Compared to Iast year: do you feeI your security is getting better or worse? (breakdown by region)
undersLandlng lA1A
64
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon has been lmprovlng. 1hls, ln slLuaLlon ln SouLh WazlrlsLan was beLLer, lmplylng
con[uncLlon wlLh Lhe daLa documenLed ln llgure lncreased confldence ln Lhe efforLs of Lhe aklsLanl
4.3, lmplles LhaL many lA1A communlLles feel aL mlllLary Lo lmpose securlLy ln Lhe Lrlbal area. ln
leasL some sense of securlLy, ln splLe of Lhe vlolence 8a[aur Agency 43 of respondenLs noLed
LhaL engulfs much of Lhereglon. ?eL, lL ls noL evldenL lmprovemenLs ln securlLy, Lhls ln parL may be Lhe
whaL Lhe Lrue meanlng of Lhls lnformaLlon ls, as lL ls resulL of Lhe repaLrlaLlon of slgnlflcanL numbers
noL clear wheLher respondenLs were answerlng ln (approxlmaLely Lwo-Lhlrds) of lus, forced ouL of
Lerms of year-on-year lmprovemenLs, or over a Lhelr homes byflghLlng ln Lhereglon.
longer perlod. 1haL ls, some 40 of respondenLs
1hese galns are noL guaranLees of shlfLlng
acknowledglng conLlnued developmenLs on Lop of
percepLlons however, as lllusLraLed by flndlngs from
Lhoserecorded byhalf of lnLervlewees ln 2010or do
kurram Agency. ln 2010, 80 of respondenLs from
Lhey refer Lo a changlng of aLLlLude of Lhose LhaL
Lhls Agency, scene of some of Lhe greaLesL
wereless Lhan favourableln Lhesameperlod?
(secLarlan) vlolence ln lA1A, noLlced lmprovemenLs
ConsequenLly, Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan musL ln securlLy. 1hls flgure has dropped dramaLlcally Lo
noL allow Lhe lmprovemenLs Lo Lrlgger over- 24.9 ln 2011.
confldence, parLlcularly as approxlmaLely one-flfLh
Cverall, Lhe galns of 2010 appear Lo have been
of respondenLs ln 2011 consldered Lhe securlLy
reversed for some 27 of Lhe populaLlon. 1he
slLuaLlon Lo be aL leasL somewbot wotse (an
openlng of roads lasL year appeared Lo have ralsed
lncrease of approxlmaLely seven percenLage polnLs
hopes for Lhe fuLure, buL subsLanLlal delays ln
on levels recorded Lheyear before).
reachlng agreemenL and a lack of LrusL has
luLure sLudles musL Lherefore, seek Lo ellclL Lhe lncreased levels of frusLraLlon. lL ls essenLlal Lo noLe
exLenL Lo whlch Lhe oplnlons recorded are Lherefore, LhaL lmprovemenLs ln percepLlons of
concerned wlLh year-on-year changes ln aLLlLude or securlLy do noL necessarlly equaLe Lo changes ln
longer-Lerm changes ln securlLy. Also addlLlonal general feellngs of securlLy. SecurlLy concerns ln
evldence ls needed Lo undersLand wheLher oo lA1A remaln a conslderable cause for concern (see
cbooqe has poslLlve, negaLlve or neuLral ChapLer 1) and conLlnued governmenLal acLlvlLy
connoLaLlons for respondenLs. needs Lo be applled, Lo ensure Lhls momenLum
exLends ln Lo Lhe long-Lerm and Lo ensure LhaL Lhe
1o beLLer undersLand dlfferences ln oplnlon on
worrles of Lhose LhaL see oo Jlffeteoce or belleve
securlLy by geographlcal locaLlon, llgure 4.7 has
Lhe securlLy slLuaLlon Lo have goL worse are
been produced. A word of cauLlon ls necessary as lL
addressed.
ls lmporLanL Lo sLaLe LhaL only vlllages and Lowns
LhaL wereaccesslblearelncluded ln Lhesample(see
Iocus groupd|scuss|ons
MeLhodology Appendlx): accordlngly, responses
Slmllarly Lo Lhe lasL quesLlon, respondenLs shared
may represenL a more opLlmlsLlc percepLlon Lhan
mlxed vlews. Agaln equal numbers of respondenLs
mlghL oLherwlse be expecLed as percepLlons of
showed elLher opLlmlsm or pesslmlsm. 1hose
securlLy wlll dlffer for Lhose llvlng ln peaceful areas
parLlclpanLs who felL mosL unhappy wlLh progress
compared Lo oLhers llvlng ln moreunsLableareas.
ln Lhelr Lrlbal area were from Crakzal and norLh
WazlrlsLan, boLh of whlch were conLlnulng Lo suffer
uurlng Lhe lasL Lhree years (2009 - 2011) SouLh
from 1allban lnLerference. lemale lCus were less
WazlrlsLan, Crakzal, 8a[aur, Mohmand and khyber
ableor wllllng Lo provldeoplnlons on Lhls sub[ecL.
agencles have wlLnessed hlgh levels of confllcL -
resulLlng ln slgnlflcanL numbers of lus - yeL Lhese
reglons seem Lo be en[oylng some levels of
lmprovemenL ln percepLlons of securlLy. ln SouLh
WazlrlsLan, for example, of Lhe 280 respondenLs
1he lasL secLlon concenLraLed on aLLlLudes Lo
67 of respondenLs LhoughL LhaL Lhe securlLy
securlLy for lA1A, and local Lrlbal areas, as a whole -
4.3 erce|ved secur|ty threats to
|nd|v|dua|s
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
6S
8.9
11.3
0.6
20.0
5.0
7.5
22.2
0.9
1.1
25.0
5.6
62.5
23.0
24.0
32.2
32.5
42.1
36.8
15.0
24.3
35.2
14.3
3.9
4.5
1.1
5.7
42.5
3.1
2.5
2.5
12.0
14.9
28.6
21.1
6.1
2.5
0.1
NA
5.0
2.5
2.5
1.3
0.7
2.2
1.9
0.9
7.1
0.7
4.0
2.5
22.5
0.6
7.5
5.0
8.8
1.8
6.3
4.2
4.5
4.3
3.1
12.5
24.1
41.4
55.0
47.5
77.5
26.3
27.1
39.4
65.0
11.3
50
10.0
14.2
20.0
41.0
12.4
NA
5.0
15.8
20.0
NA
6.3
3.7
15.9
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan Agency
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency
Much better Somewhat better No difference Somewhat worse Much worse No opinion Don't know
Figure 4.7: Compared to Iast year: do you feeI your security is getting better or worse? (breakdown by region)
undersLandlng lA1A
64
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
ln addlLlon, crlme and bandlLry ls recognlsed as a Iema|e IGDs
source of lndlvlduals' lnsecurlLy by over 10 of
arLlclpanLs appeared Lo be less confldenL ln
survey respondenLs. 1hls may be llnked Lo culLural
ldenLlfylng LhreaLs buL for Lhose LhaL were: Lhe
LradlLlons of Lrlbal and famlly feuds, alLhough
1allban and oLher mlllLanL groups were consldered
prevlously menLloned facLors of poverLy,
Lo beLhegreaLesL LhreaL Lo Lhelr lndlvldual securlLy.
unemploymenL and a posslbly weak [udlclary may
also have an lnfluence. noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe cause,
Lhls feaLure of lnsecurlLy ls held by a slgnlflcanL
As lllusLraLed ln ChapLer 1 and llgure 4.8: confllcL mlnorlLyand furLher lnvesLlgaLlon mayberequlred.
and vlolence are leadlng sources of lndlvldual and
Ireedom from want
communlLy lnsecurlLy. As a consequence, Lhe
Concerns relaLlng Lo 'freedom from wanL' as a
survey has soughL Lo creaLe a more ln-depLh
feaLure of human/lndlvldual securlLy, whlle noL
undersLandlng of how Lhese phenomena manlfesL
belng as promlnenL as Lhose concernlng 'freedom
Lhemselves. As descrlbed Lhere are numerous
from fear' remaln slgnlflcanL for approxlmaLely 20
forms of confllcL ln lA1A buL llgure 4.9 alms Lo help
of respondenLs.
lllusLraLe whaL generally moLlvaLes Lhem.
8espondenLs were allowed Lo make more Lhan one
looJepoote beoltbcote was a cause for lndlvldual
cholce.
concern for [usL 3.8 of people ln 2010 survey
however Lhls flgure has rlsen sharply ln 2011 Lo
8ased on personal experlence, Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL
16.2. As flghLlng has placed lncreased sLralns on
reason for vlolence was coofllct ovet looJ, as
healLhcare faclllLles, lnfrasLrucLure has proved
recorded by 49.7 of respondenLs. 1hls was
lnsufflclenL resulLlng ln unnecessary deaLhs and
followed by ttlbol closbes (33.9) and famlly feuds
dlsablllLles.
(30.2). 1hese flndlngs may lndlcaLe LhaL local
lssues raLher Lhan Lhe 'War on 1error' generaLe
lssues regardlng access Lo food have also lncreased,
confllcL ln lA1A, an explanaLlon furLher supporLed
wlLh approxlmaLely 3 of respondenLs noLlng LhaL
by exttemlsm only belng recognlsed by 21.3 of
Lhls was a conslderable concern. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL
people.
Lhese non-confllcL lssues are reduced ln
slgnlflcance, especlally as servlces relaLlng Lo
lL has Lo be noLed however, LhaL Lhere ls no clear
human developmenL and healLh are conslderable
way of dlsaggregaLlng wheLher confllcL over land
expecLaLlons (seellgure1.1).
and Lrlbal clashes relaLe Lo vlolence assoclaLed wlLh
ouLslders (l.e. 11 and oLher 1allban organlsaLlons)
Ma|e IGDs
Laklng over land and lmposlng Lhelr values on Lhe
1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs sLaLed
lndlgenous Lrlbe.
LhaL Lhe 1allban and oLher mlllLanL groups posed
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe dlfflculLles ln undersLandlng Lhe greaLesL LhreaL Lo Lhelr lndlvldual securlLy, buL
Lhe rooL causes of Lhe dlfferenL confllcLs recorded - fears were also held ln regard Lo Lhe aklsLanl
Lhe desLrucLlve naLure of Lhe 'War on 1error' has mlllLary. 1hey added LhaL flghLlng had endangered
had Lhe greaLesL lmpacL on llfe ln lA1A, desLroylng boLh lndlvlduals' llves buL also LhaL of Lhelr
Lhe very core of Lrlbal and lokbtoo culLure and llvesLock.
devalulng LradlLlonal soclal confllcL-resoluLlon
An addlLlonal cause for concern was Lhe use of
mechanlsms.
drone aLLacks by Lhe uS. Whlle Lhese aLLacks were
consldered by some Lo be very preclsely LargeLed,
Ma|e IGDs
Lhe ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs were scepLlcal and dld
1he ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs across mosL lCus
noL approveof LhesedronesLrlkes.
agreed LhaL Lhe maln reasons for confllcL ln lA1A
were land dlspuLes and honour kllllng. lL was sLaLed
keasons for v|o|ence |nIA1A
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
67
Lhls secLlon seeks Lo documenL LhreaLs posed Lo slowlng ln Lhe mlllLary's ablllLy Lo exerL full conLrol
lndlvlduals' securlLy. 1he non-speclflc Lerm of has undoubLedl y l nf l uenced responses.
'confllcL' prevlously referred Lo ln Lhe survey ls Lo lurLhermore, Lhe aklsLan Army as a source of
some exLenL broken down lnLo lLs varlous parLs (Lhe lnsecurlLy has lncreased. ln 2010, mlllLary progress,
'War on 1error', secLarlan vlolence, LerrorlsL aLLacks parLlcularly ln SwaL and SouLh WazlrlsLan appeared
and army acLlvlLy), whlle oLher human securlLy Lo have encouraged/lncreased LrusL ln Lhe mlllLary
concerns arealso ldenLlfled. as a source of securlLy buL ln 2011 Lhls confldence
seems Lo havefaded. Accordlngly, ln 2010only 3.8 Ireedom from fear
of respondenLs belleved LhaL 'army acLlvlLy' was Lhe 1he greaLesL concern ralsed by respondenLs ln boLh
leadlng LhreaL Lo lndlvlduals' however, Lhls fear has Lhe 2010 and 2011 surveys was LhaL of LerrorlsL
rlsen dramaLlcally Lo almosL 20 ln 2011. 1hls ls aLLacks. lL ls noLable however, LhaL Lhls source of
llkely Lo be because of repeaLed examples of lnsecurlLy has rlsen ln Lhe lasL year. ln 2010, 41.2
excesslve force belng used (resulLlng ln clvlllan of people consldered Lerrorlsm Lo be Lhe prlmary
casualLles and desLrucLlon of properLy, lncludlng fear of lndlvlduals buL Lhls rose Lo almosL 60 ln
llvesLock). Surprlslngly, 34.1 respondenLs 2011. 1hl s l l l usLraLes LhaL despl Le sl ow
ldenLlfled drone ottocks as Lhe promlnenL source of lmprovemenLs ln percepLlons of local securlLy and
lndlvlduals' lnsecurlLy. 1hls flgure ls almosL four mlllLary successes Lhe specLre of sulclde bomblngs,
Llmes hlgher LhaL recorded ln 2010(9.1). mlllLanL rockeLs, landmlne and lmprovlsed
exploslve devlces (lLus) remaln subsLanLlal
ln lA1A, Shla Musllms consLlLuLe 12 of Lhe LoLal
concerns.
populaLlon, and ln Crkazal and kurram agencles
secLarlan vlolence appears Lo be a slgnlflcanL cause AnoLher sLrlklng shlfL ln respondenLs' percepLlons ls
of lndlvldual lnsecurlLy. ln 2011survey, Lhls fear was ln regard Lo Lhe 'War on 1error'. Concern has more
shared by 17.1 of respondenLs whlle Lhls flgure Lhan doubled from 14.7 ln 2010 Lo 29.6 ln 2011.
was 14.4 ln 2010. lL ls noL clear LheexLenL Lo whlch 1hepeopleof lA1A seems Lo beLlred of Lhls confllcL,
Lhese fl gures represenL Sunnl and Shl a a source of much lnLernal dlsplacemenL, bloodshed
perspecLlves. and Lhe rulnlng of local economles. lurLhermore, a
Conflict
(referring to
the 'War on
Terror)
Terrorist
attacks
Army activitySectarianism Drone
attacks
Crime and
banditry
nadequate
food
nadequate
healthcare
Other
(specify)
Don't know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.8: What are the b|ggest threats to your secur|ty?
1
4
.
7
2
9
.
6
4
1
.
2
5
8
.
5
5
.
8
1
9
.
5
1
4
.
4
1
7
.
1
9
.
1
3
4
.
1
6
.
9
1
1
.
8
2
.
1
5
.
1
3
.
8
1
6
.
2
0
.
5
0
.
4
1
.
7
3
.
8
undersLandlng lA1A
66
ln addlLlon, crlme and bandlLry ls recognlsed as a Iema|e IGDs
source of lndlvlduals' lnsecurlLy by over 10 of
arLlclpanLs appeared Lo be less confldenL ln
survey respondenLs. 1hls may be llnked Lo culLural
ldenLlfylng LhreaLs buL for Lhose LhaL were: Lhe
LradlLlons of Lrlbal and famlly feuds, alLhough
1allban and oLher mlllLanL groups were consldered
prevlously menLloned facLors of poverLy,
Lo beLhegreaLesL LhreaL Lo Lhelr lndlvldual securlLy.
unemploymenL and a posslbly weak [udlclary may
also have an lnfluence. noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe cause,
Lhls feaLure of lnsecurlLy ls held by a slgnlflcanL
As lllusLraLed ln ChapLer 1 and llgure 4.8: confllcL mlnorlLyand furLher lnvesLlgaLlon mayberequlred.
and vlolence are leadlng sources of lndlvldual and
Ireedom from want
communlLy lnsecurlLy. As a consequence, Lhe
Concerns relaLlng Lo 'freedom from wanL' as a
survey has soughL Lo creaLe a more ln-depLh
feaLure of human/lndlvldual securlLy, whlle noL
undersLandlng of how Lhese phenomena manlfesL
belng as promlnenL as Lhose concernlng 'freedom
Lhemselves. As descrlbed Lhere are numerous
from fear' remaln slgnlflcanL for approxlmaLely 20
forms of confllcL ln lA1A buL llgure 4.9 alms Lo help
of respondenLs.
lllusLraLe whaL generally moLlvaLes Lhem.
8espondenLs were allowed Lo make more Lhan one
looJepoote beoltbcote was a cause for lndlvldual
cholce.
concern for [usL 3.8 of people ln 2010 survey
however Lhls flgure has rlsen sharply ln 2011 Lo
8ased on personal experlence, Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL
16.2. As flghLlng has placed lncreased sLralns on
reason for vlolence was coofllct ovet looJ, as
healLhcare faclllLles, lnfrasLrucLure has proved
recorded by 49.7 of respondenLs. 1hls was
lnsufflclenL resulLlng ln unnecessary deaLhs and
followed by ttlbol closbes (33.9) and famlly feuds
dlsablllLles.
(30.2). 1hese flndlngs may lndlcaLe LhaL local
lssues raLher Lhan Lhe 'War on 1error' generaLe
lssues regardlng access Lo food have also lncreased,
confllcL ln lA1A, an explanaLlon furLher supporLed
wlLh approxlmaLely 3 of respondenLs noLlng LhaL
by exttemlsm only belng recognlsed by 21.3 of
Lhls was a conslderable concern. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL
people.
Lhese non-confllcL lssues are reduced ln
slgnlflcance, especlally as servlces relaLlng Lo
lL has Lo be noLed however, LhaL Lhere ls no clear
human developmenL and healLh are conslderable
way of dlsaggregaLlng wheLher confllcL over land
expecLaLlons (seellgure1.1).
and Lrlbal clashes relaLe Lo vlolence assoclaLed wlLh
ouLslders (l.e. 11 and oLher 1allban organlsaLlons)
Ma|e IGDs
Laklng over land and lmposlng Lhelr values on Lhe
1he overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs sLaLed
lndlgenous Lrlbe.
LhaL Lhe 1allban and oLher mlllLanL groups posed
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe dlfflculLles ln undersLandlng Lhe greaLesL LhreaL Lo Lhelr lndlvldual securlLy, buL
Lhe rooL causes of Lhe dlfferenL confllcLs recorded - fears were also held ln regard Lo Lhe aklsLanl
Lhe desLrucLlve naLure of Lhe 'War on 1error' has mlllLary. 1hey added LhaL flghLlng had endangered
had Lhe greaLesL lmpacL on llfe ln lA1A, desLroylng boLh lndlvlduals' llves buL also LhaL of Lhelr
Lhe very core of Lrlbal and lokbtoo culLure and llvesLock.
devalulng LradlLlonal soclal confllcL-resoluLlon
An addlLlonal cause for concern was Lhe use of
mechanlsms.
drone aLLacks by Lhe uS. Whlle Lhese aLLacks were
consldered by some Lo be very preclsely LargeLed,
Ma|e IGDs
Lhe ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs were scepLlcal and dld
1he ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs across mosL lCus
noL approveof LhesedronesLrlkes.
agreed LhaL Lhe maln reasons for confllcL ln lA1A
were land dlspuLes and honour kllllng. lL was sLaLed
keasons for v|o|ence |nIA1A
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
67
Lhls secLlon seeks Lo documenL LhreaLs posed Lo slowlng ln Lhe mlllLary's ablllLy Lo exerL full conLrol
lndlvlduals' securlLy. 1he non-speclflc Lerm of has undoubLedl y l nf l uenced responses.
'confllcL' prevlously referred Lo ln Lhe survey ls Lo lurLhermore, Lhe aklsLan Army as a source of
some exLenL broken down lnLo lLs varlous parLs (Lhe lnsecurlLy has lncreased. ln 2010, mlllLary progress,
'War on 1error', secLarlan vlolence, LerrorlsL aLLacks parLlcularly ln SwaL and SouLh WazlrlsLan appeared
and army acLlvlLy), whlle oLher human securlLy Lo have encouraged/lncreased LrusL ln Lhe mlllLary
concerns arealso ldenLlfled. as a source of securlLy buL ln 2011 Lhls confldence
seems Lo havefaded. Accordlngly, ln 2010only 3.8 Ireedom from fear
of respondenLs belleved LhaL 'army acLlvlLy' was Lhe 1he greaLesL concern ralsed by respondenLs ln boLh
leadlng LhreaL Lo lndlvlduals' however, Lhls fear has Lhe 2010 and 2011 surveys was LhaL of LerrorlsL
rlsen dramaLlcally Lo almosL 20 ln 2011. 1hls ls aLLacks. lL ls noLable however, LhaL Lhls source of
llkely Lo be because of repeaLed examples of lnsecurlLy has rlsen ln Lhe lasL year. ln 2010, 41.2
excesslve force belng used (resulLlng ln clvlllan of people consldered Lerrorlsm Lo be Lhe prlmary
casualLles and desLrucLlon of properLy, lncludlng fear of lndlvlduals buL Lhls rose Lo almosL 60 ln
llvesLock). Surprlslngly, 34.1 respondenLs 2011. 1hl s l l l usLraLes LhaL despl Le sl ow
ldenLlfled drone ottocks as Lhe promlnenL source of lmprovemenLs ln percepLlons of local securlLy and
lndlvlduals' lnsecurlLy. 1hls flgure ls almosL four mlllLary successes Lhe specLre of sulclde bomblngs,
Llmes hlgher LhaL recorded ln 2010(9.1). mlllLanL rockeLs, landmlne and lmprovlsed
exploslve devlces (lLus) remaln subsLanLlal
ln lA1A, Shla Musllms consLlLuLe 12 of Lhe LoLal
concerns.
populaLlon, and ln Crkazal and kurram agencles
secLarlan vlolence appears Lo be a slgnlflcanL cause AnoLher sLrlklng shlfL ln respondenLs' percepLlons ls
of lndlvldual lnsecurlLy. ln 2011survey, Lhls fear was ln regard Lo Lhe 'War on 1error'. Concern has more
shared by 17.1 of respondenLs whlle Lhls flgure Lhan doubled from 14.7 ln 2010 Lo 29.6 ln 2011.
was 14.4 ln 2010. lL ls noL clear LheexLenL Lo whlch 1hepeopleof lA1A seems Lo beLlred of Lhls confllcL,
Lhese fl gures represenL Sunnl and Shl a a source of much lnLernal dlsplacemenL, bloodshed
perspecLlves. and Lhe rulnlng of local economles. lurLhermore, a
Conflict
(referring to
the 'War on
Terror)
Terrorist
attacks
Army activitySectarianism Drone
attacks
Crime and
banditry
nadequate
food
nadequate
healthcare
Other
(specify)
Don't know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.8: What are the b|ggest threats to your secur|ty?
1
4
.
7
2
9
.
6
4
1
.
2
5
8
.
5
5
.
8
1
9
.
5
1
4
.
4
1
7
.
1
9
.
1
3
4
.
1
6
.
9
1
1
.
8
2
.
1
5
.
1
3
.
8
1
6
.
2
0
.
5
0
.
4
1
.
7
3
.
8
undersLandlng lA1A
66
NA
13.1
13.3
0.8
50.9
NA
NA
5.1
7.7
1.1
33.7
0.2
1.3
25.8
1.9
0.5
3.1
0.7
2.4
0.2
1.9
43.4
7.0
0.4
7.5
22.0
50.9
2.5
3.2
8.7
0.3
11.5
22.7
0.3
0.6
0.5
2.2
13.7
0.4
4.8
22.3
0.15
10.6
3.2
0.7
13.4
0.5
15.9
24.5
1.2
USA
ndia
srael
Tehrek-e-Taliban
Pakistan
Afghan Taliban
Other Pakistani
Taliban groups
Lashkar-e-Toiba
Jash-e-Mohammad
Pakistan Army
Lashkar-e-slam
(Mangal Bagh group)
Ansar-ul-slam
Al Qaeda
Saudi Arabia
Western influence
ran
Other (specify)
Don't know
No response
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 4.10: Who]what |s to b|ame for the h|gh rates of su|c|de bomb|ng |n ak|stan?
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
69
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.2
NA
NA
LhaL land dlspuLes could resulL ln Lhe lgnlLlng of consequenceof dlrecL acLlon ln aklsLan. ln splLe of
Lrlbal and/or famllyclashes. Lhls, Lhe auLhors are unsure as Lo Lhe loglc of
ascrlblng responslblllLy Lo naLlons LhaL are unllkely
Iema|e IGDs
Lo be provldlng dlrecL supporL Lo sulclde bombers
1he ma[orlLy of female parLlclpanLs clearly
buL lL ls apercepLlon LhaL cannoL belgnored.
ldenLlfled land dlspuLes as Lhe maln cause of
lurLhermore, Lhe WesL as a whole remalns a
confllcL ln lA1A. ln addlLlon, properLy and buslness
slgnlflcanL LargeL for blame. ln Lhe 2008 and 2009
dlspuLes also generaLed vlolenceln lA1A.
surveys westeto lofloeoce was ldenLlfled by Lhe
n|gh rates of su|c|de bomb|ng |n ak|stan - who |s
ma[orlLy of respondenLs (30.9 and 33.7
respons|b|e?
respecLlvely) as belng responslble for Lhe hlgh
1he respondenLs were asked Lhrough a mulLlple
levels of sulclde aLLacks ln aklsLan. Whlle Lhls
cholce quesLlon: 'who do you Lhlnk ls responslble
flgure has decllned ln 2010 and 2011, lf Lhe cholces
for Lhe hlgh raLes of sulclde bomblng?' Aslde from
of Lhe uS and lsrael are added Lo Lhls selecLlon - Lhe
non-sLaLe acLors prevlously ldenLlfled, Lhe survey
LoLal ls 69.9 for 2011. 1hls clearly lndlcaLes LhaL
noLed LhaL subsLanLlal blame was placed on Lhe
Lhe ma[orlLy people ln lA1A blame for Lhe
LhreecounLrles of LheuS, lndlaand lsrael.
phenomenon on wesLern counLrles. ln conLrasL Lo
WesLern percepLlons of Saudl Arabla as a source of
1he2011surveyappears Lo show asLrengLhenlng ln
1allbanlsaLlon, lA1A respondenLs consldered lL Lo
Lhe percepLlon of respondenLs LhaL Lhe uS ls largely
havevery llLLlelnfluence.
responslble, because of lLs acLlons ln AfghanlsLan,
43.4 of Lhose lnLervlewed belleved Lhls asserLlon
lL ls surprlslng LhaL, desplLe 11 clalmlng
Lo be Lrue, compared Lo 23.8 ln 2010. lndla,
responslblllLy for many of Lhese LerrorlsL aLLacks,
aklsLan's hlsLorlc rlval, was also LhoughL Lo be Lo
only 13.7 of respondenLs belleved LhaL Lhey were
blame by approxlmaLely a quarLer of respondenLs -
ulLlmaLely responslble. 1hls musL be ascrlbed Lo Lhe
an lncrease on Lhe 2010 flgure of 13.3. lsrael was
facL LhaL survey parLlclpanLs belleve LhaL Lhelr
also sLrongly blamed, wlLh 13.9 of people
moLlvaLlons are lnsplred by exLernal forces. 1he
accuslng Lhem of moLlvaLlng sulclde bomblng - Lhls
percelved responslblllLy of Al OoeJo ls also
ls llkely due Lo Lhelr role ln lnLernaLlonal relaLlons
surprlslngly low, albelL lncreased from 3.1 ln 2010
and represslon of alesLlnlans raLher Lhan as a
Lo 7.0 ln 2011. 1hls ls, ln parL, due Lo Al OoeJo
ConfllcL over
land
lamlly feuds 1rlbal
clashes
ollLlcal
vlolence
Crlme LxLremlsm CLher
(speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 4.9: What are the ma|n reasons of conf||cts |n IA1A?
4
9
.
7
3
0
.
23
3
.
9
7
.
8
1
0
.
3
2
1
.
3
2
.
4
1
1
.
2
undersLandlng lA1A
68
NA
13.1
13.3
0.8
50.9
NA
NA
5.1
7.7
1.1
33.7
0.2
1.3
25.8
1.9
0.5
3.1
0.7
2.4
0.2
1.9
43.4
7.0
0.4
7.5
22.0
50.9
2.5
3.2
8.7
0.3
11.5
22.7
0.3
0.6
0.5
2.2
13.7
0.4
4.8
22.3
0.15
10.6
3.2
0.7
13.4
0.5
15.9
24.5
1.2
USA
ndia
srael
Tehrek-e-Taliban
Pakistan
Afghan Taliban
Other Pakistani
Taliban groups
Lashkar-e-Toiba
Jash-e-Mohammad
Pakistan Army
Lashkar-e-slam
(Mangal Bagh group)
Ansar-ul-slam
Al Qaeda
Saudi Arabia
Western influence
ran
Other (specify)
Don't know
No response
2008 (%) 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 4.10: Who]what |s to b|ame for the h|gh rates of su|c|de bomb|ng |n ak|stan?
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
69
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.2
NA
NA
LhaL land dlspuLes could resulL ln Lhe lgnlLlng of consequenceof dlrecL acLlon ln aklsLan. ln splLe of
Lrlbal and/or famllyclashes. Lhls, Lhe auLhors are unsure as Lo Lhe loglc of
ascrlblng responslblllLy Lo naLlons LhaL are unllkely
Iema|e IGDs
Lo be provldlng dlrecL supporL Lo sulclde bombers
1he ma[orlLy of female parLlclpanLs clearly
buL lL ls apercepLlon LhaL cannoL belgnored.
ldenLlfled land dlspuLes as Lhe maln cause of
lurLhermore, Lhe WesL as a whole remalns a
confllcL ln lA1A. ln addlLlon, properLy and buslness
slgnlflcanL LargeL for blame. ln Lhe 2008 and 2009
dlspuLes also generaLed vlolenceln lA1A.
surveys westeto lofloeoce was ldenLlfled by Lhe
n|gh rates of su|c|de bomb|ng |n ak|stan - who |s
ma[orlLy of respondenLs (30.9 and 33.7
respons|b|e?
respecLlvely) as belng responslble for Lhe hlgh
1he respondenLs were asked Lhrough a mulLlple
levels of sulclde aLLacks ln aklsLan. Whlle Lhls
cholce quesLlon: 'who do you Lhlnk ls responslble
flgure has decllned ln 2010 and 2011, lf Lhe cholces
for Lhe hlgh raLes of sulclde bomblng?' Aslde from
of Lhe uS and lsrael are added Lo Lhls selecLlon - Lhe
non-sLaLe acLors prevlously ldenLlfled, Lhe survey
LoLal ls 69.9 for 2011. 1hls clearly lndlcaLes LhaL
noLed LhaL subsLanLlal blame was placed on Lhe
Lhe ma[orlLy people ln lA1A blame for Lhe
LhreecounLrles of LheuS, lndlaand lsrael.
phenomenon on wesLern counLrles. ln conLrasL Lo
WesLern percepLlons of Saudl Arabla as a source of
1he2011surveyappears Lo show asLrengLhenlng ln
1allbanlsaLlon, lA1A respondenLs consldered lL Lo
Lhe percepLlon of respondenLs LhaL Lhe uS ls largely
havevery llLLlelnfluence.
responslble, because of lLs acLlons ln AfghanlsLan,
43.4 of Lhose lnLervlewed belleved Lhls asserLlon
lL ls surprlslng LhaL, desplLe 11 clalmlng
Lo be Lrue, compared Lo 23.8 ln 2010. lndla,
responslblllLy for many of Lhese LerrorlsL aLLacks,
aklsLan's hlsLorlc rlval, was also LhoughL Lo be Lo
only 13.7 of respondenLs belleved LhaL Lhey were
blame by approxlmaLely a quarLer of respondenLs -
ulLlmaLely responslble. 1hls musL be ascrlbed Lo Lhe
an lncrease on Lhe 2010 flgure of 13.3. lsrael was
facL LhaL survey parLlclpanLs belleve LhaL Lhelr
also sLrongly blamed, wlLh 13.9 of people
moLlvaLlons are lnsplred by exLernal forces. 1he
accuslng Lhem of moLlvaLlng sulclde bomblng - Lhls
percelved responslblllLy of Al OoeJo ls also
ls llkely due Lo Lhelr role ln lnLernaLlonal relaLlons
surprlslngly low, albelL lncreased from 3.1 ln 2010
and represslon of alesLlnlans raLher Lhan as a
Lo 7.0 ln 2011. 1hls ls, ln parL, due Lo Al OoeJo
ConfllcL over
land
lamlly feuds 1rlbal
clashes
ollLlcal
vlolence
Crlme LxLremlsm CLher
(speclfy)
uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 4.9: What are the ma|n reasons of conf||cts |n IA1A?
4
9
.
7
3
0
.
23
3
.
9
7
.
8
1
0
.
3
2
1
.
3
2
.
4
1
1
.
2
undersLandlng lA1A
68
1he human securlLy concerns of ooemploymeot whaL Lhe causes of sulclde bomblng ln aklsLan
ooJ povetty were consldered conslderable were. ln parLlcular: lack of educaLlon, exLreme
enabllng facLors, as prescrlbed by almosL 40 of poverLy and lnsufflclenL employmenL and/or
respondenLs (22.1 and 17.4 respecLlvely), a economlc opporLunlLles were Lhe maln causes,
flgure almosL double LhaL calculaLed ln 2010. 1he facLors LhaL had allowed mlllLanLs Lo explolL youLhs
addlLlonal concern of lock of eJocotloo - a furLher and Lhosedlsengaged from socleLy.
freedom from wanL, human securlLy concern - also
Some respondenLs, especlally ln 8a[aur Agency,
conLlnued Lo rank hlghly, desplLe dropplng from lLs
belleved LhaL accuraLe rellglous educaLlon should
poslLlon as Lhe second mosL lnfluenLlal enabler (as
be provlded so LhaL Lhe exLreme argumenLs
recorded ln 2010) lL reLalned conslderable lmpacL
provlded by mlllLanLs would noL [usLlfy kllllng
for 13.7 of people. 1heseconcerns llnk back Lo Lhe
Lhemselves or oLhers.
flndlngs deLalled ln ChapLer 1.
8espondenLs from norLh WazlrlsLan Agency and
Clven LhaL over half of lA1A respondenLs ldenLlfled
Lhe lronLler 8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl, 1ank and ul
soclal problems for faclllLaLlng sulclde bomblng, lL ls
khan also declared LhaL soclal lnfrasLrucLure had Lo
somewhaL unexpecLed LhaL soclal developmenL has
be lmproved, because aL presenL, excluslon from
losL slgnlflcance: dropplng from 8.2 ln 2010 Lo
governance mechanlsms was sufflclenL reason Lo
approxlmaLely 1.0 ln 2011. lrrespecLlve of Lhls,
explaln Lhls vlolence. Moreover, lL was suggesLed
Lhe flndlngs ouLllned ln ChapLers 3 and 4 deLall LhaL
LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan needs Lo
Lhls lssue remalns of lmporLance Lo Lhe creaLlon of
negoLlaLe wlLh Lhe 1allban ln order Lo reduce
lmproved percepLlons of securlLy, and wlll lncrease
confllcL and by exLenslon Lhe need for sulclde
poLenLlal for greaLer local lncluslon ln lssues LhaL
bomblng.
wlll generaLe employmenL opporLunlLles and
develop programmes LhaL can address poverLy and
lL should be noLed LhaL some parLlclpanLs of Lhe
weaknesses ln educaLlon provlslon.
lCus wereunableLo provldean answer.
AnoLher sLrlklng flndlng ls LhaL Lhe lA1A people are
Iema|e IGDs
growlng pesslmlsLlc of pollce capablllLles, wlLh
lemale parLlclpanLs were noL generally consclous
12.4 of respondenLs noLlng Lhls ln 2011 compared
of whaL weaknesses enabled sulclde bomblng and
Lo 3.4 ln Lhe prevlous year. 1hls clearly lndlcaLes
Lherefore Lhe ma[orlLy were unable Lo provlde an
LhaL confldence ln Lhe pollce has deLerloraLed,
answer.
however, Lhls flndlng could be consldered
surprlslng as only 6.9 of respondenLs conslder
Cf Lhe few volces LhaL were confldenL enough Lo
pollclng Lo be Lhe mosL lmporLanL servlce needed ln
deflne Lhe causes - poverLy, lack of educaLlon and
lA1A (see llgure 1.1). lotelllqeoce follloqs were also
lnsufflclenL soclal [usLlce were agaln ldenLlfled. ln
ldenLlfled ln lA1A as havlng allowed sulclde
addlLlon, reLallaLlon/revenge for drone aLLacks was
bomblng Lo conLlnue, as lnsLances of Lerrorlsm
also offered as areason.
have lncreased fallure Lo lnLercepL has lnevlLably
lncreased dlssaLlsfacLlon.
1hese facLors reflecL a seL of lnLernal causes LhaL
8espondenLs were also asked Lo ldenLlfy Lhe
recognlse local responslblllLles for Lhe acL of sulclde
geographlcal source of sulclde bombers ln lA1A.
bomblng and responslblllLy for prevenLlng Lhese
Whlle, a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy (9.3) of survey
acLs from belng underLaken. 1hls ls useful for a
parLlclpanLs were unable Lo provlde an answer Lhls
programmaLlc approach Lo changlng aLLlLudes and
flgure remalns lower Lhan was experlenced ln 2008
addresslng moLlvaLlons for supporLlng mlllLanL
and 2009. 1hls lndeclslon may be a dlrecL resulL of
acLlons.
Lhe lnLernal dlsplacemenL of lA1A communlLles and
growlng frusLraLlons wlLh confllcL: meanlng LhaL
Ma|e IGDs
respondenLs were noL confldenL ln aLLrlbuLlng a
8espondenLs were very vocal ln Lhelr oplnlons as Lo
Source of su|c|de bombers
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
71
belng consldered more of a LhreaL Lo Lhe WesL,
especlallyuS, raLher Lhan aklsLan.
1rusL ln Lhe loklstoo Atmy (see llgure 3.11) has
ln order Lo supplemenL flndlngs relaLlng Lo sulclde
seen Lhelr blame for sulclde bomblngs reduce
bomblng ln aklsLan, respondenLs were asked Lo
conslderably from 13.1 ln 2008 Lo [usL 0.3 ln
deflne whaL facLors have enabled sulclde bomblng
2010. Whlle Lhe 2011 survey has shown a marglnal
Lo conLlnue ln aklsLan. ln boLh 2010 and 2011,
lncrease ln Lhose LhaL aLLrlbuLe blame on Lhe
survey flndlngs reveal a mlxed aLLlLude Lowards
mlllLary, lL remalns very low (1.2).
lnLernal and exLernal lnfluences, buL wlLh some
changes on emphasls. 1hls secLlon wlll focus on
A largepercenLageof Lhe respondenLs, 22.3 ln Lhe
lnLernal conLrlbuLlons.
2011survey, wereunableLo provldean oplnlon.
Iactors enab||ng su|c|de bomb|ng |n
ak|stan
3.4
14.8
17.5
8.2
3.9
0.6
15.5
2.8
22.1
6.3
0.2
1.7
24.6
8.7
8.7
0.6
7.3
9.8
16.2
12.3
13.7
1.6
17.4
13.4
16.6
Lack of capaclLy ln Lhe pollce
lnLelllgence falllngs
Lack of capaclLy ln Lhe
aklsLan Army
Lack of educaLlon
unemploymenL
Lack of soclal developmenL
overLy
Lack of pollLlcal wlll
WesLern lnfluence
resldenL of aklsLan
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
no response
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.11: Iactors enab||ng su|c|de bomb|ng |n ak|stan
7.0
undersLandlng lA1A
70
1he human securlLy concerns of ooemploymeot whaL Lhe causes of sulclde bomblng ln aklsLan
ooJ povetty were consldered conslderable were. ln parLlcular: lack of educaLlon, exLreme
enabllng facLors, as prescrlbed by almosL 40 of poverLy and lnsufflclenL employmenL and/or
respondenLs (22.1 and 17.4 respecLlvely), a economlc opporLunlLles were Lhe maln causes,
flgure almosL double LhaL calculaLed ln 2010. 1he facLors LhaL had allowed mlllLanLs Lo explolL youLhs
addlLlonal concern of lock of eJocotloo - a furLher and Lhosedlsengaged from socleLy.
freedom from wanL, human securlLy concern - also
Some respondenLs, especlally ln 8a[aur Agency,
conLlnued Lo rank hlghly, desplLe dropplng from lLs
belleved LhaL accuraLe rellglous educaLlon should
poslLlon as Lhe second mosL lnfluenLlal enabler (as
be provlded so LhaL Lhe exLreme argumenLs
recorded ln 2010) lL reLalned conslderable lmpacL
provlded by mlllLanLs would noL [usLlfy kllllng
for 13.7 of people. 1heseconcerns llnk back Lo Lhe
Lhemselves or oLhers.
flndlngs deLalled ln ChapLer 1.
8espondenLs from norLh WazlrlsLan Agency and
Clven LhaL over half of lA1A respondenLs ldenLlfled
Lhe lronLler 8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl, 1ank and ul
soclal problems for faclllLaLlng sulclde bomblng, lL ls
khan also declared LhaL soclal lnfrasLrucLure had Lo
somewhaL unexpecLed LhaL soclal developmenL has
be lmproved, because aL presenL, excluslon from
losL slgnlflcance: dropplng from 8.2 ln 2010 Lo
governance mechanlsms was sufflclenL reason Lo
approxlmaLely 1.0 ln 2011. lrrespecLlve of Lhls,
explaln Lhls vlolence. Moreover, lL was suggesLed
Lhe flndlngs ouLllned ln ChapLers 3 and 4 deLall LhaL
LhaL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan needs Lo
Lhls lssue remalns of lmporLance Lo Lhe creaLlon of
negoLlaLe wlLh Lhe 1allban ln order Lo reduce
lmproved percepLlons of securlLy, and wlll lncrease
confllcL and by exLenslon Lhe need for sulclde
poLenLlal for greaLer local lncluslon ln lssues LhaL
bomblng.
wlll generaLe employmenL opporLunlLles and
develop programmes LhaL can address poverLy and
lL should be noLed LhaL some parLlclpanLs of Lhe
weaknesses ln educaLlon provlslon.
lCus wereunableLo provldean answer.
AnoLher sLrlklng flndlng ls LhaL Lhe lA1A people are
Iema|e IGDs
growlng pesslmlsLlc of pollce capablllLles, wlLh
lemale parLlclpanLs were noL generally consclous
12.4 of respondenLs noLlng Lhls ln 2011 compared
of whaL weaknesses enabled sulclde bomblng and
Lo 3.4 ln Lhe prevlous year. 1hls clearly lndlcaLes
Lherefore Lhe ma[orlLy were unable Lo provlde an
LhaL confldence ln Lhe pollce has deLerloraLed,
answer.
however, Lhls flndlng could be consldered
surprlslng as only 6.9 of respondenLs conslder
Cf Lhe few volces LhaL were confldenL enough Lo
pollclng Lo be Lhe mosL lmporLanL servlce needed ln
deflne Lhe causes - poverLy, lack of educaLlon and
lA1A (see llgure 1.1). lotelllqeoce follloqs were also
lnsufflclenL soclal [usLlce were agaln ldenLlfled. ln
ldenLlfled ln lA1A as havlng allowed sulclde
addlLlon, reLallaLlon/revenge for drone aLLacks was
bomblng Lo conLlnue, as lnsLances of Lerrorlsm
also offered as areason.
have lncreased fallure Lo lnLercepL has lnevlLably
lncreased dlssaLlsfacLlon.
1hese facLors reflecL a seL of lnLernal causes LhaL
8espondenLs were also asked Lo ldenLlfy Lhe
recognlse local responslblllLles for Lhe acL of sulclde
geographlcal source of sulclde bombers ln lA1A.
bomblng and responslblllLy for prevenLlng Lhese
Whlle, a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy (9.3) of survey
acLs from belng underLaken. 1hls ls useful for a
parLlclpanLs were unable Lo provlde an answer Lhls
programmaLlc approach Lo changlng aLLlLudes and
flgure remalns lower Lhan was experlenced ln 2008
addresslng moLlvaLlons for supporLlng mlllLanL
and 2009. 1hls lndeclslon may be a dlrecL resulL of
acLlons.
Lhe lnLernal dlsplacemenL of lA1A communlLles and
growlng frusLraLlons wlLh confllcL: meanlng LhaL
Ma|e IGDs
respondenLs were noL confldenL ln aLLrlbuLlng a
8espondenLs were very vocal ln Lhelr oplnlons as Lo
Source of su|c|de bombers
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
71
belng consldered more of a LhreaL Lo Lhe WesL,
especlallyuS, raLher Lhan aklsLan.
1rusL ln Lhe loklstoo Atmy (see llgure 3.11) has
ln order Lo supplemenL flndlngs relaLlng Lo sulclde
seen Lhelr blame for sulclde bomblngs reduce
bomblng ln aklsLan, respondenLs were asked Lo
conslderably from 13.1 ln 2008 Lo [usL 0.3 ln
deflne whaL facLors have enabled sulclde bomblng
2010. Whlle Lhe 2011 survey has shown a marglnal
Lo conLlnue ln aklsLan. ln boLh 2010 and 2011,
lncrease ln Lhose LhaL aLLrlbuLe blame on Lhe
survey flndlngs reveal a mlxed aLLlLude Lowards
mlllLary, lL remalns very low (1.2).
lnLernal and exLernal lnfluences, buL wlLh some
changes on emphasls. 1hls secLlon wlll focus on
A largepercenLageof Lhe respondenLs, 22.3 ln Lhe
lnLernal conLrlbuLlons.
2011survey, wereunableLo provldean oplnlon.
Iactors enab||ng su|c|de bomb|ng |n
ak|stan
3.4
14.8
17.5
8.2
3.9
0.6
15.5
2.8
22.1
6.3
0.2
1.7
24.6
8.7
8.7
0.6
7.3
9.8
16.2
12.3
13.7
1.6
17.4
13.4
16.6
Lack of capaclLy ln Lhe pollce
lnLelllgence falllngs
Lack of capaclLy ln Lhe
aklsLan Army
Lack of educaLlon
unemploymenL
Lack of soclal developmenL
overLy
Lack of pollLlcal wlll
WesLern lnfluence
resldenL of aklsLan
CLher (speclfy)
uon'L know
no response
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.11: Iactors enab||ng su|c|de bomb|ng |n ak|stan
7.0
undersLandlng lA1A
70
Lhe naLlons consldered responslble for sulclde
bomblng - are consldered by Lhe ma[orlLy Lo be Lhe
ln Lhls secLlon oplnlons Lowards securlLy provlders source of Lhe bombers. lnLeresLlngly, Lhe focus on
ln lA1A are explored. ln ChapLer 3 (llgure 3.11) a lndla has decreased from 28.7 ln 2010 whlle
quesLlon regardlng LrusL was asked of respondenLs. accusaLlons Lowards Lhe WesL have lncreased from
1he flndlngs showed LhaL Lhe Army (17.9) and Lhe 4.9. Moreover, lL ls compelllng LhaL desplLe
lronLler Corps (8.1) are Lhe mosL LrusLed susplclons belng levelled Lowards Lhese counLrles,
lnsLlLuLlons ln lA1A. ln conLrasL LradlLlonal leaders deslre for lncreased lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ln
(l.e. Leachers, ollLlcal AgenLs and Mullahs) are addresslng concerns ln lA1A was also found Lo have
loslng supporL, wlLh LheexcepLlon of Lrlbal elders. rlsen ln Lhls survey(seellgure1.4and 1.3).
ALLlLudes Lowards lndla appear Lo be based on Lhelr
Secur|ty prov|ders |nIA1A
lnvesLlng hugely ln AfghanlsLan, Lhls has compelled
Survey parLlclpanLs were flrsL asked: 'whlch of Lhe
some aklsLanl pollLlclans Lo accuse Lhelr rlval of
followlng lnsLlLuLlons do you belleve should
uslng AfghanlsLan as a means of dlsrupLlng
ulLlmaLely be responslble for securlLy ln lA1A?'
aklsLan. 1hese clalms have undoubLedly affecLed
8espondenLs were allowed Lo choose more Lhan
percepLlons.
onesecurlLyprovlder.
Arguably, Lhe mosL surprlslng flndlng ls LhaL only a
lrom LhedaLalL ls apparenL LhaL Lhemllltoty has Lhe
mlnorlLy of respondenLs belleve LhaL sulclde
supporL of more Lhan half (32.9) of Lhe
bombers orlglnaLe ln lA1A (6.0) or oLher parLs of
respondenLs. CLher securlLy provlders endorsed by
aklsLan (6.2). 1hls ls sLrlklng as Lhe evldence
survey parLlclpanLs are ttlbol commooltles/
documenLed ln llgure 4.10 above, on 'facLors
losbkots (42.4), kbosoJots ooJ levles (41.4) and
enabllng sulclde bombers', focuses ln large parL on
Lhe ltootlet cotps (33.8). 1hls shows LhaL
local, lnLernal, reasons and only a mlnorlLy ldenLlfy
convenLlonal securlLy provlders and LradlLlonal
exLernal lnfluences. ALLenLlon musL be placed on
lA1A mechanlsms are percelved Lo share
Lrylng Lo undersLand Lhls dlscrepancy ln Lhe
responslblllLyfor provldlng securlLy.
flndlngs.
ln 2010, when only one provlder could be selecLed,
Ma|e IGDs a mlnorlLy of respondenLs (13) belleved Lhe
mllltoty were ulLlmaLely responslble for securlLy ln ln accordance wlLh Lhe daLa ln llgure 4.12 Lhe
lA1A. lnsLead, respondenLs preferred Lo LrusL Lhe overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs wereunsure
ltootlet cotps (31) and Lhe LradlLlonal where sulclde bombers orlglnaLed. Powever, some
mechanlsms of ttlbol commooltles/lokbkots (24) ldenLlfled AfghanlsLan whlle oLhers blamed Lhe
and kbosoJots ooJ levles (23). Comparlng Lhls 1allban. noLably, Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan was
daLa wlLh 2011 ls noL enLlrely useful as a dlfferenL also accused of belng responslble for sourclng
meLhodology was used ln Lhe survey buL lL remalns bombers.
lllusLraLlve of Lhe growlng leglLlmacy of Lhe mlllLary
Iema|e IGDs
ln lA1A.
Agaln Lhe ma[orlLy were unable Lo answer Lhls
quesLlon. lemale focus group members from Ma|e IGDs
1he ma[orlLy of male parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled Lhe Crakzal Agency were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL local
aklsLan Army and losbkots as Lhe lnsLlLuLlons 1allban groups were responslble for groomlng
ulLlmaLely responslble for provldlng securlLy ln sulclde bombers ln lA1A (and elsewhere ln
lA1A. Powever, LhecapablllLy of losbkots Lo provlde aklsLan).
securlLyagalnsL LhemlllLanL LhreaL was quesLloned.
Also, as wlLh Lhe male lCus, some elemenLs
blamed Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan for sourclng
Iema|e IGDs
sulcldebombers.
knowledge of Lhe dlfferenL securlLy provlders was
llmlLed among female parLlclpanLs buL focus group
4.4 Cp|n|ononsecur|ty prov|ders
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
73
homeland Lo sulcldebombers. geographlcal source of bombers). 1hls aLLrlbuLlon
bullds on agrowlng Lrend of blamebelng assoclaLed
Cf Lhe 60 of respondenLs LhaL could answer,
wlLh AfghanlsLan (16.0 ln 2008, 14.3 ln 2009 and
lncreased numbers (28.4) are assoclaLlng
21.2 ln 2010).
bombers wlLh AfghanlsLan (l.e. aflgureLhaL equaLes
almosL half of Lhose confldenL ln ldenLlfylng Lhe 1he west (14.6), loJlo (21.3) and lstoel (0.2) -
16.0
7.4
5.2
4.6
63.0
1.9
2.8
43.9
2.0
21.2
1.4
0.6
28.4
4.0
14.5
19.5
5.8
9.0
0.8
31.5
4.8
28.7
3.1
4.9
2.7
0.6
0.5
39.2
21.3
6.20
1.2
9.3
6.0
0.2
14.6
0.7
1.6
AfghanlsLan
kashmlr
WesL
lndla
lA1A
un[ab
CLher parLs
of aklsLan
lsrael
CLhers
uon'L know
no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.12: Source of su|c|de bombers
6.2
undersLandlng lA1A
72
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Lhe naLlons consldered responslble for sulclde
bomblng - are consldered by Lhe ma[orlLy Lo be Lhe
ln Lhls secLlon oplnlons Lowards securlLy provlders source of Lhe bombers. lnLeresLlngly, Lhe focus on
ln lA1A are explored. ln ChapLer 3 (llgure 3.11) a lndla has decreased from 28.7 ln 2010 whlle
quesLlon regardlng LrusL was asked of respondenLs. accusaLlons Lowards Lhe WesL have lncreased from
1he flndlngs showed LhaL Lhe Army (17.9) and Lhe 4.9. Moreover, lL ls compelllng LhaL desplLe
lronLler Corps (8.1) are Lhe mosL LrusLed susplclons belng levelled Lowards Lhese counLrles,
lnsLlLuLlons ln lA1A. ln conLrasL LradlLlonal leaders deslre for lncreased lnLernaLlonal asslsLance ln
(l.e. Leachers, ollLlcal AgenLs and Mullahs) are addresslng concerns ln lA1A was also found Lo have
loslng supporL, wlLh LheexcepLlon of Lrlbal elders. rlsen ln Lhls survey(seellgure1.4and 1.3).
ALLlLudes Lowards lndla appear Lo be based on Lhelr
Secur|ty prov|ders |nIA1A
lnvesLlng hugely ln AfghanlsLan, Lhls has compelled
Survey parLlclpanLs were flrsL asked: 'whlch of Lhe
some aklsLanl pollLlclans Lo accuse Lhelr rlval of
followlng lnsLlLuLlons do you belleve should
uslng AfghanlsLan as a means of dlsrupLlng
ulLlmaLely be responslble for securlLy ln lA1A?'
aklsLan. 1hese clalms have undoubLedly affecLed
8espondenLs were allowed Lo choose more Lhan
percepLlons.
onesecurlLyprovlder.
Arguably, Lhe mosL surprlslng flndlng ls LhaL only a
lrom LhedaLalL ls apparenL LhaL Lhemllltoty has Lhe
mlnorlLy of respondenLs belleve LhaL sulclde
supporL of more Lhan half (32.9) of Lhe
bombers orlglnaLe ln lA1A (6.0) or oLher parLs of
respondenLs. CLher securlLy provlders endorsed by
aklsLan (6.2). 1hls ls sLrlklng as Lhe evldence
survey parLlclpanLs are ttlbol commooltles/
documenLed ln llgure 4.10 above, on 'facLors
losbkots (42.4), kbosoJots ooJ levles (41.4) and
enabllng sulclde bombers', focuses ln large parL on
Lhe ltootlet cotps (33.8). 1hls shows LhaL
local, lnLernal, reasons and only a mlnorlLy ldenLlfy
convenLlonal securlLy provlders and LradlLlonal
exLernal lnfluences. ALLenLlon musL be placed on
lA1A mechanlsms are percelved Lo share
Lrylng Lo undersLand Lhls dlscrepancy ln Lhe
responslblllLyfor provldlng securlLy.
flndlngs.
ln 2010, when only one provlder could be selecLed,
Ma|e IGDs a mlnorlLy of respondenLs (13) belleved Lhe
mllltoty were ulLlmaLely responslble for securlLy ln ln accordance wlLh Lhe daLa ln llgure 4.12 Lhe
lA1A. lnsLead, respondenLs preferred Lo LrusL Lhe overwhelmlng ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs wereunsure
ltootlet cotps (31) and Lhe LradlLlonal where sulclde bombers orlglnaLed. Powever, some
mechanlsms of ttlbol commooltles/lokbkots (24) ldenLlfled AfghanlsLan whlle oLhers blamed Lhe
and kbosoJots ooJ levles (23). Comparlng Lhls 1allban. noLably, Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan was
daLa wlLh 2011 ls noL enLlrely useful as a dlfferenL also accused of belng responslble for sourclng
meLhodology was used ln Lhe survey buL lL remalns bombers.
lllusLraLlve of Lhe growlng leglLlmacy of Lhe mlllLary
Iema|e IGDs
ln lA1A.
Agaln Lhe ma[orlLy were unable Lo answer Lhls
quesLlon. lemale focus group members from Ma|e IGDs
1he ma[orlLy of male parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled Lhe Crakzal Agency were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL local
aklsLan Army and losbkots as Lhe lnsLlLuLlons 1allban groups were responslble for groomlng
ulLlmaLely responslble for provldlng securlLy ln sulclde bombers ln lA1A (and elsewhere ln
lA1A. Powever, LhecapablllLy of losbkots Lo provlde aklsLan).
securlLyagalnsL LhemlllLanL LhreaL was quesLloned.
Also, as wlLh Lhe male lCus, some elemenLs
blamed Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan for sourclng
Iema|e IGDs
sulcldebombers.
knowledge of Lhe dlfferenL securlLy provlders was
llmlLed among female parLlclpanLs buL focus group
4.4 Cp|n|ononsecur|ty prov|ders
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
73
homeland Lo sulcldebombers. geographlcal source of bombers). 1hls aLLrlbuLlon
bullds on agrowlng Lrend of blamebelng assoclaLed
Cf Lhe 60 of respondenLs LhaL could answer,
wlLh AfghanlsLan (16.0 ln 2008, 14.3 ln 2009 and
lncreased numbers (28.4) are assoclaLlng
21.2 ln 2010).
bombers wlLh AfghanlsLan (l.e. aflgureLhaL equaLes
almosL half of Lhose confldenL ln ldenLlfylng Lhe 1he west (14.6), loJlo (21.3) and lstoel (0.2) -
16.0
7.4
5.2
4.6
63.0
1.9
2.8
43.9
2.0
21.2
1.4
0.6
28.4
4.0
14.5
19.5
5.8
9.0
0.8
31.5
4.8
28.7
3.1
4.9
2.7
0.6
0.5
39.2
21.3
6.20
1.2
9.3
6.0
0.2
14.6
0.7
1.6
AfghanlsLan
kashmlr
WesL
lndla
lA1A
un[ab
CLher parLs
of aklsLan
lsrael
CLhers
uon'L know
no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.12: Source of su|c|de bombers
6.2
undersLandlng lA1A
72
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
mlllLanLs, and laLer belng found dead.
Ma|e IGDs
uesplLe Lhe acknowledgemenL of Lhe lmpacL of
mlllLary operaLlons and resulLlng dlsplacemenL Lhe
ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs echoed Lhe flndlngs of Lhe
survey - wlLh Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary belng ldenLlfled
as Lhe mosL LrusLworLhy securlLy provlder. 1rlbal
elders werealso ldenLlfled.
CLhers oplned LhaL lf kbosoJots were properly
Lralned, LrusL ln Lhls LradlLlonal force's ablllLy Lo
malnLaln law and order would lncrease.
Iema|e IGDs
lemale respondenLs ln Lhe ma[orlLy of focus groups
ldenLlfled Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary and Lhe lronLler
sLudles of Lhelr performance are mlxed: losbkots
Corps as Lhelr mosL LrusLed securlLy lnsLlLuLlons ln
were ralsed ln WazlrlsLan, Crakzal, Mohmand,
lA1A. Powever, someconcerns werealso expressed
8a[aur Agencles and Lhe l8 eshawar (wlLh Lhe
ln Lhe lronLler 8eglons of eshawar and kohaL as lL
supporL of governmenL) buL Lhey were unable Lo
was sLaLed LhaL Lhey were never around Lo come Lo
proLecL Lhe hundreds of Mallks/Lrlbal leaders
Lherescuewhen needed.
LargeLed, humlllaLed and kllled by mlllLanLs. ln
comparlson, losbkots from 5olotzol Lrlbe (8a[aur
lemale respondenLs from kurram Agency shared
Agency) and Molvl Nozlt (SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency)
LhaL Lhey had no local lokbkot Lo Lurn Lo, Lherefore
have proved successful ln opposlng mlllLanLs. 1hese
Lhey were rellanL on governmenLal lnsLlLuLlons for
dlfferences ln levels of success may be Lhe reason
Lhelr securlLy. arLlclpanLs from Lhls Lrlbal area
LhaL one-flfLh of respondenLs were unable Lo share
were neverLheless scaLhlng ln Lhelr aLLlLudes
Lhelr oplnlon.
Lowards LhelronLler Corps capablllLles.
khosodors and|ev|es
now do you rate the performance of secur|ty
kbosoJots and levles operaLe as a local pollce force
prov|ders |nIA1A?
under Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
Lxpandlng on Lhe above quesLlons regardlng
1hey are recrulLed from local Lrlbes on a quoLa
securlLy provlders ln lA1A, Lhe survey soughL Lo
basls, dependlng on Lhe slze and pollLlcal lnfluence
record oplnlons on Lhe effecLlveness of Lhese
of LheLrlbe.
organlsaLlons ln Lheeyes of Lrlbal communlLles.
uesplLe dlmlnlshlng LrusL ln kbosoJots and levles
1r|ba| commun|t|es ] Loshkors
(see llgure 4.16) Lhey are agaln seen Lo be effecLlve
SLarLlng wlLh LradlLlonal mechanlsms, respondenLs
ln whaL Lhey do: over half of respondenLs
were asked Lo conslder Lhe effecLlveness of Lrlbal
consldered Lhem Lo be excelleot (18.0) or good
communlLles/losbkots. Cver half of respondenLs
(36.9). A furLher 17.9 percelved Lhelr
looked poslLlvely on Lhelr performance, wlLh 23.6
performance Lo be sotlsfoctoty. Agaln only a
raLlng lL as excellenL and 38.8 as good. lor a
mlnorlLy of survey parLlclpanLs were dlssaLlsfled
f ur L her 10. 3 of r es pondenL s , L r l bal
(12.3) buL lL ls noLable LhaL Lhls flgure ls more Lhan
communl L l es / l os bkot s had per f or med
d o u b l e L h a L e x p r e s s e d o f L r l b a l
saLlsfacLorlly. Cnly a 3.6 of respondenLs oplned
communlLles/lokbokots (seellgure4.13).
LhaL Lhelr performancehad been poor.
1he daLa ls agaln encouraglng buL ls llkely Lo be
8espondenLs' percepLlons on Lrlbal communlLles/
reflecLlve of kbosoJots role of malnLalnlng rouLlne
losbkots areevldenLly qulLeposlLlve, however, case
law and order raLher Lhan Lhelr role agalnsL
LxcellenL Cood SaLlsfacLory oor uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 4.1S: now do you rate the performance
of 1r|ba| commun|t|es ] Lakhkars?
2
3
.
6
3
8
.
8
1
0
.
3
3
.
6
2
1
.
3
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
7S
parLlclpanLs wereableLo ldenLlfy LheaklsLan Army
and kbosoJots as Lhe lnsLlLuLlons mosL expecLed Lo
acL as securlLyprovlders.
Wh|chsecur|ty prov|der do youtrust?
8ulldlng on Lhe quesLlon of LrusL asked ln ChapLer 3
and percepLlons of responslblllLy for securlLy
(llgure 4.13) - survey parLlclpanLs were asked Lo
choose whlch securlLy provlder Lhey consldered
mosL LrusLworLhy.
Clven Lhe lmprovlng aLLlLude of people from lA1A
Lowards Lhe mllltoty lL ls unsurprlslng LhaL Lhey
recelved Lhe greaLesL approval. 36.6 of
respondenLs voLed Lhe mllltoty as Lhe servlce
provlder Lhey mosL LrusLed, replaclng Lhe
LradlLlonal mechanlsms LhaL had been consldered
Lo have greaLer leglLlmacy ln 2010. Cf Lhese
hlsLorlcal meLhods ttlbol commooltles/ losbkots
were mosL LrusLed, as chosen by 23.43 of
respondenLs.
lL ls worrylng LhaL levels of LrusL ln kbosoJots ooJ
levles (13.8) and ltootlet cotps (7.0) ls so low ln quesLlons belng ralsed over Lhelr capaclLy and
comparlson Lo Lhe securlLy responslblllLy Lhey are moLlvaLlon Lo perform whaL ls expecLed of Lhem.
expecLed Lo underLake (see llgure 4.14). 1hls 1here have been lnsLances, for example, of lronLler
dlmlnlshlng of LrusL may, ln parL, be due Lo Corps and kbosoJot personnel belng abducLed by
1rlbal
communlLles/
Lakhkars
khasadars
and levles
1he mlllLary lronLler
Corps
CLher
(speclfy)
uon'L know no oplnlon
2011 (%)
I|gure4.13: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng |nst|tut|ons do you be||eve shou|d u|t|mate|y be respons|b|e for secur|ty |n IA1A?
4
2
.
4
4
1
.
4
3
2
.
9
3
3
.
8
0
.
3
1
3
.
0
0
.
2
T
r
i
b
a
l
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
i
e
s
/
L
a
k
h
k
a
r
s
K
h
a
s
a
d
a
r
s

a
n
d

l
e
v
i
e
s
T
h
e

m
i
l
i
t
a
r
y

F
r
o
n
t
i
e
r

C
o
r
p
s
O
t
h
e
r

(
s
p
e
c
i
f
y
)
D
o
n
'
t

k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 4.14: Wh|ch secur|ty prov|der do you trust?
2
5
.
4
1
3
.
8
3
6
.
6
7
.
0
3
.
7
1
3
.
5
undersLandlng lA1A
74
mlllLanLs, and laLer belng found dead.
Ma|e IGDs
uesplLe Lhe acknowledgemenL of Lhe lmpacL of
mlllLary operaLlons and resulLlng dlsplacemenL Lhe
ma[orlLy of parLlclpanLs echoed Lhe flndlngs of Lhe
survey - wlLh Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary belng ldenLlfled
as Lhe mosL LrusLworLhy securlLy provlder. 1rlbal
elders werealso ldenLlfled.
CLhers oplned LhaL lf kbosoJots were properly
Lralned, LrusL ln Lhls LradlLlonal force's ablllLy Lo
malnLaln law and order would lncrease.
Iema|e IGDs
lemale respondenLs ln Lhe ma[orlLy of focus groups
ldenLlfled Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary and Lhe lronLler
sLudles of Lhelr performance are mlxed: losbkots
Corps as Lhelr mosL LrusLed securlLy lnsLlLuLlons ln
were ralsed ln WazlrlsLan, Crakzal, Mohmand,
lA1A. Powever, someconcerns werealso expressed
8a[aur Agencles and Lhe l8 eshawar (wlLh Lhe
ln Lhe lronLler 8eglons of eshawar and kohaL as lL
supporL of governmenL) buL Lhey were unable Lo
was sLaLed LhaL Lhey were never around Lo come Lo
proLecL Lhe hundreds of Mallks/Lrlbal leaders
Lherescuewhen needed.
LargeLed, humlllaLed and kllled by mlllLanLs. ln
comparlson, losbkots from 5olotzol Lrlbe (8a[aur
lemale respondenLs from kurram Agency shared
Agency) and Molvl Nozlt (SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency)
LhaL Lhey had no local lokbkot Lo Lurn Lo, Lherefore
have proved successful ln opposlng mlllLanLs. 1hese
Lhey were rellanL on governmenLal lnsLlLuLlons for
dlfferences ln levels of success may be Lhe reason
Lhelr securlLy. arLlclpanLs from Lhls Lrlbal area
LhaL one-flfLh of respondenLs were unable Lo share
were neverLheless scaLhlng ln Lhelr aLLlLudes
Lhelr oplnlon.
Lowards LhelronLler Corps capablllLles.
khosodors and|ev|es
now do you rate the performance of secur|ty
kbosoJots and levles operaLe as a local pollce force
prov|ders |nIA1A?
under Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe ollLlcal AdmlnlsLraLlon.
Lxpandlng on Lhe above quesLlons regardlng
1hey are recrulLed from local Lrlbes on a quoLa
securlLy provlders ln lA1A, Lhe survey soughL Lo
basls, dependlng on Lhe slze and pollLlcal lnfluence
record oplnlons on Lhe effecLlveness of Lhese
of LheLrlbe.
organlsaLlons ln Lheeyes of Lrlbal communlLles.
uesplLe dlmlnlshlng LrusL ln kbosoJots and levles
1r|ba| commun|t|es ] Loshkors
(see llgure 4.16) Lhey are agaln seen Lo be effecLlve
SLarLlng wlLh LradlLlonal mechanlsms, respondenLs
ln whaL Lhey do: over half of respondenLs
were asked Lo conslder Lhe effecLlveness of Lrlbal
consldered Lhem Lo be excelleot (18.0) or good
communlLles/losbkots. Cver half of respondenLs
(36.9). A furLher 17.9 percelved Lhelr
looked poslLlvely on Lhelr performance, wlLh 23.6
performance Lo be sotlsfoctoty. Agaln only a
raLlng lL as excellenL and 38.8 as good. lor a
mlnorlLy of survey parLlclpanLs were dlssaLlsfled
f ur L her 10. 3 of r es pondenL s , L r l bal
(12.3) buL lL ls noLable LhaL Lhls flgure ls more Lhan
communl L l es / l os bkot s had per f or med
d o u b l e L h a L e x p r e s s e d o f L r l b a l
saLlsfacLorlly. Cnly a 3.6 of respondenLs oplned
communlLles/lokbokots (seellgure4.13).
LhaL Lhelr performancehad been poor.
1he daLa ls agaln encouraglng buL ls llkely Lo be
8espondenLs' percepLlons on Lrlbal communlLles/
reflecLlve of kbosoJots role of malnLalnlng rouLlne
losbkots areevldenLly qulLeposlLlve, however, case
law and order raLher Lhan Lhelr role agalnsL
LxcellenL Cood SaLlsfacLory oor uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure 4.1S: now do you rate the performance
of 1r|ba| commun|t|es ] Lakhkars?
2
3
.
6
3
8
.
8
1
0
.
3
3
.
6
2
1
.
3
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
7S
parLlclpanLs wereableLo ldenLlfy LheaklsLan Army
and kbosoJots as Lhe lnsLlLuLlons mosL expecLed Lo
acL as securlLyprovlders.
Wh|chsecur|ty prov|der do youtrust?
8ulldlng on Lhe quesLlon of LrusL asked ln ChapLer 3
and percepLlons of responslblllLy for securlLy
(llgure 4.13) - survey parLlclpanLs were asked Lo
choose whlch securlLy provlder Lhey consldered
mosL LrusLworLhy.
Clven Lhe lmprovlng aLLlLude of people from lA1A
Lowards Lhe mllltoty lL ls unsurprlslng LhaL Lhey
recelved Lhe greaLesL approval. 36.6 of
respondenLs voLed Lhe mllltoty as Lhe servlce
provlder Lhey mosL LrusLed, replaclng Lhe
LradlLlonal mechanlsms LhaL had been consldered
Lo have greaLer leglLlmacy ln 2010. Cf Lhese
hlsLorlcal meLhods ttlbol commooltles/ losbkots
were mosL LrusLed, as chosen by 23.43 of
respondenLs.
lL ls worrylng LhaL levels of LrusL ln kbosoJots ooJ
levles (13.8) and ltootlet cotps (7.0) ls so low ln quesLlons belng ralsed over Lhelr capaclLy and
comparlson Lo Lhe securlLy responslblllLy Lhey are moLlvaLlon Lo perform whaL ls expecLed of Lhem.
expecLed Lo underLake (see llgure 4.14). 1hls 1here have been lnsLances, for example, of lronLler
dlmlnlshlng of LrusL may, ln parL, be due Lo Corps and kbosoJot personnel belng abducLed by
1rlbal
communlLles/
Lakhkars
khasadars
and levles
1he mlllLary lronLler
Corps
CLher
(speclfy)
uon'L know no oplnlon
2011 (%)
I|gure4.13: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng |nst|tut|ons do you be||eve shou|d u|t|mate|y be respons|b|e for secur|ty |n IA1A?
4
2
.
4
4
1
.
4
3
2
.
9
3
3
.
8
0
.
3
1
3
.
0
0
.
2
T
r
i
b
a
l
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
i
e
s
/
L
a
k
h
k
a
r
s
K
h
a
s
a
d
a
r
s

a
n
d

l
e
v
i
e
s
T
h
e

m
i
l
i
t
a
r
y

F
r
o
n
t
i
e
r

C
o
r
p
s
O
t
h
e
r

(
s
p
e
c
i
f
y
)
D
o
n
'
t

k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 4.14: Wh|ch secur|ty prov|der do you trust?
2
5
.
4
1
3
.
8
3
6
.
6
7
.
0
3
.
7
1
3
.
5
undersLandlng lA1A
74
aLLlLude compounded by daLa showlng LhaL Lhe 1ra|n|ng the Iront|er Corps w|th |nternat|ona|
number of people quesLlonlng Lhelr poLenLlal had
ass|stance
rlsen Lo 17.9 (from 14.1 ln 2010).
As has been noLed, lnsurgenL groups ln lA1A are
ofLen beLLer equlpped Lhan Lhe securlLy provlders
(lncludlng Lhe lronLler Corps) Lhey are flghLlng. 1hls
comblned wlLh Lhe ldeologlcal drlve of lnsurgenLs
has madeLhem very dlfflculL Lo oppose.
lollowlng 9/11, Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy - led
by Lhe uS, has offered Lechnlcal and flnanclal
asslsLance Lo aklsLan Lo lmprove Lhe capaclLy of
Lhe lronLler Corps. As a consequence, Lhe 2011
survey has soughL Lo documenL aLLlLudes Lowards
lronLler Corps' effecLlveness would alLer lf
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance supporLed Lralnlng. lL wlll
also show Lhe leglLlmacy aLLached Lo ouLslde help
by lA1A people. ConsequenLly, respondenLs were
asked: 'lf Lralned wlLh Lhe ald of lnLernaLlonal
asslsLance, would you have more or less confldence
eople ln lA1A appear, Lo some exLenL, Lo be
ln LheablllLyof LhelronLler Corps Lo do Lhelr [ob?'
growlng dlslllusloned wlLh aLLempLs Lo end Lhe
A dramaLlc downLurn can be seen beLween Lhe
lnsurgency by organlsaLlons oLher Lhan Lhe mlllLary.
2010 and 2011 surveys. ln 2010 more Lhan half of
?eL, lf capaclLy concerns can be addressed (see
Lhe respondenLs (32.4) lnLervlewed were of Lhe
llgure 4.21) Lhe value of Lhe lronLler Corps ln Lhe
oplnlon LhaL lnLernaLlonal asslsLance would greaLly
eyes of Lhe lA1A populaLlon ls llkely Lo be
beneflL Lhe lronLler Corps, buL ln 2011 Lhls oplnlon
malnLalned. 1hls ls exempllfled by Lhe aLLlLudes
had dropped Lo approxlmaLely one-quarLer
expressed ln male lCus, where lL was noLed LhaL
19
(24.7). A deLerloraLlon ln oplnlon compounded
slnce Lhe recrulLs were lokbtoo Lhey were besL
by Lhe flndlng LhaL 13 of respondenLs had no
placed Lo provldesecurlLylnsldelA1A.
2011 (%)
I|gure 4.19: Do you th|nk the Iront|er Corps p|ays a
va|uab|e ro|e |n prov|d|ng secur|ty |n IA1A?
?es no uon'L know
3
2
.
2
1
7
.
9
2
9
.
9
More confldence SomewhaL more
confldence
SomewhaL less
Confldence
no confldence uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.20: If tra|ned w|th the a|d of |nternat|ona| ass|stance, wou|d you have more or |ess conf|dence |n the ab|||ty of
the Iront|er Corps to do the|r [ob?
3
2
.
4
2
4
.
7
2
4
.
8
2
6
.
0
4
.
6
1
3
.
0
2
2
.
8
2
9
.
7
19
lL should be noLed LhaL ln male lCus Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs belleved LhaL lnLernaLlonal asslsLance was essenLlal, buL only
lf lL was offered wlLhouL condlLlons.
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
77
lnsLlLuLlon ableLo opposemlllLanL vlolence.
1he daLa recorded shows LhaL a slgnlflcanL ma[orlLy
of respondenLs belleve Lhe mlllLary Lo be
performlng poslLlvely. ln excess of 70 of
respondenLs vlew Lhelr effecLlveness as belng
elLher excellenL (42.1) or good (29.6) ln
comparlson Lo [usL 6.3 LhaL percelve lL as belng
poot.
1he Iront|er Corps
lronLler Corps comprlses lokbtoos from kk and
lA1A. 1hey are provlded wlLh Lralnlng and
equlpmenL Lo oppose mlllLanLs, ln comblnaLlon
wlLh Lhe mlllLary. Whlle LrusL ln Lhe lronLler Corps ls
low (see llgure 4.14) aLLlLudes Lowards Lhelr
performance are more encouraglng wlLh over 60
mlllLanLs. eople ln lA1A remaln nervous of Lhe
of respondenLs endorslng Lhelr effecLlveness Lo
naLlonal pollce sysLem (see llgure 4.21) and have
someexLenL.
vlgorously opposed aLLempLs Lo exLend lLs
lnfluence ln lA1A. 1hls vlewpolnL may have had
some bearlng on Lhe flndlngs documenLed ln Lhe
survey.
ln splLe of Lhe saLlsfacLlon offered by respondenLs,
lL ls probable LhaL kbosoJots and levles are
lnsufflclenLly Lralned and organlsed Lo provlde
effecLlveleadershlp ln LheflghL agalnsL mlllLancy.
1he m|||tary
Movlng on Lo governmenLal securlLy provlders -
desplLe lnlLlal scepLlclsm felL Lowards Lhe mlllLary -
successes ln SwaL and Lo someexLenL ln 8a[aur have
helped change percepLlons of Lhelr value wlLhln
lA1A. 1hey appear Lo be LrusLed as Lhe only
ln splLe of Lhls, some uncerLalnLy remalns as Lo Lhelr
performance wlLh over a quarLer of respondenL noL
belng ableLo provldean oplnlon.
Iront|er Corps (IC) andsecur|ty |nIA1A
As aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe lronLler Corps appeared
Lo be conLradlcLory, ln Lerms of Lhelr ablllLy and
effecLlveness, respondenLs were furLher asked Lhe
quesLlon: 'do you Lhlnk Lhe lronLler Corps plays a
valuableroleln provldlng securlLyln lA1A?'
1hls quesLlon, when asked ln 2010, noLed LhaL Lhe
68.9 belleved Lhe lronLler Corps could play a vlLal
role ln provldlng securlLy ln lA1A, ln 2011 Lhls
convlcLlon had dropped conslderably, whlle sLlll
malnLalnlng a ma[orlLy, Lo 32.2. A change ln
2011 ()
I|gure 4.16: erformance of khasadars and |ev|es
L
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
L
C
o
o
d
S
a
L
l
s
f
a
c
L
o
r
y

o
o
r
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
1
8
.
0
3
6
.
9
1
7
.
9
1
2
.
3
1
3
.
0
l
l
e
L
x
c
e
n
L
C
d
o
o
S
a
L
l
s
f
a
c
L
o
r
y

o
o
r
o
o
u
n
'
L

k
n
w
2011 ()
I|gure 4.17: erformance of M|||tary
4
2
.
1
2
9
.
6
7
.
2
6
.
3
1
4
.
8
LxcellenL Cood SaLlsfacLory oor uon'L know
2011 (%)
I|gure 4.18: erformance of the Iront|er Corps
2
9
.
3
2
8
.
7
8
.
3
8
.
0
2
3
.
6
undersLandlng lA1A
76
aLLlLude compounded by daLa showlng LhaL Lhe 1ra|n|ng the Iront|er Corps w|th |nternat|ona|
number of people quesLlonlng Lhelr poLenLlal had
ass|stance
rlsen Lo 17.9 (from 14.1 ln 2010).
As has been noLed, lnsurgenL groups ln lA1A are
ofLen beLLer equlpped Lhan Lhe securlLy provlders
(lncludlng Lhe lronLler Corps) Lhey are flghLlng. 1hls
comblned wlLh Lhe ldeologlcal drlve of lnsurgenLs
has madeLhem very dlfflculL Lo oppose.
lollowlng 9/11, Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy - led
by Lhe uS, has offered Lechnlcal and flnanclal
asslsLance Lo aklsLan Lo lmprove Lhe capaclLy of
Lhe lronLler Corps. As a consequence, Lhe 2011
survey has soughL Lo documenL aLLlLudes Lowards
lronLler Corps' effecLlveness would alLer lf
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance supporLed Lralnlng. lL wlll
also show Lhe leglLlmacy aLLached Lo ouLslde help
by lA1A people. ConsequenLly, respondenLs were
asked: 'lf Lralned wlLh Lhe ald of lnLernaLlonal
asslsLance, would you have more or less confldence
eople ln lA1A appear, Lo some exLenL, Lo be
ln LheablllLyof LhelronLler Corps Lo do Lhelr [ob?'
growlng dlslllusloned wlLh aLLempLs Lo end Lhe
A dramaLlc downLurn can be seen beLween Lhe
lnsurgency by organlsaLlons oLher Lhan Lhe mlllLary.
2010 and 2011 surveys. ln 2010 more Lhan half of
?eL, lf capaclLy concerns can be addressed (see
Lhe respondenLs (32.4) lnLervlewed were of Lhe
llgure 4.21) Lhe value of Lhe lronLler Corps ln Lhe
oplnlon LhaL lnLernaLlonal asslsLance would greaLly
eyes of Lhe lA1A populaLlon ls llkely Lo be
beneflL Lhe lronLler Corps, buL ln 2011 Lhls oplnlon
malnLalned. 1hls ls exempllfled by Lhe aLLlLudes
had dropped Lo approxlmaLely one-quarLer
expressed ln male lCus, where lL was noLed LhaL
19
(24.7). A deLerloraLlon ln oplnlon compounded
slnce Lhe recrulLs were lokbtoo Lhey were besL
by Lhe flndlng LhaL 13 of respondenLs had no
placed Lo provldesecurlLylnsldelA1A.
2011 (%)
I|gure 4.19: Do you th|nk the Iront|er Corps p|ays a
va|uab|e ro|e |n prov|d|ng secur|ty |n IA1A?
?es no uon'L know
3
2
.
2
1
7
.
9
2
9
.
9
More confldence SomewhaL more
confldence
SomewhaL less
Confldence
no confldence uon'L know
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.20: If tra|ned w|th the a|d of |nternat|ona| ass|stance, wou|d you have more or |ess conf|dence |n the ab|||ty of
the Iront|er Corps to do the|r [ob?
3
2
.
4
2
4
.
7
2
4
.
8
2
6
.
0
4
.
6
1
3
.
0
2
2
.
8
2
9
.
7
19
lL should be noLed LhaL ln male lCus Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs belleved LhaL lnLernaLlonal asslsLance was essenLlal, buL only
lf lL was offered wlLhouL condlLlons.
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
77
lnsLlLuLlon ableLo opposemlllLanL vlolence.
1he daLa recorded shows LhaL a slgnlflcanL ma[orlLy
of respondenLs belleve Lhe mlllLary Lo be
performlng poslLlvely. ln excess of 70 of
respondenLs vlew Lhelr effecLlveness as belng
elLher excellenL (42.1) or good (29.6) ln
comparlson Lo [usL 6.3 LhaL percelve lL as belng
poot.
1he Iront|er Corps
lronLler Corps comprlses lokbtoos from kk and
lA1A. 1hey are provlded wlLh Lralnlng and
equlpmenL Lo oppose mlllLanLs, ln comblnaLlon
wlLh Lhe mlllLary. Whlle LrusL ln Lhe lronLler Corps ls
low (see llgure 4.14) aLLlLudes Lowards Lhelr
performance are more encouraglng wlLh over 60
mlllLanLs. eople ln lA1A remaln nervous of Lhe
of respondenLs endorslng Lhelr effecLlveness Lo
naLlonal pollce sysLem (see llgure 4.21) and have
someexLenL.
vlgorously opposed aLLempLs Lo exLend lLs
lnfluence ln lA1A. 1hls vlewpolnL may have had
some bearlng on Lhe flndlngs documenLed ln Lhe
survey.
ln splLe of Lhe saLlsfacLlon offered by respondenLs,
lL ls probable LhaL kbosoJots and levles are
lnsufflclenLly Lralned and organlsed Lo provlde
effecLlveleadershlp ln LheflghL agalnsL mlllLancy.
1he m|||tary
Movlng on Lo governmenLal securlLy provlders -
desplLe lnlLlal scepLlclsm felL Lowards Lhe mlllLary -
successes ln SwaL and Lo someexLenL ln 8a[aur have
helped change percepLlons of Lhelr value wlLhln
lA1A. 1hey appear Lo be LrusLed as Lhe only
ln splLe of Lhls, some uncerLalnLy remalns as Lo Lhelr
performance wlLh over a quarLer of respondenL noL
belng ableLo provldean oplnlon.
Iront|er Corps (IC) andsecur|ty |nIA1A
As aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe lronLler Corps appeared
Lo be conLradlcLory, ln Lerms of Lhelr ablllLy and
effecLlveness, respondenLs were furLher asked Lhe
quesLlon: 'do you Lhlnk Lhe lronLler Corps plays a
valuableroleln provldlng securlLyln lA1A?'
1hls quesLlon, when asked ln 2010, noLed LhaL Lhe
68.9 belleved Lhe lronLler Corps could play a vlLal
role ln provldlng securlLy ln lA1A, ln 2011 Lhls
convlcLlon had dropped conslderably, whlle sLlll
malnLalnlng a ma[orlLy, Lo 32.2. A change ln
2011 ()
I|gure 4.16: erformance of khasadars and |ev|es
L
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
L
C
o
o
d
S
a
L
l
s
f
a
c
L
o
r
y

o
o
r
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
1
8
.
0
3
6
.
9
1
7
.
9
1
2
.
3
1
3
.
0
l
l
e
L
x
c
e
n
L
C
o
o
d
a
S
a
L
l
s
f
c
L
o
r
y

o
o
r
o
o
u
n
'
L

k
n
w
2011 ()
I|gure 4.17: erformance of M|||tary
4
2
.
1
2
9
.
6
7
.
2
6
.
3
1
4
.
8
LxcellenL Cood SaLlsfacLory oor uon'L know
2011 (%)
I|gure 4.18: erformance of the Iront|er Corps
2
9
.
3
2
8
.
7
8
.
3
8
.
0
2
3
.
6
undersLandlng lA1A
76
ln greaLer deLall, Lo ellclL Lhespeclflc aspecLs of Lhelr of Lhe sample. lurLhermore, Lhe flgure does noL
operaLlons LhaL are percelved Lo have leglLlmacy ln accounL for Lhose who remaln dlsplaced or have
lA1A, and LhoseaspecLs LhaL areless approved of. reseLLled ouLsldeof lA1A.
1o ald Lhls analysls, daLa ls presenLed per Agency/l8 1he degree of dlslocaLlon varles markedly by
Lo lllusLraLe how dlfferenL Lrlbal areas have reacLed Agency/l8 - llgure 4.23 shows Lhese sLaLlsLlcs for
Lo LhemlllLary and LheLacLlcs Lheyhaveemployed. 2011, Lhus, lllusLraLlng whlch areas have been mosL
affecLed byconfllcL.
Iorcedm|grat|onfrom IA1A
lrom Lhls dlsaggregaLlon lL ls clear LhaL some Lrlbal
Cne of Lhe lmpacLs of Lhe confllcLs has been forced
areas are more secure Lhan oLhers. lnformaLlon
mlgraLlon. 1hose people who suffered forced
glven by respondenLs from l8 ul khan (70.0),
mlgraLlon would be one sub-seL Lo compare wlLh
Crakzal Agency (39.3) and l8 1ank (33.8) slgnlfy
oLhers who had noL been forced Lo leave. 1hls ls an
LhaL Lhese areas have been parLlcularly vulnerable
lmporLanL lnLervenlng varlableln publlc oplnlon.
Lo lnLernal dlsplacemenL. lurLhermore Lhe areas of
uue Lo Lhe on-golng lnsurgency ln parLs of lA1A,
kurram Agency (24.6), 8a[aur Agency (21.8), l8
slgnlflcanL numbers of Lrlbal communlLles have
kohaL (20.0) and l8 8annu (16.3) all reglsLered
been forced Lo flee Lhelr homes and seLLle ln elLher:
percenLages close Lo Lhe overall average. 1he
lu camps, hosL communlLles ln ad[acenL dlsLrlcLs
remalnlng areas appear moresecure, parLlcularly ln
or ma[or aklsLan clLles ouLslde of lA1A. 1he survey
l8 Lakkl (0.0), l8 eshawar (1.3), khyber Agency
lnlLlally soughL Lo measure Lhe exLenL Lo whlch
(3.8) and Mohmand Agency(3.9).
dlsplacemenL had affecLed respondenLs. ln 2011,
747(18.7) people ouL of LoLal sample of 4,000had Ma|e IGDs
been affecLed. 1hls was a reducLlon from Lhe 22.3 MosL of Lhe parLlclpanLs from Lhe 8a[aur Agency
recorded ln 2010 buL remalns a Lroubllng sLaLlsLlc, lCulnformed Lhe survey Leam LhaL Lhey had had Lo
on average one ln flve survey parLlclpanLs have leave Lhelr homes durlng Lhe conducLlng of mlllLary
been forced Lo leave Lhelr homes aL some polnL ln operaLlons ln Lhelr respecLlve areas. 8espondenLs
Lhe lasL Lwo years. lL musL also be sLressed LhaL for a from norLh WazlrlsLan also shared LhaL Lhey had
large numbers of respondenLs, Lhls dlsplacemenL ls had Lo leave because of Lhe LhreaL posed by
llkely Lo be have been underLaken wlLh oLher famlly mlllLanLs and droneaLLacks.
members, Lherefore lL could be argued LhaL Lhe
arLlclpanLs from Lhe lronLler 8eglons of eshawar,
daLa should be undersLood as referrlng Lo 747
khyber Agency and kohaL advlsed LhaL Lhey had noL
famllles and Lhelr dependenLs raLher Lhan
been forced Lo leave Lhelr homes. 1he flndlngs from
lndlvlduals ln 2011 - dependlng on Lhe composlLlon
eshawar and khyber were unsurprlslng glven Lhe
flndlngs ln llgure 4.23 buL are noLable for kohaL,
glven LhaL 20 of Lhose surveyed had been
dlsplaced ln Lhe pasL year: Lhls lmplles LhaL
vulnerablllLy ls also unequal wlLhln Lrlbal areas.
Slmllarly some respondenLs from Mohamand
Agency conflrmed LhaL Lhey had been forced Lo
leave Lhelr vlllages because of mlllLary operaLlons,
showlng LhaL agaln cerLaln areas wlLhln a Lrlbal
reglon may be more lnsecure Lhan lmplled ln Lhe
Lableabove.
Iema|e IGDs
ln conLrasL Lo Lhe flndlngs from Lhe male lCus,
female parLlclpanLs from Lhe lronLler 8eglon of
eshawar and kohaL Agency had been dlsplaced
2
2
.
3
7
7
.
7
1
8
.
7
8
1
.
3
?es no
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.22: nave you been forced to |eave your
home dur|ng the past years?
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
79
confldence LhaL lnLernaLlonally asslsLed Lralnlng were l nvl Led Lo make more L han one
offered beneflL Lo Lhe lronLler Corps. 1hls ls llkely recommendaLlon from LheopLlons offered Lo Lhem.
due Lo Lhe percelved fallure, Lo daLe, of Lhe lronLler
1he opLlon LhaL recelved Lhe mosL supporL (44.6)
Corps, whlch has already recelved some
was: mote ttoops sboolJbe JeployeJlolA1A. 1hls ls
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance Lo operaLe wlLh Lhe LrusL of
unsurprlslng glven Lhe poslLlve aLLlLude held
Lrlbal communlLles ln lA1A.
Lowards Lhe mlllLary (see llgure 4.14 and 4.17). ln
1hls change could also be seen as an endorsemenL addlLlon, one-Lhlrd of respondenLs (33.2)
of aklsLanl-led Lralnlng. 1hesuccess of LheaklsLan belleved LhaL locol commooltles/losbkots sboolJbe
Army has posslbly lndlcaLed LhaL aklsLanl stteoqtbeoeJ, an ouLcome LhaL would allow for a
professlonals are [usL as capable, lf noL more so, of LradlLlonal confllcL resoluLlon mechanlsm Lo
Lralnlng Lhelr compaLrloLs. lL musL be noLed adequaLely face Lhe challenges of Lhe 1allban and
however, LhaL almosL one-Lhlrd (29.7) of oLher mlllLanL groups ln lA1A. A slmllar number of
respondenLs were undeclded, so lnLernaLlonal respondenLs deslred lmprovemenLs ln Lhe Lralnlng
asslsLance may sLlll be supporLed lf lmplemenLed and equlpmenL Lo Lhe kbosoJots and lronLler
well and wlLh apparenL successes. Corps servlces.
ln summary, Lhe people of lA1A appear Lo 1he posslblllLy of exLendlng a more convenLlonal
appreclaLe Lhe value of local forces belng acLlve ln pollce sysLem Lo lA1A proved less Lhan popular, as lL
provldlng securlLy ln lA1A buL Lhere ls a recognlsed was an opLlon only endorsed by 8.4 of
need for Lhe lronLler Corps Lo be sLrengLhened. respondenLs. 1hls slgnlfles LhaL LradlLlonal law and
Whlle lnLernaLlonal supporL may be of some acLual order mechanlsms remaln LhemosL leglLlmaLeform
beneflL, percepLlons appear Lo show a reversal ln of pollclng ln lA1A.
LrusL regardlng lLs effecLlveness.
now cou|d your sense of secur|ty be
|mproved?
lollowlng on Lhe quesLlon on Lhe presenL
ln Lhe prevlous secLlon lL has been narraLed LhaL,
effecLlveness of securlLy provlders, respondenLs
generally Lhe people of lA1A are supporLlve of Lhe
were asked how Lhese lnsLlLuLlons could lmprove
varlous securlLy provlders LhaL Lhey have lnLeracLed
Lhelr performance ln lA1A. Survey parLlclpanLs
wlLh. 1he survey subsequenLly looks aL Lhe mlllLary
4.S Support for the m|||tary and the
tact|cs they emp|oy
Deploy more
troops in FATA
Strengthen local
communities/

mprove the
capabilities
of the Frontier
Corps and /
levies forces
Extend
conventional
police system
to FATA
Other (specify) No response
2011 ()
I|gure 4.21: now cou|d your sense of secur|ty be |mproved?
4
4
.
6
3
5
.
2
3
3
.
8
8
.
4
3
.
2
1
.
2
undersLandlng lA1A
78
ln greaLer deLall, Lo ellclL Lhespeclflc aspecLs of Lhelr of Lhe sample. lurLhermore, Lhe flgure does noL
operaLlons LhaL are percelved Lo have leglLlmacy ln accounL for Lhose who remaln dlsplaced or have
lA1A, and LhoseaspecLs LhaL areless approved of. reseLLled ouLsldeof lA1A.
1o ald Lhls analysls, daLa ls presenLed per Agency/l8 1he degree of dlslocaLlon varles markedly by
Lo lllusLraLe how dlfferenL Lrlbal areas have reacLed Agency/l8 - llgure 4.23 shows Lhese sLaLlsLlcs for
Lo LhemlllLary and LheLacLlcs Lheyhaveemployed. 2011, Lhus, lllusLraLlng whlch areas have been mosL
affecLed byconfllcL.
Iorcedm|grat|onfrom IA1A
lrom Lhls dlsaggregaLlon lL ls clear LhaL some Lrlbal
Cne of Lhe lmpacLs of Lhe confllcLs has been forced
areas are more secure Lhan oLhers. lnformaLlon
mlgraLlon. 1hose people who suffered forced
glven by respondenLs from l8 ul khan (70.0),
mlgraLlon would be one sub-seL Lo compare wlLh
Crakzal Agency (39.3) and l8 1ank (33.8) slgnlfy
oLhers who had noL been forced Lo leave. 1hls ls an
LhaL Lhese areas have been parLlcularly vulnerable
lmporLanL lnLervenlng varlableln publlc oplnlon.
Lo lnLernal dlsplacemenL. lurLhermore Lhe areas of
uue Lo Lhe on-golng lnsurgency ln parLs of lA1A,
kurram Agency (24.6), 8a[aur Agency (21.8), l8
slgnlflcanL numbers of Lrlbal communlLles have
kohaL (20.0) and l8 8annu (16.3) all reglsLered
been forced Lo flee Lhelr homes and seLLle ln elLher:
percenLages close Lo Lhe overall average. 1he
lu camps, hosL communlLles ln ad[acenL dlsLrlcLs
remalnlng areas appear moresecure, parLlcularly ln
or ma[or aklsLan clLles ouLslde of lA1A. 1he survey
l8 Lakkl (0.0), l8 eshawar (1.3), khyber Agency
lnlLlally soughL Lo measure Lhe exLenL Lo whlch
(3.8) and Mohmand Agency(3.9).
dlsplacemenL had affecLed respondenLs. ln 2011,
747(18.7) people ouL of LoLal sample of 4,000had Ma|e IGDs
been affecLed. 1hls was a reducLlon from Lhe 22.3 MosL of Lhe parLlclpanLs from Lhe 8a[aur Agency
recorded ln 2010 buL remalns a Lroubllng sLaLlsLlc, lCulnformed Lhe survey Leam LhaL Lhey had had Lo
on average one ln flve survey parLlclpanLs have leave Lhelr homes durlng Lhe conducLlng of mlllLary
been forced Lo leave Lhelr homes aL some polnL ln operaLlons ln Lhelr respecLlve areas. 8espondenLs
Lhe lasL Lwo years. lL musL also be sLressed LhaL for a from norLh WazlrlsLan also shared LhaL Lhey had
large numbers of respondenLs, Lhls dlsplacemenL ls had Lo leave because of Lhe LhreaL posed by
llkely Lo be have been underLaken wlLh oLher famlly mlllLanLs and droneaLLacks.
members, Lherefore lL could be argued LhaL Lhe
arLlclpanLs from Lhe lronLler 8eglons of eshawar,
daLa should be undersLood as referrlng Lo 747
khyber Agency and kohaL advlsed LhaL Lhey had noL
famllles and Lhelr dependenLs raLher Lhan
been forced Lo leave Lhelr homes. 1he flndlngs from
lndlvlduals ln 2011 - dependlng on Lhe composlLlon
eshawar and khyber were unsurprlslng glven Lhe
flndlngs ln llgure 4.23 buL are noLable for kohaL,
glven LhaL 20 of Lhose surveyed had been
dlsplaced ln Lhe pasL year: Lhls lmplles LhaL
vulnerablllLy ls also unequal wlLhln Lrlbal areas.
Slmllarly some respondenLs from Mohamand
Agency conflrmed LhaL Lhey had been forced Lo
leave Lhelr vlllages because of mlllLary operaLlons,
showlng LhaL agaln cerLaln areas wlLhln a Lrlbal
reglon may be more lnsecure Lhan lmplled ln Lhe
Lableabove.
Iema|e IGDs
ln conLrasL Lo Lhe flndlngs from Lhe male lCus,
female parLlclpanLs from Lhe lronLler 8eglon of
eshawar and kohaL Agency had been dlsplaced
2
2
.
3
7
7
.
7
1
8
.
7
8
1
.
3
?es no
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.22: nave you been forced to |eave your
home dur|ng the past years?
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
79
confldence LhaL lnLernaLlonally asslsLed Lralnlng were l nvl Led Lo make more L han one
offered beneflL Lo Lhe lronLler Corps. 1hls ls llkely recommendaLlon from LheopLlons offered Lo Lhem.
due Lo Lhe percelved fallure, Lo daLe, of Lhe lronLler
1he opLlon LhaL recelved Lhe mosL supporL (44.6)
Corps, whlch has already recelved some
was: mote ttoops sboolJbe JeployeJlolA1A. 1hls ls
lnLernaLlonal asslsLance Lo operaLe wlLh Lhe LrusL of
unsurprlslng glven Lhe poslLlve aLLlLude held
Lrlbal communlLles ln lA1A.
Lowards Lhe mlllLary (see llgure 4.14 and 4.17). ln
1hls change could also be seen as an endorsemenL addlLlon, one-Lhlrd of respondenLs (33.2)
of aklsLanl-led Lralnlng. 1hesuccess of LheaklsLan belleved LhaL locol commooltles/losbkots sboolJbe
Army has posslbly lndlcaLed LhaL aklsLanl stteoqtbeoeJ, an ouLcome LhaL would allow for a
professlonals are [usL as capable, lf noL more so, of LradlLlonal confllcL resoluLlon mechanlsm Lo
Lralnlng Lhelr compaLrloLs. lL musL be noLed adequaLely face Lhe challenges of Lhe 1allban and
however, LhaL almosL one-Lhlrd (29.7) of oLher mlllLanL groups ln lA1A. A slmllar number of
respondenLs were undeclded, so lnLernaLlonal respondenLs deslred lmprovemenLs ln Lhe Lralnlng
asslsLance may sLlll be supporLed lf lmplemenLed and equlpmenL Lo Lhe kbosoJots and lronLler
well and wlLh apparenL successes. Corps servlces.
ln summary, Lhe people of lA1A appear Lo 1he posslblllLy of exLendlng a more convenLlonal
appreclaLe Lhe value of local forces belng acLlve ln pollce sysLem Lo lA1A proved less Lhan popular, as lL
provldlng securlLy ln lA1A buL Lhere ls a recognlsed was an opLlon only endorsed by 8.4 of
need for Lhe lronLler Corps Lo be sLrengLhened. respondenLs. 1hls slgnlfles LhaL LradlLlonal law and
Whlle lnLernaLlonal supporL may be of some acLual order mechanlsms remaln LhemosL leglLlmaLeform
beneflL, percepLlons appear Lo show a reversal ln of pollclng ln lA1A.
LrusL regardlng lLs effecLlveness.
now cou|d your sense of secur|ty be
|mproved?
lollowlng on Lhe quesLlon on Lhe presenL
ln Lhe prevlous secLlon lL has been narraLed LhaL,
effecLlveness of securlLy provlders, respondenLs
generally Lhe people of lA1A are supporLlve of Lhe
were asked how Lhese lnsLlLuLlons could lmprove
varlous securlLy provlders LhaL Lhey have lnLeracLed
Lhelr performance ln lA1A. Survey parLlclpanLs
wlLh. 1he survey subsequenLly looks aL Lhe mlllLary
4.S Support for the m|||tary and the
tact|cs they emp|oy
Deploy more
troops in FATA
Strengthen local
communities/

mprove the
capabilities
of the Frontier
Corps and /
levies forces
Extend
conventional
police system
to FATA
Other (specify) No response
2011 ()
I|gure 4.21: now cou|d your sense of secur|ty be |mproved?
4
4
.
6
3
5
.
2
3
3
.
8
8
.
4
3
.
2
1
.
2
undersLandlng lA1A
78
area, closeLo PayaLabad Lown. WhllesLlll remalnlng hlgher aL beLween 847,400 - 1,338,000. 1hese
an lmporLanL desLlnaLlon, Lhe number of lus flgures suggesL LhaL Lhe people of lA1A have been
seeklng sancLuary ln eshawar has reduced from exposed Lo masslve challenges, and LhaL Lhe
. 20
404 ln 2010. Accordlng Lo Lhe unPC8 , some lnsurgency ls havlng a deLrlmenLal lmpacL on
18,789 reglsLered famllles or 97,032 lndlvlduals human and communal developmenL.
reslde ln !alozal camp, wlLh 71 from 8a[aur
Ma|e IGDs
agency, 20 from khyber agency, and 9 from
arLlclpanLs from Mohmand sLaLed LhaL when Lhey
Mohmand Agency. ln addlLlon, an unknown
had been lnLernally dlsplaced Lhey had moved Lo
number of lus from across lA1A and kk are belng
eshawar or Shabqadar 1ehsll ln Lhe Charssada
hosLed ln eshawar.
ulsLrlcL of Lhe kk where Lhey had spenL several
7.3 of respondenLs ldenLlfled 5oJJo of kurram
monLhs ln lu camps. locus group parLlclpanLs
Agency as Lhe desLlnaLlon Lhey moved Lo durlng
from 8a[aur, explalned LhaL Lhey had Lravelled Lo
Lhelr dlsplacemenL, whlch was largely as a resulL of
Lower ulr, Charssadaor Mardan dlsLrlcLs ln Lhekk.
secLarlan vlolence. Cver Lhe pasL four years,
AddlLlonally, Lhose from Lhe fronLler reglons of
beLween 1,300 and 2,000 Sunnl famllles from Lhe
eshawar and kohaL shared LhaL Lhey had mlgraLed
Shla domlnaLed arachlnar ln kurram have been
Lo each oLher's LerrlLory. And respondenLs from
dlsplaced Lo Sadda, a ma[or Lown wlLh a Sunnl
SouLh WazlrlsLan sLaLed LhaL Lhey had soughL safeLy
ma[orlLy. Conversely, some 2.3 of Lhe local Shla
ln elLher ul khan or 1ankdlsLrlcLs.
populaLlon have had Lo mlgraLe ln Lhe opposlLe
dlrecLlon Lower kurram.
Iema|e IGDs
lemale parLlclpanLs shared slmllar lnformaLlon Lo ul khan was also apopular desLlnaLlon, as ldenLlfled
LhaL provlded durlng LhemalelCus. by 3.3 of respondenLs ln boLh 2010 and 2011. 1hls
lnLernal dlsplacemenL ls llkely because of confllcL ln
now do you rate the |eve| of support you
nelghbourlng SouLh WazlrlsLan, especlally from Lhe
rece|ved from Government of ak|stan
areas ln and around Mehsud. Also, aslmllar number
dur|ng your d|sp|acement? of survey parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled Lhe ulsLrlcL of
8annu, close Lo norLh WazlrlsLan, whlch was 8ulldlng on Lhls undersLandlng, Lhe 747
ldenLlfled by 3.2 of Lhose quesLloned (an lncrease respondenLs who had had been lnLernally dlsplaced
from Lhe4.3 ln 2010). were asked how Lhey raLed Lhe supporL Lhey had
recelved from Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan durlng
CuLslde lA1A a mlnorlLy of respondenLs ldenLlfled
Lhelr perlod of dlsplacemenL.
karachl ln Lhe far souLh of aklsLan, 8alochlsLan Lo
LhesouLh of lA1A, and clLles of un[ab ln LheLasL. Cf Lhe respondenLs, 233 raLed Lhe supporL Lhey
were provlded as belng aL leasL good, of whlch only
1o esLlmaLe Lhe overall scale of populaLlon
a very small mlnorlLy of 18 people (or 2.4 of Lhls
dlsplacemenLs ln 2010 and 2011 and Lhe lmpacL on
selecL sLudy) raLed governmenL lnLervenLlon as
hosL communlLles Lhe survey Leam has soughL Lo
excellenL.
compare Lhe sample percenLage of 18.7
dlsplacemenL wlLh boLh Lhe laLesL offlclal 1roubllngly, half of Lhe sample (49.1) held a
populaLlon esLlmaLes for lA1A (4 mllllon, 1998 negaLlve oplnlon of governmenLal lnlLlaLlves Lo
Census) and Lhe esLlmaLe provlded by local supporL Lhem durlng Lhelr dlsplacemenL. WlLhln
leadershlp (6 mllllon). Accordlngly, aL leasL 716,000 Lhls flgure, Lhe ma[orlLy - consLlLuLlng 31.3 of Lhe
- 1,074,000 people (plus famllles and dependenLs, LoLal sample - consldered Lhe asslsLance offered Lo
where appllcable) may have been forced Lo leave have been very poor. 1hls flndlng was furLher
Lhelr homes ln 2011. lor 2010, Lhe flgures are supporLed by boLh male and female focus groups -
20
unPC8 lu CperaLlon ln aklsLan- 8eporL 2009
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
81
because of mlllLary operaLlons. 1hese experlences (24.6) of Lhe LoLal number of lA1A's lnLernally
were shared by parLlclpanLs from Lhe Agencles of dlsplaced, ln comparlson Lo [usL 3.3 Lhe prevlous
Mohmand, 8a[aur and SouLh WazlrlsLan. year - an lncrease largely resulLlng from confllcL ln
nelghbourlng Crakzal Agency. Cverall, lL ls belleved
locus group parLlclpanLs from khyber and Crakzal
LhaL kohaL has largely accepLed lus from Lhe
had noL had Lo move because of flghLlng, as Lhelr
Agencles of Crakzal and kurrum. ln response Lhe
homes had noL been vulnerableLo flghLlng.
governmenL has seL up a local lu camp where lus
from Crakzal and kurram agencles are resldlng. ln
If youwere d|sp|aced: where d|dyoumove to?
addlLlon, an unknown number of lus have been
1he survey soughL Lo bulld on Lhe lnformaLlon
able Lo flnd houslng, or where posslble, llve wlLh
gaLhered on dlsplacemenL by asklng Lhe 18.7 LhaL
famllyln kohaL.
had been forced Lo leave Lhelr homes: 'where dld
you move Lo?' 1he respondenLs ldenLlfled close Lo
1he second ma[or clLy ldenLlfled by respondenLs
40 Lowns/vlllages/dlsLrlcLs and provlnces, as well as
(17.9) was eshawar, Lhe admlnlsLraLlve cenLre
flvemaln Lowns/clLles.
for lA1A and provlnclal caplLal. ln response, large
lu camps havebeen esLabllshed ln LhekachaCarhl
ln 2011, kohaL clLy/dlsLrlcL recelved a quarLer
59.3%
70.0
20.0%
0.0
1.3%
53.8%
3.8%
24.6%
11.8%
9.3%
80.0%
46.3%
96.2%
75.4%
96.1%
88.2%
90.7%
21.8%
16.3%
3.9%
78.2%
83.8%
98.8%
100.0%
30.0%
40.7%
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan
SouLh WazlrlsLan
?es no
I|gure 4.23: nave you been forced to |eave your home dur|ng the past years? {8reok down my oqency)
undersLandlng lA1A
80
area, closeLo PayaLabad Lown. WhllesLlll remalnlng hlgher aL beLween 847,400 - 1,338,000. 1hese
an lmporLanL desLlnaLlon, Lhe number of lus flgures suggesL LhaL Lhe people of lA1A have been
seeklng sancLuary ln eshawar has reduced from exposed Lo masslve challenges, and LhaL Lhe
. 20
404 ln 2010. Accordlng Lo Lhe unPC8 , some lnsurgency ls havlng a deLrlmenLal lmpacL on
18,789 reglsLered famllles or 97,032 lndlvlduals human and communal developmenL.
reslde ln !alozal camp, wlLh 71 from 8a[aur
Ma|e IGDs
agency, 20 from khyber agency, and 9 from
arLlclpanLs from Mohmand sLaLed LhaL when Lhey
Mohmand Agency. ln addlLlon, an unknown
had been lnLernally dlsplaced Lhey had moved Lo
number of lus from across lA1A and kk are belng
eshawar or Shabqadar 1ehsll ln Lhe Charssada
hosLed ln eshawar.
ulsLrlcL of Lhe kk where Lhey had spenL several
7.3 of respondenLs ldenLlfled 5oJJo of kurram
monLhs ln lu camps. locus group parLlclpanLs
Agency as Lhe desLlnaLlon Lhey moved Lo durlng
from 8a[aur, explalned LhaL Lhey had Lravelled Lo
Lhelr dlsplacemenL, whlch was largely as a resulL of
Lower ulr, Charssadaor Mardan dlsLrlcLs ln Lhekk.
secLarlan vlolence. Cver Lhe pasL four years,
AddlLlonally, Lhose from Lhe fronLler reglons of
beLween 1,300 and 2,000 Sunnl famllles from Lhe
eshawar and kohaL shared LhaL Lhey had mlgraLed
Shla domlnaLed arachlnar ln kurram have been
Lo each oLher's LerrlLory. And respondenLs from
dlsplaced Lo Sadda, a ma[or Lown wlLh a Sunnl
SouLh WazlrlsLan sLaLed LhaL Lhey had soughL safeLy
ma[orlLy. Conversely, some 2.3 of Lhe local Shla
ln elLher ul khan or 1ankdlsLrlcLs.
populaLlon have had Lo mlgraLe ln Lhe opposlLe
dlrecLlon Lower kurram.
Iema|e IGDs
lemale parLlclpanLs shared slmllar lnformaLlon Lo ul khan was also apopular desLlnaLlon, as ldenLlfled
LhaL provlded durlng LhemalelCus. by 3.3 of respondenLs ln boLh 2010 and 2011. 1hls
lnLernal dlsplacemenL ls llkely because of confllcL ln
now do you rate the |eve| of support you
nelghbourlng SouLh WazlrlsLan, especlally from Lhe
rece|ved from Government of ak|stan
areas ln and around Mehsud. Also, aslmllar number
dur|ng your d|sp|acement? of survey parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled Lhe ulsLrlcL of
8annu, close Lo norLh WazlrlsLan, whlch was 8ulldlng on Lhls undersLandlng, Lhe 747
ldenLlfled by 3.2 of Lhose quesLloned (an lncrease respondenLs who had had been lnLernally dlsplaced
from Lhe4.3 ln 2010). were asked how Lhey raLed Lhe supporL Lhey had
recelved from Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan durlng
CuLslde lA1A a mlnorlLy of respondenLs ldenLlfled
Lhelr perlod of dlsplacemenL.
karachl ln Lhe far souLh of aklsLan, 8alochlsLan Lo
LhesouLh of lA1A, and clLles of un[ab ln LheLasL. Cf Lhe respondenLs, 233 raLed Lhe supporL Lhey
were provlded as belng aL leasL good, of whlch only
1o esLlmaLe Lhe overall scale of populaLlon
a very small mlnorlLy of 18 people (or 2.4 of Lhls
dlsplacemenLs ln 2010 and 2011 and Lhe lmpacL on
selecL sLudy) raLed governmenL lnLervenLlon as
hosL communlLles Lhe survey Leam has soughL Lo
excellenL.
compare Lhe sample percenLage of 18.7
dlsplacemenL wlLh boLh Lhe laLesL offlclal 1roubllngly, half of Lhe sample (49.1) held a
populaLlon esLlmaLes for lA1A (4 mllllon, 1998 negaLlve oplnlon of governmenLal lnlLlaLlves Lo
Census) and Lhe esLlmaLe provlded by local supporL Lhem durlng Lhelr dlsplacemenL. WlLhln
leadershlp (6 mllllon). Accordlngly, aL leasL 716,000 Lhls flgure, Lhe ma[orlLy - consLlLuLlng 31.3 of Lhe
- 1,074,000 people (plus famllles and dependenLs, LoLal sample - consldered Lhe asslsLance offered Lo
where appllcable) may have been forced Lo leave have been very poor. 1hls flndlng was furLher
Lhelr homes ln 2011. lor 2010, Lhe flgures are supporLed by boLh male and female focus groups -
20
unPC8 lu CperaLlon ln aklsLan- 8eporL 2009
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
81
because of mlllLary operaLlons. 1hese experlences (24.6) of Lhe LoLal number of lA1A's lnLernally
were shared by parLlclpanLs from Lhe Agencles of dlsplaced, ln comparlson Lo [usL 3.3 Lhe prevlous
Mohmand, 8a[aur and SouLh WazlrlsLan. year - an lncrease largely resulLlng from confllcL ln
nelghbourlng Crakzal Agency. Cverall, lL ls belleved
locus group parLlclpanLs from khyber and Crakzal
LhaL kohaL has largely accepLed lus from Lhe
had noL had Lo move because of flghLlng, as Lhelr
Agencles of Crakzal and kurrum. ln response Lhe
homes had noL been vulnerableLo flghLlng.
governmenL has seL up a local lu camp where lus
from Crakzal and kurram agencles are resldlng. ln
If youwere d|sp|aced: where d|dyoumove to?
addlLlon, an unknown number of lus have been
1he survey soughL Lo bulld on Lhe lnformaLlon
able Lo flnd houslng, or where posslble, llve wlLh
gaLhered on dlsplacemenL by asklng Lhe 18.7 LhaL
famllyln kohaL.
had been forced Lo leave Lhelr homes: 'where dld
you move Lo?' 1he respondenLs ldenLlfled close Lo
1he second ma[or clLy ldenLlfled by respondenLs
40 Lowns/vlllages/dlsLrlcLs and provlnces, as well as
(17.9) was eshawar, Lhe admlnlsLraLlve cenLre
flvemaln Lowns/clLles.
for lA1A and provlnclal caplLal. ln response, large
lu camps havebeen esLabllshed ln LhekachaCarhl
ln 2011, kohaL clLy/dlsLrlcL recelved a quarLer
59.3%
70.0
20.0%
0.0
1.3%
53.8%
3.8%
24.6%
11.8%
9.3%
80.0%
46.3%
96.2%
75.4%
96.1%
88.2%
90.7%
21.8%
16.3%
3.9%
78.2%
83.8%
98.8%
100.0%
30.0%
40.7%
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan
SouLh WazlrlsLan
?es no
I|gure 4.23: nave you been forced to |eave your home dur|ng the past years? {8reok down my oqency)
undersLandlng lA1A
80
where concerns abouL access Lo baslc human reallLy LhaL encouraged some pollLlcal parLles, such
necesslLles, lncludlng food, shelLer and securlLy, as: aklsLan Musllm League (n), !amaaL-e-lslamal
were commonly ldenLlfled. Also Lhere were (!l), !amlaL e ulema e lslam (!ul) and aklsLan
concerns LhaL vlcLlms were noL belng sufflclenLly 1ehrek-e-lnsaaf (1l), Lo pressurlse Lhe governmenL
compensaLed for damageor loss of properLy. Lo sLarL dlalogue wlLh Lhe mlllLanLs. 8uL as shown by
llgure 4.26, Lhe mlllLary and lLs operaLlons can be
seen Lo havegrown ln leglLlmacy.
WlLh regard Lo 2011, Lwo-Lhlrds of respondenLs
(66.8) supporLed mlllLary operaLlons ln lA1A, of
whlch 36.7 were ln full supporL. 1hls ls ln
comparlson Lo 18.3 who oppose Lhem Lo some
degree, perhaps moLlvaLed by Lhe excesslve force
someLlmes used ln flghLlng mlllLanLs. 8eporLs from
baLLleflelds show LhaL on occaslon, lnnocenL people
have been caughL ln Lhe cross-flre, leavlng many
kllled or ln[ured, also, much of local lnfrasLrucLure
has been desLroyed, and local economles
undermlned.
noneLheless, lL seems clear LhaL Lhe mlllLary en[oys
Lhe supporL of Lhe ma[orlLy of people ln lA1A. 1hls
glves Lhem a mandaLe Lo conLlnue operaLlng ln
lA1A, and Lo oppose Lhe 1allban sLyle of governance
LhaL LhreaLens akhLun culLure and socleLy. 8ased
CrlLlclsm levelled aL Lhe governmenL has noL been
on Lhe same quesLlon Lhe survey has soughL Lo
resLrlcLed Lo lus. 1he medla have also noLed LhaL
dlsaggregaLeLhelnformaLlon based on Lrlbal areas.
condlLlons of supporL aregenerallyunsaLlsfacLory.
8ased on Lhls, lL can beseen LhaL LhemlllLary reLalns
lrom Lhe daLa recorded lL appears LhaL levels of
supporL ln boLh areas LhaL have been severely
supporL have been dependenL on locaLlon. lus
affecLed by flghLlng and oLhers LhaL have been less
from SwaL and Malakand appear Lo have recelved
affecLed. 8a[aur Agency, for example, has been Lhe
beLLer LreaLmenL as Lhey repaLrlaLed wlLhln slx
monLhs, whlle Lhose from 8a[aur and Mohmand
conLlnue Lo be sub[ecLed Lo hardshlps and llvlng ln
deplorablecondlLlons.
lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL supporL for mlllLary
operaLlons ls sLrongesL among Lhose LhaL have noL
been vlcLlm Lo dlsplacemenL, whlle pesslmlsm ls
mosL sLrongly held by Lhose LhaL have been forced
Lo leaveLhelr homes and communlLles.
M|||tary operat|ons |nIA1A
What do you th|nk of the ak|stan army's m|||tary
offens|ve |nIA1A
1here have been more Lhan 13 mlllLary offenslves
wlLhln lA1A agalnsL Lhe 11 and oLher mlllLanL
groups. As has been recorded, mlllLary operaLlons
were vlewed wlLh scepLlclsm ln Lhe beglnnlng - a
2011 ()
I|gure 4.2S: now do you rate the |eve| of support you
rece|ved from Government of ak|stan dur|ng your
d|sp|acement?
LxcellenL Cood oor very
poor
uon'L
know
2
.
4
3
1
.
7
1
7
.
7
3
1
.
3
1
6
.
7
l
u
l
l
y
s
u
p
p
o
r
L

a
r
L
l
y
s
u
p
p
o
r
L

a
r
L
l
y
o
p
p
o
s
e
l
u
l
l
y
o
p
p
o
s
e
n
o
o
p
l
n
l
o
n
u
o
n
'
L
k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 4.26: What do you th|nk of the ak|stan army's
m|||tary offens|ve |n IA1A
3
6
.
7
3
0
.
1
3
.
9
1
2
.
3
3
.
1
9
.
7
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
83
I|gure 4.24: If you were d|sp|aced: where d|d you move to? {se/ected)
40.4
8.3
4.3
3.2
nA
0.2
nA
4.4
0.9
3.2
0.3
2.7
1.9
0.6
0.4
3.2
7.3
7.1
1.7
nA
3.2
0.8
2.3
nA
0.7
1.7
1.6
3.3
3.3
2.6
4.7
24.6
3.3
7.8
3.9
1.60
nA
17.9
eshawar
kohaL
ul khan
Charsadda
8annu
Mardan
ulr (upper & Lower)
Sadda
no response
Pangu
!amrud
un[ab
karachl
arachlnar
Shabqadar
!alozal camp
nowshera
1aal
Lakkl marwaL
2010 (%) 2011 (%)
1.6
undersLandlng lA1A
82
where concerns abouL access Lo baslc human reallLy LhaL encouraged some pollLlcal parLles, such
necesslLles, lncludlng food, shelLer and securlLy, as: aklsLan Musllm League (n), !amaaL-e-lslamal
were commonly ldenLlfled. Also Lhere were (!l), !amlaL e ulema e lslam (!ul) and aklsLan
concerns LhaL vlcLlms were noL belng sufflclenLly 1ehrek-e-lnsaaf (1l), Lo pressurlse Lhe governmenL
compensaLed for damageor loss of properLy. Lo sLarL dlalogue wlLh Lhe mlllLanLs. 8uL as shown by
llgure 4.26, Lhe mlllLary and lLs operaLlons can be
seen Lo havegrown ln leglLlmacy.
WlLh regard Lo 2011, Lwo-Lhlrds of respondenLs
(66.8) supporLed mlllLary operaLlons ln lA1A, of
whlch 36.7 were ln full supporL. 1hls ls ln
comparlson Lo 18.3 who oppose Lhem Lo some
degree, perhaps moLlvaLed by Lhe excesslve force
someLlmes used ln flghLlng mlllLanLs. 8eporLs from
baLLleflelds show LhaL on occaslon, lnnocenL people
have been caughL ln Lhe cross-flre, leavlng many
kllled or ln[ured, also, much of local lnfrasLrucLure
has been desLroyed, and local economles
undermlned.
noneLheless, lL seems clear LhaL Lhe mlllLary en[oys
Lhe supporL of Lhe ma[orlLy of people ln lA1A. 1hls
glves Lhem a mandaLe Lo conLlnue operaLlng ln
lA1A, and Lo oppose Lhe 1allban sLyle of governance
LhaL LhreaLens akhLun culLure and socleLy. 8ased
CrlLlclsm levelled aL Lhe governmenL has noL been
on Lhe same quesLlon Lhe survey has soughL Lo
resLrlcLed Lo lus. 1he medla have also noLed LhaL
dlsaggregaLeLhelnformaLlon based on Lrlbal areas.
condlLlons of supporL aregenerallyunsaLlsfacLory.
8ased on Lhls, lL can beseen LhaL LhemlllLary reLalns
lrom Lhe daLa recorded lL appears LhaL levels of
supporL ln boLh areas LhaL have been severely
supporL have been dependenL on locaLlon. lus
affecLed by flghLlng and oLhers LhaL have been less
from SwaL and Malakand appear Lo have recelved
affecLed. 8a[aur Agency, for example, has been Lhe
beLLer LreaLmenL as Lhey repaLrlaLed wlLhln slx
monLhs, whlle Lhose from 8a[aur and Mohmand
conLlnue Lo be sub[ecLed Lo hardshlps and llvlng ln
deplorablecondlLlons.
lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL supporL for mlllLary
operaLlons ls sLrongesL among Lhose LhaL have noL
been vlcLlm Lo dlsplacemenL, whlle pesslmlsm ls
mosL sLrongly held by Lhose LhaL have been forced
Lo leaveLhelr homes and communlLles.
M|||tary operat|ons |nIA1A
What do you th|nk of the ak|stan army's m|||tary
offens|ve |nIA1A
1here have been more Lhan 13 mlllLary offenslves
wlLhln lA1A agalnsL Lhe 11 and oLher mlllLanL
groups. As has been recorded, mlllLary operaLlons
were vlewed wlLh scepLlclsm ln Lhe beglnnlng - a
2011 ()
I|gure 4.2S: now do you rate the |eve| of support you
rece|ved from Government of ak|stan dur|ng your
d|sp|acement?
LxcellenL Cood oor very
poor
uon'L
know
2
.
4
3
1
.
7
1
7
.
7
3
1
.
3
1
6
.
7
l
u
l
l
y
s
u
p
p
o
r
L

a
r
L
l
y
s
u
p
p
o
r
L

a
r
L
l
y
o
p
p
o
s
e
l
u
l
l
y
o
p
p
o
s
e
n
o
o
p
l
n
l
o
n
u
o
n
'
L
k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 4.26: What do you th|nk of the ak|stan army's
m|||tary offens|ve |n IA1A
3
6
.
7
3
0
.
1
3
.
9
1
2
.
3
3
.
1
9
.
7
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
83
I|gure 4.24: If you were d|sp|aced: where d|d you move to? {se/ected)
40.4
8.3
4.3
3.2
nA
0.2
nA
4.4
0.9
3.2
0.3
2.7
1.9
0.6
0.4
3.2
7.3
7.1
1.7
nA
3.2
0.8
2.3
nA
0.7
1.7
1.6
3.3
3.3
2.6
4.7
24.6
3.3
7.8
3.9
1.60
nA
17.9
eshawar
kohaL
ul khan
Charsadda
8annu
Mardan
ulr (upper & Lower)
Sadda
no response
Pangu
!amrud
un[ab
karachl
arachlnar
Shabqadar
!alozal camp
nowshera
1aal
Lakkl marwaL
2010 (%) 2011 (%)
1.6
undersLandlng lA1A
82
locaLlon of conslderable confllcL slnce AugusL 2008 necesslLaLlng Lhe mlllLary Lake greaLer care ln
- resulLlng ln much desLrucLlon Lo properLy and respecLlng Lhe human rlghLs of Lhe communlLles
communlLles, however supporL for Lhe mlllLary Lheyaresupposed Lo beproLecLlng.
remalns hlgh wlLh approxlmaLely 70 of
Support for or oppos|t|onto m|||tary tact|cs
respondenLs offerlng Lhelr backlng. 1hls senLlmenL
WlLh regard Lo Lhe mlllLary LacLlcs belng used ln
ls shared ln kurram Agency, where some 63 of Lhe
lA1A, Lhe survey asked respondenLs whlch form
local populaLlon supporL Lhe mlllLary operaLlon,
Lhey would conslder mosL leglLlmaLe ln flghLlng.
and ln Crakzal Agency by approxlmaLely 80 of Lhe
1he flndlngs are documenLed ln llgure 4.28. 1he
280 people quesLloned. 1hese agencles are also
flrsL opLlon provlded Lo 4,000 male and female
boLh locaLlons of flghLlng beLween mlllLanLs and
respondenLs from lA1A, was wheLher or noL Lhey
governmenL forces.
would supporL Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary pursulng
ln khyber Agency, where Lhere has been only
1allban, Al Caeda and forelgn flghLers lnslde lA1A.
llmlLed confllcL, comprlslng a low lnLenslLy
More Lhan half of Lhe respondenLs, 60.0,
operaLlon agalnsL Mangal 8agh of Lashkar-e-lslam
supporLed Lhe noLlon whlle a quarLer of Lhe
ln 8ara Lehsll, Lhe local populaLlon remaln
respondenLs (26.0) opposed lL. 10.1 dld noL
sympaLheLlc. Cf Lhe 760 sample slze, 363
know Lhe answer and 4.0 dld noL share Lhelr
respondenLs declared aL leasL pottlol soppott for
oplnlon.
mlllLary operaLlons ln lA1A. Powever, lL musL be
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon collecLed lL ls clear LhaL Lhe
noLed LhaL Lhls supporL ls noL unlversal, as a
lA1A populaLlon does noL wlsh Lo have lnvolvemenL
slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy (18) oppose Lhe mlllLary, and
of lnLernaLlonal mlllLary ln Lhelr LerrlLory. 1hls ls
generallyhaveasLrong oplnlon on LhemaLLer.
unsurprlslng as only llmlLed confldence ls recorded
CreaLesL opposlLlon Lo mlllLary operaLlons appears
over lnLernaLlonal asslsLance belng offered for
Lo be ln SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency, where Lhe
lndlrecL acLlvlLles, such as Lralnlng securlLy
greaLesL number of respondenLs folly opposes army
provlders operaLlng ln lA1A. lnLernaLlonal
offences ln lA1A. Cverall, 30 of respondenLs from
asslsLance Lo Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary was sttooqly
Lhls Agency expressed a negaLlve oplnlon ln
opposeJ by 68 of respondenLs (and supporLed by
response Lo Lhls quesLlon. noLable dlsconLenL was
less Lhan 3). 1hls flgure rlses Lo some 73 aL Lhe
also held ln norLh WazlrlsLan, where 30 (double
suggesLlon of an lndependenL uS mlllLary
Lhe reglonal average) shared Lhe concern of Lhelr
lnLervenLlon ln lA1A (an opLlon supporLed by less
nelghbour.
Lhan 1).
Ma|e IGDs 1he only opLlon LhaL was seen Lo have leglLlmacy
1he lCus generally supporL Lhe flndlngs ouLllned was LhaL Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary conLlnue Lo pursue
above, as parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled LhaL Lhe mlllLary lnsurgenLs wlLhln lA1A, as Lhey have been dolng,
had been poslLlve ln counLerlng Lhe acLlvlLles of freefrom exLernal lnLerference. 1hls was supporLed
mlllLanLs ln Lhelr respecLlve Lrlbal areas. Powever, by 60 of respondenLs (Lhe ma[orlLy of whom dld
some volces of dlsconLenL were ralsed ln Lhe so sLrongly) and unlversally ln male and female
fronLler reglons of eshawar and kohaL, as well as ln focus groups. ln comparlson only abouL a quarLer of
norLh WazlrlsLan, where parLlclpanLs oplned LhaL surveyparLlclpanLs opposed Lhls opLlon.
Lhe mlllLary had had a harmful lmpacL on Lhe poor
Do you support or oppose the presence of the
wlLhouL addresslng Lhe lssue of mlllLancy ln a
fo||ow|ng groups |nIA1A?
meanlngful way.
1o furLher undersLand lA1A aLLlLudes Lo exLernal
Iema|e IGDs
acLors, survey respondenLs were asked Lhe exLenL
lemale parLlclpanLs were generally ln favour of Lhe
Lo whlch Lhey supporLed non-LradlLlonal lnfluences
mlllLary offenslve ln lA1A. 8epresenLaLlves from
ln lA1A.
8a[aur Agency dld, however, acknowledge LhaL
lL ls evldenL from Lhe survey quesLlonnalre and
many clvlllans had been kllled durlng flghLlng:
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
8S
undersLandlng lA1A
84
85.0
39.4
35.0
66.3
90.0
32.2
45.7
7.0
3.9
45.6
6.3
42.1
20.0
30.3
34.3
34.6
11.1
7.8
16.3
1.3
5.0
2.5
1.3
2.5
3.4
3.1
15.2
3.2
6.1
10.3
13.8
1.3
3.8
17.5
5.0
1.3
15.7
2.4
11.9
15.9
48.2
0.4
0.6
15.0
1.3
5.0
2.5
2.5
1.3
2.8
7.2
6.4
14.8
5.7
9.6
15.0
1.3
1.3
2.5
5.0
4.7
21.3
12.5
12.7
4.3
35.8
16.3
42.5
60.7
18.8
42.5
10.0
23.8
29.3
19.3
NA
NA
2.5
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan Agency
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency
SLrongly supporL SomewhaL supporL SomewhaL oppose SLrongly oppose uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 4.27: What do you th|nk of the ak|stan army's m|||tary offens|ve |n IA1A? (bteokJowo by teqloo)
locaLlon of conslderable confllcL slnce AugusL 2008 necesslLaLlng Lhe mlllLary Lake greaLer care ln
- resulLlng ln much desLrucLlon Lo properLy and respecLlng Lhe human rlghLs of Lhe communlLles
communlLles, however supporL for Lhe mlllLary Lheyaresupposed Lo beproLecLlng.
remalns hlgh wlLh approxlmaLely 70 of
Support for or oppos|t|onto m|||tary tact|cs
respondenLs offerlng Lhelr backlng. 1hls senLlmenL
WlLh regard Lo Lhe mlllLary LacLlcs belng used ln
ls shared ln kurram Agency, where some 63 of Lhe
lA1A, Lhe survey asked respondenLs whlch form
local populaLlon supporL Lhe mlllLary operaLlon,
Lhey would conslder mosL leglLlmaLe ln flghLlng.
and ln Crakzal Agency by approxlmaLely 80 of Lhe
1he flndlngs are documenLed ln llgure 4.28. 1he
280 people quesLloned. 1hese agencles are also
flrsL opLlon provlded Lo 4,000 male and female
boLh locaLlons of flghLlng beLween mlllLanLs and
respondenLs from lA1A, was wheLher or noL Lhey
governmenL forces.
would supporL Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary pursulng
ln khyber Agency, where Lhere has been only
1allban, Al Caeda and forelgn flghLers lnslde lA1A.
llmlLed confllcL, comprlslng a low lnLenslLy
More Lhan half of Lhe respondenLs, 60.0,
operaLlon agalnsL Mangal 8agh of Lashkar-e-lslam
supporLed Lhe noLlon whlle a quarLer of Lhe
ln 8ara Lehsll, Lhe local populaLlon remaln
respondenLs (26.0) opposed lL. 10.1 dld noL
sympaLheLlc. Cf Lhe 760 sample slze, 363
know Lhe answer and 4.0 dld noL share Lhelr
respondenLs declared aL leasL pottlol soppott for
oplnlon.
mlllLary operaLlons ln lA1A. Powever, lL musL be
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon collecLed lL ls clear LhaL Lhe
noLed LhaL Lhls supporL ls noL unlversal, as a
lA1A populaLlon does noL wlsh Lo have lnvolvemenL
slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy (18) oppose Lhe mlllLary, and
of lnLernaLlonal mlllLary ln Lhelr LerrlLory. 1hls ls
generallyhaveasLrong oplnlon on LhemaLLer.
unsurprlslng as only llmlLed confldence ls recorded
CreaLesL opposlLlon Lo mlllLary operaLlons appears
over lnLernaLlonal asslsLance belng offered for
Lo be ln SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency, where Lhe
lndlrecL acLlvlLles, such as Lralnlng securlLy
greaLesL number of respondenLs folly opposes army
provlders operaLlng ln lA1A. lnLernaLlonal
offences ln lA1A. Cverall, 30 of respondenLs from
asslsLance Lo Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary was sttooqly
Lhls Agency expressed a negaLlve oplnlon ln
opposeJ by 68 of respondenLs (and supporLed by
response Lo Lhls quesLlon. noLable dlsconLenL was
less Lhan 3). 1hls flgure rlses Lo some 73 aL Lhe
also held ln norLh WazlrlsLan, where 30 (double
suggesLlon of an lndependenL uS mlllLary
Lhe reglonal average) shared Lhe concern of Lhelr
lnLervenLlon ln lA1A (an opLlon supporLed by less
nelghbour.
Lhan 1).
Ma|e IGDs 1he only opLlon LhaL was seen Lo have leglLlmacy
1he lCus generally supporL Lhe flndlngs ouLllned was LhaL Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary conLlnue Lo pursue
above, as parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled LhaL Lhe mlllLary lnsurgenLs wlLhln lA1A, as Lhey have been dolng,
had been poslLlve ln counLerlng Lhe acLlvlLles of freefrom exLernal lnLerference. 1hls was supporLed
mlllLanLs ln Lhelr respecLlve Lrlbal areas. Powever, by 60 of respondenLs (Lhe ma[orlLy of whom dld
some volces of dlsconLenL were ralsed ln Lhe so sLrongly) and unlversally ln male and female
fronLler reglons of eshawar and kohaL, as well as ln focus groups. ln comparlson only abouL a quarLer of
norLh WazlrlsLan, where parLlclpanLs oplned LhaL surveyparLlclpanLs opposed Lhls opLlon.
Lhe mlllLary had had a harmful lmpacL on Lhe poor
Do you support or oppose the presence of the
wlLhouL addresslng Lhe lssue of mlllLancy ln a
fo||ow|ng groups |nIA1A?
meanlngful way.
1o furLher undersLand lA1A aLLlLudes Lo exLernal
Iema|e IGDs
acLors, survey respondenLs were asked Lhe exLenL
lemale parLlclpanLs were generally ln favour of Lhe
Lo whlch Lhey supporLed non-LradlLlonal lnfluences
mlllLary offenslve ln lA1A. 8epresenLaLlves from
ln lA1A.
8a[aur Agency dld, however, acknowledge LhaL
lL ls evldenL from Lhe survey quesLlonnalre and
many clvlllans had been kllled durlng flghLlng:
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
8S
undersLandlng lA1A
84
85.0
39.4
35.0
66.3
90.0
32.2
45.7
7.0
3.9
45.6
6.3
42.1
20.0
30.3
34.3
34.6
11.1
7.8
16.3
1.3
5.0
2.5
1.3
2.5
3.4
3.1
15.2
3.2
6.1
10.3
13.8
1.3
3.8
17.5
5.0
1.3
15.7
2.4
11.9
15.9
48.2
0.4
0.6
15.0
1.3
5.0
2.5
2.5
1.3
2.8
7.2
6.4
14.8
5.7
9.6
15.0
1.3
1.3
2.5
5.0
4.7
21.3
12.5
12.7
4.3
35.8
16.3
42.5
60.7
18.8
42.5
10.0
23.8
29.3
19.3
NA
NA
2.5
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan Agency
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency
SLrongly supporL SomewhaL supporL SomewhaL oppose SLrongly oppose uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 4.27: What do you th|nk of the ak|stan army's m|||tary offens|ve |n IA1A? (bteokJowo by teqloo)
lnLernaLlonal humanlLarlan laws because Lhey allowlng for Lhese sLrlkes Lo conLlnue unabaLed ln
perpeLraLe whaL could be deflned as exLra[udlclal lA1A. lL would be lnaccuraLe however, Lo sLaLe LhaL
kllllngs, Lhey also vlolaLe aklsLan's soverelgnLy and resldenLs ln lA1A are unlversally opposed Lo drone
can be lndlscrlmlnaLe: kllllng lnnocenL people, aLLacks. uaLa ouLllned ln llgure 4.29 and 4.30 show
lncludlng women and chlldren. Cver Lhe lasL Lwo LhaL some supporL ls offered for LheseaLLacks, buL lL
years, followlng Lhe elecLlon of uS presldenL 8arak ls a very marglnal percepLlon. ln 2011 only 6 of
Cbama, Lhere has been a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln Lhe respondenLs consldered Lhls mlllLary opLlon Lo be
number of drone aLLacks ln aklsLan kllllng some [usLlfled, largely ln excepLlonal clrcumsLance. 1hls
21
2,300 people and ln[urlng a furLher 207. MosL of supporL ls consldered Lo be held largely ln areas
Lhese aLLacks have Laken place ln Lhe Agencles of close Lo 1allbanlsed reglons where Lhe aklsLan
norLh WazlrlsLan and SouLh WazlrlsLan, areas Army has been unable Lo effecLlvely oppose
sufferlng from conslderable lnLerference from mlllLanLs.
Afghan 1allban. lL ls dlfflculL Lo [udge Lhe overall,
Survey daLa shows LhaL 63.0 of respondenLs were
valueof LheseaLLacks on mlllLanLs ln lA1A.
of Lhe oplnlon LhaL drone aLLacks were oevet
1hese aLLacks have been greeLed wlLh much publlc jostlfleJ, an oplnlon llkely lnfluenced by Lhe holdlng
condemnaLlon, however, lL ls alleged LhaL a secreL of several peaceful proLesLs and rallles agalnsL
deal has been slgned beLween Lhe uS and aklsLan drone aLLacks over Lhe lasL year, Lhese have ofLen
1
.
1
4
.
4
6
.
0
1
1
.
2
1
0
.
1
9
.
1
7
9
.
3
6
8
.
3
6
3
.
9
6
2
.
9
9
.
1
1
3
.
3
1
4
.
0
1
3
.
0
2
.
0
3
.
3
4
.
2
4
.
9
2
.
7
2
.
7
3
.
7
3
.
2
a. 1he unlLed SLaLes
mlllLary
b. Arab and forelgn
Al Caeda flghLers
c. Afghan 1allban flghLers
(led by Mullah Cmar)
d. aklsLanl 1allban flghLers
SLrongly supporL SomewhaL supporL SomewhaL oppose SLrongly oppose uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 4.29: Do you support or oppose the presence of the fo||ow|ng groups |n IA1A?
21
8eLween 29 !anuary 2008 and 16 november 2011 CAM has recorded 283 drone aLLacks ln lA1A, CAM uaLabase of drone
aLLacks
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
87
1
.
1
2
.
8
lCus LhaL lA1A communlLles do noL deslre Lhe LhaL supporLlng uS lnvolvemenL) supporLed Lhelr
presence of non-LradlLlonal acLors. 1hls ls presence ln lA1A. 1allban flghLers, elLher from
unsurprlslng glven documenLed hlsLorlcal AfghanlsLan and aklsLan were also reslsLed by
opposlLlon Lo LheaklsLanl mlllLary (beforelL galned approxlmaLely 73 and 70 respecLlvely.
leglLlmacy ln recenL years) and conLlnued mlsLrusL lnLeresLlngly, a small buL noLable mlnorlLy of
ln LheaklsLan ollcelnfrasLrucLure. respondenLs supporLed Lhelr presence, parLlcularly
aklsLanl 1allban who were approved by 10 of
1he daLa documenLed ln llgure 4.29 shows LhaL
Lhose lnLervlewed. lemale focus groups concurred
some 83 of respondenLs opposed Lhe presence of
wlLh Lhe negaLlve percepLlons of Lhese exLernal
uS mlllLary ln lA1A, ln comparlson Lo [usL 3.7 who
groups and added LhaL Lhey had been a dlrecL cause
were supporLlve. AlmosL 10 were unsure wheLher
of hardshlp ln lA1A.
uSlnLervenLlon would bebeneflclal.
USDrone attacks |nIA1A
Slmllar aLLlLudes were descrlbed wlLh regard Lo
CpposlLlon Lo uS lnvolvemenL ln lA1A may be
Arab and forel gn Al Caeda fl ghLers, as
dlrecLly llnked Lo Lhe lmpacL and percelved
approxlmaLely 80 of respondenLs recorded aL
leglLlmacy of drone aLLacks ln Lrlbal areas,
leasL some opposlLlon, male focus groups oplned
especlallyln norLh and SouLh WazlrlsLan.
LhaL Lhls was ln parL due Lo lLs role ln undermlnlng
lslam. A LoLal of 149 survey parLlclpanLs (equal Lo
urone aLLacks are very conLroverslal as Lhey vlolaLe
8
.
8
9
.
4
1
7
.
2
6
8
.
0
7
3
.
2
a. 1he aklsLanl mlllLary pursue 1allban,
Al Caeda and forelgn flghLers lnslde lA1A.
b. 1he mlllLarles of Lhe uS and aklsLan
worklng LogeLher Lo pursue 1allban, Al
Caeda and forelgn flghLers lnslde
aklsLan
c. 1he u.S. mlllLary lndependenLly
pursulng 1allban, Al Caeda and forelgn
flghLers lnslde aklsLan
SLrongly supporL SomewhaL supporL SomewhaL oppose SLrongly oppose uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 4.28: Support for or oppos|t|on to m|||tary tact|cs
4
0
.
4
1
9
.
6
1
0
.
1
4
.
0
0
.
3
4
.
2
1
3
.
3
4
.
6
0
.
4
0
.
6
4
.
1
1
4
.
8
4
.
9
undersLandlng lA1A
86
lnLernaLlonal humanlLarlan laws because Lhey allowlng for Lhese sLrlkes Lo conLlnue unabaLed ln
perpeLraLe whaL could be deflned as exLra[udlclal lA1A. lL would be lnaccuraLe however, Lo sLaLe LhaL
kllllngs, Lhey also vlolaLe aklsLan's soverelgnLy and resldenLs ln lA1A are unlversally opposed Lo drone
can be lndlscrlmlnaLe: kllllng lnnocenL people, aLLacks. uaLa ouLllned ln llgure 4.29 and 4.30 show
lncludlng women and chlldren. Cver Lhe lasL Lwo LhaL some supporL ls offered for LheseaLLacks, buL lL
years, followlng Lhe elecLlon of uS presldenL 8arak ls a very marglnal percepLlon. ln 2011 only 6 of
Cbama, Lhere has been a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln Lhe respondenLs consldered Lhls mlllLary opLlon Lo be
number of drone aLLacks ln aklsLan kllllng some [usLlfled, largely ln excepLlonal clrcumsLance. 1hls
21
2,300 people and ln[urlng a furLher 207. MosL of supporL ls consldered Lo be held largely ln areas
Lhese aLLacks have Laken place ln Lhe Agencles of close Lo 1allbanlsed reglons where Lhe aklsLan
norLh WazlrlsLan and SouLh WazlrlsLan, areas Army has been unable Lo effecLlvely oppose
sufferlng from conslderable lnLerference from mlllLanLs.
Afghan 1allban. lL ls dlfflculL Lo [udge Lhe overall,
Survey daLa shows LhaL 63.0 of respondenLs were
valueof LheseaLLacks on mlllLanLs ln lA1A.
of Lhe oplnlon LhaL drone aLLacks were oevet
1hese aLLacks have been greeLed wlLh much publlc jostlfleJ, an oplnlon llkely lnfluenced by Lhe holdlng
condemnaLlon, however, lL ls alleged LhaL a secreL of several peaceful proLesLs and rallles agalnsL
deal has been slgned beLween Lhe uS and aklsLan drone aLLacks over Lhe lasL year, Lhese have ofLen
1
.
1
4
.
4
6
.
0
1
1
.
2
1
0
.
1
9
.
1
7
9
.
3
6
8
.
3
6
3
.
9
6
2
.
9
9
.
1
1
3
.
3
1
4
.
0
1
3
.
0
2
.
0
3
.
3
4
.
2
4
.
9
2
.
7
2
.
7
3
.
7
3
.
2
a. 1he unlLed SLaLes
mlllLary
b. Arab and forelgn
Al Caeda flghLers
c. Afghan 1allban flghLers
(led by Mullah Cmar)
d. aklsLanl 1allban flghLers
SLrongly supporL SomewhaL supporL SomewhaL oppose SLrongly oppose uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 4.29: Do you support or oppose the presence of the fo||ow|ng groups |n IA1A?
21
8eLween 29 !anuary 2008 and 16 november 2011 CAM has recorded 283 drone aLLacks ln lA1A, CAM uaLabase of drone
aLLacks
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
87
1
.
1
2
.
8
lCus LhaL lA1A communlLles do noL deslre Lhe LhaL supporLlng uS lnvolvemenL) supporLed Lhelr
presence of non-LradlLlonal acLors. 1hls ls presence ln lA1A. 1allban flghLers, elLher from
unsurprlslng glven documenLed hlsLorlcal AfghanlsLan and aklsLan were also reslsLed by
opposlLlon Lo LheaklsLanl mlllLary (beforelL galned approxlmaLely 73 and 70 respecLlvely.
leglLlmacy ln recenL years) and conLlnued mlsLrusL lnLeresLlngly, a small buL noLable mlnorlLy of
ln LheaklsLan ollcelnfrasLrucLure. respondenLs supporLed Lhelr presence, parLlcularly
aklsLanl 1allban who were approved by 10 of
1he daLa documenLed ln llgure 4.29 shows LhaL
Lhose lnLervlewed. lemale focus groups concurred
some 83 of respondenLs opposed Lhe presence of
wlLh Lhe negaLlve percepLlons of Lhese exLernal
uS mlllLary ln lA1A, ln comparlson Lo [usL 3.7 who
groups and added LhaL Lhey had been a dlrecL cause
were supporLlve. AlmosL 10 were unsure wheLher
of hardshlp ln lA1A.
uSlnLervenLlon would bebeneflclal.
USDrone attacks |nIA1A
Slmllar aLLlLudes were descrlbed wlLh regard Lo
CpposlLlon Lo uS lnvolvemenL ln lA1A may be
Arab and forel gn Al Caeda fl ghLers, as
dlrecLly llnked Lo Lhe lmpacL and percelved
approxlmaLely 80 of respondenLs recorded aL
leglLlmacy of drone aLLacks ln Lrlbal areas,
leasL some opposlLlon, male focus groups oplned
especlallyln norLh and SouLh WazlrlsLan.
LhaL Lhls was ln parL due Lo lLs role ln undermlnlng
lslam. A LoLal of 149 survey parLlclpanLs (equal Lo
urone aLLacks are very conLroverslal as Lhey vlolaLe
8
.
8
9
.
4
1
7
.
2
6
8
.
0
7
3
.
2
a. 1he aklsLanl mlllLary pursue 1allban,
Al Caeda and forelgn flghLers lnslde lA1A.
b. 1he mlllLarles of Lhe uS and aklsLan
worklng LogeLher Lo pursue 1allban, Al
Caeda and forelgn flghLers lnslde
aklsLan
c. 1he u.S. mlllLary lndependenLly
pursulng 1allban, Al Caeda and forelgn
flghLers lnslde aklsLan
SLrongly supporL SomewhaL supporL SomewhaL oppose SLrongly oppose uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 4.28: Support for or oppos|t|on to m|||tary tact|cs
4
0
.
4
1
9
.
6
1
0
.
1
4
.
0
0
.
3
4
.
2
1
3
.
3
4
.
6
0
.
4
0
.
6
4
.
1
1
4
.
8
4
.
9
undersLandlng lA1A
86
0.0
3.8
0.0
12.5
0.0
13.8
0.0
5.9
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.0
1.6
7.5
0.3
16.1
3.6
34.6
79.6
41.3
52.5
68.1
32.5
35.0
37.5
79.3
41.9
79.0
58.0
71.1
1.1
2.9
1.3
0.0
0.0
17.5
11.3
0.0
5.0
3.5
6.1
4.8
0.4
15.7
8.7
18.8
5.0
25.6
15.0
7.5
11.3
9.3
7.7
8.6
15.2
14.6
47.5
7.1
21.3
38.8
5.6
17.5
45.0
37.5
4.7
23.5
5.3
5.7
10.0
0.0
6.3
0.8
1.8
11.3
1.3
5.0
-
1.1
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan
SouLh WazlrlsLan
Always justified Sometimes justified, if properly targeted and excessive civilian casualties are avoided Never justified
No response No opinion Don't know
I|gure 4.31: What do you th|nk of US drone str|kes |n IA1A? (Agency w|se break down)(ercentage)
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
89
0.0
been led by pollLlcal parLles (especlally Lhe 1l) and Powever, parLlclpanLs from Lower kurram
clvll socleLy organlsaLlons. Conslderable opposlLlon supporLed Lhese aLLacks, because Lhey felL Lhey
Lo drone aLLacks ls also, ln parL, a dlrecL resulL of Lhe were addresslng Lhe lssue of 1allbanlsaLlon ln lA1A,
fear held by over one-Lhlrd (34.1) of respondenLs a phenomenon LhaL had Laken Lhe enLlre
LhaL Lhls mlllLary lnLervenLlon (see llgure 4.8) was a populaLlon hosLage. 1herefore, Lhere ls a senLlmenL
LhreaL Lo lndlvlduals' securlLy. LhaL lf Lhe aklsLan Army was unable Lo address Lhe
problem Lhen someone else had Lo Lake acLlon. 1hls
CreaLesL supporL for drone aLLacks was recorded ln
response goes someway Lo undersLandlng Lhe daLa
Lhe lronLler 8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl and 1ank, also
for kurram Agencyfound ln llgure4.31.
kurram Agency and norLh WazlrlsLan - oLherwlse
only very llmlLed bellef ln Lhelr [usLlflcaLlon ls
Nuc|ear possess|onandnat|ona| secur|ty
recorded ln lA1A. AlmosL one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
aklsLan, as a naLlon, ls qulLe defenslve of lLs
werenoL ableLo provldean oplnlon.
nuclear weapons capablllLy. 1he survey soughL Lo
explore how secure Lhe respondenLs felL abouL
Ma|e IGDs
possesslng Lhese weapons conslderlng Lhelr
noL surprlslngly all parLlclpanLs opposed Lhe drone
repuLaLlon ln lnLernaLlonal relaLlons and wlLh
sLrlkes and lL was oplned LhaL whaL supporL Lhere
regard Lo lnLernaLlonal securlLy.
was came from eshawar or lslamabad, areas LhaL
were consldered Lo noL have a very clear ldea of Lhe Conslderlng Lhe hlsLory of confllcL and rlvalry wlLh
lmpacL of drone sLrlkes on lnnocenL people and lndla, Lhe responses recorded are noL surprlslng.
communlLles. nearly Lhree-quarLers of respondenLs (73.2)
belleved LhaL possesslng a nuclear weapon was
Iema|e IGDs
vlLal for naLlonal securlLy, Lhls flgure ls however, a
LlmlLed knowledge of Lhe problem was exhlblLed ln
conLlnuaLlon of levels of uncerLalnLy, raLher Lhan
female lCus buL for Lhose LhaL were aware, lL was
growlng opposlLlon, recorded slnce 2008. 1here ls
commonly belleved LhaL Lhe uS was lrresponslbly
no lndlcaLlon wheLher Lhls Lrend wlll conLlnue lnLo
kllllng lnnocenL people, lncludlng women and
Lhe fuLure. neverLheless, Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of
chlldren.
people from lA1A belleve LhaL reLalnlng a nuclear
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.30: What do you th|nk of US drone str|kes |n IA1A?
4
.
4
7
.
2
0
.
0
1
4
.
3
3
8
.
8
2
4
.
3
1
.
7
1
2
.
9
3
.
7
6
3
.
0
4
.
3
Always [usLlfled SomeLlmes [usLlfled,
lf properly LargeLed
and excesslve clvlllan
casualLles are avolded
never [usLlfled no oplnlon uon'L know no response
3
.
1
undersLandlng lA1A
88
0.0
3.8
0.0
12.5
0.0
13.8
0.0
5.9
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.0
1.6
7.5
0.3
16.1
3.6
34.6
79.6
41.3
52.5
68.1
32.5
35.0
37.5
79.3
41.9
79.0
58.0
71.1
1.1
2.9
1.3
0.0
0.0
17.5
11.3
0.0
5.0
3.5
6.1
4.8
0.4
15.7
8.7
18.8
5.0
25.6
15.0
7.5
11.3
9.3
7.7
8.6
15.2
14.6
47.5
7.1
21.3
38.8
5.6
17.5
45.0
37.5
4.7
23.5
5.3
5.7
10.0
0.0
6.3
0.8
1.8
11.3
1.3
5.0
-
1.1
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan
SouLh WazlrlsLan
Always justified Sometimes justified, if properly targeted and excessive civilian casualties are avoided Never justified
No response No opinion Don't know
I|gure 4.31: What do you th|nk of US drone str|kes |n IA1A? (Agency w|se break down)(ercentage)
ChapLer 4: lA1A ln Lhe ConLexL of lnLernaLlonal ConfllcL
89
0.0
been led by pollLlcal parLles (especlally Lhe 1l) and Powever, parLlclpanLs from Lower kurram
clvll socleLy organlsaLlons. Conslderable opposlLlon supporLed Lhese aLLacks, because Lhey felL Lhey
Lo drone aLLacks ls also, ln parL, a dlrecL resulL of Lhe were addresslng Lhe lssue of 1allbanlsaLlon ln lA1A,
fear held by over one-Lhlrd (34.1) of respondenLs a phenomenon LhaL had Laken Lhe enLlre
LhaL Lhls mlllLary lnLervenLlon (see llgure 4.8) was a populaLlon hosLage. 1herefore, Lhere ls a senLlmenL
LhreaL Lo lndlvlduals' securlLy. LhaL lf Lhe aklsLan Army was unable Lo address Lhe
problem Lhen someone else had Lo Lake acLlon. 1hls
CreaLesL supporL for drone aLLacks was recorded ln
response goes someway Lo undersLandlng Lhe daLa
Lhe lronLler 8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl and 1ank, also
for kurram Agencyfound ln llgure4.31.
kurram Agency and norLh WazlrlsLan - oLherwlse
only very llmlLed bellef ln Lhelr [usLlflcaLlon ls
Nuc|ear possess|onandnat|ona| secur|ty
recorded ln lA1A. AlmosL one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
aklsLan, as a naLlon, ls qulLe defenslve of lLs
werenoL ableLo provldean oplnlon.
nuclear weapons capablllLy. 1he survey soughL Lo
explore how secure Lhe respondenLs felL abouL
Ma|e IGDs
possesslng Lhese weapons conslderlng Lhelr
noL surprlslngly all parLlclpanLs opposed Lhe drone
repuLaLlon ln lnLernaLlonal relaLlons and wlLh
sLrlkes and lL was oplned LhaL whaL supporL Lhere
regard Lo lnLernaLlonal securlLy.
was came from eshawar or lslamabad, areas LhaL
were consldered Lo noL have a very clear ldea of Lhe Conslderlng Lhe hlsLory of confllcL and rlvalry wlLh
lmpacL of drone sLrlkes on lnnocenL people and lndla, Lhe responses recorded are noL surprlslng.
communlLles. nearly Lhree-quarLers of respondenLs (73.2)
belleved LhaL possesslng a nuclear weapon was
Iema|e IGDs
vlLal for naLlonal securlLy, Lhls flgure ls however, a
LlmlLed knowledge of Lhe problem was exhlblLed ln
conLlnuaLlon of levels of uncerLalnLy, raLher Lhan
female lCus buL for Lhose LhaL were aware, lL was
growlng opposlLlon, recorded slnce 2008. 1here ls
commonly belleved LhaL Lhe uS was lrresponslbly
no lndlcaLlon wheLher Lhls Lrend wlll conLlnue lnLo
kllllng lnnocenL people, lncludlng women and
Lhe fuLure. neverLheless, Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of
chlldren.
people from lA1A belleve LhaL reLalnlng a nuclear
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.30: What do you th|nk of US drone str|kes |n IA1A?
4
.
4
7
.
2
0
.
0
1
4
.
3
3
8
.
8
2
4
.
3
1
.
7
1
2
.
9
3
.
7
6
3
.
0
4
.
3
Always [usLlfled SomeLlmes [usLlfled,
lf properly LargeLed
and excesslve clvlllan
casualLles are avolded
never [usLlfled no oplnlon uon'L know no response
3
.
1
undersLandlng lA1A
88
capablllLy ls essenLlal - a bellef almosL unlversally 'lnflaLlon' belng of parLlcular concern. ln addlLlon,
shared by lCu parLlclpanLs, excepL males from 'LerrorlsL aLLacks' were ldenLlfled as Lhe ma[or
SouLh WazlrlsLan, who consldered Lhe weapons Lo LhreaL Lo lndlvlduals' securlLy. lL was also recorded
be a vlLal deLerrenL parLlcularly Lo LhreaLs from LhaL dlfferences of oplnlon on Lhe lmpacL of mlllLary
lndla. operaLlons could be dlsaggregaLed based on
experlences of lnLernal dlsplacemenL. 1hese
prellmlnary flndlngs should be Lhe basls for a more,
ln-depLh lnqulry and also Lhe sub[ecL of pollcy and
1he overall ob[ecLlve of Lhls chapLer was Lo make
posL-confllcL sLraLegles.
expllclL LhelmpacL of confllcL ln lA1A.
A level of pragmaLlsm was also evldenL ln Lerms of
ln splLe of exLernal percepLlons of Lhe lokbtoo
supporL for governmenL mlllLary operaLlons, buL
LradlLlon belng lsolaLed (l.e. ouL of Louch wlLh
conLenLlon remalns as Lo Lhelr lnLeracLlon wlLh
securlLy and pollLlcal concerns ouLslde of Lhe
exLernal forces (l.e. ln Lhe form of uS lnLervenLlon
reglon), respondenLs have dlsplayed a sLrong
and use of drone aLLacks), whlch were commonly
undersLandl ng of lA1A's posl Ll on l n Lhe
opposed. A flndlng compounded by daLa LhaL
lnLernaLlonal arena.
records LhaL Lhe WesL - wlLh a few excepLlons (for
example when Lralnlng Lhe lronLler Corps) - has a
Also, Lhls chapLer allows for exLernal sLakeholders ln
poor repuLaLlon ln lA1A. 1hls reallLy ls llkely Lo
lA1A and oLher lnLeresLed parLles Lo galn a a sLrong
lnhlblL counLer-lnsurgency. 1herefore, lL ls
undersLandlng of Lhe reglon and speclflcally
lmporLanL for Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan Lo
communlLy percepLlons. uaLa LhaL should lnform
address LhelnLernal lssues LhaL aremoLlvaLlng, or aL
pollcy and allow for Lhe developmenL of sLraLegles
Lhe very leasL, enabllng acLs of Lerrorlsm - for
LhaL aresenslLlveLo local aLLlLudes and asplraLlons.
example underdevelopmenL - whlch can ln parL be
achleved wlLhouL necessarlly requlrlng overL
rlmarlly, lL ls essenLlal Lo recognlse LhaL Lwo-Lhlrds
lnLernaLlonal supporL. 1he repuLaLlon of Lhe WesL ls
of people lnLervlewed were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL
lnvesLlgaLed ln greaLer deLall ln subsequenL
aklsLan was headlng ln Lhe wrong dlrecLlon, wlLh
chapLers.
Lhe lssues of 'law and order', 'corrupLlon' and
Conc|us|on
8
6
.
4
7
6
.
9
7
.
3
1
3
.
6
7
3
.
2
4
.
9
2
1
.
9
1
0
.
1
3
.
6
7
8
.
9
1
6
.
0
3
.
1
?es no uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 4.32: Do you th|nk possess|ng nuc|ear weapons enhances ak|stan's secur|ty?
undersLandlng lA1A
90
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
91
Att|tude Towards Re||g|on
and H|||tancy
6hAPTER 5
8ellglously moLlvaLed mlllLancy has a long and opposerellglous mlllLancyor slmplydeslresLablllLy.
slgnlflcanL lnLernaLlonal hlsLory, lncludlng ln SouLh
Asla. ln aklsLan, lslamlc mlllLancy has alded ln
rallylng people LogeLher ln order Lo help forge an
8espondenLs were asked aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhls
lndependenL naLlon sLaLe. lL musL Lherefore be
sLudy on mlllLancy, Lo deflne: 'Pow much of a
acknowledged LhaL mlllLancy, desplLe lLs
LhreaL, lf any, does lslamlc exLremlsm currenLly
conLemporary lmplngemenL on llberal pollLlcs and
poseLo aklsLan?'
rlghLs Lo self-deLermlnaLlon, has conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe
forglng of local and naLlonal ldenLlLles. 1hls
lL was revealed LhaL ln 2011 some 46.0 of survey
leglLlmacy has changed as aLLlLudes have evolved:
parLlclpanLs belleved lslamlc exLremlsm Lo be aL
for example, Lhe 1979 lnsurgency ln AfghanlsLan -
leasL a falrly greaL LhreaL Lo aklsLan, whlle 21.0
agalnsL lnvadlng SovleL unlon forces - was aL Lhe
were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL lL was oot o tbteot ot oll.
Llme consldered a leglLlmaLe acL of deflance,
1hls appears Lo show LhaL, whlle general oplnlon
recelvlng supporL (albelL as a dlrecL consequence of
appears Lo be Lhe same, aLLlLudes are changlng. lL ls
Lhe 'Cold War') by Lhe WesL, and ln parLlcular Lhe
noLable LhaL Lhls laLLer flgure, whlch appears Lo be
uS. 1hls supporL enabled rellglous mlllLanLs Lo
accepLlng of lslamlc exLremlsm, ls comparable Lo
achleve greaL mlllLary success and also usurp Lhe
lnformaLlon llsLed ln llgure 3.2 and 3.3 of LoLal
pollLlcal power of Lhe conLemporary llberal
poslLlve aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe 1allban, ln lLs
soverelgn governmenL of AfghanlsLan.
dlfferenL gulses.
SubsequenLly, Lhese mlllLanLs have conLlnued Lo
ln 2010, approxlmaLely 43.0 of respondenLs
LhreaLen llberal values and lnLernaLlonal peace and
percelved Lhe LhreaL Lo be vety qteot and a furLher
securlLy by dlrecLly Lralnlng and safeguardlng
23.0 Lo be foltly qteot. 1hls ls a reducLlon of some
'LerrorlsLs' LhaL have exacerbaLed clvll-confllcLs
quarLer of all respondenLs. Conversely, re[ecLlon of
(e.g. ln Somalla) and foughL ln Lhe 'War on 1error'.
lslamlc mlllLancy as a LhreaL was held by only 11.0
neverLheless, descrlblng aLLlLudes Lowards
of people ln 2010. neverLheless, Lhe levels of
rellglous mlllLanLs ln aklsLan ls ofLen confuslng, as
concern regardlng lslamlc exLremlsm are noLable as
propaganda from all sldes has creaLed an
only 21.3 of respondenLs had prevlously declared
envlronmenL wlLhln whlch oplnlons have become
'exLremlsm' Lo be Lhe prlmary reason for vlolenceln
dlfflculL Lo form. 1hls ls because, communlLles are
lA1A (seellgure4.9).
boLh belng called Lo flghL for Lhe sake of Musllm
1hls dramaLlc shlfL ls, ln parL, a manlfesLaLlon of Lhe kashmlr and Lhe !lhad ln AfghanlsLan, whlle also
debaLe LhaL conLlnues over who ls responslble for belng called Lo supporL governmenLal securlLy
lnsecurlLy ln aklsLan. As documenLed ln llgure forces as parL of Lhe defence of llberal values and
4.10: oplnlon on responslblllLy for hlgh raLes of Lhe'War on 1error'.
sulclde bomblng ln aklsLan ls largely spllL beLween
lrom ChapLers 1and 4, lL ls evldenL LhaL lnsecurlLy ls
Lhe WesL (parLlcularly Lhe uS), whlch was censured
Lhe prlmary concern ln lA1A and LhaL aklsLan's
ln excess of 30.0 of respondenLs, and Lhe rellglous
mlllLary ls for Lhe mosL parL LrusLed as a provlder of
mlllLanL groups of Lhe 1allban and Al OoeJo,
law and order. 1hls chapLer seeks Lo examlne ln
censured by approxlmaLely 40.0 of people. 8uL
greaLer deLall Lhe exLenL Lo whlch people elLher
Is|am|c extrem|sm and|ts threat to ak|stan
Att|tude 1owards ke||g|on and M|||tancy
ClAPTER 5
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
93
8ellglously moLlvaLed mlllLancy has a long and opposerellglous mlllLancyor slmplydeslresLablllLy.
slgnlflcanL lnLernaLlonal hlsLory, lncludlng ln SouLh
Asla. ln aklsLan, lslamlc mlllLancy has alded ln
rallylng people LogeLher ln order Lo help forge an
8espondenLs were asked aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhls
lndependenL naLlon sLaLe. lL musL Lherefore be
sLudy on mlllLancy, Lo deflne: 'Pow much of a
acknowledged LhaL mlllLancy, desplLe lLs
LhreaL, lf any, does lslamlc exLremlsm currenLly
conLemporary lmplngemenL on llberal pollLlcs and
poseLo aklsLan?'
rlghLs Lo self-deLermlnaLlon, has conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe
forglng of local and naLlonal ldenLlLles. 1hls
lL was revealed LhaL ln 2011 some 46.0 of survey
leglLlmacy has changed as aLLlLudes have evolved:
parLlclpanLs belleved lslamlc exLremlsm Lo be aL
for example, Lhe 1979 lnsurgency ln AfghanlsLan -
leasL a falrly greaL LhreaL Lo aklsLan, whlle 21.0
agalnsL lnvadlng SovleL unlon forces - was aL Lhe
were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL lL was oot o tbteot ot oll.
Llme consldered a leglLlmaLe acL of deflance,
1hls appears Lo show LhaL, whlle general oplnlon
recelvlng supporL (albelL as a dlrecL consequence of
appears Lo be Lhe same, aLLlLudes are changlng. lL ls
Lhe 'Cold War') by Lhe WesL, and ln parLlcular Lhe
noLable LhaL Lhls laLLer flgure, whlch appears Lo be
uS. 1hls supporL enabled rellglous mlllLanLs Lo
accepLlng of lslamlc exLremlsm, ls comparable Lo
achleve greaL mlllLary success and also usurp Lhe
lnformaLlon llsLed ln llgure 3.2 and 3.3 of LoLal
pollLlcal power of Lhe conLemporary llberal
poslLlve aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe 1allban, ln lLs
soverelgn governmenL of AfghanlsLan.
dlfferenL gulses.
SubsequenLly, Lhese mlllLanLs have conLlnued Lo
ln 2010, approxlmaLely 43.0 of respondenLs
LhreaLen llberal values and lnLernaLlonal peace and
percelved Lhe LhreaL Lo be vety qteot and a furLher
securlLy by dlrecLly Lralnlng and safeguardlng
23.0 Lo be foltly qteot. 1hls ls a reducLlon of some
'LerrorlsLs' LhaL have exacerbaLed clvll-confllcLs
quarLer of all respondenLs. Conversely, re[ecLlon of
(e.g. ln Somalla) and foughL ln Lhe 'War on 1error'.
lslamlc mlllLancy as a LhreaL was held by only 11.0
neverLheless, descrlblng aLLlLudes Lowards
of people ln 2010. neverLheless, Lhe levels of
rellglous mlllLanLs ln aklsLan ls ofLen confuslng, as
concern regardlng lslamlc exLremlsm are noLable as
propaganda from all sldes has creaLed an
only 21.3 of respondenLs had prevlously declared
envlronmenL wlLhln whlch oplnlons have become
'exLremlsm' Lo be Lhe prlmary reason for vlolenceln
dlfflculL Lo form. 1hls ls because, communlLles are
lA1A (seellgure4.9).
boLh belng called Lo flghL for Lhe sake of Musllm
1hls dramaLlc shlfL ls, ln parL, a manlfesLaLlon of Lhe kashmlr and Lhe !lhad ln AfghanlsLan, whlle also
debaLe LhaL conLlnues over who ls responslble for belng called Lo supporL governmenLal securlLy
lnsecurlLy ln aklsLan. As documenLed ln llgure forces as parL of Lhe defence of llberal values and
4.10: oplnlon on responslblllLy for hlgh raLes of Lhe'War on 1error'.
sulclde bomblng ln aklsLan ls largely spllL beLween
lrom ChapLers 1and 4, lL ls evldenL LhaL lnsecurlLy ls
Lhe WesL (parLlcularly Lhe uS), whlch was censured
Lhe prlmary concern ln lA1A and LhaL aklsLan's
ln excess of 30.0 of respondenLs, and Lhe rellglous
mlllLary ls for Lhe mosL parL LrusLed as a provlder of
mlllLanL groups of Lhe 1allban and Al OoeJo,
law and order. 1hls chapLer seeks Lo examlne ln
censured by approxlmaLely 40.0 of people. 8uL
greaLer deLall Lhe exLenL Lo whlch people elLher
Is|am|c extrem|sm and|ts threat to ak|stan
Att|tude 1owards ke||g|on and M|||tancy
ClAPTER 5
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
93
consldered Lhe membershlp of Lhls organlsaLlon Lo confuslon over LherooL causes of confllcL ln lA1A.
comprlse forelgn flghLers, who, lL ls assumed are
Cverall, Lhe survey suggesLs LhaL, alLhough Lhe
noL flghLlng for Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe lA1A
ma[orlLy of respondenLs havea negaLlvepercepLlon
communlLles.
of Lhe aklsLanl 1allban, a growlng mlnorlLy are
1he mosL sLrlklng dlfference beLween 2010 and beglnnlng Lo provlde Lhem wlLh supporL, or aL leasL
2011 ls Lhe growLh ln accepLance of Lhe aklsLanl recognlse Lhe valldlLy of Lhelr alms. lL ls Lherefore
1allban as JefeoJets of lslom. ln 2011, 12.1 essenLlal LhaL percepLlons of securlLy and
consldered Lhem Lo be defenders of lslam, Lhls represenLaLlon (see ChapLer 1) be expanded, Lo
flgure ls almosL Lhree Llmes greaLer Lhan LhaL allow for fuLuredaLaLo becollecLed on LheexLenL Lo
recorded a year before. 1hls bellef was supporLed whlch concern ln lA1A relaLes Lo aLLempLs Lo expel
by Lhe percepLlons held by approxlmaLely 9.0 of exLremlsm, parLlcularly lf lL ls consldered by some
respondenLs who consldered Lhelr acLlons Lo be ln Lo beparL of local culLureln Lrlbal areas.
defence of ttlbol commooltles ooJ fteeJom. As
Ma|e IGDs
noLed above, Lhe culmlnaLlon of Lhese flgures ls
Male focus group parLlclpanLs furLher exempllfled
slmllar Lo Lhose holdlng Lhe bellef LhaL lslamlc
Lhe dlfferenL vlews expressed, and gave some
exLremlsm ls noL a LhreaL ln aklsLan. Cverall, Lhls
lndlcaLlon of lnLer-Agency dlfferences. Cverall, Lhe
flndlng ls surprlslng as flndlngs ouLllned ln ChapLer
ma[orlLy vlewed Lhe 1allban as a 'LerrorlsL'
4, regardlng Lhe performance of securlLy provlders,
organlsaLlon, however ln l8 eshawar and Lhe
dld noL appear Lo show much hosLlllLy Lo mlllLary
Agencles of norLh and SouLh WazlrlsLan Lhe vlew
operaLlons on grounds of supporL for Lhe1allban.
was expressed LhaL Lhe aklsLanl 1allban had never
AnoLher noLable change ls LhaL Lhe number of
aLLacked clvlllans and were noL a LhreaL and LhaL
people unable Lo provlde an oplnlon has rlsen
negaLlve aLLlLudes were Lhe resulL of WesLern
sharply Lo almosL one-quarLer of respondenLs from
lnfluenceon Lhemedla.
14.3 ln 2010. 1hls may be a furLher lndlcaLlon of
also, as documenLed by female lCus, Lhls could be any oplnlon on Lhe sub[ecL, however, Lhose LhaL dld
Lhe resulL of changlng percepLlons Lowards generally were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL exLremlsLs could
wheLher exLremlsLs can beclasslfled as Musllms. noL be classlfled as belng Musllms, as Lhe acLs
perpeLraLed by Lhe 1allban, Al OoeJo and sulclde
bombers were noL Lrue Lo lslam, lL was oplned LhaL lL ls essenLlal LhaL furLher research beunderLaken Lo
Lhe LargeLed kllllng of 5blo or 5oool were noL Lrue Lry and undersLand why lslamlc exLremlsm ls
manlfesLaLlons of any rellglon. Powever, lf Lhey growlng ln accepLance, whlle percepLlons of lL
were Lo be, Lhen lslamlc exLremlsm was agreed Lo belng a LhreaL are reduclng - ls lL, for example,
be a source of ruln from rellglous and socleLal because of lncreased accepLance of more radlcal
norms ln aklsLan. forms of lslam ln lA1A, a reacLlon Lo lndlvlduals'
concerns regardlng drone aLLacks (see llgure 4.8),
Descr|b|ng the ak|stan| 1a||ban
confllcL faLlgue, or, Lhe resulL of local percepLlons
lollowlng on from Lhls, Lhe survey Leam asked
changlng Lowards Lhe moLlvaLlons of mlllLanLs (l.e.
respondenLs Lo glve Lhelr vlews on Lwo known
self-lnLeresL lnsLead of lslam). 1hls addlLlonal
groups of lnsurgenLs: Lhe aklsLanl 1allban and
research may also ellclL Lhe percepLlons of almosL
Afghan 1allban. 1o begln wlLh, lnLervlewees were
one-Lhlrd of respondenLs who were unable or
asked Lo choose Lhe characLerlsaLlon LhaL Lhey
unwllllng Lo provldean answer.
LhoughL besL descrlbed LheaklsLanl 1allban.
Ma|e IGDs
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon recorded: Lhere does noL
MalerespondenLs agreed wlLh Lhevlew LhaL lslamlc
appear Lo be a slgnlflcanL change beLween surveys,
exLremlsm was a dlrecL LhreaL Lo aklsLan, as lL
wlLh a few noLable excepLlons. Accordlngly, Lhe
devalued Lhevery ldenLlLyof LhecounLry.
ma[orlLy of respondenLs conLlnue Lo possess a
negaLlve aLLlLude Lowards Lhe aklsLanl 1allban. ln
Powever, as noLed above, recrlmlnaLlons agalnsL
2011, 30.3 of people consldered Lhe 1allban Lo be
WesLern pollcles were also evldenL ln moLlvaLlng,
LerrorlsLs (compared Lo 27.4 ln 2010) and 22.7
and poLenLlally leglLlmlslng, exLremlsm as a
LhaL Lhey were uneducaLed youLhs (compared Lo
consequenceof Lhelr faclllLaLlng Lhe 'occupaLlon' of
24.2 ln 2010). lrom Lhls evldence, lL ls clear LhaL
lslam ln AfghanlsLan and lraq (as well as ln kashmlr).
for Lhe lasL Lwo years approxlmaLely one-half of
Iema|e IGDs respondenLs vlewed Lhe aklsLan 1allban ln less
Lhan favourable Lerms. ln addlLlon, 12-18 1he ma[orlLy of female respondenLs dld noL offer
4
4
.
8
1
0
.
9
8
.
2
1
4
.
8
2
3
.
0
1
1
.
1
2
0
.
0
2
1
.
0
1
8
.
1
2
6
.
2
very greaL lalrly greaL noL a LhreaL aL all uon'L know no response
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.1: now much of a threat, |f any, does Is|am|c extrem|smpose to ak|stan these days?
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.2: now wou|d you descr|be ak|stan| 1a||ban?
Are Lhey
freedom
flghLers
uefenders
of lslam
uefenders
of Lrlbal
communlLles
1errorlsLs uneducaLed
youLh
lorelgn
flghLers
no oplnlon CLher
(speclfy)
uon'L know
undersLandlng lA1A
94
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
9S
1
.
4
3
.
2

5
.
4
1
2
.
1

4
.
55
.
7

2
7
.
4
3
0
.
3

2
4
.
2
2
2
.
7

1
8
.
2
1
2
.
1

4
.
2
8
.
6

0
.
4
0
.
3

1
4
.
3
2
4
.
3

consldered Lhe membershlp of Lhls organlsaLlon Lo confuslon over LherooL causes of confllcL ln lA1A.
comprlse forelgn flghLers, who, lL ls assumed are
Cverall, Lhe survey suggesLs LhaL, alLhough Lhe
noL flghLlng for Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe lA1A
ma[orlLy of respondenLs havea negaLlvepercepLlon
communlLles.
of Lhe aklsLanl 1allban, a growlng mlnorlLy are
1he mosL sLrlklng dlfference beLween 2010 and beglnnlng Lo provlde Lhem wlLh supporL, or aL leasL
2011 ls Lhe growLh ln accepLance of Lhe aklsLanl recognlse Lhe valldlLy of Lhelr alms. lL ls Lherefore
1allban as JefeoJets of lslom. ln 2011, 12.1 essenLlal LhaL percepLlons of securlLy and
consldered Lhem Lo be defenders of lslam, Lhls represenLaLlon (see ChapLer 1) be expanded, Lo
flgure ls almosL Lhree Llmes greaLer Lhan LhaL allow for fuLuredaLaLo becollecLed on LheexLenL Lo
recorded a year before. 1hls bellef was supporLed whlch concern ln lA1A relaLes Lo aLLempLs Lo expel
by Lhe percepLlons held by approxlmaLely 9.0 of exLremlsm, parLlcularly lf lL ls consldered by some
respondenLs who consldered Lhelr acLlons Lo be ln Lo beparL of local culLureln Lrlbal areas.
defence of ttlbol commooltles ooJ fteeJom. As
Ma|e IGDs
noLed above, Lhe culmlnaLlon of Lhese flgures ls
Male focus group parLlclpanLs furLher exempllfled
slmllar Lo Lhose holdlng Lhe bellef LhaL lslamlc
Lhe dlfferenL vlews expressed, and gave some
exLremlsm ls noL a LhreaL ln aklsLan. Cverall, Lhls
lndlcaLlon of lnLer-Agency dlfferences. Cverall, Lhe
flndlng ls surprlslng as flndlngs ouLllned ln ChapLer
ma[orlLy vlewed Lhe 1allban as a 'LerrorlsL'
4, regardlng Lhe performance of securlLy provlders,
organlsaLlon, however ln l8 eshawar and Lhe
dld noL appear Lo show much hosLlllLy Lo mlllLary
Agencles of norLh and SouLh WazlrlsLan Lhe vlew
operaLlons on grounds of supporL for Lhe1allban.
was expressed LhaL Lhe aklsLanl 1allban had never
AnoLher noLable change ls LhaL Lhe number of
aLLacked clvlllans and were noL a LhreaL and LhaL
people unable Lo provlde an oplnlon has rlsen
negaLlve aLLlLudes were Lhe resulL of WesLern
sharply Lo almosL one-quarLer of respondenLs from
lnfluenceon Lhemedla.
14.3 ln 2010. 1hls may be a furLher lndlcaLlon of
also, as documenLed by female lCus, Lhls could be any oplnlon on Lhe sub[ecL, however, Lhose LhaL dld
Lhe resulL of changlng percepLlons Lowards generally were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL exLremlsLs could
wheLher exLremlsLs can beclasslfled as Musllms. noL be classlfled as belng Musllms, as Lhe acLs
perpeLraLed by Lhe 1allban, Al OoeJo and sulclde
bombers were noL Lrue Lo lslam, lL was oplned LhaL lL ls essenLlal LhaL furLher research beunderLaken Lo
Lhe LargeLed kllllng of 5blo or 5oool were noL Lrue Lry and undersLand why lslamlc exLremlsm ls
manlfesLaLlons of any rellglon. Powever, lf Lhey growlng ln accepLance, whlle percepLlons of lL
were Lo be, Lhen lslamlc exLremlsm was agreed Lo belng a LhreaL are reduclng - ls lL, for example,
be a source of ruln from rellglous and socleLal because of lncreased accepLance of more radlcal
norms ln aklsLan. forms of lslam ln lA1A, a reacLlon Lo lndlvlduals'
concerns regardlng drone aLLacks (see llgure 4.8),
Descr|b|ng the ak|stan| 1a||ban
confllcL faLlgue, or, Lhe resulL of local percepLlons
lollowlng on from Lhls, Lhe survey Leam asked
changlng Lowards Lhe moLlvaLlons of mlllLanLs (l.e.
respondenLs Lo glve Lhelr vlews on Lwo known
self-lnLeresL lnsLead of lslam). 1hls addlLlonal
groups of lnsurgenLs: Lhe aklsLanl 1allban and
research may also ellclL Lhe percepLlons of almosL
Afghan 1allban. 1o begln wlLh, lnLervlewees were
one-Lhlrd of respondenLs who were unable or
asked Lo choose Lhe characLerlsaLlon LhaL Lhey
unwllllng Lo provldean answer.
LhoughL besL descrlbed LheaklsLanl 1allban.
Ma|e IGDs
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon recorded: Lhere does noL
MalerespondenLs agreed wlLh Lhevlew LhaL lslamlc
appear Lo be a slgnlflcanL change beLween surveys,
exLremlsm was a dlrecL LhreaL Lo aklsLan, as lL
wlLh a few noLable excepLlons. Accordlngly, Lhe
devalued Lhevery ldenLlLyof LhecounLry.
ma[orlLy of respondenLs conLlnue Lo possess a
negaLlve aLLlLude Lowards Lhe aklsLanl 1allban. ln
Powever, as noLed above, recrlmlnaLlons agalnsL
2011, 30.3 of people consldered Lhe 1allban Lo be
WesLern pollcles were also evldenL ln moLlvaLlng,
LerrorlsLs (compared Lo 27.4 ln 2010) and 22.7
and poLenLlally leglLlmlslng, exLremlsm as a
LhaL Lhey were uneducaLed youLhs (compared Lo
consequenceof Lhelr faclllLaLlng Lhe 'occupaLlon' of
24.2 ln 2010). lrom Lhls evldence, lL ls clear LhaL
lslam ln AfghanlsLan and lraq (as well as ln kashmlr).
for Lhe lasL Lwo years approxlmaLely one-half of
Iema|e IGDs respondenLs vlewed Lhe aklsLan 1allban ln less
Lhan favourable Lerms. ln addlLlon, 12-18 1he ma[orlLy of female respondenLs dld noL offer
4
4
.
8
1
0
.
9
8
.
2
1
4
.
8
2
3
.
0
1
1
.
1
2
0
.
0
2
1
.
0
1
8
.
1
2
6
.
2
very greaL lalrly greaL noL a LhreaL aL all uon'L know no response
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.1: now much of a threat, |f any, does Is|am|c extrem|smpose to ak|stan these days?
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.2: now wou|d you descr|be ak|stan| 1a||ban?
Are Lhey
freedom
flghLers
uefenders
of lslam
uefenders
of Lrlbal
communlLles
1errorlsLs uneducaLed
youLh
lorelgn
flghLers
no oplnlon CLher
(speclfy)
uon'L know
undersLandlng lA1A
94
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
9S
1
.
4
3
.
2

5
.
4
1
2
.
1

4
.
55
.
7

2
7
.
4
3
0
.
3

2
4
.
2
2
2
.
7

1
8
.
2
1
2
.
1

4
.
2
8
.
6

0
.
4
0
.
3

1
4
.
3
2
4
.
3

1allban, Lhere ls a loL of lndeclslon, wlLh on average Lhe Afghan 1allban ls forlorn and wheLher Lhe
approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of respondenLs noL able Lo vlolence LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh Lhe organlsaLlon ls
characLerlse Lhelr aLLlLude Lowards Lhese percelved Lo be of value. ConsequenLly, Lhese
organlsaLlons. lL ls also apparenL LhaL Lhe Afghan percepLlons could have a bearlng on publlc supporL
1allban has greaLer supporL as represenLaLlves of regardlng Lhe pursulL of mlllLanLs by Lhe aklsLanl
lslam Lhan Lhelr aklsLanl counLerparLs, buL Lhls Army.
does noL correspond Lo Lhelr belng welcomed ln
1hls quesLlon has been asked slnce 2008 and Lhe
lA1A especlally as only 12.1 of respondenLs
resulLs for Lhose LhaL belleve Lhe Afghan 1allban wlll
belleve Lhe aklsLanl 1allban Lo be 'defenders of
reLurn Lo power have remalned qulLe consLanL,
lslam', a furLher quesLlon would be requlred Lo
flucLuaLlng beLween 23-30. 1he greaLesL
elucldaLe Lhls. Powever, lL musL be noLed LhaL
flucLuaLlons have been wlLh regard Lo Lhose do noL
supporL for Lhe aklsLanl 1allban does appear Lo be
belleveLheywlll reLurn and LhoseLhaL do noL know.
growlng.
ln 2011, only 13.8 of respondenLs do noL belleve
lnLeresLlngly, 10.0 of respondenLs conslder Lhe
Lhey wlll reLurn Lo power, a flgure more Lhan half
Afghan 1allban Lo beexpllclLlylgnoranL of lslam (Lhls
LhaL of 2010 (37.2) and Lhe lowesL value recorded
flgure should however, noL be consldered accuraLe
Lo daLe. 1hose LhaL were noL able Lo answer
as many who vlew Lhem as LerrorlsLs may do so for
comprlsed almosL 60.0 of respondenLs, a
Lhls same reason): an argumenL LhaL devalues Lhelr
slgnlflcanL rlse ln Lhe number represenLed ln Lhe
repuLaLlon as lslamlc heroes. A furLher 22.0 of
prevlous year (34.6). lL ls noL evldenL why Lhls
respondenLs consldered Lhe aklsLanl 1allban Lo be
change of oplnlon has occurred, buL lL musL be
uneducaLed youLhs, and Lherefore, lL ls assumed,
sLaLed LhaL ln splLe of Lhe reducLlon ln number of
noL as lndlcaLed before: recognlsable 'defenders of
Lhose LhaL do noL Lhlnk Lhey wlll reLurn Lo power
lslam'.
Lherehas been no lncreaseln Lhenumber LhaL Lhlnk
ln conLrasL Lo Lhls vlew of defenders of Lheywlll.
'lslam'/'freedom flghLers', a very slgnlflcanL
lL ls undersLandable LhaL survey parLlclpanLs are
mlnorlLy vlewed LheAfghan 1allban (23.0) and Lhe
unsure as confllcL appears Lo conLlnue unabaLed ln
aklsLanl 1allban (30.0) Lo be noLhlng more Lhan
lA1A, wlLh mlllLary operaLlons belng Lhus far unable
LerrorlsLs. 1hls shows LhaL percepLlons arechanglng
Lo secure compleLe conLrol of LerrlLory ln elLher
and LhaL, for many, Lhese organlsaLlons are loslng
lA1A or AfghanlsLan lLself.
Lhelr leglLlmacyand LrusL.
8egardless, lL appears Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
musL work wlLh Lrlbal communlLles Lo explaln Lhe
pollLlcal, soclal and economlc reasons LhaL Lhey are
vlgorously pursulng confllcL wlLh Lhe 1allban, and
why lL ls worklng wlLh lnLernaLlonal parLners who
appear Lo be percelved by many as Lhe enemy.
CLherwlse confllcL may conLlnue lndeflnlLely ln Lhe
reglon.
Cn quesLlons regardlng Lhe characLerlsaLlon of Lhe
Afghan 1allban, Lhe survey Leam asked respondenLs
Lo sLaLe wheLher Lhey belleve Lhe Afghan 1allban
would reLurn Lo power ln Lhelr homeland. 1hls
quesLlon, ls lmporLanL ln LhaL lL wlll help Lo
deLermlne wheLher Lhe supporL belng provlded Lo
ercept|ons on the ||ke||hood of the 1a||ban
return|ng to power |n Afghan|stan
lA1A and lndlvlduals' fears of drone aLLacks and Iema|e IGDs
1hema[orlLy of femaleparLlclpanLs werepersonally sulcldebomblng.
unsure of Lhe characLer of Lhe aklsLanl 1allban, buL
Ma|e IGDs
Lhey noLed (as above) LhaL lL was noL lslamlc Lo use
MosL parLlclpanLs, ln conLrasL Lo Lhe percepLlons
vlolenceagalnsL oLher Musllms, or human-belngs ln
expressed regardlng Lhe aklsLanl 1allban, vlewed
general.
Lhe Afghan 1allban poslLlvely, wlLh only a mlnorlLy
opposlng Lhls vlew. ln summary, lL was commonly
Descr|b|ng the Afghan1a||ban
asserLed Lhe Afghan 1allban were freedom flghLers,
A slmllar quesLlon was asked of LheAfghan 1allban.
flghLlng agalnsL Lhe WesLern occupaLlon of Lhelr
Arguably, Lhe mosL sLarLllng flndlng ls LhaL ln excess
homeland.
of one-Lhlrd of respondenLs were unable Lo answer
Lhe quesLlon, agaln showlng a greaLer uncerLalnLy.
Iema|e IGDs
1hls common Lheme has affecLed boLh Lhe number
lemale parLlclpanLs appeared Lo dlsagree wlLh Lhe
of Lhose LhaL percelve Lhe Afghan 1allban Lo be
flndlngs of Lhe male lCus, parLlcularly ln Lhe
lslamlc heroes flghLlng WesLern occupaLlon (23.6
Agencles of kurram, Mohmand and Crakzal, where
- sLaylng roughly slmllar, lf sllghLly up from 2010)
oplnlon was negaLlve of Lhe Afghan 1allban, ln
and Lhose LhaL conslder Lhem Lo be LerrorlsLs
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency, parLlclpanLs falled Lo
(24.8 - down approxlmaLely 12 polnLs),
express an oplnlon. 1he general consensus was LhaL
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe percepLlon of Lhe Afghan 1allban
Lhe Afghan 1allban had Laken agalnsL Lhe local
belng lslamlc heroes ls half LhaL recorded ln 2008,
populaLlon and creaLed numerous hardshlps wlLhln
whlle Lhe percepLlon of Lhem belng LerrorlsLs has
lA1A.
doubled ln Lhe same amounL of Llme. 1hese
Conc|us|ons onthe 1a||ban responses are llkely Lo be dlrecLly llnked Lo
Cverall, Lhe daLa presenLed ln llgure 3.2 and 3.3 percepLlons regardlng lncreased LrusL ln ob[ecLlves
lndlcaLes LhaL, for boLh Lhe aklsLanl and Afghan of Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary Lo oppose 'LerrorlsLs' ln
3
6
.
0
8
.
9
2
.
2
n
A
1
.
2
3
.
1
2
0
.
2
1
4
.
6
3
6
.
2
4
.
3
4
.
4
0
.
9
1
9
.
3
2
3
.
6
1
0
.
4
2
4
.
8
7
.
3
7
.
4
0
.
6
3
7
.
3
1
2
.
1
1
9
.
7
4
0
.
4
9
.
0
2
9
.
4
8
.
6
9
.
3
lslamlc heroes
flghLlng WesLern
CccupaLlon
lgnoranL of
lslamlc values/
Leachlng
A LerrorlsL group A pollLlcal group AnLl-women CLher uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.3: What phrase best descr|be Afghan 1a||ban?
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
2
6
.
4
2
8
.
2
3
7
.
2
3
4
.
6
2
3
.
8
1
3
.
8
3
8
.
4
2
4
.
3
4
9
.
2
2
0
.
9
4
9
.
0
3
0
.
1
?es no uon'L know
I|gure S.4: ercept|ons on the ||ke||hood of the
1a||ban return|ng to power |n Afghan|stan
undersLandlng lA1A
96
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
97
n
A
1allban, Lhere ls a loL of lndeclslon, wlLh on average Lhe Afghan 1allban ls forlorn and wheLher Lhe
approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of respondenLs noL able Lo vlolence LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh Lhe organlsaLlon ls
characLerlse Lhelr aLLlLude Lowards Lhese percelved Lo be of value. ConsequenLly, Lhese
organlsaLlons. lL ls also apparenL LhaL Lhe Afghan percepLlons could have a bearlng on publlc supporL
1allban has greaLer supporL as represenLaLlves of regardlng Lhe pursulL of mlllLanLs by Lhe aklsLanl
lslam Lhan Lhelr aklsLanl counLerparLs, buL Lhls Army.
does noL correspond Lo Lhelr belng welcomed ln
1hls quesLlon has been asked slnce 2008 and Lhe
lA1A especlally as only 12.1 of respondenLs
resulLs for Lhose LhaL belleve Lhe Afghan 1allban wlll
belleve Lhe aklsLanl 1allban Lo be 'defenders of
reLurn Lo power have remalned qulLe consLanL,
lslam', a furLher quesLlon would be requlred Lo
flucLuaLlng beLween 23-30. 1he greaLesL
elucldaLe Lhls. Powever, lL musL be noLed LhaL
flucLuaLlons have been wlLh regard Lo Lhose do noL
supporL for Lhe aklsLanl 1allban does appear Lo be
belleveLheywlll reLurn and LhoseLhaL do noL know.
growlng.
ln 2011, only 13.8 of respondenLs do noL belleve
lnLeresLlngly, 10.0 of respondenLs conslder Lhe
Lhey wlll reLurn Lo power, a flgure more Lhan half
Afghan 1allban Lo beexpllclLlylgnoranL of lslam (Lhls
LhaL of 2010 (37.2) and Lhe lowesL value recorded
flgure should however, noL be consldered accuraLe
Lo daLe. 1hose LhaL were noL able Lo answer
as many who vlew Lhem as LerrorlsLs may do so for
comprlsed almosL 60.0 of respondenLs, a
Lhls same reason): an argumenL LhaL devalues Lhelr
slgnlflcanL rlse ln Lhe number represenLed ln Lhe
repuLaLlon as lslamlc heroes. A furLher 22.0 of
prevlous year (34.6). lL ls noL evldenL why Lhls
respondenLs consldered Lhe aklsLanl 1allban Lo be
change of oplnlon has occurred, buL lL musL be
uneducaLed youLhs, and Lherefore, lL ls assumed,
sLaLed LhaL ln splLe of Lhe reducLlon ln number of
noL as lndlcaLed before: recognlsable 'defenders of
Lhose LhaL do noL Lhlnk Lhey wlll reLurn Lo power
lslam'.
Lherehas been no lncreaseln Lhenumber LhaL Lhlnk
ln conLrasL Lo Lhls vlew of defenders of Lheywlll.
'lslam'/'freedom flghLers', a very slgnlflcanL
lL ls undersLandable LhaL survey parLlclpanLs are
mlnorlLy vlewed LheAfghan 1allban (23.0) and Lhe
unsure as confllcL appears Lo conLlnue unabaLed ln
aklsLanl 1allban (30.0) Lo be noLhlng more Lhan
lA1A, wlLh mlllLary operaLlons belng Lhus far unable
LerrorlsLs. 1hls shows LhaL percepLlons arechanglng
Lo secure compleLe conLrol of LerrlLory ln elLher
and LhaL, for many, Lhese organlsaLlons are loslng
lA1A or AfghanlsLan lLself.
Lhelr leglLlmacyand LrusL.
8egardless, lL appears Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
musL work wlLh Lrlbal communlLles Lo explaln Lhe
pollLlcal, soclal and economlc reasons LhaL Lhey are
vlgorously pursulng confllcL wlLh Lhe 1allban, and
why lL ls worklng wlLh lnLernaLlonal parLners who
appear Lo be percelved by many as Lhe enemy.
CLherwlse confllcL may conLlnue lndeflnlLely ln Lhe
reglon.
Cn quesLlons regardlng Lhe characLerlsaLlon of Lhe
Afghan 1allban, Lhe survey Leam asked respondenLs
Lo sLaLe wheLher Lhey belleve Lhe Afghan 1allban
would reLurn Lo power ln Lhelr homeland. 1hls
quesLlon, ls lmporLanL ln LhaL lL wlll help Lo
deLermlne wheLher Lhe supporL belng provlded Lo
ercept|ons on the ||ke||hood of the 1a||ban
return|ng to power |n Afghan|stan
lA1A and lndlvlduals' fears of drone aLLacks and Iema|e IGDs
1hema[orlLy of femaleparLlclpanLs werepersonally sulcldebomblng.
unsure of Lhe characLer of Lhe aklsLanl 1allban, buL
Ma|e IGDs
Lhey noLed (as above) LhaL lL was noL lslamlc Lo use
MosL parLlclpanLs, ln conLrasL Lo Lhe percepLlons
vlolenceagalnsL oLher Musllms, or human-belngs ln
expressed regardlng Lhe aklsLanl 1allban, vlewed
general.
Lhe Afghan 1allban poslLlvely, wlLh only a mlnorlLy
opposlng Lhls vlew. ln summary, lL was commonly
Descr|b|ng the Afghan1a||ban
asserLed Lhe Afghan 1allban were freedom flghLers,
A slmllar quesLlon was asked of LheAfghan 1allban.
flghLlng agalnsL Lhe WesLern occupaLlon of Lhelr
Arguably, Lhe mosL sLarLllng flndlng ls LhaL ln excess
homeland.
of one-Lhlrd of respondenLs were unable Lo answer
Lhe quesLlon, agaln showlng a greaLer uncerLalnLy.
Iema|e IGDs
1hls common Lheme has affecLed boLh Lhe number
lemale parLlclpanLs appeared Lo dlsagree wlLh Lhe
of Lhose LhaL percelve Lhe Afghan 1allban Lo be
flndlngs of Lhe male lCus, parLlcularly ln Lhe
lslamlc heroes flghLlng WesLern occupaLlon (23.6
Agencles of kurram, Mohmand and Crakzal, where
- sLaylng roughly slmllar, lf sllghLly up from 2010)
oplnlon was negaLlve of Lhe Afghan 1allban, ln
and Lhose LhaL conslder Lhem Lo be LerrorlsLs
SouLh WazlrlsLan Agency, parLlclpanLs falled Lo
(24.8 - down approxlmaLely 12 polnLs),
express an oplnlon. 1he general consensus was LhaL
lnLeresLlngly, Lhe percepLlon of Lhe Afghan 1allban
Lhe Afghan 1allban had Laken agalnsL Lhe local
belng lslamlc heroes ls half LhaL recorded ln 2008,
populaLlon and creaLed numerous hardshlps wlLhln
whlle Lhe percepLlon of Lhem belng LerrorlsLs has
lA1A.
doubled ln Lhe same amounL of Llme. 1hese
Conc|us|ons onthe 1a||ban responses are llkely Lo be dlrecLly llnked Lo
Cverall, Lhe daLa presenLed ln llgure 3.2 and 3.3 percepLlons regardlng lncreased LrusL ln ob[ecLlves
lndlcaLes LhaL, for boLh Lhe aklsLanl and Afghan of Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary Lo oppose 'LerrorlsLs' ln
3
6
.
0
8
.
9
2
.
2
n
A
1
.
2
3
.
1
2
0
.
2
1
4
.
6
3
6
.
2
4
.
3
4
.
4
0
.
9
1
9
.
3
2
3
.
6
1
0
.
4
2
4
.
8
7
.
3
7
.
4
0
.
6
3
7
.
3
1
2
.
1
1
9
.
7
4
0
.
4
9
.
0
2
9
.
4
8
.
6
9
.
3
lslamlc heroes
flghLlng WesLern
CccupaLlon
lgnoranL of
lslamlc values/
Leachlng
A LerrorlsL group A pollLlcal group AnLl-women CLher uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.3: What phrase best descr|be Afghan 1a||ban?
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
2
6
.
4
2
8
.
2
3
7
.
2
3
4
.
6
2
3
.
8
1
3
.
8
3
8
.
4
2
4
.
3
4
9
.
2
2
0
.
9
4
9
.
0
3
0
.
1
?es no uon'L know
I|gure S.4: ercept|ons on the ||ke||hood of the
1a||ban return|ng to power |n Afghan|stan
undersLandlng lA1A
96
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
97
n
A
dlscover lf respondenLs were aware of Al Caeda. ln
boLh 2011 and 2010, approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of
respondenLs were aware, Lhe remalnlng Lwo-
Lhlrds, perhaps, were noL. Al Caeda ls ofLen
menLloned ln Lhe medla and dlscussed aL bojto
gaLherlngs, Lherefore, Lhe dlscrepancy ln
knowledge may noL be as sLark as lL ls recorded:
lnsLead fear of lnLelllgence agencles, 1allban and Al
Caeda l nformers coul d have l nfl uenced
respondenLs.
1hose who answered 'yes' Lhey dld know abouL Al
Caeda were subsequenLly asked Lo express Lhelr
vlews on Lhe neLwork. As lllusLraLed by llgure 3.7,
20 of respondenLs held a favourable vlew of Al
Caeda buL Lhe 37.3 vlewed Lhem ln some
unfavourablellghL.
Agaln Lhere has been a slgnlflcanL change wlLh
regard Lo Lhose LhaL could noL provlde an answer.
Iore|gnI|had| f|ghters ||v|ng |nIA1A 1hls ls remlnlscenL of Lhe flndlngs on Lhe 1allban,
agaln lndlcaLlng LhaL a growlng confuslon has lorelgn !lhadl flghLers began enLerlng lA1A ln Lhe
arlsen. lL ls noL clear why Lhls ls Lhe case, lL could early-1980s, durlng Lhe SovleL-Afghan War. AL lLs
perhaps be a resulL of sLalllng mlllLary progress concluslon, many local Lrlbes offered asylum and
agalnsL Al Caeda, a loss of supporL for Lhe 'War on proLecLlon Lo Lhese flghLers under Lhe code of
1error', or, afear of saylng someLhlng lncrlmlnaLlng. lokbtoowoll. lL ls noL clear whaL role Lhese forces
played durlng 1allban supremacy ln AfghanlsLan,
Ma|e IGDs
buL lL ls belleved LhaL slnce Lhe uS-led lnLervenLlon
8ased on Lhe presenL slLuaLlon ln lA1A and Lhe
Lhey have, along wlLh new lnLernaLlonal flghLers,
conLlnulng lmpacL of Lhe 'War on 1error', Lhe
responded Lo Lhecall of IlboJ.
general feellng was LhaL Al Caeda ls a negaLlve
Clven Lhelnfluenceof lnLernaLlonal flghLers ln lA1A,
neLwork. Powever, some parLlclpanLs from norLh
respondenLs were asked Lo express Lhelr vlews on
WazlrlsLan declared supporL for Al Caeda ln Lhelr
how communl Ll es shoul d respond, as a
flghL for lslam agalnsL LheWesL.
consequence of Lhelr lmpacL on peace and securlLy
Iema|e IGDs ln Lhe Lrlbal areas. lnLervlewees were lnvlLed Lo glve
lemale parLlclpanLs noLed LhaL Lhey were aware of moreLhan oneoplnlon.
Csama 8ln Laden buL were noL as knowledgeable
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed ln llgure 3.8 lL
on Al Caeda. 1hey consldered Csama bln Laden Lo
appears LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy deslre LhaL Lhese
have been a good man, spendlng much money Lo
lnLernaLlonal flghLers leave. ln 2011, 72.8 oplned
provldeservlces for local people.
LhaL Lhese lnLernaLlonals should be asked Lo leave,
lrom Lhls, lL seems Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan ls whlle, 28.3 consldered LhaL Lhey should be
golng Lo need Lo engage wlLh communlLles Lo removed by force. 1hls oplnlon ls a conLlnuaLlon of
educaLe Lhem on how Al Caeda and oLher rellglous aLLlLudes expressed ln 2010 - respondenLs were
mlllLanLs are devalulng raLher Lhan empowerlng only able Lo make one selecLlon so Lhe daLa ls noL
communlLles, Lhus, why LhegovernmenL ls engaged enLlrely comparable, buL approxlmaLely 43 of
ln a 'War on 1error' agalnsL organlsaLlons led by respondenLs deslred Lhe forced evlcLlon of
lndlvlduals such as Csamabln Laden. lnLernaLlonal flghLers and a furLher 23 oplned LhaL
Lheyshould beasked Lo leave.
Accordlngly, Lhe daLa appears Lo be more closely
llnked Lo Lhe conLemporary slLuaLlon ln AfghanlsLan
raLher Lhan one of excesslve blas. 8egardless, Lhls
quesLlon ls noL an endorsemenL of Lhe vlolenL
operaLlons used by Lhe 1allban ln elLher lA1A or
AfghanlsLan. AddlLlonal quesLlons would need Lo be
asked, ln order Lo undersLand wheLher a successful
reLurn Lo power can only posslbly be achleved by
vlolence alone, and wheLher vlolence ls consldered
a leglLlmaLe means of seeklng a reLurn Lo power ln
AfghanlsLan?
Ma|e IGDs
1here were conLrasLlng vlews expressed ln Lhe male
percepLlon LhaL Lhe 1allban ls flghLlng for lslam (see
lCus. Some parLlclpanLs belleved LhaL Lhe Afghan
llgure 3.3), however, as shown ln ChapLer 6, Lhls
1allban would reLurn Lo power, followlng Lhe defeaL
could equally be an example of Lhe lA1A people's
of uSforces
deslrefor Afghan refugees Lo berepaLrlaLed.
ln comparlson, oLher parLlclpanLs oplned LhaL Lhe
Also, undersLandlng of Lhe flgures relaLlng Lo Lhose
1allban would noL be able Lo reLurn Lo power
who would feel badly lf Lhe Afghan 1allban,
because Lhey would noL be accepLed by Lhe people
reLurned Lo power could elLher reflecL arevulslon Lo
of AfghanlsLan.
lslamlc fundamenLallsm (see llgure 3.1) or as
oplned by some members from Lhe male lCus
Iema|e IGDs
could resulL ln a furLher decllne ln law and order ln
1he common percepLlon of parLlclpanLs was LhaL
lA1A. ConsequenLly, Lhe answer Lo Lhls quesLlon
Lhey dld noL know wheLher Lhe Afghan 1allban
(and LhaL reporLed ln llgure 3.4), whlle remalnlng
would reLurn Lo power.
valuable, requlres furLher analysls.
now wou|dyoufee| about th|s |f they d|d?
A| aeda
ln response Lo a quesLlon concernlng anLlclpaLed
lL has been alleged LhaL local Lrlbes ln lA1A have
feellngs should Lhe Afghan 1allban reLurn Lo power:
glven shelLer Lo Al Caeda. 1hls survey has soughL Lo
agaln Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs (41.7) were noL
able Lo answer. lL ls noL evldenL wheLher Lhls relaLes
Lo acerLaln level of apaLhyLowards lssues ouLsldeof
lA1A or an unwllllngness/lnablllLy Lo offer an
oplnlon.
erhaps surprlslngly, glven aLLlLudes Lo lslamlc
exLremlsm ln aklsLan (see llgure 3.1), a sLrong
mlnorlLy of respondenLs belleve LhaL AfghanlsLan
would be beLLer off lf Lhe 1allban reLurned Lo
power, Lhls ls supporLed by 19.2 of respondenLs
who would feel vety qooJ abouL Lhls and 20.4 who
would feel somewbot qooJ. ln comparlson, less
Lhan 19.0 would feel Lo somedegree: boJ.
1he flndlngs of Lhls daLa are noL enLlrely apparenL
buL show LhaL many people supporL Lhe reLurn of
Lhe Afghan 1allban Lo power ln AfghanlsLan, lL could
be argued LhaL Lhls ls an endorsemenL of Lhe
2011 ()
1
9
.
2
3
.
9
4
1
.
7
1
4
.
8
2
0
.
4
very good SomewhaL
good
very bad SomewhaL
bad
uon'L know
I|gure S.S: now wou|d you fee| about 1a||ban
return|ng to power |n Afghan|stan?
3
9
.
3
6
0
.
3
6
0
.
1
3
9
.
9
?es no
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.6: Do you know what A|-aeda |s?
7
.
6
4
3
.
2
3
.
0
2
2
.
2
2
7
.
4
1
6
.
8
8
.
7
3
4
.
2
2
3
.
1
1
1
.
8
very
favourable
arLly
favourable
unfavourable very
unfavourable
no
oplnlon
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.7: What do you th|nk of A| aeda?
undersLandlng lA1A
98
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
99
dlscover lf respondenLs were aware of Al Caeda. ln
boLh 2011 and 2010, approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of
respondenLs were aware, Lhe remalnlng Lwo-
Lhlrds, perhaps, were noL. Al Caeda ls ofLen
menLloned ln Lhe medla and dlscussed aL bojto
gaLherlngs, Lherefore, Lhe dlscrepancy ln
knowledge may noL be as sLark as lL ls recorded:
lnsLead fear of lnLelllgence agencles, 1allban and Al
Caeda l nformers coul d have l nfl uenced
respondenLs.
1hose who answered 'yes' Lhey dld know abouL Al
Caeda were subsequenLly asked Lo express Lhelr
vlews on Lhe neLwork. As lllusLraLed by llgure 3.7,
20 of respondenLs held a favourable vlew of Al
Caeda buL Lhe 37.3 vlewed Lhem ln some
unfavourablellghL.
Agaln Lhere has been a slgnlflcanL change wlLh
regard Lo Lhose LhaL could noL provlde an answer.
Iore|gnI|had| f|ghters ||v|ng |nIA1A 1hls ls remlnlscenL of Lhe flndlngs on Lhe 1allban,
agaln lndlcaLlng LhaL a growlng confuslon has lorelgn !lhadl flghLers began enLerlng lA1A ln Lhe
arlsen. lL ls noL clear why Lhls ls Lhe case, lL could early-1980s, durlng Lhe SovleL-Afghan War. AL lLs
perhaps be a resulL of sLalllng mlllLary progress concluslon, many local Lrlbes offered asylum and
agalnsL Al Caeda, a loss of supporL for Lhe 'War on proLecLlon Lo Lhese flghLers under Lhe code of
1error', or, afear of saylng someLhlng lncrlmlnaLlng. lokbtoowoll. lL ls noL clear whaL role Lhese forces
played durlng 1allban supremacy ln AfghanlsLan,
Ma|e IGDs
buL lL ls belleved LhaL slnce Lhe uS-led lnLervenLlon
8ased on Lhe presenL slLuaLlon ln lA1A and Lhe
Lhey have, along wlLh new lnLernaLlonal flghLers,
conLlnulng lmpacL of Lhe 'War on 1error', Lhe
responded Lo Lhecall of IlboJ.
general feellng was LhaL Al Caeda ls a negaLlve
Clven Lhelnfluenceof lnLernaLlonal flghLers ln lA1A,
neLwork. Powever, some parLlclpanLs from norLh
respondenLs were asked Lo express Lhelr vlews on
WazlrlsLan declared supporL for Al Caeda ln Lhelr
how communl Ll es shoul d respond, as a
flghL for lslam agalnsL LheWesL.
consequence of Lhelr lmpacL on peace and securlLy
Iema|e IGDs ln Lhe Lrlbal areas. lnLervlewees were lnvlLed Lo glve
lemale parLlclpanLs noLed LhaL Lhey were aware of moreLhan oneoplnlon.
Csama 8ln Laden buL were noL as knowledgeable
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed ln llgure 3.8 lL
on Al Caeda. 1hey consldered Csama bln Laden Lo
appears LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy deslre LhaL Lhese
have been a good man, spendlng much money Lo
lnLernaLlonal flghLers leave. ln 2011, 72.8 oplned
provldeservlces for local people.
LhaL Lhese lnLernaLlonals should be asked Lo leave,
lrom Lhls, lL seems Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan ls whlle, 28.3 consldered LhaL Lhey should be
golng Lo need Lo engage wlLh communlLles Lo removed by force. 1hls oplnlon ls a conLlnuaLlon of
educaLe Lhem on how Al Caeda and oLher rellglous aLLlLudes expressed ln 2010 - respondenLs were
mlllLanLs are devalulng raLher Lhan empowerlng only able Lo make one selecLlon so Lhe daLa ls noL
communlLles, Lhus, why LhegovernmenL ls engaged enLlrely comparable, buL approxlmaLely 43 of
ln a 'War on 1error' agalnsL organlsaLlons led by respondenLs deslred Lhe forced evlcLlon of
lndlvlduals such as Csamabln Laden. lnLernaLlonal flghLers and a furLher 23 oplned LhaL
Lheyshould beasked Lo leave.
Accordlngly, Lhe daLa appears Lo be more closely
llnked Lo Lhe conLemporary slLuaLlon ln AfghanlsLan
raLher Lhan one of excesslve blas. 8egardless, Lhls
quesLlon ls noL an endorsemenL of Lhe vlolenL
operaLlons used by Lhe 1allban ln elLher lA1A or
AfghanlsLan. AddlLlonal quesLlons would need Lo be
asked, ln order Lo undersLand wheLher a successful
reLurn Lo power can only posslbly be achleved by
vlolence alone, and wheLher vlolence ls consldered
a leglLlmaLe means of seeklng a reLurn Lo power ln
AfghanlsLan?
Ma|e IGDs
1here were conLrasLlng vlews expressed ln Lhe male
percepLlon LhaL Lhe 1allban ls flghLlng for lslam (see
lCus. Some parLlclpanLs belleved LhaL Lhe Afghan
llgure 3.3), however, as shown ln ChapLer 6, Lhls
1allban would reLurn Lo power, followlng Lhe defeaL
could equally be an example of Lhe lA1A people's
of uSforces
deslrefor Afghan refugees Lo berepaLrlaLed.
ln comparlson, oLher parLlclpanLs oplned LhaL Lhe
Also, undersLandlng of Lhe flgures relaLlng Lo Lhose
1allban would noL be able Lo reLurn Lo power
who would feel badly lf Lhe Afghan 1allban,
because Lhey would noL be accepLed by Lhe people
reLurned Lo power could elLher reflecL arevulslon Lo
of AfghanlsLan.
lslamlc fundamenLallsm (see llgure 3.1) or as
oplned by some members from Lhe male lCus
Iema|e IGDs
could resulL ln a furLher decllne ln law and order ln
1he common percepLlon of parLlclpanLs was LhaL
lA1A. ConsequenLly, Lhe answer Lo Lhls quesLlon
Lhey dld noL know wheLher Lhe Afghan 1allban
(and LhaL reporLed ln llgure 3.4), whlle remalnlng
would reLurn Lo power.
valuable, requlres furLher analysls.
now wou|dyoufee| about th|s |f they d|d?
A| aeda
ln response Lo a quesLlon concernlng anLlclpaLed
lL has been alleged LhaL local Lrlbes ln lA1A have
feellngs should Lhe Afghan 1allban reLurn Lo power:
glven shelLer Lo Al Caeda. 1hls survey has soughL Lo
agaln Lhe ma[orlLy of respondenLs (41.7) were noL
able Lo answer. lL ls noL evldenL wheLher Lhls relaLes
Lo acerLaln level of apaLhyLowards lssues ouLsldeof
lA1A or an unwllllngness/lnablllLy Lo offer an
oplnlon.
erhaps surprlslngly, glven aLLlLudes Lo lslamlc
exLremlsm ln aklsLan (see llgure 3.1), a sLrong
mlnorlLy of respondenLs belleve LhaL AfghanlsLan
would be beLLer off lf Lhe 1allban reLurned Lo
power, Lhls ls supporLed by 19.2 of respondenLs
who would feel vety qooJ abouL Lhls and 20.4 who
would feel somewbot qooJ. ln comparlson, less
Lhan 19.0 would feel Lo somedegree: boJ.
1he flndlngs of Lhls daLa are noL enLlrely apparenL
buL show LhaL many people supporL Lhe reLurn of
Lhe Afghan 1allban Lo power ln AfghanlsLan, lL could
be argued LhaL Lhls ls an endorsemenL of Lhe
2011 ()
1
9
.
2
3
.
9
4
1
.
7
1
4
.
8
2
0
.
4
very good SomewhaL
good
very bad SomewhaL
bad
uon'L know
I|gure S.S: now wou|d you fee| about 1a||ban
return|ng to power |n Afghan|stan?
3
9
.
3
6
0
.
3
6
0
.
1
3
9
.
9
?es no
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.6: Do you know what A|-aeda |s?
7
.
6
4
3
.
2
3
.
0
2
2
.
2
2
7
.
4
1
6
.
8
8
.
7
3
4
.
2
2
3
.
1
1
1
.
8
very
favourable
arLly
favourable
unfavourable very
unfavourable
no
oplnlon
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.7: What do you th|nk of A| aeda?
undersLandlng lA1A
98
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
99
ln 2011, Lwo-Lhlrds of respondenLs (67.3) sLaLed
were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL rellglon should ploy oo tole
LhaL Lhey belleved LhaL rellglon should ptovlJe o
lopolltlcs.
motol coJe tbot evety ooe sboolJ follow (for
8ulldlng on Lhese flndlngs, quesLlons were asked of
lnformaLlon on Lhe rellglous pracLlces of
how respondenLs vlew LheLwo lssues of: 1) 'Ponour
respondenLs see Lhe Annex on Lhe demography of
kllllngs', relaLed Lo one of Lhe fundamenLal plllars of
Lhe survey). 8ellglon's uLlllLy as a 'moral code' ls a
lokbtoo culLure and 2) 'Sulclde bomblngs', a
common expecLaLl on, wl Lh respondenLs
conLroverslal aspecL LhaL ls relaLed Lo exLremlsL
lncreaslngly allocaLlng Lhls responslblllLy (as lLs
lslam, as aspecLs of socleLy ln lA1A LhaL may be
prlmary role) beLween 2008and 2010.
lnfluenced byrellglous codes of conducL.
AddlLlonally, lL was malnLalned by one-Lhlrd of
'nonour k||||ng'
parLlclpanLs (34.3) LhaL rellglon should Jlctote
Slnce 2008, lL appears LhaL percepLlons have
womeos tlqbts. 1hls aLLlLude ls llkely Lo be
changed. CAM's flrsL survey of lA1A documenLed
slgnlflcanL lf Lhe securlLy concerns of women
LhaL 61 of respondenLs felL LhaL 'honour kllllng'
(ldenLlfled ln ChapLer 1) and concerns abouL
was noL [usLlflable compared Lo Lhe some 33 LhaL
communl Ly l ncl usl on l n governance and
lL may be condoned ln cerLaln slLuaLlons. ln 2011,
developmenL (see ChapLer 3) are Lo be faclllLaLed.
Lhl s percepLl on had been reversed wl Lh
ConsequenLly, lnlLlaLlves wlll need Lo be senslLlve Lo
approxlmaLely 43 agreelng LhaL acL was
Lhe conLexL and noL anLagonlse or marglnallse
condonable compared Lo [usL 38 LhaL conLlnued
dlfferenL socleLal groups. lL should be noLed LhaL, ln
Lo belleveLhaL lL ls noL.
2010 only 4.6 of lnLervlewees consldered Lhls
conLrol Lheprlmary responslblllLyof rellglon.
lL ls noL evldenL why Lhls change has occurred, buL A furLher 21.0 of people consldered LhaL rellglon
Lhls lncrease may be Lhe resulL of lnsLances of should deflne crlmlnal and clvll laws. 1hls agaln
1allbanlsaLlon or lslamlc exLremlsm lnfluenclng would have lmpllcaLlons for lnlLlaLlves Lo lnLegraLe
soclal convenLlons. noneLheless, lL appears LhaL lf communlLles and Lherefore musL be consldered, as
rellglon ls Lo provlde a 'moral code' Lhen above. uaLa recorded also found LhaL 10.8 of
Jefloe bow qovetomeots ote conLemporary demands may be more conservaLlve respondenLs should
selecteJ Lhan Lheywereln prevlous years. , a polnL of vlew re[ecLed by 1.3, who
ln conLrasL only 3.3 responded LhaL Lhese
flghLers seLLllng ln Lhelr hosL communlLy by
lnLernaLlonals should be allowed Lo sLay, buL Lhls
marrylng local women and possesslng properLy.
lncreased Lo 10.8 lf Lhey agreed Lo ablde by a
Iema|e IGDs
ceaseflre. 1hls oplnlon colncldes wlLh general
lemale parLlclpanLs were unaware of forelgn
aLLlLudes Lowards Afghan refugees (see ChapLer 6)
flghLers ln lA1A.
and mlsLrusL of governmenLal lnsLlLuLlons when
lmposed on lA1A (see ChapLers 1 and 4), as well as
ko|e of re||g|on|nIA1A
relnforclng Lhe percepLlon LhaL Lrlbal communlLles
8ellglon plays an lmporLanL role ln pollLlcal and
resenL exLernal lnfluences on Lhelr culLure and
soclal llfe ln aklsLan, as well as lnsplrlng, and
LradlLlons.
leglLlmlslng, Lhe varlous sLages of IlboJ.
Cverall, 12 of respondenLs dld noL belleve LhaL ConsequenLly, lnLervlewees were asked Lo lndlcaLe
LherewerelnLernaLlonal flghLers ln lA1A. whaL role, lf any, rellglon should play ln Lhelr llves.
unllke ln prevlous years, respondenLs were lnvlLed
AlmosL half of Lhose quesLloned dld noL provlde a
Lo make more Lhan one cholce from Lhose offered
vlew on Lhe sub[ecL. 1herefore, whlle Lhe
(onlykeydaLals llsLed ln llgure3.9).
lnformaLlon documenLed ls compelllng, lL may noL
befullydescrlpLlveof communal aLLlLudes.
Ma|e IGDs
Male focus groups were ln general agreemenL LhaL
forelgn flghLers should be forced Lo leave because
Lhey were a vlolenL source of lnsecurlLy. Powever, lL
was consldered LhaL Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary would
have Lo lnLervene Lo ensure Lhls ouLcome because
Lhese flghLers were unllkely Lo leave lf asked
peacefully.
CLher respondenLs dld noLe LhaL Lhere mlghL be
some compllcaLlon as a resulL of some lnLernaLlonal
3
.
3
2
8
.
3
1
1
.
8
2
3
.
2
2
4
.
1
7
2
.
8
1
0
.
8
1hey should be
allowed Lo sLay
1hey should be
allowed Lo sLay
buL only lf Lhey
ablde by a
ceaseflre
1hey should be
asked Lo leave
1hey should be
forced Lo leave
by Lhe aklsLanl
mlllLary
1here aren'L any
lnLernaLlonal
flghLers ln lA1A
no oplnlon uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure S.8: What shou|d happen to any fore|gn f|ghter]I|had| current|y ||v|ng |n IA1A?
6
7
.
3
2
1
.
0
1
0
.
8
1
7
.
2
3
4
.
3
1
.
3

r
o
v
l
d
e

a
m
o
r
a
l

c
o
d
e
L
h
a
L

e
v
e
r
y

l
a
y

n
o

r
o
l
e
l
n

p
o
l
l
L
l
c
s
u
l
c
L
a
L
e
w
o
m
e
n
'
s
r
l
g
h
L
s
u
e
f
l
n
e
c
r
l
m
l
n
a
l

a
n
d
c
l
v
l
l

l
a
w
s
u
e
f
l
n
e

h
o
w
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
L
s
a
r
e

s
e
l
e
c
L
e
d
n
o

o
p
l
n
l
o
n
2011 ()
I|gure S.9: ko|e of re||g|on |n IA1A
1
8
.
9
3
.
9
4
4
.
0
4
7
.
6
n
A
8
.
4
4
4
.
3
3
7
.
8
1
7
.
7
1
4
.
3
6
1
.
0
2
3
.
3
1
0
.
2
1
7
.
7
4
6
.
7
?es no SomeLlmes uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.10: Do you th|nk that a person has the r|ght to k||| a re|at|ve to protect the honour of the|r fam||y?
undersLandlng lA1A
100
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
101
n
A
ln 2011, Lwo-Lhlrds of respondenLs (67.3) sLaLed
were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL rellglon should ploy oo tole
LhaL Lhey belleved LhaL rellglon should ptovlJe o
lopolltlcs.
motol coJe tbot evety ooe sboolJ follow (for
8ulldlng on Lhese flndlngs, quesLlons were asked of
lnformaLlon on Lhe rellglous pracLlces of
how respondenLs vlew LheLwo lssues of: 1) 'Ponour
respondenLs see Lhe Annex on Lhe demography of
kllllngs', relaLed Lo one of Lhe fundamenLal plllars of
Lhe survey). 8ellglon's uLlllLy as a 'moral code' ls a
lokbtoo culLure and 2) 'Sulclde bomblngs', a
common expecLaLl on, wl Lh respondenLs
conLroverslal aspecL LhaL ls relaLed Lo exLremlsL
lncreaslngly allocaLlng Lhls responslblllLy (as lLs
lslam, as aspecLs of socleLy ln lA1A LhaL may be
prlmary role) beLween 2008and 2010.
lnfluenced byrellglous codes of conducL.
AddlLlonally, lL was malnLalned by one-Lhlrd of
'nonour k||||ng'
parLlclpanLs (34.3) LhaL rellglon should Jlctote
Slnce 2008, lL appears LhaL percepLlons have
womeos tlqbts. 1hls aLLlLude ls llkely Lo be
changed. CAM's flrsL survey of lA1A documenLed
slgnlflcanL lf Lhe securlLy concerns of women
LhaL 61 of respondenLs felL LhaL 'honour kllllng'
(ldenLlfled ln ChapLer 1) and concerns abouL
was noL [usLlflable compared Lo Lhe some 33 LhaL
communl Ly l ncl usl on l n governance and
lL may be condoned ln cerLaln slLuaLlons. ln 2011,
developmenL (see ChapLer 3) are Lo be faclllLaLed.
Lhl s percepLl on had been reversed wl Lh
ConsequenLly, lnlLlaLlves wlll need Lo be senslLlve Lo
approxlmaLely 43 agreelng LhaL acL was
Lhe conLexL and noL anLagonlse or marglnallse
condonable compared Lo [usL 38 LhaL conLlnued
dlfferenL socleLal groups. lL should be noLed LhaL, ln
Lo belleveLhaL lL ls noL.
2010 only 4.6 of lnLervlewees consldered Lhls
conLrol Lheprlmary responslblllLyof rellglon.
lL ls noL evldenL why Lhls change has occurred, buL A furLher 21.0 of people consldered LhaL rellglon
Lhls lncrease may be Lhe resulL of lnsLances of should deflne crlmlnal and clvll laws. 1hls agaln
1allbanlsaLlon or lslamlc exLremlsm lnfluenclng would have lmpllcaLlons for lnlLlaLlves Lo lnLegraLe
soclal convenLlons. noneLheless, lL appears LhaL lf communlLles and Lherefore musL be consldered, as
rellglon ls Lo provlde a 'moral code' Lhen above. uaLa recorded also found LhaL 10.8 of
Jefloe bow qovetomeots ote conLemporary demands may be more conservaLlve respondenLs should
selecteJ Lhan Lheywereln prevlous years. , a polnL of vlew re[ecLed by 1.3, who
ln conLrasL only 3.3 responded LhaL Lhese
flghLers seLLllng ln Lhelr hosL communlLy by
lnLernaLlonals should be allowed Lo sLay, buL Lhls
marrylng local women and possesslng properLy.
lncreased Lo 10.8 lf Lhey agreed Lo ablde by a
Iema|e IGDs
ceaseflre. 1hls oplnlon colncldes wlLh general
lemale parLlclpanLs were unaware of forelgn
aLLlLudes Lowards Afghan refugees (see ChapLer 6)
flghLers ln lA1A.
and mlsLrusL of governmenLal lnsLlLuLlons when
lmposed on lA1A (see ChapLers 1 and 4), as well as
ko|e of re||g|on|nIA1A
relnforclng Lhe percepLlon LhaL Lrlbal communlLles
8ellglon plays an lmporLanL role ln pollLlcal and
resenL exLernal lnfluences on Lhelr culLure and
soclal llfe ln aklsLan, as well as lnsplrlng, and
LradlLlons.
leglLlmlslng, Lhe varlous sLages of IlboJ.
Cverall, 12 of respondenLs dld noL belleve LhaL ConsequenLly, lnLervlewees were asked Lo lndlcaLe
LherewerelnLernaLlonal flghLers ln lA1A. whaL role, lf any, rellglon should play ln Lhelr llves.
unllke ln prevlous years, respondenLs were lnvlLed
AlmosL half of Lhose quesLloned dld noL provlde a
Lo make more Lhan one cholce from Lhose offered
vlew on Lhe sub[ecL. 1herefore, whlle Lhe
(onlykeydaLals llsLed ln llgure3.9).
lnformaLlon documenLed ls compelllng, lL may noL
befullydescrlpLlveof communal aLLlLudes.
Ma|e IGDs
Male focus groups were ln general agreemenL LhaL
forelgn flghLers should be forced Lo leave because
Lhey were a vlolenL source of lnsecurlLy. Powever, lL
was consldered LhaL Lhe aklsLanl mlllLary would
have Lo lnLervene Lo ensure Lhls ouLcome because
Lhese flghLers were unllkely Lo leave lf asked
peacefully.
CLher respondenLs dld noLe LhaL Lhere mlghL be
some compllcaLlon as a resulL of some lnLernaLlonal
3
.
3
2
8
.
3
1
1
.
8
2
3
.
2
2
4
.
1
7
2
.
8
1
0
.
8
1hey should be
allowed Lo sLay
1hey should be
allowed Lo sLay
buL only lf Lhey
ablde by a
ceaseflre
1hey should be
asked Lo leave
1hey should be
forced Lo leave
by Lhe aklsLanl
mlllLary
1here aren'L any
lnLernaLlonal
flghLers ln lA1A
no oplnlon uon'L know
2011 ()
I|gure S.8: What shou|d happen to any fore|gn f|ghter]I|had| current|y ||v|ng |n IA1A?
6
7
.
3
2
1
.
0
1
0
.
8
1
7
.
2
3
4
.
3
1
.
3

r
o
v
l
d
e

a
m
o
r
a
l

c
o
d
e
L
h
a
L

e
v
e
r
y

l
a
y

n
o

r
o
l
e
l
n

p
o
l
l
L
l
c
s
u
l
c
L
a
L
e
w
o
m
e
n
'
s
r
l
g
h
L
s
u
e
f
l
n
e
c
r
l
m
l
n
a
l

a
n
d
c
l
v
l
l

l
a
w
s
u
e
f
l
n
e

h
o
w
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
L
s
a
r
e

s
e
l
e
c
L
e
d
n
o

o
p
l
n
l
o
n
2011 ()
I|gure S.9: ko|e of re||g|on |n IA1A
1
8
.
9
3
.
9
4
4
.
0
4
7
.
6
n
A
8
.
4
4
4
.
3
3
7
.
8
1
7
.
7
1
4
.
3
6
1
.
0
2
3
.
3
1
0
.
2
1
7
.
7
4
6
.
7
?es no SomeLlmes uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.10: Do you th|nk that a person has the r|ght to k||| a re|at|ve to protect the honour of the|r fam||y?
undersLandlng lA1A
100
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
101
n
A
recorded for Lhls quesLlon ln Lhe Lhree years LhaL lL Ma|e IGDs
has been asked.
1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs were opposed Lo Lhe
pracLlse of 'honour kllllng' as Lhey Lermed lL a
Aslde from Lhese flndlngs, lL appears LhaL a
breach of an lndlvldual's human rlghLs. A few
conslderable number of survey parLlclpanLs are
respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhls acL was
unsure of Lhelr aLLlLudes. 1hls could be llnked Lo
deep-rooLed ln LradlLlon and should be consldered
uncerLalnLyregardlng Lhe1allban and Al Caeda.
a culLural underLaklng: however, lL was consldered
only belng leglLlmaLe afLer a properly conducLed
As a consequence, lL appears LhaL Lhe moral codeof
lnvesLlgaLlon lnLo Lhecase.
parLlclpanLs ls sLrongly agalnsL Lhe use of sulclde
bomblng, however, for a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy lL
Iema|e IGDs:
appears LhaL lL can be [usLlfled lf defendlng lslam
lemale parLlclpanLs opposed 'honour kllllng', as
(seefemalelCus).
Lhey asserLed lL was agalnsL human rlghLs sLandards
and Lheprlnclples of lslam.
Ma|e IGDs
arLlclpanLs oplned LhaL sulclde bomblng (and Lhe
Iust|f|cat|onof su|c|de bomb|ng |nIs|am
lnLended LargeLlng of lnnocenL clvlllans ln general)
ln conLrasL Lo 'honour kllllng' respondenLs have
was agalnsL lslam and llberal human sLandards.
generally reLalned a conslsLenLly negaLlve aLLlLude
Lowards Lhe pracLlce of sulclde bomblng. ln 2011
Iema|e IGDs
Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhose lnLervlewed (approxlmaLely
Surprlslngly, glven female focus group parLlclpanLs'
60) declared LhaL Lhls acL of Lerror was oevet
aLLlLudes Lowards Afghan 1allban some confllcLlng
jostlfleJ. 1hls ls a marglnal lncrease on daLa from
vlews were apparenL. Whlle some agreed wlLh Lhelr
2010 and an lncrease of some 17 polnLs from
male counLer-parLs oLhers sLaLed LhaL because of
2009(whlleLhls flgurels lower lL remalned LhemosL
anLl-lslamlc WesLern lnfluence ln Lhe reglon 'Lhelr
slgnlflcanL answer for Lheyear).
Musllm broLhers and slsLers ln AfghanlsLan' needed
supporL, lncludlng Lhe use of sulclde bomblngs lf
ALLlLudes ln supporL of sulclde bomblng remalned
LheyareLargeLed aL 'enemles'.
low as only 2.6 of lnLervlewees LhoughL LhaL
sulclde bomblng was jostlfleJ, and 11.4 totely
lL ls noL evldenL whaL form of enemy LargeL could be
jostlfleJ. 1hls ls Lhe lowesL level of accepLance
aLLacked by sulclde bombers, however, slnce
1
7
.
0
0
.
3
2
3
.
3
6
.
2
2
.
6
1
1
.
4
3
9
.
4
n
A
1
6
.
2
1
0
.
3
1
4
.
3
4
2
.
9
1
4
.
4
3
7
.
1
0
.
0
1
2
.
1
1
0
.
2
!usLlfled 8arely [usLlfled never [usLlfled CLher (speclfy) uon'L know no response
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.11: Iust|f|cat|on of su|c|de bomb|ng |n Is|am
1.5
6.4
11.3
NA
10.5
NA
64.4
14.0
NA
14.7
1.8
4.4
2.4
15.6
15.6
1.7
1.9
NA
11.6
45.1
2.0
5.0
7.4
5.7
6.1
0.9
1.5
2.3
4.0
2.5
4.5
2.9
0.7
34.5
3.0
31.2
2.2
0.0
3.7
3.7
4.5
9.0
2.7
6.8
40.7
3.9
!aved Chamdl
rof. Anees
Amlr LlaqaL Pussaln
1ahlr ul Cadrl
ur. lsrar
Al-Puda
!amaaL ud uawa
Laskar-e-1ayyaba
Slpah-e-Slhaba
Lashkar-e-lslam
1ehrek-e-1allban aklsLan
!alsh-e-Mohammad
Mulana Sofl Mohammad
none
CLhers
uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.12: 1rusted re||g|ous author|t|es
undersLandlng lA1A
102
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
103
n
A
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
recorded for Lhls quesLlon ln Lhe Lhree years LhaL lL Ma|e IGDs
has been asked.
1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs were opposed Lo Lhe
pracLlse of 'honour kllllng' as Lhey Lermed lL a
Aslde from Lhese flndlngs, lL appears LhaL a
breach of an lndlvldual's human rlghLs. A few
conslderable number of survey parLlclpanLs are
respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhls acL was
unsure of Lhelr aLLlLudes. 1hls could be llnked Lo
deep-rooLed ln LradlLlon and should be consldered
uncerLalnLyregardlng Lhe1allban and Al Caeda.
a culLural underLaklng: however, lL was consldered
only belng leglLlmaLe afLer a properly conducLed
As a consequence, lL appears LhaL Lhe moral codeof
lnvesLlgaLlon lnLo Lhecase.
parLlclpanLs ls sLrongly agalnsL Lhe use of sulclde
bomblng, however, for a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy lL
Iema|e IGDs:
appears LhaL lL can be [usLlfled lf defendlng lslam
lemale parLlclpanLs opposed 'honour kllllng', as
(seefemalelCus).
Lhey asserLed lL was agalnsL human rlghLs sLandards
and Lheprlnclples of lslam.
Ma|e IGDs
arLlclpanLs oplned LhaL sulclde bomblng (and Lhe
Iust|f|cat|onof su|c|de bomb|ng |nIs|am
lnLended LargeLlng of lnnocenL clvlllans ln general)
ln conLrasL Lo 'honour kllllng' respondenLs have
was agalnsL lslam and llberal human sLandards.
generally reLalned a conslsLenLly negaLlve aLLlLude
Lowards Lhe pracLlce of sulclde bomblng. ln 2011
Iema|e IGDs
Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhose lnLervlewed (approxlmaLely
Surprlslngly, glven female focus group parLlclpanLs'
60) declared LhaL Lhls acL of Lerror was oevet
aLLlLudes Lowards Afghan 1allban some confllcLlng
jostlfleJ. 1hls ls a marglnal lncrease on daLa from
vlews were apparenL. Whlle some agreed wlLh Lhelr
2010 and an lncrease of some 17 polnLs from
male counLer-parLs oLhers sLaLed LhaL because of
2009(whlleLhls flgurels lower lL remalned LhemosL
anLl-lslamlc WesLern lnfluence ln Lhe reglon 'Lhelr
slgnlflcanL answer for Lheyear).
Musllm broLhers and slsLers ln AfghanlsLan' needed
supporL, lncludlng Lhe use of sulclde bomblngs lf
ALLlLudes ln supporL of sulclde bomblng remalned
LheyareLargeLed aL 'enemles'.
low as only 2.6 of lnLervlewees LhoughL LhaL
sulclde bomblng was jostlfleJ, and 11.4 totely
lL ls noL evldenL whaL form of enemy LargeL could be
jostlfleJ. 1hls ls Lhe lowesL level of accepLance
aLLacked by sulclde bombers, however, slnce
1
7
.
0
0
.
3
2
3
.
3
6
.
2
2
.
6
1
1
.
4
3
9
.
4
n
A
1
6
.
2
1
0
.
3
1
4
.
3
4
2
.
9
1
4
.
4
3
7
.
1
0
.
0
1
2
.
1
1
0
.
2
!usLlfled 8arely [usLlfled never [usLlfled CLher (speclfy) uon'L know no response
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.11: Iust|f|cat|on of su|c|de bomb|ng |n Is|am
1.5
6.4
11.3
NA
10.5
NA
64.4
14.0
NA
14.7
1.8
4.4
2.4
15.6
15.6
1.7
1.9
NA
11.6
45.1
2.0
5.0
7.4
5.7
6.1
0.9
1.5
2.3
4.0
2.5
4.5
2.9
0.7
34.5
3.0
31.2
2.2
0.0
3.7
3.7
4.5
9.0
2.7
6.8
40.7
3.9
!aved Chamdl
rof. Anees
Amlr LlaqaL Pussaln
1ahlr ul Cadrl
ur. lsrar
Al-Puda
!amaaL ud uawa
Laskar-e-1ayyaba
Slpah-e-Slhaba
Lashkar-e-lslam
1ehrek-e-1allban aklsLan
!alsh-e-Mohammad
Mulana Sofl Mohammad
none
CLhers
uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure S.12: 1rusted re||g|ous author|t|es
undersLandlng lA1A
102
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
103
n
A
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
whlle Lhls remalns very slgnlflcanL Lhe LoLal lL wlll also ald governmenLal lnlLlaLlves Lo combaL
conLlnues Lo show a decllne ln hls lnfluence, as mlllLanLs lf Lhey can undersLand and Lhen [usLlfy
recorded ln all subsequenL years Lo hls 2008 hlgh of Lheologlcal and pollLlcal opposlLlon Lo Lhese
73. lL ls noL clear why Lhls phenomenon ls desLrucLlveorganlsaLlons.
repeaLlng as Lhe people of aklsLan, lncludlng lA1A,
hold Saudl Arabla and Lhe lmam Sudes ln hlgh
regard.
ur. Zaklr nalk of lndla, has malnLalned hls
approxlmaLe endorsemenL of approxlmaLely 13
for Lhe Lhlrd consecuLlve year, whlle AyaLollah All
khamene'l of lran recelved endorsemenLs from
13.3 of lnLervlewees: an lncrease from LhaL
recorded ln recenL years.
Whlle lL appears Lhere ls a greaLer focal-polnL for
rellglous guldance from abroad, one-Lhlrd of
respondenLs remaln unsure. 1hls opLlon whlch was
lncluded for Lhe flrsL Llme ln Lhe 2011 survey
appears Lo show LhaL Lhere ls greaLer uncerLalnLy
beLween Lhese leaders Lhan prevlously ldenLlfled
raLher Lhan a show of dlssaLlsfacLlon, as only 0.3
of respondenLs selecLed: otbet.
lrom Lhe daLa lL ls clear LhaL Lhe people of lA1A are
devouL ln Lhelr bellefs, wlLh Lhe ma[orlLy of
respondenLs oplnlng LhaL lslam should provlde a
compass for people's moral codeof llvlng. Powever,
lL ls equally apparenL LhaL Lhere are slgnlflcanL
dlfferences as Lo Lhe form of lslam LhaL should be
predomlnanL, wlLh parLlcular dlvlslons evldenL
beLween conservaLlveand llberal prlnclples.
1haL belng sald, lL appears LhaL Lhere ls consensus
regardlng aLLlLudes Lowards lnLernaLlonal IlboJl
flghLers, wlLh a very sLrong ma[orlLy sLaLlng LhaL
Lheyshould leavelA1A, and byforcelf necessary.
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhls exampleof unlLy, LhedlfferenL
lslamlc values (and/or culLural lnLerpreLaLlons) of
respondenLs were sLarkly lllusLraLed wlLh regard Lo
percepLlons on mlllLancy, parLlcularly ln Lerms of
leglLlmacy ascrlbed Lo Lhe 1allban ln lLs dlfferenL
gulses and aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe LhreaL LhaL lslamlc
exLremlsm poses Lo aklsLan. 1hls dlfference ln
values wlLhln lA1A needs Lo be recognlsed and
sLudled ln greaLer deLall lf governance and
communlLy-lncluslon lnlLlaLlves are Lo be effecLlve.
Conc|us|on
7
3
.
4
1
.
4
4
.
47
.
7
0
.
0
1
8
.
3
3
4
.
7
2
.
0
1
6
.
0
1
0
.
6
1
.
9
1
4
.
8
4
3
.
1
2
.
1
1
4
.
3
1
3
.
3
0
.
3
1
.
1
3
3
.
1
1
0
.
1
1
.
0
3
9
.
3
n
A
3
.
7
1
3
.
7
2
.
9
lmamkaba
Sudes ur 8ehman
Pamza ?ousaf ur. Zaklr nalk AyaLollah All
kh
CLhers none uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
female focus group parLlclpanLs have sLaLed LhaL lL WlLh regard Lo rellglous organlsaLlons, Lhe 11
ls anLl-Musllm Lo LargeL (see above) Musllms and recelved Lhe greaLesL LrusL (4.3), followed by
clvlllans, lL musL be presumed LhaL only mlllLary and Slpah-e-Slhaba (4.0) and !alsh-e-Mohammad
lnfrasLrucLurecan beaLLacked. (3.0). CumulaLlvely, rellglous organlsaLlons
lncluded ln Lhe survey recelved some 16 of
1rustedre||g|ous author|t|es
respondenL supporL. 1hls ls consldered Lroubllng,
As rellglon plays such a slgnlflcanL role ln soclal and
as Lhese organlsaLlons are exLremlsLs and currenLly
pollLlcal llfe ln lA1A, Lhe survey Leam soughL Lo
engaged ln mlllLancyagalnsL LheaklsLan Army.
ldenLlfy whlch rellglous auLhorlLy was Lhe mosL
1he lack of deflnlLlve supporL for a parLlcular
LrusLed by lndlvlduals. 1hls bullds on lnformaLlon
rellglous focal-polnL devalues Lhe shared deslre for
acqulred ln prevlous years, buL for 2011 exLra
lslam Lo provlde a 'moral code' for Lhe people of
opLlons wereoffered Lo lnLervlewees.
lA1A as Lhere ls evldenLly a lack of consensus as Lo
SlgnlflcanLly, approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of opLlons
whaL values should be prlorlLlsed, wlLh boLh llberal
dld noL belleve LhaL any auLhorlLy was LrusLworLhy,
and conservaLlve agendas compeLlng wlLh already
whlle a comparable number were noL able Lo
esLabllshed secLarlan dlvldes. 1hls reallLy could
provlde an oplnlon. WlLh regard Lo Lhe vlews of
resulL ln lncreased vlolence as mlllLanLs seek Lo
Lhose LhaL dld offer an oplnlon: no parLlcular
lmpose Lhelr generally exLreme conservaLlve values
lndlvldual or organlsaLlon secured domlnanL
on oLhers.
supporL.
Most trusted re||g|ous author|ty outs|de of
Amlr LlaqaL Pussaln, a presenLer on a rellglous Lalk
ak|stan
show, leads Lhe llsL wlLh 7.4 of respondenLs
When asked LhesamequesLlon of exLernal rellglous
ldenLlfylng hlm as belng LrusLworLhy, an lncrease
auLhorlLles, lnLeresLlngly only 1.1 of respondenLs
from Lhe 2.4 LhaL he recorded ln 2010. LasL years
declared none - Lhls appears Lo lndlcaLe a sLrong
leadlng auLhorlLles: Lhe laLe ur. lsrar Ahmed and
lnfluence of lnLernaLlonal lslamlc leaders. lmam
1ahlr-ul-Cadrl recelved endorsemenLs from 6.1
kaba Sudes ur 8ehman conLlnues Lo recelve Lhe
and 3.7 of survey parLlclpanLs respecLlvely, ln
greaLesL supporL as ldenLlfled by 43 of people,
2011.
I|gure S.13: Most trusted re||g|ous author|ty outs|de of ak|stan
undersLandlng lA1A
104
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
10S
n
A
n
A
0
.
0
whlle Lhls remalns very slgnlflcanL Lhe LoLal lL wlll also ald governmenLal lnlLlaLlves Lo combaL
conLlnues Lo show a decllne ln hls lnfluence, as mlllLanLs lf Lhey can undersLand and Lhen [usLlfy
recorded ln all subsequenL years Lo hls 2008 hlgh of Lheologlcal and pollLlcal opposlLlon Lo Lhese
73. lL ls noL clear why Lhls phenomenon ls desLrucLlveorganlsaLlons.
repeaLlng as Lhe people of aklsLan, lncludlng lA1A,
hold Saudl Arabla and Lhe lmam Sudes ln hlgh
regard.
ur. Zaklr nalk of lndla, has malnLalned hls
approxlmaLe endorsemenL of approxlmaLely 13
for Lhe Lhlrd consecuLlve year, whlle AyaLollah All
khamene'l of lran recelved endorsemenLs from
13.3 of lnLervlewees: an lncrease from LhaL
recorded ln recenL years.
Whlle lL appears Lhere ls a greaLer focal-polnL for
rellglous guldance from abroad, one-Lhlrd of
respondenLs remaln unsure. 1hls opLlon whlch was
lncluded for Lhe flrsL Llme ln Lhe 2011 survey
appears Lo show LhaL Lhere ls greaLer uncerLalnLy
beLween Lhese leaders Lhan prevlously ldenLlfled
raLher Lhan a show of dlssaLlsfacLlon, as only 0.3
of respondenLs selecLed: otbet.
lrom Lhe daLa lL ls clear LhaL Lhe people of lA1A are
devouL ln Lhelr bellefs, wlLh Lhe ma[orlLy of
respondenLs oplnlng LhaL lslam should provlde a
compass for people's moral codeof llvlng. Powever,
lL ls equally apparenL LhaL Lhere are slgnlflcanL
dlfferences as Lo Lhe form of lslam LhaL should be
predomlnanL, wlLh parLlcular dlvlslons evldenL
beLween conservaLlveand llberal prlnclples.
1haL belng sald, lL appears LhaL Lhere ls consensus
regardlng aLLlLudes Lowards lnLernaLlonal IlboJl
flghLers, wlLh a very sLrong ma[orlLy sLaLlng LhaL
Lheyshould leavelA1A, and byforcelf necessary.
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhls exampleof unlLy, LhedlfferenL
lslamlc values (and/or culLural lnLerpreLaLlons) of
respondenLs were sLarkly lllusLraLed wlLh regard Lo
percepLlons on mlllLancy, parLlcularly ln Lerms of
leglLlmacy ascrlbed Lo Lhe 1allban ln lLs dlfferenL
gulses and aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe LhreaL LhaL lslamlc
exLremlsm poses Lo aklsLan. 1hls dlfference ln
values wlLhln lA1A needs Lo be recognlsed and
sLudled ln greaLer deLall lf governance and
communlLy-lncluslon lnlLlaLlves are Lo be effecLlve.
Conc|us|on
7
3
.
4
1
.
4
4
.
47
.
7
0
.
0
1
8
.
3
3
4
.
7
2
.
0
1
6
.
0
1
0
.
6
1
.
9
1
4
.
8
4
3
.
1
2
.
1
1
4
.
3
1
3
.
3
0
.
3
1
.
1
3
3
.
1
1
0
.
1
1
.
0
3
9
.
3
n
A
3
.
7
1
3
.
7
2
.
9
lmamkaba
Sudes ur 8ehman
Pamza ?ousaf ur. Zaklr nalk AyaLollah All
kh
CLhers none uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
female focus group parLlclpanLs have sLaLed LhaL lL WlLh regard Lo rellglous organlsaLlons, Lhe 11
ls anLl-Musllm Lo LargeL (see above) Musllms and recelved Lhe greaLesL LrusL (4.3), followed by
clvlllans, lL musL be presumed LhaL only mlllLary and Slpah-e-Slhaba (4.0) and !alsh-e-Mohammad
lnfrasLrucLurecan beaLLacked. (3.0). CumulaLlvely, rellglous organlsaLlons
lncluded ln Lhe survey recelved some 16 of
1rustedre||g|ous author|t|es
respondenL supporL. 1hls ls consldered Lroubllng,
As rellglon plays such a slgnlflcanL role ln soclal and
as Lhese organlsaLlons are exLremlsLs and currenLly
pollLlcal llfe ln lA1A, Lhe survey Leam soughL Lo
engaged ln mlllLancyagalnsL LheaklsLan Army.
ldenLlfy whlch rellglous auLhorlLy was Lhe mosL
1he lack of deflnlLlve supporL for a parLlcular
LrusLed by lndlvlduals. 1hls bullds on lnformaLlon
rellglous focal-polnL devalues Lhe shared deslre for
acqulred ln prevlous years, buL for 2011 exLra
lslam Lo provlde a 'moral code' for Lhe people of
opLlons wereoffered Lo lnLervlewees.
lA1A as Lhere ls evldenLly a lack of consensus as Lo
SlgnlflcanLly, approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of opLlons
whaL values should be prlorlLlsed, wlLh boLh llberal
dld noL belleve LhaL any auLhorlLy was LrusLworLhy,
and conservaLlve agendas compeLlng wlLh already
whlle a comparable number were noL able Lo
esLabllshed secLarlan dlvldes. 1hls reallLy could
provlde an oplnlon. WlLh regard Lo Lhe vlews of
resulL ln lncreased vlolence as mlllLanLs seek Lo
Lhose LhaL dld offer an oplnlon: no parLlcular
lmpose Lhelr generally exLreme conservaLlve values
lndlvldual or organlsaLlon secured domlnanL
on oLhers.
supporL.
Most trusted re||g|ous author|ty outs|de of
Amlr LlaqaL Pussaln, a presenLer on a rellglous Lalk
ak|stan
show, leads Lhe llsL wlLh 7.4 of respondenLs
When asked LhesamequesLlon of exLernal rellglous
ldenLlfylng hlm as belng LrusLworLhy, an lncrease
auLhorlLles, lnLeresLlngly only 1.1 of respondenLs
from Lhe 2.4 LhaL he recorded ln 2010. LasL years
declared none - Lhls appears Lo lndlcaLe a sLrong
leadlng auLhorlLles: Lhe laLe ur. lsrar Ahmed and
lnfluence of lnLernaLlonal lslamlc leaders. lmam
1ahlr-ul-Cadrl recelved endorsemenLs from 6.1
kaba Sudes ur 8ehman conLlnues Lo recelve Lhe
and 3.7 of survey parLlclpanLs respecLlvely, ln
greaLesL supporL as ldenLlfled by 43 of people,
2011.
I|gure S.13: Most trusted re||g|ous author|ty outs|de of ak|stan
undersLandlng lA1A
104
ChapLer 3: ALLlLude 1owards 8ellglon and MlllLancy
10S
n
A
n
A
0
.
0
ChapLer 6: lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees
107
|mpact of Afghan Refugees
6hAPTER 6
ChapLer 6: lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees
107
|mpact of Afghan Refugees
6hAPTER 6
ln Lhls secLlon, an examlnaLlon ls underLaken of
(7.9) who supporLed Lhe presence of 'Afghan
lA1A percepLlons of Lhe 30 year-long presence of
1allban flghLers led by Mullah Cmar ln lA1A (see
Afghan refugees ln aklsLan, parLlcularly ln Lhe
llgure 4.29). 1hls may lndlcaLe LhaL Lhose LhaL do
Lrlbal areas, on Lhe Lhemes of: economy, lnsLablllLy,
noL supporL Lhe reLurn of Afghan naLlonals are also
repaLrlaLlon and 1allbanlsaLlon.
sympaLheLlc Lo Lhe 1allban, however, Lhls cannoL be
conflrmed. lL could also reflecL elemenLs of
lnLegraLlon ln dlfferenL communlLles. luLure
research would have Lo be underLaken Lo dlscern
Cver Lhe lasL four years respondenLs have been
Lhemeanlng of Lhls perspecLlve.
asked abouL Lhelr oplnlon on wheLher Afghan
1he Impact of Afghan kefugees on ak|stan's refugees should be repaLrlaLed. 1he overwhelmlng
response, across all surveys, has been 'yes Lhey Lconomy
should be repaLrlaLed'. ln 2011, Lhls ma[orlLy
lollowlng on from Lhe quesLlon of Afghan
comprlsed 81.4, a small reducLlon on Lhe daLa
repaLrlaLlon, respondenLs were asked Lo evaluaLe
recorded ln 2010. 1hls oplnlon appears, ln large
Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Afghan refugees have damaged
parL, Lo be Lhe resulL of resenLmenL felL Lowards
Lhe economy of aklsLan. erhaps surprlslngly,
Afghan refugees, as Lhey are belleved Lo be
negaLlveaLLlLudes Lowards Afghan refugees' lmpacL
reduclng Lhe employmenL opporLunlLles of
on Lheeconomy arenoL as sLrongly felL as Lhedeslre
lndlgenous communlLles, a vlewpolnL openly
for Lhem Lo reLurn Lo Lhelr homeland. ln 2011,
argued ln boLh maleand femalelCus.
approxlmaLely half of respondenLs (48.2) elLher
sLrongly agreed (29.3) or agreed (18.9) LhaL
aklsLan's economy had been negaLlvely lmpacLed,
a reducLlon ln Lhe levels of concern recorded
hlsLorlcally.
Moreover, Lhere appears Lo be an lncrease ln Lhe
number of respondenLs LhaL dlsagree wlLh Lhls
senLlmenL. ln 2010, some 6.0 of Lhose surveyed
dld noL belleve LhaL Afghan refugees had had an
lmpacL on Lhe economy - Lhls has rlsen Lo almosL
13.0 ln 2011. A furLher 33.2 of respondenLs
elLher answered: oeltbet oqtee oot Jlsoqtee
(18.3) ot Joot koow (14.9).
1heseflndlngs could lllusLraLeLhaL LhesLrongly held
deslre for Afghan repaLrlaLlon remalns heavlly
llnked Lo local concerns (e.g. employmenL
compeLlLlon, LhreaLs Lo securlLy [seellgure6.4] and
Cnly a mlnlmal percenLageof people supporLed Lhe
LradlLlonal opposlLlon Lo ouLslde LhreaLs Lo culLural
noLlon of Afghan refugees remalnlng resldenL ln
lndependence ln lA1A) raLher Lhan concerns for
aklsLan. lL ls noLable LhaL Lhls supporL (8.0)
aklsLan as a whole. Powever, furLher research
almosL equaLes Lo Lhe percenLage of respondenLs
kepatr|at|on of Afghan refugees to
Afghan|stan
Impact of Afghan kefugees
ClAPTER
7
4
.
7
8
9
.
1
6
.
4
4
.
3
8
1
.
4
8
.
0
1
0
.
6
1
8
.
0
7
.
4
7
1
.
1
1
8
.
3
1
0
.
4
?es no uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.1: Shou|d a|| Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n
ak|stan return to Afghan|stan
ChapLer 6: lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees
109
ln Lhls secLlon, an examlnaLlon ls underLaken of
(7.9) who supporLed Lhe presence of 'Afghan
lA1A percepLlons of Lhe 30 year-long presence of
1allban flghLers led by Mullah Cmar ln lA1A (see
Afghan refugees ln aklsLan, parLlcularly ln Lhe
llgure 4.29). 1hls may lndlcaLe LhaL Lhose LhaL do
Lrlbal areas, on Lhe Lhemes of: economy, lnsLablllLy,
noL supporL Lhe reLurn of Afghan naLlonals are also
repaLrlaLlon and 1allbanlsaLlon.
sympaLheLlc Lo Lhe 1allban, however, Lhls cannoL be
conflrmed. lL could also reflecL elemenLs of
lnLegraLlon ln dlfferenL communlLles. luLure
research would have Lo be underLaken Lo dlscern
Cver Lhe lasL four years respondenLs have been
Lhemeanlng of Lhls perspecLlve.
asked abouL Lhelr oplnlon on wheLher Afghan
1he Impact of Afghan kefugees on ak|stan's refugees should be repaLrlaLed. 1he overwhelmlng
response, across all surveys, has been 'yes Lhey Lconomy
should be repaLrlaLed'. ln 2011, Lhls ma[orlLy
lollowlng on from Lhe quesLlon of Afghan
comprlsed 81.4, a small reducLlon on Lhe daLa
repaLrlaLlon, respondenLs were asked Lo evaluaLe
recorded ln 2010. 1hls oplnlon appears, ln large
Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Afghan refugees have damaged
parL, Lo be Lhe resulL of resenLmenL felL Lowards
Lhe economy of aklsLan. erhaps surprlslngly,
Afghan refugees, as Lhey are belleved Lo be
negaLlveaLLlLudes Lowards Afghan refugees' lmpacL
reduclng Lhe employmenL opporLunlLles of
on Lheeconomy arenoL as sLrongly felL as Lhedeslre
lndlgenous communlLles, a vlewpolnL openly
for Lhem Lo reLurn Lo Lhelr homeland. ln 2011,
argued ln boLh maleand femalelCus.
approxlmaLely half of respondenLs (48.2) elLher
sLrongly agreed (29.3) or agreed (18.9) LhaL
aklsLan's economy had been negaLlvely lmpacLed,
a reducLlon ln Lhe levels of concern recorded
hlsLorlcally.
Moreover, Lhere appears Lo be an lncrease ln Lhe
number of respondenLs LhaL dlsagree wlLh Lhls
senLlmenL. ln 2010, some 6.0 of Lhose surveyed
dld noL belleve LhaL Afghan refugees had had an
lmpacL on Lhe economy - Lhls has rlsen Lo almosL
13.0 ln 2011. A furLher 33.2 of respondenLs
elLher answered: oeltbet oqtee oot Jlsoqtee
(18.3) ot Joot koow (14.9).
1heseflndlngs could lllusLraLeLhaL LhesLrongly held
deslre for Afghan repaLrlaLlon remalns heavlly
llnked Lo local concerns (e.g. employmenL
compeLlLlon, LhreaLs Lo securlLy [seellgure6.4] and
Cnly a mlnlmal percenLageof people supporLed Lhe
LradlLlonal opposlLlon Lo ouLslde LhreaLs Lo culLural
noLlon of Afghan refugees remalnlng resldenL ln
lndependence ln lA1A) raLher Lhan concerns for
aklsLan. lL ls noLable LhaL Lhls supporL (8.0)
aklsLan as a whole. Powever, furLher research
almosL equaLes Lo Lhe percenLage of respondenLs
kepatr|at|on of Afghan refugees to
Afghan|stan
Impact of Afghan kefugees
ClAPTER
7
4
.
7
8
9
.
1
6
.
4
4
.
3
8
1
.
4
8
.
0
1
0
.
6
1
8
.
0
7
.
4
7
1
.
1
1
8
.
3
1
0
.
4
?es no uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.1: Shou|d a|| Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n
ak|stan return to Afghan|stan
ChapLer 6: lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees
109
lnsLead, Lhe2010surveylndlcaLed LhaL Lhema[orlLy LhaL Afghan refugees had had a negaLlve lmpacL on
of respondenLs were of Lhe opposlLe oplnlon: wlLh securlLy ln lA1A. lrom Lhese answers lL ls noL
40.3 saylng Lhey agreed wlLh Lhe sLaLemenL LhaL evldenL however, whaL aspecLs of hosLlng Afghan
Afghan refugees were conLrlbuLlng Lo aklsLan's refugees Lheyflnd asourceof lnsecurlLy.
economy, and a furLher 20.3 sttooqly oqteeJ.
As prevlously noLed (see ChapLer 4) Lhe LhreaLs of
Cnly 12.0 supporLed Lhls aLLlLude ln 2011. Whlle
1allbanlsaLlon and drone sLrlkes are sources of
Lhls lower level of recorded supporL for Lhe
conslderable lnsecurlLy ln lA1A, Lherefore elLher, ln
percepLlon LhaL Afghan refugees areconLrlbuLlng Lo
addlLlon Lo oLhers (e.g. crlme, food securlLy,
Lhe economy ls endorsed by oLher hlsLorlcal
economlc securlLy) could be seen as a cause for
surveys, Lhe daLa recorded ln 2011 ls parLlcularly
refugees Lo be consldered an 'undermlnlng'
low. lurLher research ls requlred Lo dlscover
lnfluence. lurLher research ls requlred Lo
wheLher Lhls change beLween 2010 and 2011 wlll
undersLand Lhls quesLlon.
besusLalned.
1he reason behlnd Lhe decrease ln poslLlve
1he |mpact of Afghan refugees on ak|stan's
responses agalnsL Lhls sLaLemenL (beLween 2010
secur|ty
and 2011) ls also noL very clear because Lhere ls no
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe quesLlons focused on Lhe
slgnlflcanL lncrease ln Lhe LoLal number of Lhose
economy, respondenLs were asked Lhe exLenL Lo
LhaL dlsagree (12.3). Accordlng, Lo Lhls,
whlch Lhey agreed wlLh Lhe sLaLemenL: 'Afghan
respondenLs arenoL generallyfeellng moresecure.
refugees llvlng ln aklsLan are undermlnlng
aklsLan's securlLy.'
Afghanrefugees as asource of tens|on
1o some exLenL, uncerLal nLl es regardl ng
As seen ln llgure 6.2, more Lhan half of Lhose
percepLlons of lnsecurlLy may be answered by Lhe
lnLervlewed (32.7) agreed wlLh Lhls asserLlon (of
followlng quesLlon: 'Afghan refugees llvlng ln
whlch: 31.3 sttooqly oqteeJ). Whlle Lhls feellng ls
aklsLan are a source of Lenslon for Lhe local
slmllar Lo Lhe concern expressed Lowards Lhe
aklsLanl populaLlon.' 1hls quesLlon was flrsL
economlc lmpacL, lL ls a reducLlon ln Lhe concern
lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe2010survey.
expressed ln answer Lo Lhe same quesLlon ln 2010.
ln 2010, ln excess of 70.0 of respondenLs belleved
lL ls evldenL LhaL, for boLh years, Lhe ma[orlLy of
would berequlred Lo lnvesLlgaLeLhls con[ecLure. noL, wlLh 19.2 sttooqly Jlsoqteeloq and 37.4
dlsagreelng. 1hls could noL beconsldered surprlslng
Contr|but|ng to ak|stan's economy
glven Lhe daLa recorded ln llgure 6.1 and 6.2, and
8ulldlng on Lhls quesLlon of lmpacL on aklsLan's
focus group commenLs on llvellhood compeLlLlon -
economy, respondenLs were asked Lhelr oplnlon on
buL lL appears Lo be a reversal of recenL survey
wheLher Lhey belleved Afghan refugees were
flndlngs. 1haL ls, ln 2010 only some 20.0 of
conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe economy. 1he ma[orlLy of
respondenLs dlsagreed wlLh Lhe noLlon LhaL Afghan
respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhey were
refugees arenoL conLrlbuLlng Lo Lheeconomy.
4
8
.
1
7
.
1
3
.
6
4
.
3
1
.
6
3
.
8
3
1
.
4
3
9
.
4
1
3
.
3
4
.
8
1
.
4
8
.
6
1
.
2
2
9
.
3
1
8
.
9
1
8
.
3
1
0
.
6
4
.
0
1
4
.
9
4
.
0
1
7
.
9
1
3
.
3 1
9
.
2
2
0
.
3
4
.
3
3
.
7
1
2
.
9
3
3
.
7
SLrongly Agree Agree nelLher agree
nor ulsagree
ulsagree SLrongly
dlsagree
uon'L know no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.2: 1o what extent do you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan damage
ak|stan's economy
2
0
.
4
1
0
.
7
7
.
2
6
.
3
2
.
1
1
3
.
3 1
6
.
7
3
.
9
9
.
9
4
0
.
3
2
0
.
3
8
.
0
1
.
0
1
9
.
2
3
7
.
4
1
0
.
8
7
.
4
4
.
8
1
6
.
7
3
.
8
2
3
.
3
2
7
.
9
1
1
.
4
1
6
.
6
7
.
0
4
.
9
2
8
.
9
1
8
.
0
SLrongly
dlsagree
ulsagree nelLher agree
nor dlsagree
Agree SLrongly agree uon'L know no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.3: 1o what extent do you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan contr|bute to
the ak|stan's economy
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.4: 1o what extent you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan underm|ne
ak|stan's secur|ty.
3
0
.
2
3
.
6
7
.
6
3
.
4
1
.
6 3
.
3
4
0
.
6
3
3
.
3
1
0
.
6
3
.
3
1
.
8
7
.
0
1
.
3
3
1
.
3
2
1
.
2
1
4
.
3
8
.
4
4
.
1
1
7
.
3
3
.
2
1
3
.
6
1
4
.
2
1
9
.
1
1
3
.
4
3
.
1
6
.
3
1
0
.
4
3
8
.
3
SLrongly agree Agree nelLher agree
nor dlsagree
ulsagree SLrongly
dlsagree
uon'L know no response
undersLandlng lA1A
110
ChapLer 6: lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees
111
lnsLead, Lhe2010surveylndlcaLed LhaL Lhema[orlLy LhaL Afghan refugees had had a negaLlve lmpacL on
of respondenLs were of Lhe opposlLe oplnlon: wlLh securlLy ln lA1A. lrom Lhese answers lL ls noL
40.3 saylng Lhey agreed wlLh Lhe sLaLemenL LhaL evldenL however, whaL aspecLs of hosLlng Afghan
Afghan refugees were conLrlbuLlng Lo aklsLan's refugees Lheyflnd asourceof lnsecurlLy.
economy, and a furLher 20.3 sttooqly oqteeJ.
As prevlously noLed (see ChapLer 4) Lhe LhreaLs of
Cnly 12.0 supporLed Lhls aLLlLude ln 2011. Whlle
1allbanlsaLlon and drone sLrlkes are sources of
Lhls lower level of recorded supporL for Lhe
conslderable lnsecurlLy ln lA1A, Lherefore elLher, ln
percepLlon LhaL Afghan refugees areconLrlbuLlng Lo
addlLlon Lo oLhers (e.g. crlme, food securlLy,
Lhe economy ls endorsed by oLher hlsLorlcal
economlc securlLy) could be seen as a cause for
surveys, Lhe daLa recorded ln 2011 ls parLlcularly
refugees Lo be consldered an 'undermlnlng'
low. lurLher research ls requlred Lo dlscover
lnfluence. lurLher research ls requlred Lo
wheLher Lhls change beLween 2010 and 2011 wlll
undersLand Lhls quesLlon.
besusLalned.
1he reason behlnd Lhe decrease ln poslLlve
1he |mpact of Afghan refugees on ak|stan's
responses agalnsL Lhls sLaLemenL (beLween 2010
secur|ty
and 2011) ls also noL very clear because Lhere ls no
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe quesLlons focused on Lhe
slgnlflcanL lncrease ln Lhe LoLal number of Lhose
economy, respondenLs were asked Lhe exLenL Lo
LhaL dlsagree (12.3). Accordlng, Lo Lhls,
whlch Lhey agreed wlLh Lhe sLaLemenL: 'Afghan
respondenLs arenoL generallyfeellng moresecure.
refugees llvlng ln aklsLan are undermlnlng
aklsLan's securlLy.'
Afghanrefugees as asource of tens|on
1o some exLenL, uncerLal nLl es regardl ng
As seen ln llgure 6.2, more Lhan half of Lhose
percepLlons of lnsecurlLy may be answered by Lhe
lnLervlewed (32.7) agreed wlLh Lhls asserLlon (of
followlng quesLlon: 'Afghan refugees llvlng ln
whlch: 31.3 sttooqly oqteeJ). Whlle Lhls feellng ls
aklsLan are a source of Lenslon for Lhe local
slmllar Lo Lhe concern expressed Lowards Lhe
aklsLanl populaLlon.' 1hls quesLlon was flrsL
economlc lmpacL, lL ls a reducLlon ln Lhe concern
lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe2010survey.
expressed ln answer Lo Lhe same quesLlon ln 2010.
ln 2010, ln excess of 70.0 of respondenLs belleved
lL ls evldenL LhaL, for boLh years, Lhe ma[orlLy of
would berequlred Lo lnvesLlgaLeLhls con[ecLure. noL, wlLh 19.2 sttooqly Jlsoqteeloq and 37.4
dlsagreelng. 1hls could noL beconsldered surprlslng
Contr|but|ng to ak|stan's economy
glven Lhe daLa recorded ln llgure 6.1 and 6.2, and
8ulldlng on Lhls quesLlon of lmpacL on aklsLan's
focus group commenLs on llvellhood compeLlLlon -
economy, respondenLs were asked Lhelr oplnlon on
buL lL appears Lo be a reversal of recenL survey
wheLher Lhey belleved Afghan refugees were
flndlngs. 1haL ls, ln 2010 only some 20.0 of
conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe economy. 1he ma[orlLy of
respondenLs dlsagreed wlLh Lhe noLlon LhaL Afghan
respondenLs were of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhey were
refugees arenoL conLrlbuLlng Lo Lheeconomy.
4
8
.
1
7
.
1
3
.
6
4
.
3
1
.
6
3
.
8
3
1
.
4
3
9
.
4
1
3
.
3
4
.
8
1
.
4
8
.
6
1
.
2
2
9
.
3
1
8
.
9
1
8
.
3
1
0
.
6
4
.
0
1
4
.
9
4
.
0
1
7
.
9
1
3
.
3 1
9
.
2
2
0
.
3
4
.
3
3
.
7
1
2
.
9
3
3
.
7
SLrongly Agree Agree nelLher agree
nor ulsagree
ulsagree SLrongly
dlsagree
uon'L know no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.2: 1o what extent do you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan damage
ak|stan's economy
2
0
.
4
1
0
.
7
7
.
2
6
.
3
2
.
1
1
3
.
3 1
6
.
7
3
.
9
9
.
9
4
0
.
3
2
0
.
3
8
.
0
1
.
0
1
9
.
2
3
7
.
4
1
0
.
8
7
.
4
4
.
8
1
6
.
7
3
.
8
2
3
.
3
2
7
.
9
1
1
.
4
1
6
.
6
7
.
0
4
.
9
2
8
.
9
1
8
.
0
SLrongly
dlsagree
ulsagree nelLher agree
nor dlsagree
Agree SLrongly agree uon'L know no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.3: 1o what extent do you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan contr|bute to
the ak|stan's economy
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.4: 1o what extent you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan underm|ne
ak|stan's secur|ty.
3
0
.
2
3
.
6
7
.
6
3
.
4
1
.
6 3
.
3
4
0
.
6
3
3
.
3
1
0
.
6
3
.
3
1
.
8
7
.
0
1
.
3
3
1
.
3
2
1
.
2
1
4
.
3
8
.
4
4
.
1
1
7
.
3
3
.
2
1
3
.
6
1
4
.
2
1
9
.
1
1
3
.
4
3
.
1
6
.
3
1
0
.
4
3
8
.
3
SLrongly agree Agree nelLher agree
nor dlsagree
ulsagree SLrongly
dlsagree
uon'L know no response
undersLandlng lA1A
110
ChapLer 6: lmpacL of Afghan 8efugees
111
respondenLs agreed wlLh Lhls sLaLemenL, however, lnsecurlLy, buL lL ls noL evldenL Lhe exLenL Lo whlch
a slgnlflcanL decllne can be seen beLween years. ln Lheseconcerns moLlvaLeLhedeslrefor repaLrlaLlon.
2010, some 80.0 agreed (half of whlch sttooqly
lurLher research ls necessary Lo map lndlvlduals'
oqteeJ) wlLh Lhls noLlon, ln comparlson, Lhls flgure
reasons for deslrlng repaLrlaLlon - be lL, for
has dropped Lo 48.2 ln 2011. 1hese flgures are
example: llvellhood or developmenL resources
roughly comparable wlLh Lhose relaLlng Lo securlLy.
compeLlLlon, economlc concerns, securlLy
lL can Lherefore be assumed LhaL lnsecurlLy and
concerns, fears for local LradlLlons, concerns
Lenslon are llnked, buL lL ls noL clear whaL ls meanL
regardlng 1allbanlsaLlon, or a bellef LhaL Lhe
by Lenslon. lurLher research needs Lo becarrled ouL
securlLy slLuaLlon has lmproved ln AfghanlsLan so lL
Lo enable lA1A communlLles Lo deflne whaL Lhese
ls Llme for Lhem Lo go home. Conversely, lL may be
Lenslons are.
useful Lo ask: why respondenLs belleve Afghan
lnLeresLlngly, a marglnal number of respondenLs refugees wanL Lo sLay? (e.g. ls lL because Lhey feel
dlsagree LhaL refugees are a source of Lenslon lnsecure, Lhey are parL of Lhe lnsurgency, Lhey feel
compared Lo Lhose who belleve LhaL Lhey are a Lhere ls greaLer economlc opporLunlLles, or,
source of lnsecurlLy. 1hls change may reflecL local becauseLhey feel accepLed by Lhelr hosLs). 1hls may
dlfferences, wlLh communlLy lnLegraLlon marglnally help Lo lllusLraLe some of Lhe barrlers Lo
reduclng Lenslon yeL noL Lhe overall levels of repaLrlaLlon and sources of confllcL ln LhefuLure.
percelved lnsecurlLy, buL lL musL be noLed LhaL Lhls
lurLhermore, lL would be useful for research Lo be
ls con[ecLure.
commlssloned LhaL wlll conLexLuallse Lhe slLuaLlon
of Afghan refugees ln lA1A - LhaL ls, deflne wheLher
Afghan refugees have access Lo supporL from
naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal agencles, and wheLher
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon recorded, lL ls evldenL LhaL
or noL hosL Lrlbal areas are belng afforded access Lo
Lhe people of lA1A wanL Lo see Afghan refugees
Lhe same level of supporL. 1hls wlll ald ln analyslng
repaLrlaLed. WhaL ls noL so clear ls Lhe reason why.
wheLher exLernal acLors are conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhese
lCu parLlclpanLs noLe llvellhood compeLlLlon, and
recorded percepLlons.
Lhe survey records LhaL: approxlmaLely half of
respondenLs belleve LhaL Lhey have had a
deLrlmenLal lmpacL on aklsLan's economy and a
slmllar percenLage LhaL Lhey have lncreased
Conc|us|on
4
2
.
1
3
.
4
7
.
0
3
.
2
1
.
4 3
.
7
3
.
3
4
0
.
8
3
0
.
6
1
0
.
6
1
8
.
3
4
.
1
1
4
.
9
1
7
.
6
SLrongly Agree Agree nelLher agree
nor ulsagree
ulsagree SLrongly
dlsagree
uon'L know no 8esponse
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.S: 1o what extent you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan create tens|on w|th the
|oca| ak|stan| popu|at|on.
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
113
Access to |nformat|on
6hAPTER 7
undersLandlng lA1A
112
respondenLs agreed wlLh Lhls sLaLemenL, however, lnsecurlLy, buL lL ls noL evldenL Lhe exLenL Lo whlch
a slgnlflcanL decllne can be seen beLween years. ln Lheseconcerns moLlvaLeLhedeslrefor repaLrlaLlon.
2010, some 80.0 agreed (half of whlch sttooqly
lurLher research ls necessary Lo map lndlvlduals'
oqteeJ) wlLh Lhls noLlon, ln comparlson, Lhls flgure
reasons for deslrlng repaLrlaLlon - be lL, for
has dropped Lo 48.2 ln 2011. 1hese flgures are
example: llvellhood or developmenL resources
roughly comparable wlLh Lhose relaLlng Lo securlLy.
compeLlLlon, economlc concerns, securlLy
lL can Lherefore be assumed LhaL lnsecurlLy and
concerns, fears for local LradlLlons, concerns
Lenslon are llnked, buL lL ls noL clear whaL ls meanL
regardlng 1allbanlsaLlon, or a bellef LhaL Lhe
by Lenslon. lurLher research needs Lo becarrled ouL
securlLy slLuaLlon has lmproved ln AfghanlsLan so lL
Lo enable lA1A communlLles Lo deflne whaL Lhese
ls Llme for Lhem Lo go home. Conversely, lL may be
Lenslons are.
useful Lo ask: why respondenLs belleve Afghan
lnLeresLlngly, a marglnal number of respondenLs refugees wanL Lo sLay? (e.g. ls lL because Lhey feel
dlsagree LhaL refugees are a source of Lenslon lnsecure, Lhey are parL of Lhe lnsurgency, Lhey feel
compared Lo Lhose who belleve LhaL Lhey are a Lhere ls greaLer economlc opporLunlLles, or,
source of lnsecurlLy. 1hls change may reflecL local becauseLhey feel accepLed by Lhelr hosLs). 1hls may
dlfferences, wlLh communlLy lnLegraLlon marglnally help Lo lllusLraLe some of Lhe barrlers Lo
reduclng Lenslon yeL noL Lhe overall levels of repaLrlaLlon and sources of confllcL ln LhefuLure.
percelved lnsecurlLy, buL lL musL be noLed LhaL Lhls
lurLhermore, lL would be useful for research Lo be
ls con[ecLure.
commlssloned LhaL wlll conLexLuallse Lhe slLuaLlon
of Afghan refugees ln lA1A - LhaL ls, deflne wheLher
Afghan refugees have access Lo supporL from
naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal agencles, and wheLher
lrom Lhe lnformaLlon recorded, lL ls evldenL LhaL
or noL hosL Lrlbal areas are belng afforded access Lo
Lhe people of lA1A wanL Lo see Afghan refugees
Lhe same level of supporL. 1hls wlll ald ln analyslng
repaLrlaLed. WhaL ls noL so clear ls Lhe reason why.
wheLher exLernal acLors are conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhese
lCu parLlclpanLs noLe llvellhood compeLlLlon, and
recorded percepLlons.
Lhe survey records LhaL: approxlmaLely half of
respondenLs belleve LhaL Lhey have had a
deLrlmenLal lmpacL on aklsLan's economy and a
slmllar percenLage LhaL Lhey have lncreased
Conc|us|on
4
2
.
1
3
.
4
7
.
0
3
.
2
1
.
4 3
.
7
3
.
3
4
0
.
8
3
0
.
6
1
0
.
6
1
8
.
3
4
.
1
1
4
.
9
1
7
.
6
SLrongly Agree Agree nelLher agree
nor ulsagree
ulsagree SLrongly
dlsagree
uon'L know no 8esponse
2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 6.S: 1o what extent you agree or d|sagree that Afghan refugees ||v|ng |n ak|stan create tens|on w|th the
|oca| ak|stan| popu|at|on.
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
113
Access to |nformat|on
6hAPTER 7
undersLandlng lA1A
112
Slnce 2008, surveys have soughL Lo Lrack Lrends ln WlLh regard Lo formal medla sources, loklstool
lA1A rel aLl ng Lo access Lo l nformaLl on. toJlo remalns popular, desplLe daLa decllnlng
ConsequenLly, quesLlons have been asked Lo ellclL beLween 2011 (49.4) and 2010 (33.0) and
daLa on how knowledge ls galned from exLernal aklsLanl 1v was ldenLlfled by 33.4 of
sources ln Lhe reglon: LhaL ls, Lhe readershlp for respondenLs. lL musL be acknowledged LhaL
newspapers, audlence LoLals for radlo programmes flucLuaLlons ln Lhese recordlngs may ln parL be
and Lhe vlewershlp of Lelevlslon. AddlLlonal lnfluenced by Lhe lncreased lncluslon of women ln
quesLlons soughL Lo ldenLlfy percepLlons of how Lhe survey buL also could be lnfluenced by Lhe
much valuelndlvlduals ascrlbeLo Lhemedlaand Lhe desLrucLlon of properLy caused durlng confllcL
ways medlalnfluences soclal llfe. beLween mlllLanLs and LhemlllLary.
loklstool ptloteJ meJlo has seen some decrease ln
Informat|onsources
lLs popularlLy ln recenL years buL lL remalns one of
Cver Lhe lasL four years, surveys have mapped
Lhe leadlng avenues for news and lnformaLlon.
respondenLs' preferred sources of accesslble
lnconslsLenL levels of llLeracy may accounL for why
lnformaLlon. llgure 7.1 records Lhe paLLerns of
Lhls source of lnformaLlon sharlng ls flucLuaLlng ln
responses from 2008 onwards. 8espondenLs are
accesslblllLy (for some lndlcaLlon of llLeracy see Lhe
lnvlLed Lo speclfy moreLhan onemedlasource.
educaLlon level of respondenLs ln Lhe Annex:
lrom Lhe daLa recorded lL seems LhaL access Lo all
uemographlcs of survey and llgure 7.3). Powever,
forms of medla ls noL unlversal, lf lL ls consldered
ln conLrasL Lo oLher vlsual medla, lL can sLlll be easlly
LhaL generally respondenLs wlll have offered more
accessed aL Llmes of lnLernal dlsplacemenL and
Lhan one answer. Also, as seen ln many of Lhe
Lherefore lLs lmporLance ls llkely Lo remaln
femalefocus group dlscusslons, a slgnlflcanL gender
slgnlflcanL.
dlsparlLy may also be recorded ln Lerms of access Lo
ln Lerms of lnLernaLlonal lnfluence: volce of
formal news reporLlng servlces. 1haL ls, ln response
Amerlca's 'ueewa' lokbto radlo servlce, a uS
Lo several quesLlons already documenLed ln Lhls
governmenL funded organlsaLlon, has galned ln
survey, female parLlclpanLs' knowledge was
slgnlflcance ln lA1A. ln 2010, [usL 4.2 of
dependenL on Lhe awareness of male famlly
respondenLs recorded lL as belng an accesslble
members. 1hls mayaccounL for Lhehlgh numbers of
medlum buL Lhls had rlsen Lo almosL 20.0 ln 2011.
respondenLs LhaL sLaLe elLher - ftleoJs ooJ fomlly
22
8rlLlsh radlo has fallen slgnlflcanLly behlnd uS
(42.3) or oelqbboots (37.7).
alLernaLlves buL remalns sLeady wlLh an audlenceof
Aslde from Lhls observaLlon, 'word of mouLh'
approxlmaLely 10.0. Powever, lL should be noLed
remalns a slgnlflcanL condulL for lnformaLlon
LhaL Lhls flgure does noL correspond wlLh daLa
sharlng as Lhe percenLage of people recordlng LhaL
regardlng 88C radlo servlces ldenLlfled ln llgure
Lhey access lnformaLlon Lhrough wotk colleoqoes
7.3: perhaps lmplylng a greaLer sense of ownershlp
has also lncreased ln recenL years Lo ahlgh of 20.8.
of Lhese 8rlLlsh supporLed servlces. ln Lerms of
Access to Informat|on
ClAPTER Z
22
lL ls noLable LhaL Lhe lncreased levels of respondenLs ldenLlfylng 'frlends and famlly' and 'nelghbours' ln 2010 and 2011
compared Lo 2008 and 2009 corresponds wlLh lncreased lnvolvemenL of women ln Lhe survey.
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
11S
Slnce 2008, surveys have soughL Lo Lrack Lrends ln WlLh regard Lo formal medla sources, loklstool
lA1A rel aLl ng Lo access Lo l nformaLl on. toJlo remalns popular, desplLe daLa decllnlng
ConsequenLly, quesLlons have been asked Lo ellclL beLween 2011 (49.4) and 2010 (33.0) and
daLa on how knowledge ls galned from exLernal aklsLanl 1v was ldenLlfled by 33.4 of
sources ln Lhe reglon: LhaL ls, Lhe readershlp for respondenLs. lL musL be acknowledged LhaL
newspapers, audlence LoLals for radlo programmes flucLuaLlons ln Lhese recordlngs may ln parL be
and Lhe vlewershlp of Lelevlslon. AddlLlonal lnfluenced by Lhe lncreased lncluslon of women ln
quesLlons soughL Lo ldenLlfy percepLlons of how Lhe survey buL also could be lnfluenced by Lhe
much valuelndlvlduals ascrlbeLo Lhemedlaand Lhe desLrucLlon of properLy caused durlng confllcL
ways medlalnfluences soclal llfe. beLween mlllLanLs and LhemlllLary.
loklstool ptloteJ meJlo has seen some decrease ln
Informat|onsources
lLs popularlLy ln recenL years buL lL remalns one of
Cver Lhe lasL four years, surveys have mapped
Lhe leadlng avenues for news and lnformaLlon.
respondenLs' preferred sources of accesslble
lnconslsLenL levels of llLeracy may accounL for why
lnformaLlon. llgure 7.1 records Lhe paLLerns of
Lhls source of lnformaLlon sharlng ls flucLuaLlng ln
responses from 2008 onwards. 8espondenLs are
accesslblllLy (for some lndlcaLlon of llLeracy see Lhe
lnvlLed Lo speclfy moreLhan onemedlasource.
educaLlon level of respondenLs ln Lhe Annex:
lrom Lhe daLa recorded lL seems LhaL access Lo all
uemographlcs of survey and llgure 7.3). Powever,
forms of medla ls noL unlversal, lf lL ls consldered
ln conLrasL Lo oLher vlsual medla, lL can sLlll be easlly
LhaL generally respondenLs wlll have offered more
accessed aL Llmes of lnLernal dlsplacemenL and
Lhan one answer. Also, as seen ln many of Lhe
Lherefore lLs lmporLance ls llkely Lo remaln
femalefocus group dlscusslons, a slgnlflcanL gender
slgnlflcanL.
dlsparlLy may also be recorded ln Lerms of access Lo
ln Lerms of lnLernaLlonal lnfluence: volce of
formal news reporLlng servlces. 1haL ls, ln response
Amerlca's 'ueewa' lokbto radlo servlce, a uS
Lo several quesLlons already documenLed ln Lhls
governmenL funded organlsaLlon, has galned ln
survey, female parLlclpanLs' knowledge was
slgnlflcance ln lA1A. ln 2010, [usL 4.2 of
dependenL on Lhe awareness of male famlly
respondenLs recorded lL as belng an accesslble
members. 1hls mayaccounL for Lhehlgh numbers of
medlum buL Lhls had rlsen Lo almosL 20.0 ln 2011.
respondenLs LhaL sLaLe elLher - ftleoJs ooJ fomlly
22
8rlLlsh radlo has fallen slgnlflcanLly behlnd uS
(42.3) or oelqbboots (37.7).
alLernaLlves buL remalns sLeady wlLh an audlenceof
Aslde from Lhls observaLlon, 'word of mouLh'
approxlmaLely 10.0. Powever, lL should be noLed
remalns a slgnlflcanL condulL for lnformaLlon
LhaL Lhls flgure does noL correspond wlLh daLa
sharlng as Lhe percenLage of people recordlng LhaL
regardlng 88C radlo servlces ldenLlfled ln llgure
Lhey access lnformaLlon Lhrough wotk colleoqoes
7.3: perhaps lmplylng a greaLer sense of ownershlp
has also lncreased ln recenL years Lo ahlgh of 20.8.
of Lhese 8rlLlsh supporLed servlces. ln Lerms of
Access to Informat|on
ClAPTER Z
22
lL ls noLable LhaL Lhe lncreased levels of respondenLs ldenLlfylng 'frlends and famlly' and 'nelghbours' ln 2010 and 2011
compared Lo 2008 and 2009 corresponds wlLh lncreased lnvolvemenL of women ln Lhe survey.
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
11S
access Lo Ametlcoo 1v and 8tltlsb 1v and Lhe Lheanswer Joot koow.
lotetoet, lL remalns low as access Lo necessary
Powever, lL ls reassurlng LhaL only 1.4 of people
equlpmenL and lnfrasLrucLure ls largely llmlLed Lo
sLaLe oooe, Lherefore lnformaLlon ls belng shared
ellLes. lurLhermore, access Lo Lngllsh-language
buL lL ls noL evldenL lf respondenLs are galnlng a
prlnL medla ls undersLandably low (less Lhan 1.0)
hollsLlc perspecLlve of currenL soclal, economlc and
as llmlLaLlons ln Lhose able Lo read Lhe LexL are llkely
pollLlcal lssues, or wheLher access Lo local news ls
Lo beconslderable.
sufflclenL for Lhelr needs. lurLher research would
benecessary Lo evaluaLeLhls quesLlon.
Most va|ued|nformat|onsources
ln order Lo beLLer evaluaLe Lhe quallLy of news LhaL
WlLh regard Lo lnLernaLlonal medla radlo remalns
respondenLs belleved Lhey were recelvlng,
falrly well LrusLed, however wlLh a greaLer
lnLervlewees were subsequenLly asked Lo lndenLlfy
correlaLlon beLween Lhe flgures for uS radlo Lhan
LhelnformaLlon provlders LhaL LheymosL valued.
for 8rlLlsh radlo. Surprlslngly, a greaLer number of
people (3.3) LrusL tbe lotetoet, books ooJ fllm
lrom Lhe daLa lL appears LhaL formal, naLlonal
Lhan access Lhem - perhaps slgnalllng a deslre for
medla ouLleLs are generally LrusLed by Lhose who
greaLer access Lo Lhese medla Lhan ls currenLly
access Lhem, wlLh aklsLanl radlo, 1v and prlnL
avallable.
medla recelvlng endorsemenLs roughly slmllar, lf
lower, Lo Lhe LoLal numbers of people LhaL accessed
Newspaper readersh|p
Lhem. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy of people
1o galn a sLronger undersLandlng of whaL
who access lnformaLlon Lhrough Lhese provlders
lnformaLlon respondenLs were accesslng, Lhe 2011
LrusL whaL Lhey are belng Lold. 1hls ls slgnlflcanL, lf
survey asked lnLervlewees Lo ldenLlfy Lhe
Lhe governmenL wlshes Lo conLlnue Lo bulld
newspapers Lheypreferred Lo read.
confldence and oppose exLremlsm, however, Lhey
musL slmllarly be cauLlous of people galnlng
1he mosL slgnlflcanL change beLween Lhe 2011 and
lnformaLlon from lnflammaLory sources wlLhln
2010 surveys ls Lhe dramaLlc decrease ln Lhe
aklsLan. lL musL be noLed however, LhaL levels of
number of respondenLs LhaL were unable Lo
llLeracy may lnfluence Lhe flndlngs regardlng LrusL
answer. 1hls ls noL a reflecLlon of changlng aLLlLudes
ln radlo and 1v as oLher formal sources of
Lowards prlnL medla buL ls lnsLead Lhe resulL of
lnformaLlon could be lnaccesslble Lo Lhose LhaL
poslLlve change Lo Lhe survey quesLlonnalre: LhaL ls
cannoL read, and LhereforeLhey arerellanL on Lhese
Lhe 2011 survey lncluded an addlLlonal cholces LhaL
sources.
enabled respondenLs Lo noLe LhaL Lhey were elLher
oooble Lo (32.3) or cbose oot to (27.7) read
Levels of LrusL ln lnformal mechanlsms, whlle
newspapers.
remalnlng qulLe slgnlflcanL, ls less favourable Lhan
oLher servlces. uaLa recorded LhaL confldence ln
WlLh regard Lo Lhe 40.0 of respondenLs LhaL dld
fomlly ooJ ftleoJs, oelqbboots and wotk colleoqoes
access prlnL medla, Mosbtlp - an urdu language
has rlsen qulLe conslderably slnce 2010, however lL
dally newspaper - was mosL popular, read by over
musL benoLed LhaL Lhesesources conslsLenLly score
half of Lhese (22.8). A flgure negllglbly lower Lhan
less Lhan 73.0 of Lhe LoLal flgure for Lhose who
LhaL recorded ln 2010. 1hls ls followed by Aoj - an
access Lhem. 1hls ls concernlng as Lhese
alLernaLlve urdu language dally newspaper -
lnformaLlon sources are llkely Lo be Lhe prlmary
accessed by16.6 of people
ouLleLs for a slgnlflcanL number of people,
parLlcularly women. 1herefore, for Lhose who are
1Vaud|ence
dependenL on Lhese communlcaLlon sources many
Agaln, a slgnlflcanL proporLlon, almosL equal Lo Lhe
are prevenLed from Lhe rlghL Lo form an oplnlon
number of people LhaL dld noL access newspapers,
based on lnformaLlon LhaL Lhey LrusL, a reallLy LhaL
dld noL have a Lelevlslon (38.8) or are prevenLed
may help explaln why slgnlflcanL numbers of
from waLchlng / chose noL Lo waLch lnformaLlon
responses have recorded wlLh hlgh percenLages for
programmes (18.3).
undersLandlng lA1A
116
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
117
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.1: What are your sources of |nformat|on that he|ps you to form your op|n|on?
29.6
11.0
18.7
12.6
27.2
15.6
4.4
11.5
2.4
1.3
0.6
1.1
12.9
12.4
11.3
4.4
6.3
8.6
1.5
1.7
0.6
55.0
54.4
33.7
49.5
41.8
18.3
14.8
4.8
9.1
10.0
4.2
8.1
0.4
3.7
0.9
0.4
2.0
0.7
0.3
0.3
49.4
33.4
35.3
42.5
37.7
18.3
9.2
5.0
12.5
20.8
19.6
9.5
0.7
1.9
4.1
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.4
0.1
NA
29.6
42.0
NA
2.7
NA
NA
NA
NA
22.1
22.1
23.6
10.1
17.2
13.2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aklsLanl radlo
aklsLanl 1v
aklsLanl prlnLed medla
lrlends and famlly
nelghbours
lrlday Sermon
Communal gaLherlngs
lnLerneL, books and fllms
1rlbal elders
Work colleagues
Amerlcan radlo
88C 1v/8adlo
8rlLlsh 8adlo
none
CovernmenL offlclals
uon'L know
no response
8rlLlsh 1v
8rlLlsh prlnL medla
Amerlcan 1v
Amerlcan prlnL medla
access Lo Ametlcoo 1v and 8tltlsb 1v and Lhe Lheanswer Joot koow.
lotetoet, lL remalns low as access Lo necessary
Powever, lL ls reassurlng LhaL only 1.4 of people
equlpmenL and lnfrasLrucLure ls largely llmlLed Lo
sLaLe oooe, Lherefore lnformaLlon ls belng shared
ellLes. lurLhermore, access Lo Lngllsh-language
buL lL ls noL evldenL lf respondenLs are galnlng a
prlnL medla ls undersLandably low (less Lhan 1.0)
hollsLlc perspecLlve of currenL soclal, economlc and
as llmlLaLlons ln Lhose able Lo read Lhe LexL are llkely
pollLlcal lssues, or wheLher access Lo local news ls
Lo beconslderable.
sufflclenL for Lhelr needs. lurLher research would
benecessary Lo evaluaLeLhls quesLlon.
Most va|ued|nformat|onsources
ln order Lo beLLer evaluaLe Lhe quallLy of news LhaL
WlLh regard Lo lnLernaLlonal medla radlo remalns
respondenLs belleved Lhey were recelvlng,
falrly well LrusLed, however wlLh a greaLer
lnLervlewees were subsequenLly asked Lo lndenLlfy
correlaLlon beLween Lhe flgures for uS radlo Lhan
LhelnformaLlon provlders LhaL LheymosL valued.
for 8rlLlsh radlo. Surprlslngly, a greaLer number of
people (3.3) LrusL tbe lotetoet, books ooJ fllm
lrom Lhe daLa lL appears LhaL formal, naLlonal
Lhan access Lhem - perhaps slgnalllng a deslre for
medla ouLleLs are generally LrusLed by Lhose who
greaLer access Lo Lhese medla Lhan ls currenLly
access Lhem, wlLh aklsLanl radlo, 1v and prlnL
avallable.
medla recelvlng endorsemenLs roughly slmllar, lf
lower, Lo Lhe LoLal numbers of people LhaL accessed
Newspaper readersh|p
Lhem. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy of people
1o galn a sLronger undersLandlng of whaL
who access lnformaLlon Lhrough Lhese provlders
lnformaLlon respondenLs were accesslng, Lhe 2011
LrusL whaL Lhey are belng Lold. 1hls ls slgnlflcanL, lf
survey asked lnLervlewees Lo ldenLlfy Lhe
Lhe governmenL wlshes Lo conLlnue Lo bulld
newspapers Lheypreferred Lo read.
confldence and oppose exLremlsm, however, Lhey
musL slmllarly be cauLlous of people galnlng
1he mosL slgnlflcanL change beLween Lhe 2011 and
lnformaLlon from lnflammaLory sources wlLhln
2010 surveys ls Lhe dramaLlc decrease ln Lhe
aklsLan. lL musL be noLed however, LhaL levels of
number of respondenLs LhaL were unable Lo
llLeracy may lnfluence Lhe flndlngs regardlng LrusL
answer. 1hls ls noL a reflecLlon of changlng aLLlLudes
ln radlo and 1v as oLher formal sources of
Lowards prlnL medla buL ls lnsLead Lhe resulL of
lnformaLlon could be lnaccesslble Lo Lhose LhaL
poslLlve change Lo Lhe survey quesLlonnalre: LhaL ls
cannoL read, and LhereforeLhey arerellanL on Lhese
Lhe 2011 survey lncluded an addlLlonal cholces LhaL
sources.
enabled respondenLs Lo noLe LhaL Lhey were elLher
oooble Lo (32.3) or cbose oot to (27.7) read
Levels of LrusL ln lnformal mechanlsms, whlle
newspapers.
remalnlng qulLe slgnlflcanL, ls less favourable Lhan
oLher servlces. uaLa recorded LhaL confldence ln
WlLh regard Lo Lhe 40.0 of respondenLs LhaL dld
fomlly ooJ ftleoJs, oelqbboots and wotk colleoqoes
access prlnL medla, Mosbtlp - an urdu language
has rlsen qulLe conslderably slnce 2010, however lL
dally newspaper - was mosL popular, read by over
musL benoLed LhaL Lhesesources conslsLenLly score
half of Lhese (22.8). A flgure negllglbly lower Lhan
less Lhan 73.0 of Lhe LoLal flgure for Lhose who
LhaL recorded ln 2010. 1hls ls followed by Aoj - an
access Lhem. 1hls ls concernlng as Lhese
alLernaLlve urdu language dally newspaper -
lnformaLlon sources are llkely Lo be Lhe prlmary
accessed by16.6 of people
ouLleLs for a slgnlflcanL number of people,
parLlcularly women. 1herefore, for Lhose who are
1Vaud|ence
dependenL on Lhese communlcaLlon sources many
Agaln, a slgnlflcanL proporLlon, almosL equal Lo Lhe
are prevenLed from Lhe rlghL Lo form an oplnlon
number of people LhaL dld noL access newspapers,
based on lnformaLlon LhaL Lhey LrusL, a reallLy LhaL
dld noL have a Lelevlslon (38.8) or are prevenLed
may help explaln why slgnlflcanL numbers of
from waLchlng / chose noL Lo waLch lnformaLlon
responses have recorded wlLh hlgh percenLages for
programmes (18.3).
undersLandlng lA1A
116
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
117
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.1: What are your sources of |nformat|on that he|ps you to form your op|n|on?
29.6
11.0
18.7
12.6
27.2
15.6
4.4
11.5
2.4
1.3
0.6
1.1
12.9
12.4
11.3
4.4
6.3
8.6
1.5
1.7
0.6
55.0
54.4
33.7
49.5
41.8
18.3
14.8
4.8
9.1
10.0
4.2
8.1
0.4
3.7
0.9
0.4
2.0
0.7
0.3
0.3
49.4
33.4
35.3
42.5
37.7
18.3
9.2
5.0
12.5
20.8
19.6
9.5
0.7
1.9
4.1
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.4
0.1
NA
29.6
42.0
NA
2.7
NA
NA
NA
NA
22.1
22.1
23.6
10.1
17.2
13.2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aklsLanl radlo
aklsLanl 1v
aklsLanl prlnLed medla
lrlends and famlly
nelghbours
lrlday Sermon
Communal gaLherlngs
lnLerneL, books and fllms
1rlbal elders
Work colleagues
Amerlcan radlo
88C 1v/8adlo
8rlLlsh 8adlo
none
CovernmenL offlclals
uon'L know
no response
8rlLlsh 1v
8rlLlsh prlnL medla
Amerlcan 1v
Amerlcan prlnL medla
undersLandlng lA1A
118
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
119
1.1
3.1
8.3
4.3
2.6
2.0
5.7
3.8
0.6
0.5
2.2
7.5
0.3
27.0
19.1
26.0
14.7
9.7
7.6
3.4
2.7
1.6
2.3
4.7
3.3
0.7
1.6
0.2
0.6
0.2
40.1
29.9
26.2
29.5
25.1
12.1
5.3
7.9
15.8
13.9
6.9
5.6
1.4
1.0
1.1
0.3
0.9
0.2
0.2
0.4
NA
2.1
3.6
8.1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
3.2
3.2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aklsLanl radlo
aklsLanl prlnL medla
aklsLanl 1v
lrlends and famlly
nelghbours
lrlday Sermon
lnLerneL, books
and fllms
1rlbal elders
Amerlcan radlo
Work colleagues
8rlLlsh radlo
Communal gaLherlngs
none
uon'L know
CovernmenL offlclals
8rlLlsh 1v
Amerlcan 1v
8rlLlsh prlnL medla
Amerlcan press
no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.2: Wh|ch sources of |nformat|on do you va|ue the most?
NA
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.3: Wh|ch newspapers do you read regu|ar|y?
44.7
12.1
4.1
7.2
3.7
0.7
4.0
2.0
0.8
2.2
1.1
0.9
0.6
NA
2.2
0.9
0.7
1.3
1.9
1.1
0.2
0.4
1.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
NA
24.6
20.3
45.3
6.7
6.3
3.8
6.7
9.9
2.6
2.3
0.9
3.6
1.7
1.1
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.3
27.7
22.8
16.6
3.2
32.5
5.6
4.0
3.2
4.3
0.2
0.8
0.5
1.5
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.8
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
5.4
20.6
28.2
0.7
0.3
NA
0.7
5.0
8.0
11.4
22.5
62.2
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.1
none
Mashrlq
Aa[
uon'L know
Can'L read
Ausaf
!ang
khabraln
Lxpress
CLher (speclfy)
nawa-e-WaqL
Aa[ kal
1he news
aklsLan
WahdaL
1he lronLler osL
1he uawn
ually 1lmes
1he SLaLesman
Cbserver
1he naLlon
1he osL
Afghan newspapers
uk newspapers
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1.1
0.4
undersLandlng lA1A
118
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
119
1.1
3.1
8.3
4.3
2.6
2.0
5.7
3.8
0.6
0.5
2.2
7.5
0.3
27.0
19.1
26.0
14.7
9.7
7.6
3.4
2.7
1.6
2.3
4.7
3.3
0.7
1.6
0.2
0.6
0.2
40.1
29.9
26.2
29.5
25.1
12.1
5.3
7.9
15.8
13.9
6.9
5.6
1.4
1.0
1.1
0.3
0.9
0.2
0.2
0.4
NA
2.1
3.6
8.1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
3.2
3.2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aklsLanl radlo
aklsLanl prlnL medla
aklsLanl 1v
lrlends and famlly
nelghbours
lrlday Sermon
lnLerneL, books
and fllms
1rlbal elders
Amerlcan radlo
Work colleagues
8rlLlsh radlo
Communal gaLherlngs
none
uon'L know
CovernmenL offlclals
8rlLlsh 1v
Amerlcan 1v
8rlLlsh prlnL medla
Amerlcan press
no response
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.2: Wh|ch sources of |nformat|on do you va|ue the most?
NA
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.3: Wh|ch newspapers do you read regu|ar|y?
44.7
12.1
4.1
7.2
3.7
0.7
4.0
2.0
0.8
2.2
1.1
0.9
0.6
NA
2.2
0.9
0.7
1.3
1.9
1.1
0.2
0.4
1.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
NA
24.6
20.3
45.3
6.7
6.3
3.8
6.7
9.9
2.6
2.3
0.9
3.6
1.7
1.1
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.3
27.7
22.8
16.6
3.2
32.5
5.6
4.0
3.2
4.3
0.2
0.8
0.5
1.5
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.8
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
5.4
20.6
28.2
0.7
0.3
NA
0.7
5.0
8.0
11.4
22.5
62.2
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.1
none
Mashrlq
Aa[
uon'L know
Can'L read
Ausaf
!ang
khabraln
Lxpress
CLher (speclfy)
nawa-e-WaqL
Aa[ kal
1he news
aklsLan
WahdaL
1he lronLler osL
1he uawn
ually 1lmes
1he SLaLesman
Cbserver
1he naLlon
1he osL
Afghan newspapers
uk newspapers
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1.1
0.4
lor all respondenLs wlLh access Lo a Lelevlslon, all number (28.1) of people sLaLed LhaL Lhey llsLened
aklsLanl 1v channels are avallable. 1he ma[orlLy of Lo ueewo - Lhls growLh ln popularlLy among all
Lelevlslon seLs are lnsLalled ln bojtos, largely demographlc groups ln lA1A ls llnked Lo lLs mlx of
prevenLlng women and chlldren from accesslng boLh lnformaLlon and enLerLalnmenL.
Lhem: a furLher example of gender lnequallLy ln
lL ls noLable LhaL desplLe radlo growlng as Lhe mosL
access Lo lnformaLlon.
valuable means of learnlng news, daLa recorded ln
uesplLe yearly flucLuaLlons, loklstoo 1elevlsloo llgure 7.3 have for Lhe mosL parL reduced
(l1v) ls Lhe mosL wldely waLched 1v channel: slgnlflcanLly (even by up Lo a half), for Lhese leadlng
ranglng from 23.9 - 33.3 ln Lhe prevlous radlo sLaLlons, wlLh Lhe excepLlon of ueewo,
surveys, recordlng some 27.6 for 2011. 8easons however no new sLaLlon has ulLlmaLely galned ln
for Lhese yearly changes could, ln parL, be Lhe resulL popularlLy. lL can only beassumed LhaL respondenLs
of mlllLancy dlsrupLlng opporLunlLles for 1v are becomlng more supporLlve of parLlcular
channels (wlLh Lhe 1allban declarlng Lhe waLchlng sLaLlons and Lherefore noL chooslng several as Lhey
of Lelevlslon Lo be slnful) or lnLernal dlsplacemenL werelnvlLed Lo.
prevenLlng access Lo programmes. AparL from 1v
8egardlng Lhe remalnder of Lhe radlo sLaLlons:
ln popularlLy was Lhe Av1 kbybet, a prlvaLe losbto
Lhese are largely local sLaLlons servlclng Lhe needs
channel ls Lhe second mosL waLched channel wlLh
of local communlLles or Lrlbal areas and Lherefore
coverage lnslde lA1A, lnLeresLlngly Lhls servlce has
do noL haveLhereach of larger radlo sLaLlons.
seen much less dlsrupLlon ln vlewlng flgures, buL lL
ls unclear whyLhls ls Lhecase.
Also, almosL 10.0 of respondenLs lndlcaLed a
lrom Lhe research lL ls apparenL LhaL Lhere ls access
preference for Ceo News - Lhe mosL popular prlvaLe
Lo naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal news for slgnlflcanL
channel ln aklsLan. 8ecauseprlvaLe Lransmlsslon ls
number of Lhe people of lA1A: wlLh radlo largely
noL unlversally avallableLhls flgure may be less Lhan
provldlng a condulL for Lhls process. 1he quallLy of
could oLherwlse be expecLed. 1hls lnablllLy Lo reach
Lhese medla appears Lo be sLrong ln Lhe eyes of
all households ls because saLelllLe ls very expenslve
respondenLs, wlLh aklsLanl medla, ln parLlcular,
and noL a vlable opLlon for many, whlle cable ls noL
galnlng sLrong levels of LrusL.
avallable ln lA1A. LlmlLaLlons ln access and
language are also llkely Lo accounL for Lhe low
Powever, gender dlsparlLy appears Lo be
numbers of respondenLs LhaL l denLl fl ed
malnLalnlng some levels of lnformaLlon poverLy
lnLernaLlonal 1vchannels.
wlLh women apparenLly belng more dependenL on:
famlly, frlends and nelghbours.
kad|o ||stenersh|p
8adlo ls much more accesslble medlum for
1here also appears Lo be sLrong blas for local
lnformaLlon sharlng Lhan newspapers and
language medla, wlLh Lngllsh-language sources
Lelevlslon, wlLh only 21.3 of respondenLs noL
always recelvlng very low scores, Lhls ls noL
possesslng a radlo aL home and 2.7 chooslng noL
surprlslng glven Lhe language barrlers prevenLlng
Lo llsLen Lo lL.
greaLer supporL. Surprlslngly 88C local language
sLaLlons recelves a greaLer audlence share Lhan Lhe
lrom Lhe daLa recorded, lL appears LhaL
value of '8rlLlsh radlo' (recorded ln llgure 7.1)
respondenLs en[oy greaLer cholce of naLlonal and
would suggesL. 1hls may beLheresulL of apercelved
lnLernaLlonally-led radlo programmlng. ln 2011,
aLLlLude of local ownershlp (raLher Lhan uk
28.7 of survey parLlclpanLs recorded LhaL Lhey
ownershlp) for Lhese sLaLlons - buL addlLlonal
llsLened Lo koJlo loklstoo, a percenLage exacLly
research would be necessary Lo LesL Lhls
equal Lo Lhe comblned flgures for 88c losbto
supposlLlon.
(13.3) and 88c utJo (13.2). Whlle a comparable
Conc|us|on
undersLandlng lA1A
120
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
121
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.4: What 1V Stat|ons do you watch regu|ar|y?
37.4
8.7
11.3
4.4
3.1
3.2
1.7
1.8
1.8
4.4
2.3
1.7
1.0
0.5
0.4
2.0
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.7
0.3
0.1
55.3
13.7
11.3
5.6
24.2
3.5
2.5
4.0
6.4
3.7
1.9
2.6
1.3
2.0
1.4
2.7
1.8
1.8
1.0
0.3
0.2
0.2
27.6
18.5
13.2
38.8
5.1
4.1
2.2
2.8
1.5
9.6
1.6
2.6
1.9
0.7
0.5
0.1
1.7
0.2
0.1
1.7
0.3
0.1
0.1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
42.5
16.7
NA
2.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
25.9
56.5
10.1
NA
5.6
NA
0.8
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aklsLan 1elevlslon (1v)
none
Av1 khyber
uon'L have 1v
Av1
Aa[
uon'L know
CLher (speclfy)
A8?
88C
Ceo news
Samma
Pum
Lxpress news
SLar
Al !azeera
Cnn
uunya
CenLury 1v
WaqL
8olan
Ceo Super
Cn8C
uawn news
uln
Sky news
NA
NA
lor all respondenLs wlLh access Lo a Lelevlslon, all number (28.1) of people sLaLed LhaL Lhey llsLened
aklsLanl 1v channels are avallable. 1he ma[orlLy of Lo ueewo - Lhls growLh ln popularlLy among all
Lelevlslon seLs are lnsLalled ln bojtos, largely demographlc groups ln lA1A ls llnked Lo lLs mlx of
prevenLlng women and chlldren from accesslng boLh lnformaLlon and enLerLalnmenL.
Lhem: a furLher example of gender lnequallLy ln
lL ls noLable LhaL desplLe radlo growlng as Lhe mosL
access Lo lnformaLlon.
valuable means of learnlng news, daLa recorded ln
uesplLe yearly flucLuaLlons, loklstoo 1elevlsloo llgure 7.3 have for Lhe mosL parL reduced
(l1v) ls Lhe mosL wldely waLched 1v channel: slgnlflcanLly (even by up Lo a half), for Lhese leadlng
ranglng from 23.9 - 33.3 ln Lhe prevlous radlo sLaLlons, wlLh Lhe excepLlon of ueewo,
surveys, recordlng some 27.6 for 2011. 8easons however no new sLaLlon has ulLlmaLely galned ln
for Lhese yearly changes could, ln parL, be Lhe resulL popularlLy. lL can only beassumed LhaL respondenLs
of mlllLancy dlsrupLlng opporLunlLles for 1v are becomlng more supporLlve of parLlcular
channels (wlLh Lhe 1allban declarlng Lhe waLchlng sLaLlons and Lherefore noL chooslng several as Lhey
of Lelevlslon Lo be slnful) or lnLernal dlsplacemenL werelnvlLed Lo.
prevenLlng access Lo programmes. AparL from 1v
8egardlng Lhe remalnder of Lhe radlo sLaLlons:
ln popularlLy was Lhe Av1 kbybet, a prlvaLe losbto
Lhese are largely local sLaLlons servlclng Lhe needs
channel ls Lhe second mosL waLched channel wlLh
of local communlLles or Lrlbal areas and Lherefore
coverage lnslde lA1A, lnLeresLlngly Lhls servlce has
do noL haveLhereach of larger radlo sLaLlons.
seen much less dlsrupLlon ln vlewlng flgures, buL lL
ls unclear whyLhls ls Lhecase.
Also, almosL 10.0 of respondenLs lndlcaLed a
lrom Lhe research lL ls apparenL LhaL Lhere ls access
preference for Ceo News - Lhe mosL popular prlvaLe
Lo naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal news for slgnlflcanL
channel ln aklsLan. 8ecauseprlvaLe Lransmlsslon ls
number of Lhe people of lA1A: wlLh radlo largely
noL unlversally avallableLhls flgure may be less Lhan
provldlng a condulL for Lhls process. 1he quallLy of
could oLherwlse be expecLed. 1hls lnablllLy Lo reach
Lhese medla appears Lo be sLrong ln Lhe eyes of
all households ls because saLelllLe ls very expenslve
respondenLs, wlLh aklsLanl medla, ln parLlcular,
and noL a vlable opLlon for many, whlle cable ls noL
galnlng sLrong levels of LrusL.
avallable ln lA1A. LlmlLaLlons ln access and
language are also llkely Lo accounL for Lhe low
Powever, gender dlsparlLy appears Lo be
numbers of respondenLs LhaL l denLl fl ed
malnLalnlng some levels of lnformaLlon poverLy
lnLernaLlonal 1vchannels.
wlLh women apparenLly belng more dependenL on:
famlly, frlends and nelghbours.
kad|o ||stenersh|p
8adlo ls much more accesslble medlum for
1here also appears Lo be sLrong blas for local
lnformaLlon sharlng Lhan newspapers and
language medla, wlLh Lngllsh-language sources
Lelevlslon, wlLh only 21.3 of respondenLs noL
always recelvlng very low scores, Lhls ls noL
possesslng a radlo aL home and 2.7 chooslng noL
surprlslng glven Lhe language barrlers prevenLlng
Lo llsLen Lo lL.
greaLer supporL. Surprlslngly 88C local language
sLaLlons recelves a greaLer audlence share Lhan Lhe
lrom Lhe daLa recorded, lL appears LhaL
value of '8rlLlsh radlo' (recorded ln llgure 7.1)
respondenLs en[oy greaLer cholce of naLlonal and
would suggesL. 1hls may beLheresulL of apercelved
lnLernaLlonally-led radlo programmlng. ln 2011,
aLLlLude of local ownershlp (raLher Lhan uk
28.7 of survey parLlclpanLs recorded LhaL Lhey
ownershlp) for Lhese sLaLlons - buL addlLlonal
llsLened Lo koJlo loklstoo, a percenLage exacLly
research would be necessary Lo LesL Lhls
equal Lo Lhe comblned flgures for 88c losbto
supposlLlon.
(13.3) and 88c utJo (13.2). Whlle a comparable
Conc|us|on
undersLandlng lA1A
120
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
121
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.4: What 1V Stat|ons do you watch regu|ar|y?
37.4
8.7
11.3
4.4
3.1
3.2
1.7
1.8
1.8
4.4
2.3
1.7
1.0
0.5
0.4
2.0
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.7
0.3
0.1
55.3
13.7
11.3
5.6
24.2
3.5
2.5
4.0
6.4
3.7
1.9
2.6
1.3
2.0
1.4
2.7
1.8
1.8
1.0
0.3
0.2
0.2
27.6
18.5
13.2
38.8
5.1
4.1
2.2
2.8
1.5
9.6
1.6
2.6
1.9
0.7
0.5
0.1
1.7
0.2
0.1
1.7
0.3
0.1
0.1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
42.5
16.7
NA
2.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
25.9
56.5
10.1
NA
5.6
NA
0.8
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
aklsLan 1elevlslon (1v)
none
Av1 khyber
uon'L have 1v
Av1
Aa[
uon'L know
CLher (speclfy)
A8?
88C
Ceo news
Samma
Pum
Lxpress news
SLar
Al !azeera
Cnn
uunya
CenLury 1v
WaqL
8olan
Ceo Super
Cn8C
uawn news
uln
Sky news
NA
NA
1hls conLradlcLlon of supporL versus oLher aLLlLudes
expressed ls also Lrue wlLh regard Lo ueewo radlo.
1hls ls because, desplLe belng funded by Lhe uS (a
negaLlvely percelved naLlon [see ChapLer 8]), lL
en[oys aconslderableaudlence.
undersLandlng lA1A
122
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
123
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.S: Wh|ch kad|o stat|ons do you ||sten regu|ar|y?
27.1
24.6
14.8
3.9
3.7
9.0
3.6
5.5
1.7
1.2
15.8
3.6
3.0
1.0
3.8
1.7
0.4
0.4
41.9
29.2
23.4
17.6
13.8
17.2
6.1
7.6
2.9
4.9
3.4
4.0
4.4
1.8
1.3
28.7
15.5
28.1
13.2
7.7
6.2
21.5
5.1
3.7
2.0
8.5
2.9
2.4
0.4
5.1
1.1
0.9
2.7
1.0
0.5
1.3
1.5
1.7
33.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.3
NA
NA
14.0
16.3
25.3
12.7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
8adlo aklsLan
88C ushLo
ueewa (volce of Amerlca)
88C urdu
lM 104 8uraq
uon'L know
no 8adlo aL Pome
lM 106
lM 101
lM 88 Lakkl
8adlo khyber
CLher (speclfy)
8AulC ak MW
lM 100
Mlranshah, 1393 kPZ
lM 103
88C Lngllsh
uo noL llsLen Lo Lhe radlo
no response
8azmak 1384 kPZ
1hls conLradlcLlon of supporL versus oLher aLLlLudes
expressed ls also Lrue wlLh regard Lo ueewo radlo.
1hls ls because, desplLe belng funded by Lhe uS (a
negaLlvely percelved naLlon [see ChapLer 8]), lL
en[oys aconslderableaudlence.
undersLandlng lA1A
122
ChapLer 7: Access Lo lnformaLlon
123
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 7.S: Wh|ch kad|o stat|ons do you ||sten regu|ar|y?
27.1
24.6
14.8
3.9
3.7
9.0
3.6
5.5
1.7
1.2
15.8
3.6
3.0
1.0
3.8
1.7
0.4
0.4
41.9
29.2
23.4
17.6
13.8
17.2
6.1
7.6
2.9
4.9
3.4
4.0
4.4
1.8
1.3
28.7
15.5
28.1
13.2
7.7
6.2
21.5
5.1
3.7
2.0
8.5
2.9
2.4
0.4
5.1
1.1
0.9
2.7
1.0
0.5
1.3
1.5
1.7
33.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.3
NA
NA
14.0
16.3
25.3
12.7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
8adlo aklsLan
88C ushLo
ueewa (volce of Amerlca)
88C urdu
lM 104 8uraq
uon'L know
no 8adlo aL Pome
lM 106
lM 101
lM 88 Lakkl
8adlo khyber
CLher (speclfy)
8AulC ak MW
lM 100
Mlranshah, 1393 kPZ
lM 103
88C Lngllsh
uo noL llsLen Lo Lhe radlo
no response
8azmak 1384 kPZ
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
12S
Att|tudes Towards Pak|stan's
|nternat|ona| Re|at|ons Po||c|es
6hAPTER 8
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
12S
Att|tudes Towards Pak|stan's
|nternat|ona| Re|at|ons Po||c|es
6hAPTER 8
1he legacy of 9/11 has deflned much of Lhe world's
more confldence ln Lhe lronLler Corps (see llgure
debaLes around lnLernaLlonal relaLlons and
4.20).
lnLervenLlons, and Lhls ls no dlfferenL ln aklsLan.
1he flgures documenLed ln llgure 8.1 for 2011 are
AfLer exerLlon of uS lnfluence, aklsLan has become
lnLeresLlng because Lhey are comparable Lo Lhose
a slgnlflcanL fronL ln 'War on 1error'. 1hls poslLlon
recorded ln 2009, buL a reversal of Lhose for 2010. lL
has afforded Lhe aklsLan CovernmenL a sLrong
ls Lherefore apparenL, from Lhe survey (and lCus),
poslLlon Lo conLrlbuLe Lo global pollLlcal dlalogue,
LhaL Lhere ls no sLrong consensus ln lA1A
acqul re l nf rasLrucLure and l nsLl LuLl onal
(parLlcularly as 20.6 of respondenLs JlJ oot koow)
developmenL asslsLance, and, ald ln supporLlng
wlLh oplnlon conLlnually changlng. An ouLcome,
poverLy-reducLlon sLraLegles.
llkely llnked Lo mlllLary ouLpuLs ln lA1A aL Lhe Llme
1he purpose of Lhls chapLer ls Lo provlde an analysls
of Lhe survey - wlLh successes reduclng Lhe
of lA1A percepLlons regardlng Lhose counLrles wlLh
percelved need for exLernal lnLerference and losses
whom aklsLan shares a sLrong relaLlonshlp. 1o Lhls
compelllng deslres for greaLer lnLernaLlonal
end Lhe chapLer ls spllL lnLo Lwo secLlons: 1)
supporL.
ALLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS and uk, and 2) ALLlLudes
1hese aLLlLudes appear noL Lo be spllL along gender
Lowards LheresL of Lheworld.
llnes as, slnce 2010, surveys have soughL Lo offer
equal represenLaLlon of boLh men and women. 8.1: Att|tudes towards a|dfrom the US andthe
1herefore, Lhe lncrease and subsequenL decrease
Uk
cannoL be ascrlbed Lo lncluslon of greaLer numbers
M|||tary a|dfrom the USandthe Uk of women ln Lhesurveyprocess.
As documenLed ln ChapLer 4, Lhere ls much publlc
debaLe over Lhe effecLlveness of mlllLary ald from
Lhe WesL, and ln parLlcular Lhe uk and uS, Lo Lhe
lronLler Corps (see llgure 4.20). 1o LesL Lhese
dlfferlng aLLlLudes furLher, respondenLs were asked
Lo glve an oplnlon on wheLher or noL aklsLan
should accepL funds from Lhese naLlons ln order Lo
develop lLs mlllLary capablllLy.
lrom Lhe daLa recorded, lL appears LhaL publlc
oplnlon opposes Lhe accepLance of mlllLary ald:
wlLh 43.6 of respondenLs provldlng Lhe answer
no. ln conLrasL only one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
LhoughL LhaL aklsLan should conLlnue accepLlng
Lhls supporL. 1hls flgure may be consldered
surprlslng as mlllLary ald - Lhrough Lralnlng - was
consldered by 30.0 of respondenLs Lo glve Lhem
Att|tudes 1owards ak|stan's Internat|ona|
ke|at|ons o||c|es
ClAPTER 8
3
1
.
3
1
6
.
3
3
3
.
9
4
3
.
6
2
0
.
6
-
4
.
4
4
7
.
8
6
1
.
9
-
1
4
.
1
2
4
.
0
?es no uon'L know no response
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 8.1: Do you th|nk ak|stan shou|d accept
money from Western countr|es such as the Uk
and USA for the m|||tary bu||d up?
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
127
n
A
n
A
1he legacy of 9/11 has deflned much of Lhe world's
more confldence ln Lhe lronLler Corps (see llgure
debaLes around lnLernaLlonal relaLlons and
4.20).
lnLervenLlons, and Lhls ls no dlfferenL ln aklsLan.
1he flgures documenLed ln llgure 8.1 for 2011 are
AfLer exerLlon of uS lnfluence, aklsLan has become
lnLeresLlng because Lhey are comparable Lo Lhose
a slgnlflcanL fronL ln 'War on 1error'. 1hls poslLlon
recorded ln 2009, buL a reversal of Lhose for 2010. lL
has afforded Lhe aklsLan CovernmenL a sLrong
ls Lherefore apparenL, from Lhe survey (and lCus),
poslLlon Lo conLrlbuLe Lo global pollLlcal dlalogue,
LhaL Lhere ls no sLrong consensus ln lA1A
acqul re l nf rasLrucLure and l nsLl LuLl onal
(parLlcularly as 20.6 of respondenLs JlJ oot koow)
developmenL asslsLance, and, ald ln supporLlng
wlLh oplnlon conLlnually changlng. An ouLcome,
poverLy-reducLlon sLraLegles.
llkely llnked Lo mlllLary ouLpuLs ln lA1A aL Lhe Llme
1he purpose of Lhls chapLer ls Lo provlde an analysls
of Lhe survey - wlLh successes reduclng Lhe
of lA1A percepLlons regardlng Lhose counLrles wlLh
percelved need for exLernal lnLerference and losses
whom aklsLan shares a sLrong relaLlonshlp. 1o Lhls
compelllng deslres for greaLer lnLernaLlonal
end Lhe chapLer ls spllL lnLo Lwo secLlons: 1)
supporL.
ALLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS and uk, and 2) ALLlLudes
1hese aLLlLudes appear noL Lo be spllL along gender
Lowards LheresL of Lheworld.
llnes as, slnce 2010, surveys have soughL Lo offer
equal represenLaLlon of boLh men and women. 8.1: Att|tudes towards a|dfrom the US andthe
1herefore, Lhe lncrease and subsequenL decrease
Uk
cannoL be ascrlbed Lo lncluslon of greaLer numbers
M|||tary a|dfrom the USandthe Uk of women ln Lhesurveyprocess.
As documenLed ln ChapLer 4, Lhere ls much publlc
debaLe over Lhe effecLlveness of mlllLary ald from
Lhe WesL, and ln parLlcular Lhe uk and uS, Lo Lhe
lronLler Corps (see llgure 4.20). 1o LesL Lhese
dlfferlng aLLlLudes furLher, respondenLs were asked
Lo glve an oplnlon on wheLher or noL aklsLan
should accepL funds from Lhese naLlons ln order Lo
develop lLs mlllLary capablllLy.
lrom Lhe daLa recorded, lL appears LhaL publlc
oplnlon opposes Lhe accepLance of mlllLary ald:
wlLh 43.6 of respondenLs provldlng Lhe answer
no. ln conLrasL only one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
LhoughL LhaL aklsLan should conLlnue accepLlng
Lhls supporL. 1hls flgure may be consldered
surprlslng as mlllLary ald - Lhrough Lralnlng - was
consldered by 30.0 of respondenLs Lo glve Lhem
Att|tudes 1owards ak|stan's Internat|ona|
ke|at|ons o||c|es
ClAPTER 8
3
1
.
3
1
6
.
3
3
3
.
9
4
3
.
6
2
0
.
6
-
4
.
4
4
7
.
8
6
1
.
9
-
1
4
.
1
2
4
.
0
?es no uon'L know no response
2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%)
I|gure 8.1: Do you th|nk ak|stan shou|d accept
money from Western countr|es such as the Uk
and USA for the m|||tary bu||d up?
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
127
n
A
n
A
WlLh regard Lo Lhe uS, followlng some marglnal a reallLy LhaL has resulLed ln an exacerbaLlon of
sofLenlng of aLLlLudes, Lhere has agaln been a mlsLrusL and resenLmenL felL Lowards uS. 1hls
conslderable loss ln confldence of Lhe communlLles should noL be read as Lhe expresslon of supporL by
ln lA1A. ln 2011, only 2.7 of people vlewed Lhe uS Lhe populaLlon of aklsLan Lowards Lhe laLe Csama
vety fovootobly and 10.6 somewbot fovootobly. bln Laden buL a sLaLemenL of dlsapproval for Lhls
1hls compares Lo 8.8 who percelve Lhem ln publlc show of dlsregard for aklsLanl soverelgnLy.
somewbot oofovootoble and 38.8 ln vety luLure research wlll need Lo dlscern how Lhls acLlon
oofovootobl e Lerms. Whl l e some survey has affecLed percepLlons.
parLlclpanLs dld noL know or would noL provlde a
1he reason for Lhls hosLlllLy ls ln large parL due Lo
response, Lhe LoLal flgures of opposlLlon remalns
Lhe almosL unlversal oplnlon LhaL Lhe uS ls pursulng
forceful.
pollcles LhaL are Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe Musllm
lmprovemenLs ln Lhe quallLy of Lhe lronLler Corps world. As seen ln llgure 8.4: almosL Lhree-quarLers
and Lhe ouLpuLs of lA1A developmenL lnsLlLuLlons of lA1A resldenLs - as represenLed by Lhe survey -
may explaln why flgures for 2011 have lmproved on shared Lhls negaLlve percepLlon, wlLh Lhe greaLesL
Lhose from 2008. SlgnlflcanL pollcy changes need Lo proporLlon (some 68.2) declarlng Lhe uS oot
be lmplemenLed before any real change ln fovootoble.
confldencels llkely, Lhls may lncludesLopplng drone
Cp|n|ons onthe Uk
aLLacks ln lA1A or openly seeklng dlalogue wlLh
1hls apparenL hosLlllLy dlrecLed Lowards Lhe uS ls
eLhnlc lokbtoo, a process posslbly allowlng for Lhe
repeaLed Lo some degree Lowards Lhe uk. ln 2008,
repaLrlaLlon of Afghan refugees.
hosLlllLy Lowards Lhe uS ls somewhaL evldenL
lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe however, LhaL fuLure
Lowards Lhe uk as well, buL noL Lo Lhe same degree.
aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS, as Lhey develop lnLo 2012
ln 2008, a sLrong ma[orlLy of respondenLs looked
and beyond, wlll equally be lnfluenced by reacLlons
vety oofovootobly (38.0) Lowards Lhe uk,
Lo Lhe unllaLeral operaLlon conducLed by Lhe uS
however, ln 2011 Lhls has reduced Lo a slgnlflcanL
agalnsL Csama bln Laden ln AbboLLabad: aklsLan,
37.2. 1hls comblned wlLh Lhe flgure of Lhose who
ln May 2011. 1hls operaLlon, whlle successful ln
aresomewbot oofovootoble (10.7) means LhaL for
flndlng Lhe leader of Al OoeJo was underLaken by
Lhe flrsL Llme a survey can documenL a comblned
uS mlllLary personnel wlLhouL Lhe prlor knowledge
flgureof less Lhan 30.
or pollLlcal approval of Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan,
Cverall, Lhls quesLlon requlres furLher sLudy Lo see
whaL Lrend occurs ln Lhelong-Lerm.
Ma|e IGDs
1hema[orlLy of focus group parLlclpanLs wereof Lhe
oplnlon LhaL mlllLary ald placed aklsLan aL a
dlsadvanLaged poslLlon because of Lhe sLrlngenL
condlLlons LhaL are belleved Lo be assoclaLed wlLh
Lhls ald and should Lherefore noL be accepLed. lL ls
noL clear whaL Lhese condlLlons are buL Lhey are
posslbly llnked Lo Lhe conslsLenL demand from
lnLernaLlonal parLners Lo conLlnue Lo supporL and
champlon Lhe 'War on 1error', a perspecLlve LhaL
may be opposed because conslderable mlnorlLy of
people look favourably on Lhe Afghan 1allban (see
ChapLer 6).
Powever, ln conLrasL respondenLs from Lhe lronLler
8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl, 1ank and ul khan LhoughL
Powever, glven culLural opposlLlon Lo exLernal
LhaL aklsLan would be beLLer able Lo face
lnLerferenceperhaps Lhls ls noL surprlslng.
challenges lf lL was equlpped uslng ald from Lhe uS
and uk.
Ma|e IGDs
As lL may be expecLed, oplnlons expressed by male
Iema|e IGDs
focus group parLlclpanLs were commonly
lemale parLlclpanLs were largely unable Lo provlde
supporLlve of aklsLan recelvlng ald from Lhe uS
an oplnlon buL when Lhey were forLhcomlng no
and/or uk for developmenL, lL was belleved LhaL
consensus was formed. Some, llke Lhelr male
asslsLance would beLLer enable aklsLan Lo allevlaLe
counLerparLs, LhoughL LhaL ml l l Lary al d
poverLy, generaLe employmenL and change Lhe
dlsadvanLaged aklsLan, whlle females from
llves of Lhe people of aklsLan for Lhe beLLer, lf used
Crakzal Agency oplned LhaL mlllLary ald allowed Lhe
effecLlvely.
aklsLanl mlllLary Lo beLLer opposeLhelr enemles.
Iema|e IGDs
Deve|opmenta| a|dfrom USand]or Uk
lemale respondenLs' echoed Lhe responses of
1hesurveyalso soughL Lo ellclL oplnlons on wheLher
male lCus. lL was LhoughL LhaL ald would help Lo
developmenL ald, ln conLrasL, should be accepLed
develop aklsLan and Lhus meeL Lhe asplraLlons of
from LheuSand/or uk.
peopleln lA1A.
8egardlng Lhls quesLlon, oplnlon favoured Lhe
Cp|n|ons onthe US
sLaLemenL: aklsLan should accepL developmenLal
1he poLenLlally favourable deslre of respondenLs Lo
ald from Lhe uS and/or uk. ConsequenLly, 48.4 of
accepL asslsLance from elLher Lhe uS and/or uk
respondenLs answered yes whlle 32.0 sald no.
appears Lo somewhaL conLradl cL overal l
Agaln Lhls vlew ls comparable Lo 2009 and a
lmpresslons of Lhese Lwo sLaLes. Ceneral aLLlLudes
varlaLlon on 2010. ln 2010, almosL Lhree-quarLers
Lowards Lhe uS and uk are recorded ln llgure 8.3
answered yes.
and 8.3respecLlvely.
1hls drop ln supporL for lnLernaLlonal ald regardlng
1he daLa ls compelllng, wlLh only a small mlnorlLy of
poverLy-reducLlon sLraLegles agaln slgnals LhaL
respondenLs looklng Lowards Lhese counLrles
Lhere ls no clear consensus of oplnlon, parLlcularly
favourably, and Lhe ma[orlLy Laklng Lhe opposlLe
as almosL 20.0 dld noL provlde an oplnlon.
perspecLlve.
4
7
.
0
1
4
.
4
4
8
.
4
3
2
.
0
1
9
.
7
4
.
8
3
3
.
8
7
1
.
0
1
1
.
2
1
7
.
8
?es no uon'L know no response
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.2: Do you th|nk ak|stan shou|d accept money
from Western countr|es such as the Uk and USA
for deve|opment?
3
.
0
6
6
.
2
8
.
2
4
.
3 1
2
.
3
4
.
3
1
2
.
41
8
.
0
3
1
.
3
3
.
3
8
.
3
2
.
7
1
0
.
6
8
.
8
3
8
.
8
9
.
1
1
0
.
0
1
1
.
9
6
.
4
3
.
9
3
3
.
1
1
2
.
0
7
.
8
8
.
6
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.3: 1h|nk|ng now about wor|d affa|rs, do you have a very favourab|e, somewhat favourab|e, somewhat
unfavourab|e, or very unfavourab|e op|n|on of the government of USA?
undersLandlng lA1A
128
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
129
n
A
n
A
WlLh regard Lo Lhe uS, followlng some marglnal a reallLy LhaL has resulLed ln an exacerbaLlon of
sofLenlng of aLLlLudes, Lhere has agaln been a mlsLrusL and resenLmenL felL Lowards uS. 1hls
conslderable loss ln confldence of Lhe communlLles should noL be read as Lhe expresslon of supporL by
ln lA1A. ln 2011, only 2.7 of people vlewed Lhe uS Lhe populaLlon of aklsLan Lowards Lhe laLe Csama
vety fovootobly and 10.6 somewbot fovootobly. bln Laden buL a sLaLemenL of dlsapproval for Lhls
1hls compares Lo 8.8 who percelve Lhem ln publlc show of dlsregard for aklsLanl soverelgnLy.
somewbot oofovootoble and 38.8 ln vety luLure research wlll need Lo dlscern how Lhls acLlon
oofovootobl e Lerms. Whl l e some survey has affecLed percepLlons.
parLlclpanLs dld noL know or would noL provlde a
1he reason for Lhls hosLlllLy ls ln large parL due Lo
response, Lhe LoLal flgures of opposlLlon remalns
Lhe almosL unlversal oplnlon LhaL Lhe uS ls pursulng
forceful.
pollcles LhaL are Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe Musllm
lmprovemenLs ln Lhe quallLy of Lhe lronLler Corps world. As seen ln llgure 8.4: almosL Lhree-quarLers
and Lhe ouLpuLs of lA1A developmenL lnsLlLuLlons of lA1A resldenLs - as represenLed by Lhe survey -
may explaln why flgures for 2011 have lmproved on shared Lhls negaLlve percepLlon, wlLh Lhe greaLesL
Lhose from 2008. SlgnlflcanL pollcy changes need Lo proporLlon (some 68.2) declarlng Lhe uS oot
be lmplemenLed before any real change ln fovootoble.
confldencels llkely, Lhls may lncludesLopplng drone
Cp|n|ons onthe Uk
aLLacks ln lA1A or openly seeklng dlalogue wlLh
1hls apparenL hosLlllLy dlrecLed Lowards Lhe uS ls
eLhnlc lokbtoo, a process posslbly allowlng for Lhe
repeaLed Lo some degree Lowards Lhe uk. ln 2008,
repaLrlaLlon of Afghan refugees.
hosLlllLy Lowards Lhe uS ls somewhaL evldenL
lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe however, LhaL fuLure
Lowards Lhe uk as well, buL noL Lo Lhe same degree.
aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS, as Lhey develop lnLo 2012
ln 2008, a sLrong ma[orlLy of respondenLs looked
and beyond, wlll equally be lnfluenced by reacLlons
vety oofovootobly (38.0) Lowards Lhe uk,
Lo Lhe unllaLeral operaLlon conducLed by Lhe uS
however, ln 2011 Lhls has reduced Lo a slgnlflcanL
agalnsL Csama bln Laden ln AbboLLabad: aklsLan,
37.2. 1hls comblned wlLh Lhe flgure of Lhose who
ln May 2011. 1hls operaLlon, whlle successful ln
aresomewbot oofovootoble (10.7) means LhaL for
flndlng Lhe leader of Al OoeJo was underLaken by
Lhe flrsL Llme a survey can documenL a comblned
uS mlllLary personnel wlLhouL Lhe prlor knowledge
flgureof less Lhan 30.
or pollLlcal approval of Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan,
Cverall, Lhls quesLlon requlres furLher sLudy Lo see
whaL Lrend occurs ln Lhelong-Lerm.
Ma|e IGDs
1hema[orlLy of focus group parLlclpanLs wereof Lhe
oplnlon LhaL mlllLary ald placed aklsLan aL a
dlsadvanLaged poslLlon because of Lhe sLrlngenL
condlLlons LhaL are belleved Lo be assoclaLed wlLh
Lhls ald and should Lherefore noL be accepLed. lL ls
noL clear whaL Lhese condlLlons are buL Lhey are
posslbly llnked Lo Lhe conslsLenL demand from
lnLernaLlonal parLners Lo conLlnue Lo supporL and
champlon Lhe 'War on 1error', a perspecLlve LhaL
may be opposed because conslderable mlnorlLy of
people look favourably on Lhe Afghan 1allban (see
ChapLer 6).
Powever, ln conLrasL respondenLs from Lhe lronLler
8eglons of 8annu, Lakkl, 1ank and ul khan LhoughL
Powever, glven culLural opposlLlon Lo exLernal
LhaL aklsLan would be beLLer able Lo face
lnLerferenceperhaps Lhls ls noL surprlslng.
challenges lf lL was equlpped uslng ald from Lhe uS
and uk.
Ma|e IGDs
As lL may be expecLed, oplnlons expressed by male
Iema|e IGDs
focus group parLlclpanLs were commonly
lemale parLlclpanLs were largely unable Lo provlde
supporLlve of aklsLan recelvlng ald from Lhe uS
an oplnlon buL when Lhey were forLhcomlng no
and/or uk for developmenL, lL was belleved LhaL
consensus was formed. Some, llke Lhelr male
asslsLance would beLLer enable aklsLan Lo allevlaLe
counLerparLs, LhoughL LhaL ml l l Lary al d
poverLy, generaLe employmenL and change Lhe
dlsadvanLaged aklsLan, whlle females from
llves of Lhe people of aklsLan for Lhe beLLer, lf used
Crakzal Agency oplned LhaL mlllLary ald allowed Lhe
effecLlvely.
aklsLanl mlllLary Lo beLLer opposeLhelr enemles.
Iema|e IGDs
Deve|opmenta| a|dfrom USand]or Uk
lemale respondenLs' echoed Lhe responses of
1hesurveyalso soughL Lo ellclL oplnlons on wheLher
male lCus. lL was LhoughL LhaL ald would help Lo
developmenL ald, ln conLrasL, should be accepLed
develop aklsLan and Lhus meeL Lhe asplraLlons of
from LheuSand/or uk.
peopleln lA1A.
8egardlng Lhls quesLlon, oplnlon favoured Lhe
Cp|n|ons onthe US
sLaLemenL: aklsLan should accepL developmenLal
1he poLenLlally favourable deslre of respondenLs Lo
ald from Lhe uS and/or uk. ConsequenLly, 48.4 of
accepL asslsLance from elLher Lhe uS and/or uk
respondenLs answered yes whlle 32.0 sald no.
appears Lo somewhaL conLradl cL overal l
Agaln Lhls vlew ls comparable Lo 2009 and a
lmpresslons of Lhese Lwo sLaLes. Ceneral aLLlLudes
varlaLlon on 2010. ln 2010, almosL Lhree-quarLers
Lowards Lhe uS and uk are recorded ln llgure 8.3
answered yes.
and 8.3respecLlvely.
1hls drop ln supporL for lnLernaLlonal ald regardlng
1he daLa ls compelllng, wlLh only a small mlnorlLy of
poverLy-reducLlon sLraLegles agaln slgnals LhaL
respondenLs looklng Lowards Lhese counLrles
Lhere ls no clear consensus of oplnlon, parLlcularly
favourably, and Lhe ma[orlLy Laklng Lhe opposlLe
as almosL 20.0 dld noL provlde an oplnlon.
perspecLlve.
4
7
.
0
1
4
.
4
4
8
.
4
3
2
.
0
1
9
.
7
4
.
8
3
3
.
8
7
1
.
0
1
1
.
2
1
7
.
8
?es no uon'L know no response
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.2: Do you th|nk ak|stan shou|d accept money
from Western countr|es such as the Uk and USA
for deve|opment?
3
.
0
6
6
.
2
8
.
2
4
.
3 1
2
.
3
4
.
3
1
2
.
41
8
.
0
3
1
.
3
3
.
3
8
.
3
2
.
7
1
0
.
6
8
.
8
3
8
.
8
9
.
1
1
0
.
0
1
1
.
9
6
.
4
3
.
9
3
3
.
1
1
2
.
0
7
.
8
8
.
6
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.3: 1h|nk|ng now about wor|d affa|rs, do you have a very favourab|e, somewhat favourab|e, somewhat
unfavourab|e, or very unfavourab|e op|n|on of the government of USA?
undersLandlng lA1A
128
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
129
n
A
n
A
posslblllLy ls Lhe reslgnaLlon of 1ony 8lalr ln 2007 example: securlLy or Lhe medla [see ChapLer 7])
and Lhe subsequenL loss by Labour of Lhe 2010 would lncrease a poslLlve unlon beLween Lhe Lwo
general-elecLlon. Powever, Lhls change of oplnlon naLlons.
has noL been reclprocaLed Lowards LheuS followlng
LheelecLlon of resldenL 8arakCbamaln 2008.
1he uk general-elecLlon was comprehenslvely
covered ln aklsLan by Lhe medla, and followed by
Lhe people of lA1A, because of local lnLeresLs - wlLh
reference Lo - uk's aLLlLudes Lowards flghLlng Lhe
'War on 1error'. lL wlll be lnLeresLlng Lo see how
Lhese changes conLlnue followlng Lhe 'Arab Sprlng'
vocally supporLed by Lhe WesL, and dlrecL
lnLervenLlon ln Llbya.
uesplLe some need for con[ecLure, Lhe 2011 survey
has endeavoured Lo beLLer undersLand Lhe reason
for Lhese changlng percepLlons. As a consequence,
respondenLs were asked whaL Lhey consldered Lo
beLhesLrongesL llnks beLween Lheukand aklsLan.
ulsappolnLlngly, Lhe ma[orlLy (almosL Lwo-Lhlrds) of
respondenLs were unable Lo provlde an answer.
Powever, from whaL oplnlons LhaL could be
exLracLed, Lhe greaLesL llnks were seen wlLh regard
Lo blqbet eJocotloo (13.3) and Jevelopmeot
osslstooce (16.3). lrom Lhls lL seems LhaL acLlvlLles
Also respondenLs wereasked Lo deflnewhaL Lypeof
llnked Lo empowermenL ln lA1A are mosL
relaLlonshlp aklsLan has wlLh Lhe uk. Agaln, a
noLlceable. neverLheless, lncreased research ls
noLeworLhy flndlng ls LhaL one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
requlred Lo beLLer undersLand whaL lssues (for
were noL able Lo express an oplnlon. 1hus, lL
ALLlLudes ln favour of Lhe uk have also lmproved LhaL Lhelr perspecLlve had worsened. Whlle Lhls
wlLh LheukmalnLalnlng Lhegalns lL acqulred durlng response ls Lroubllng lL remalns parL of a consLanL
Lhe2010survey. decllne ln Lhls polnL of vlew slnce 2008, moreover
Lhls reducLlon does noL appear Lo have damaged
1o Lry and furLher clarlfy Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed
overall percepLlons. lL ls dlfflculL Lo lnLerpreL Lhe
abouL Lhe uk ln llgure 8.3: respondenLs were asked
slgnlflcance of oo cbooqe as lL ls noL evldenL
Lo sLaLewheLher Lhelr currenL aLLlLudehad changed
wheLher Lhese respondenLs possessed a poslLlve or
ln Lhe lasL year. lrom Lhe lnformaLlon recorded,
negaLlveaLLlLudeln LhepasL.
some 10 consldered Lhelr aLLlLude Lo have
lmproved. A change roughly comparable Lo Lhe
keasonfor chang|ng att|tudes
reducLlon ln unfavourable aLLlLudes recorded ln
8easons for Lhls changeln oplnlon areunclear, buL a
llgure 8.3. Powever, 22.3 were of Lhe oplnlon
1
.
3
3
.
4
3
.
3
6
.
2
1
.
3
4
.
6
8
1
.
1
8
.
0
3
.
0
2
.
3
3
.
9
6
8
.
2
1
0
.
4
1
3
.
3
9
.
6
7
8
.
1
7
.
9
7
4
.
3
8
.
6
2
.
9
MosL favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
Less favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
noL favourable
Lowards lslam
no oplnlon no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.4: US att|tude towards the Is|am|c wor|d
3
.
4
3
8
.
0
7
.
8
4
.
9
1
6
.
2
8
.
2
2
0
.
6
1
8
.
2
3
8
.
4
6
.
7
7
.
9
6
.
1
2
3
.
8
1
0
.
7
3
7
.
2
1
1
.
6
1
0
.
3
1
2
.
7
1
1
.
4
6
.
1
4
2
.
7
1
4
.
3
9
.
3
1
1
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.S: 1h|nk|ng now about wor|d affa|rs, do you have a very favourab|e, somewhat favourab|e, somewhat
unfavourab|e, or very unfavourab|e op|n|on of the government of Uk?
4
.
9
2
3
.
8
1
.
3
2
.
7
6
.
0
3
4
.
7
2
9
.
3
2
9
.
8
n
A
1
0
.
1
2
2
.
3
2
9
.
8
3
7
.
6
n
A
3
3
.
3
1
2
.
4
4
0
.
2
2
2
.
0
2
6
.
0
9
.
1
More lavourable Less lavourable SLayed Lhe same uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.6: Is your op|n|on of the Uk genera||y gett|ng more favourab|e, |ess favourab|e or stayed the same?
13.3
16.3
2.3
62.2
0.8
4.7
L
l
n
k
s

w
l
L
h

L
h
e

u
k

l
n

h
l
g
h
e
r
S
p
o
r
L
s

l
l
n
k
s

b
e
L
w
e
e
n

a
k
l
s
L
a
n

a
n
d

L
h
e

u
k
l
a
m
l
l
y

L
l
e
s
u
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
L
a
s
s
l
s
L
a
n
c
e
C
L
h
e
r

(
s
p
e
c
l
f
y
)
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 8.7: What do you cons|der to be the
strongest ||nks between the Uk and ak|stan?
undersLandlng lA1A
130
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
131
posslblllLy ls Lhe reslgnaLlon of 1ony 8lalr ln 2007 example: securlLy or Lhe medla [see ChapLer 7])
and Lhe subsequenL loss by Labour of Lhe 2010 would lncrease a poslLlve unlon beLween Lhe Lwo
general-elecLlon. Powever, Lhls change of oplnlon naLlons.
has noL been reclprocaLed Lowards LheuS followlng
LheelecLlon of resldenL 8arakCbamaln 2008.
1he uk general-elecLlon was comprehenslvely
covered ln aklsLan by Lhe medla, and followed by
Lhe people of lA1A, because of local lnLeresLs - wlLh
reference Lo - uk's aLLlLudes Lowards flghLlng Lhe
'War on 1error'. lL wlll be lnLeresLlng Lo see how
Lhese changes conLlnue followlng Lhe 'Arab Sprlng'
vocally supporLed by Lhe WesL, and dlrecL
lnLervenLlon ln Llbya.
uesplLe some need for con[ecLure, Lhe 2011 survey
has endeavoured Lo beLLer undersLand Lhe reason
for Lhese changlng percepLlons. As a consequence,
respondenLs were asked whaL Lhey consldered Lo
beLhesLrongesL llnks beLween Lheukand aklsLan.
ulsappolnLlngly, Lhe ma[orlLy (almosL Lwo-Lhlrds) of
respondenLs were unable Lo provlde an answer.
Powever, from whaL oplnlons LhaL could be
exLracLed, Lhe greaLesL llnks were seen wlLh regard
Lo blqbet eJocotloo (13.3) and Jevelopmeot
osslstooce (16.3). lrom Lhls lL seems LhaL acLlvlLles
Also respondenLs wereasked Lo deflnewhaL Lypeof
llnked Lo empowermenL ln lA1A are mosL
relaLlonshlp aklsLan has wlLh Lhe uk. Agaln, a
noLlceable. neverLheless, lncreased research ls
noLeworLhy flndlng ls LhaL one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
requlred Lo beLLer undersLand whaL lssues (for
were noL able Lo express an oplnlon. 1hus, lL
ALLlLudes ln favour of Lhe uk have also lmproved LhaL Lhelr perspecLlve had worsened. Whlle Lhls
wlLh LheukmalnLalnlng Lhegalns lL acqulred durlng response ls Lroubllng lL remalns parL of a consLanL
Lhe2010survey. decllne ln Lhls polnL of vlew slnce 2008, moreover
Lhls reducLlon does noL appear Lo have damaged
1o Lry and furLher clarlfy Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed
overall percepLlons. lL ls dlfflculL Lo lnLerpreL Lhe
abouL Lhe uk ln llgure 8.3: respondenLs were asked
slgnlflcance of oo cbooqe as lL ls noL evldenL
Lo sLaLewheLher Lhelr currenL aLLlLudehad changed
wheLher Lhese respondenLs possessed a poslLlve or
ln Lhe lasL year. lrom Lhe lnformaLlon recorded,
negaLlveaLLlLudeln LhepasL.
some 10 consldered Lhelr aLLlLude Lo have
lmproved. A change roughly comparable Lo Lhe
keasonfor chang|ng att|tudes
reducLlon ln unfavourable aLLlLudes recorded ln
8easons for Lhls changeln oplnlon areunclear, buL a
llgure 8.3. Powever, 22.3 were of Lhe oplnlon
1
.
3
3
.
4
3
.
3
6
.
2
1
.
3
4
.
6
8
1
.
1
8
.
0
3
.
0
2
.
3
3
.
9
6
8
.
2
1
0
.
4
1
3
.
3
9
.
6
7
8
.
1
7
.
9
7
4
.
3
8
.
6
2
.
9
MosL favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
Less favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
noL favourable
Lowards lslam
no oplnlon no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.4: US att|tude towards the Is|am|c wor|d
3
.
4
3
8
.
0
7
.
8
4
.
9
1
6
.
2
8
.
2
2
0
.
6
1
8
.
2
3
8
.
4
6
.
7
7
.
9
6
.
1
2
3
.
8
1
0
.
7
3
7
.
2
1
1
.
6
1
0
.
3
1
2
.
7
1
1
.
4
6
.
1
4
2
.
7
1
4
.
3
9
.
3
1
1
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.S: 1h|nk|ng now about wor|d affa|rs, do you have a very favourab|e, somewhat favourab|e, somewhat
unfavourab|e, or very unfavourab|e op|n|on of the government of Uk?
4
.
9
2
3
.
8
1
.
3
2
.
7
6
.
0
3
4
.
7
2
9
.
3
2
9
.
8
n
A
1
0
.
1
2
2
.
3
2
9
.
8
3
7
.
6
n
A
3
3
.
3
1
2
.
4
4
0
.
2
2
2
.
0
2
6
.
0
9
.
1
More lavourable Less lavourable SLayed Lhe same uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.6: Is your op|n|on of the Uk genera||y gett|ng more favourab|e, |ess favourab|e or stayed the same?
13.3
16.3
2.3
62.2
0.8
4.7
L
l
n
k
s

w
l
L
h

L
h
e

u
k

l
n

h
l
g
h
e
r
S
p
o
r
L
s

l
l
n
k
s

b
e
L
w
e
e
n

a
k
l
s
L
a
n

a
n
d

L
h
e

u
k
l
a
m
l
l
y

L
l
e
s
u
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
L
a
s
s
l
s
L
a
n
c
e
C
L
h
e
r

(
s
p
e
c
l
f
y
)
u
o
n
'
L

k
n
o
w
2011 ()
I|gure 8.7: What do you cons|der to be the
strongest ||nks between the Uk and ak|stan?
undersLandlng lA1A
130
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
131
1hls lnLervenLlon, comblned wlLh Lhe dlplomaLlc
requlrlng addlLlonal research on Lhe exLenL Lo
supporL offered durlng Lhe 'Arab Sprlng' may also
whlch: dlrecL mlllLary acLs, Lralnlng lnlLlaLlves,
lnfluence Lhe long held vlew LhaL Lhe uk ls anLl-
devel opmenL assl sLance pro[ ecLs, and/or
lslam. As seen ln llgure 8.10, lL ls a sLrongly held
dlplomaLlc overLures are consldered poslLlve or
convlcLlon LhaL Lhe uk ls oot fovootobly dlsposed
negaLlve.
Lowards lslam by some 36.7 of respondenLs (wlLh
lL ls worLh noLlng LhaL Lhls survey was conducLed
an addlLlonal 14.4 who consldered Lhls aLLlLude Lo
be less fovootoble), a vlewpolnL opposed by only before Lhe successful, un-mandaLed 'no-fly zone'
3.4. was lmposed over Llbya. 1hls ouLcome, supporLed
ln largeparL by Lheuk, may affecL aLLlLudes Lowards
Ma|e IGDs
uk's presLlge as a source of global peace and
Male parLlclpanLs oplned LhaL (along wlLh Lhe uS)
securlLyln 2012.
uk's acLlons and conLlnued presence ln lraq and
appears LhaL, for a greaL many people, aLLlLudes Att|tudes towards Uk |nternat|ona| po||cy
ln addlLlon Lo Lhese quesLlons regardlng Lhe dlrecL formed Lowards Lhe uk are dependenL on shared
lnfluence of Lhe uk on aklsLan, survey parLlclpanLs percepLlons of exLernal uk acLlvlLy raLher Lhan ln
were lnvlLed Lo glve Lhelr oplnlons on Lhe regard Lo lLs acLlvlLles ln aklsLan.
lnLernaLlonal pollcles of Lhe uk. 1hls wlll also go
Cf Lhose aLLlLudes LhaL dld lnsplre oplnlon, Lhe
Lowards helplng Lo undersLand whaL has lmproved
promlnence of percelved lnequallLy ln a uk-
aLLlLudes Lowards LhesehlsLorlcallyallled counLrles.
aklsLan parLnershlp ls Lroubllng as lL may generaLe
resenLmenL, an ouLcome LhaL would resulL ln
G|oba| peace andstab|||ty
unfavourable aLLlLudes and pollces belng formed
llrsLly, oplnlons were documenLed on Lhe exLenL Lo
and champloned. neverLheless, supporL appears Lo
whlch Lhe uk was percelved Lo have lmproved
remaln conslsLenL from Lhe approxlmaLe one-Lhlrd
peace and sLablllLy. ALLlLudes recorded ln 2008
of respondenLs who vlew Lhe uk as elLher a parLner
mlrror LhedlssaLlsfacLlon wlLh Lheukas recorded ln
or ally.
llgure 8.3: LhaL ls over 60 of respondenLs
dlsagreed and only 7 agreed. 1hls lmplles LhaL
unfavourable aLLlLudes are closely llnked Lo
Ma|e IGDs
percepLlons of harm recorded durlng Lhe 'War on
Male respondenLs were qulLe vocal on Lhls lssue:
1error' and noL on dlplomaLlc acLlons Lhrough Lhe
Lhey sLaLed LhaL Lheuk(and uS) ls puLLlng Loo much
unlLed naLlons SecurlLy Councll or oLher
pressure on aklsLan Lo acL beyond lLs capaclLy. And
mulLllaLeral dlplomaLlc lnlLlaLlves.
LhaL greaLer appreclaLlon ls needed because of Lhe
human losses and conLlnued acLlon desplLe an
AlLhough, ln recenL years percepLlons appear Lo be
unsLable economy (whlch has sLruggled Lo flnd
looklng more favourably Lowards Lhe uk, Lhe
lnLernaLlonal lnvesLmenL).
domlnanL oplnlon remalns LhaL lL ls noL lmprovlng
global peace and securlLy. ln 2011: 19.3 of people
Iema|e IGDs
LhoughL Lhe uk was conLrlbuLlng Lo global peace
lemalerespondenLs were noL as aware on Lhe lssue
compared Lo 37 who LhoughL lL was noL. lL ls noL
and remalned uncerLaln.
clear whaL aspecLs of uk pollcy are approved of,
1
1
.
6
7
.
4
n
A
n
A
0
.
1
3
9
.
8
9
.
3
3
3
.
6
1
7
.
3
7
.
3
1
4
.
7
1
2
.
4
8
.
3
6
.
1
0
.
7
3
3
.
0
2
3
.
2
1
1
.
6
1
0
.
6
4
.
8
8
.
9
3
.
4
0
.
8
3
6
.
3
3
0
.
3
1
0
.
9
1
6
.
7
7
.
2
3
.
3
1
.
2
1
1
.
3
unequal arLners for
peace and
developmenL
Close allles ln
Lhe 'War on
1error'
lnfluenced by
Lhelr shared
colonlal pasL
arLners ln
developmenL
and
emergency
response
Pome Lo many
8rlLlsh
aklsLanls
CLher (speclfy) uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.8: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng best descr|bes the Uk's re|at|onsh|p w|th ak|stan?
7
.
4
6
.
3
2
0
.
4
4
7
.
4
2
3
.
1
7
.
1
1
9
.
3
3
7
.
0
3
3
.
1
8
.
6
6
1
.
1
2
3
.
1
4
6
.
6
2
3
.
9
3
.
9
2
1
.
6
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.9: Do you th|nk that the Uk: ne|ps to make the wor|d more peacefu| & stab|e
2
.
23
.
6
3
.
18
.
7
2
.
3
1
0
.
0
7
1
.
6
9
.
0
7
.
1
3
.
4
1
4
.
4
3
6
.
7
1
3
.
1
1
2
.
3
7
3
.
3
1
3
.
7
3
.
8
1
1
.
1
6
1
.
4
1
3
.
0
MosL favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
Less favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
noL favourable
Lowards lslam
no oplnlon no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.10: Uk att|tude towards the Is|am|c wor|d
1
4
.
9
undersLandlng lA1A
132
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
133
1hls lnLervenLlon, comblned wlLh Lhe dlplomaLlc
requlrlng addlLlonal research on Lhe exLenL Lo
supporL offered durlng Lhe 'Arab Sprlng' may also
whlch: dlrecL mlllLary acLs, Lralnlng lnlLlaLlves,
lnfluence Lhe long held vlew LhaL Lhe uk ls anLl-
devel opmenL assl sLance pro[ ecLs, and/or
lslam. As seen ln llgure 8.10, lL ls a sLrongly held
dlplomaLlc overLures are consldered poslLlve or
convlcLlon LhaL Lhe uk ls oot fovootobly dlsposed
negaLlve.
Lowards lslam by some 36.7 of respondenLs (wlLh
lL ls worLh noLlng LhaL Lhls survey was conducLed
an addlLlonal 14.4 who consldered Lhls aLLlLude Lo
be less fovootoble), a vlewpolnL opposed by only before Lhe successful, un-mandaLed 'no-fly zone'
3.4. was lmposed over Llbya. 1hls ouLcome, supporLed
ln largeparL by Lheuk, may affecL aLLlLudes Lowards
Ma|e IGDs
uk's presLlge as a source of global peace and
Male parLlclpanLs oplned LhaL (along wlLh Lhe uS)
securlLyln 2012.
uk's acLlons and conLlnued presence ln lraq and
appears LhaL, for a greaL many people, aLLlLudes Att|tudes towards Uk |nternat|ona| po||cy
ln addlLlon Lo Lhese quesLlons regardlng Lhe dlrecL formed Lowards Lhe uk are dependenL on shared
lnfluence of Lhe uk on aklsLan, survey parLlclpanLs percepLlons of exLernal uk acLlvlLy raLher Lhan ln
were lnvlLed Lo glve Lhelr oplnlons on Lhe regard Lo lLs acLlvlLles ln aklsLan.
lnLernaLlonal pollcles of Lhe uk. 1hls wlll also go
Cf Lhose aLLlLudes LhaL dld lnsplre oplnlon, Lhe
Lowards helplng Lo undersLand whaL has lmproved
promlnence of percelved lnequallLy ln a uk-
aLLlLudes Lowards LhesehlsLorlcallyallled counLrles.
aklsLan parLnershlp ls Lroubllng as lL may generaLe
resenLmenL, an ouLcome LhaL would resulL ln
G|oba| peace andstab|||ty
unfavourable aLLlLudes and pollces belng formed
llrsLly, oplnlons were documenLed on Lhe exLenL Lo
and champloned. neverLheless, supporL appears Lo
whlch Lhe uk was percelved Lo have lmproved
remaln conslsLenL from Lhe approxlmaLe one-Lhlrd
peace and sLablllLy. ALLlLudes recorded ln 2008
of respondenLs who vlew Lhe uk as elLher a parLner
mlrror LhedlssaLlsfacLlon wlLh Lheukas recorded ln
or ally.
llgure 8.3: LhaL ls over 60 of respondenLs
dlsagreed and only 7 agreed. 1hls lmplles LhaL
unfavourable aLLlLudes are closely llnked Lo
Ma|e IGDs
percepLlons of harm recorded durlng Lhe 'War on
Male respondenLs were qulLe vocal on Lhls lssue:
1error' and noL on dlplomaLlc acLlons Lhrough Lhe
Lhey sLaLed LhaL Lheuk(and uS) ls puLLlng Loo much
unlLed naLlons SecurlLy Councll or oLher
pressure on aklsLan Lo acL beyond lLs capaclLy. And
mulLllaLeral dlplomaLlc lnlLlaLlves.
LhaL greaLer appreclaLlon ls needed because of Lhe
human losses and conLlnued acLlon desplLe an
AlLhough, ln recenL years percepLlons appear Lo be
unsLable economy (whlch has sLruggled Lo flnd
looklng more favourably Lowards Lhe uk, Lhe
lnLernaLlonal lnvesLmenL).
domlnanL oplnlon remalns LhaL lL ls noL lmprovlng
global peace and securlLy. ln 2011: 19.3 of people
Iema|e IGDs
LhoughL Lhe uk was conLrlbuLlng Lo global peace
lemalerespondenLs were noL as aware on Lhe lssue
compared Lo 37 who LhoughL lL was noL. lL ls noL
and remalned uncerLaln.
clear whaL aspecLs of uk pollcy are approved of,
1
1
.
6
7
.
4
n
A
n
A
0
.
1
3
9
.
8
9
.
3
3
3
.
6
1
7
.
3
7
.
3
1
4
.
7
1
2
.
4
8
.
3
6
.
1
0
.
7
3
3
.
0
2
3
.
2
1
1
.
6
1
0
.
6
4
.
8
8
.
9
3
.
4
0
.
8
3
6
.
3
3
0
.
3
1
0
.
9
1
6
.
7
7
.
2
3
.
3
1
.
2
1
1
.
3
unequal arLners for
peace and
developmenL
Close allles ln
Lhe 'War on
1error'
lnfluenced by
Lhelr shared
colonlal pasL
arLners ln
developmenL
and
emergency
response
Pome Lo many
8rlLlsh
aklsLanls
CLher (speclfy) uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.8: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng best descr|bes the Uk's re|at|onsh|p w|th ak|stan?
7
.
4
6
.
3
2
0
.
4
4
7
.
4
2
3
.
1
7
.
1
1
9
.
3
3
7
.
0
3
3
.
1
8
.
6
6
1
.
1
2
3
.
1
4
6
.
6
2
3
.
9
3
.
9
2
1
.
6
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.9: Do you th|nk that the Uk: ne|ps to make the wor|d more peacefu| & stab|e
2
.
23
.
6
3
.
18
.
7
2
.
3
1
0
.
0
7
1
.
6
9
.
0
7
.
1
3
.
4
1
4
.
4
3
6
.
7
1
3
.
1
1
2
.
3
7
3
.
3
1
3
.
7
3
.
8
1
1
.
1
6
1
.
4
1
3
.
0
MosL favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
Less favourable
aLLlLude Lowards lslam
noL favourable
Lowards lslam
no oplnlon no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.10: Uk att|tude towards the Is|am|c wor|d
1
4
.
9
undersLandlng lA1A
132
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
133
dld value Lhe un, ln conLrasL, 28.9 dlsagreed and Lowards lmprovlng global prosperlLy, alLhough
oplned LhaL Lheukdld noL. aLLlLudes appear Lo be loslng Lhelr promlnence. ln
2011, approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
WlLh regards Lo Lhls quesLlon Lhe mosL favourable
consldered LhaL Lhe uk was noL addlng value, whlle
answer has been Joot koow. 1hls lmplles LhaL Lhere
only18.4 belleved LhaL Lheywere.
ls a general lack of knowledge on uk values and a
lack of awareness of lnLernaLlonal relaLlons ouLslde 8easons for Lhls promlnenL negaLlve aLLlLude may
of lssues of dlrecL concern Lo aklsLan, lA1A and Lhe be qulLe dlverse: wlLh aLLlLudes posslbly belng
Musllm world. 1o someexLenL Lhls ls unsurprlslng as llnked Lo concern surroundlng developmenL
lnLernaLlonal organlsaLlons are ofLen conLroverslal acLlvlLles falllng Lo lmproveeconomlc opporLunlLles
and dlvlde oplnlon wlLhln counLrles, leL alone when ln lA1A or Lhe apparenL lack of supporL offered by
Lrylng Lo evaluaLeLhepercepLlons of oLhers. Lheukfor Lhegeneral economyof aklsLan.
romot|onof g|oba| prosper|ty Lfforts to safeguardthe env|ronment
Surprlslngly perhaps, negaLlve agreemenL ls more WlLh regard Lo uk lnlLlaLlves Lo supporL Lhe
convlnclng wlLh regard Lo Lhe uk's conLrlbuLlons conservaLl on of Lhe gl obal envl ronmenL,
AfghanlsLan, comblned wlLh lLs uncompromlslng greaLer Lhan LhoseLhaL supporL Lheuk's acLlons.
pollcy Lowards lran, were lnflammaLory Lowards
1o some exLenL, Lhls daLa needs Lo be LreaLed wlLh
Lhe lslamlc world. ercepLlons of Lhe uk provldlng
cauLlon, as aLLlLudes Lo developmenL are relaLlve
uncondlLlonal supporL for lsrael was also seen as
(l.e. respondenLs values may noL mlrror Lhose
devalulng global peace and securlLy, an ouLcome
supporLed by Lhe uk or Lhe aklsLan communlLy ln
LhaL wlll resulL ln lncreased global confllcL.
general). ln lA1A a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy sympaLhlse
1hese aLLlLudes show LhaL Lhe WesL (lncludlng Lhe (see ChapLer 3) wlLh Lhe 1allban and supporL Lhelr
uk) needs Lo work harder aL ensurlng greaLer publlc rlghL Lo reLurn Lo power ln AfghanlsLan, LhaL ls,
dlalogue wlLh Musllm naLlons Lo dlspel lnaccuraLe democracy would be beLLer served by Lhelr defeaL
aLLlLudes, and furLher, Lo ensure greaLer co- of Lhe lnLernaLlonal forces ln Lhelr homeland raLher
operaLlon from lslamlc counLrles when lnLervenlng Lhan supporLlng Lhe publlcly-elecLed pollLlcal
ln naLlons percelved Lo be wlLhln Musllm spheres- sysLem LhaL ls supporLed byLheuk.
of-lnfluence.
romot|onof respect for numank|ghts
Iema|e IGDs AnoLher plllar of uk forelgn pollcy and LradlLlon ls
lemale respondenLs were unsure whaL role Lhe uk supporL for Puman 8lghLs, buL agaln percepLlons
was playlng ln peace-bulldlng lnlLlaLlves so could roughlymlrror LhoserelaLlng Lo democracy.
noL provldean oplnlon.
Agaln a cerLaln amounL of culLural relaLlvlsm wlll
have lnfluenced respondenLs as dlfferlng aLLlLudes
romot|onof respect for democrat|c va|ues
Lo whaL consLlLuLes a breach of human rlghLs ls
lollowlng Lhe quesLlon on peace and sLablllLy,
vlslble among Lhe lA1A populaLlon, for example Lhe
respondenLs were asked Lo whaL exLenL Lhey
sub[ecLs of sulclde bomblng and 'honour kllllng'
belleved Lhe uk conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe proLecLlon and
(see ChapLer 3). Also, aLLlLudes are llkely Lo be
promoLlon of democraLlc values. 1he preservaLlon
lnfluenced by Lhe percelved anLl-lslamlc acLlons of
and enrlchmenL of democracy has always been a
Lheukaround Lheworld.
key aspecL of Lhe uk's forelgn pollcy. 1hls alm, and
ablllLy Lo fulfll lL, was noL vlewed wlLh parLlcular
Support for the Un|tedNat|ons (UN)
supporL by lnLervlewees. Slnce 2008, Lhrough Lo
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe quesLlons above, respondenLs
2011, an approxlmaLe 20 of survey parLlclpanLs
werefurLher asked: dld Lhey Lhlnk Lhe ukvalues Lhe
have agreed LhaL Lhe uk has promoLed respecL for
un. 1he resulLs show LhaL bellefs are dlvlded. ln
democraLlc values. 1hls ls opposed by, a conLlnually
2011, 22.3 of respondenLs consldered LhaL Lhe uk
decreaslng, segmenL of socleLy LhaL ls equal Lo or
1
9
.
2
9
.
1
1
9
.
6
3
7
.
6
3
3
.
6
9
.
2
2
2
.
0
2
6
.
3
4
0
.
4
1
1
.
1
4
3
.
3
2
8
.
3
3
2
.
3
3
2
.
3
1
2
.
0
2
3
.
3
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.11: Do you th|nk that the Uk: romotes respect for democrat|c va|ues
2
3
.
7
9
.
0
2
2
.
6
4
0
.
1
2
8
.
6
8
.
7
2
1
.
2
2
9
.
9
3
7
.
3
1
1
.
4
2
3
.
7
4
3
.
8
2
3
.
4
1
1
.
6
2
9
.
4 3
3
.
6
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.12: Do you th|nk that the Uk: romotes respect for numan k|ghts
2
1
.
1
8
.
3
3
0
.
3
2
8
.
4
3
2
.
6
8
.
3
2
2
.
3
2
8
.
9
3
9
.
4
9
.
3
4
2
.
8
2
7
.
9
3
1
.
2
3
7
.
7
9
.
3
2
1
.
9
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 8.13: Do you th|nk that the Uk: Va|ues the Un|ted Nat|ons-UN
undersLandlng lA1A
134
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
13S
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
dld value Lhe un, ln conLrasL, 28.9 dlsagreed and Lowards lmprovlng global prosperlLy, alLhough
oplned LhaL Lheukdld noL. aLLlLudes appear Lo be loslng Lhelr promlnence. ln
2011, approxlmaLely one-Lhlrd of respondenLs
WlLh regards Lo Lhls quesLlon Lhe mosL favourable
consldered LhaL Lhe uk was noL addlng value, whlle
answer has been Joot koow. 1hls lmplles LhaL Lhere
only18.4 belleved LhaL Lheywere.
ls a general lack of knowledge on uk values and a
lack of awareness of lnLernaLlonal relaLlons ouLslde 8easons for Lhls promlnenL negaLlve aLLlLude may
of lssues of dlrecL concern Lo aklsLan, lA1A and Lhe be qulLe dlverse: wlLh aLLlLudes posslbly belng
Musllm world. 1o someexLenL Lhls ls unsurprlslng as llnked Lo concern surroundlng developmenL
lnLernaLlonal organlsaLlons are ofLen conLroverslal acLlvlLles falllng Lo lmproveeconomlc opporLunlLles
and dlvlde oplnlon wlLhln counLrles, leL alone when ln lA1A or Lhe apparenL lack of supporL offered by
Lrylng Lo evaluaLeLhepercepLlons of oLhers. Lheukfor Lhegeneral economyof aklsLan.
romot|onof g|oba| prosper|ty Lfforts to safeguardthe env|ronment
Surprlslngly perhaps, negaLlve agreemenL ls more WlLh regard Lo uk lnlLlaLlves Lo supporL Lhe
convlnclng wlLh regard Lo Lhe uk's conLrlbuLlons conservaLl on of Lhe gl obal envl ronmenL,
AfghanlsLan, comblned wlLh lLs uncompromlslng greaLer Lhan LhoseLhaL supporL Lheuk's acLlons.
pollcy Lowards lran, were lnflammaLory Lowards
1o some exLenL, Lhls daLa needs Lo be LreaLed wlLh
Lhe lslamlc world. ercepLlons of Lhe uk provldlng
cauLlon, as aLLlLudes Lo developmenL are relaLlve
uncondlLlonal supporL for lsrael was also seen as
(l.e. respondenLs values may noL mlrror Lhose
devalulng global peace and securlLy, an ouLcome
supporLed by Lhe uk or Lhe aklsLan communlLy ln
LhaL wlll resulL ln lncreased global confllcL.
general). ln lA1A a slgnlflcanL mlnorlLy sympaLhlse
1hese aLLlLudes show LhaL Lhe WesL (lncludlng Lhe (see ChapLer 3) wlLh Lhe 1allban and supporL Lhelr
uk) needs Lo work harder aL ensurlng greaLer publlc rlghL Lo reLurn Lo power ln AfghanlsLan, LhaL ls,
dlalogue wlLh Musllm naLlons Lo dlspel lnaccuraLe democracy would be beLLer served by Lhelr defeaL
aLLlLudes, and furLher, Lo ensure greaLer co- of Lhe lnLernaLlonal forces ln Lhelr homeland raLher
operaLlon from lslamlc counLrles when lnLervenlng Lhan supporLlng Lhe publlcly-elecLed pollLlcal
ln naLlons percelved Lo be wlLhln Musllm spheres- sysLem LhaL ls supporLed byLheuk.
of-lnfluence.
romot|onof respect for numank|ghts
Iema|e IGDs AnoLher plllar of uk forelgn pollcy and LradlLlon ls
lemale respondenLs were unsure whaL role Lhe uk supporL for Puman 8lghLs, buL agaln percepLlons
was playlng ln peace-bulldlng lnlLlaLlves so could roughlymlrror LhoserelaLlng Lo democracy.
noL provldean oplnlon.
Agaln a cerLaln amounL of culLural relaLlvlsm wlll
have lnfluenced respondenLs as dlfferlng aLLlLudes
romot|onof respect for democrat|c va|ues
Lo whaL consLlLuLes a breach of human rlghLs ls
lollowlng Lhe quesLlon on peace and sLablllLy,
vlslble among Lhe lA1A populaLlon, for example Lhe
respondenLs were asked Lo whaL exLenL Lhey
sub[ecLs of sulclde bomblng and 'honour kllllng'
belleved Lhe uk conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe proLecLlon and
(see ChapLer 3). Also, aLLlLudes are llkely Lo be
promoLlon of democraLlc values. 1he preservaLlon
lnfluenced by Lhe percelved anLl-lslamlc acLlons of
and enrlchmenL of democracy has always been a
Lheukaround Lheworld.
key aspecL of Lhe uk's forelgn pollcy. 1hls alm, and
ablllLy Lo fulfll lL, was noL vlewed wlLh parLlcular
Support for the Un|tedNat|ons (UN)
supporL by lnLervlewees. Slnce 2008, Lhrough Lo
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe quesLlons above, respondenLs
2011, an approxlmaLe 20 of survey parLlclpanLs
werefurLher asked: dld Lhey Lhlnk Lhe ukvalues Lhe
have agreed LhaL Lhe uk has promoLed respecL for
un. 1he resulLs show LhaL bellefs are dlvlded. ln
democraLlc values. 1hls ls opposed by, a conLlnually
2011, 22.3 of respondenLs consldered LhaL Lhe uk
decreaslng, segmenL of socleLy LhaL ls equal Lo or
1
9
.
2
9
.
1
1
9
.
6
3
7
.
6
3
3
.
6
9
.
2
2
2
.
0
2
6
.
3
4
0
.
4
1
1
.
1
4
3
.
3
2
8
.
3
3
2
.
3
3
2
.
3
1
2
.
0
2
3
.
3
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.11: Do you th|nk that the Uk: romotes respect for democrat|c va|ues
2
3
.
7
9
.
0
2
2
.
6
4
0
.
1
2
8
.
6
8
.
7
2
1
.
2
2
9
.
9
3
7
.
3
1
1
.
4
2
3
.
7
4
3
.
8
2
3
.
4
1
1
.
6
2
9
.
4 3
3
.
6
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.12: Do you th|nk that the Uk: romotes respect for numan k|ghts
2
1
.
1
8
.
3
3
0
.
3
2
8
.
4
3
2
.
6
8
.
3
2
2
.
3
2
8
.
9
3
9
.
4
9
.
3
4
2
.
8
2
7
.
9
3
1
.
2
3
7
.
7
9
.
3
2
1
.
9
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
I|gure 8.13: Do you th|nk that the Uk: Va|ues the Un|ted Nat|ons-UN
undersLandlng lA1A
134
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
13S
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
of respondenLs (double LhaL recorded ln 2010) have agalnsL uk acLlons, wlLh 31.3 conslderlng
LhepoLenLlal Lo elLher escalaLeopposlLlon Lo Lheuk Lhemselves Lo noL be ln favour, a furLher 11.4
or lncrease lLs leglLlmacy ln soppottloq stoblllty (as were less favourable. Whlle Lhe sLrengLh of
c o n s l d e r e d b y 4 . 2 l n 2 0 1 1 ) a n d opposlLlon remalns compelllng, lL ls however
tebollJloq/Jeveloploq Afqboolstoo (as consldered reduclng (from almosL 90 ln 2008). 1hls change ls
by4.9). ln Lhe mosL parL Lhe resulL of lncreased lndeclslon
on Lhe sub[ecL. Accordlng Lo male lCus Lhese
1o furLher lnvesLlgaLe Lhese percepLlons, Lhe survey
concerns wlll be malnLalned as shared oplnlon
asked Lhe parLlclpanLs Lo deflne exacLly how
conLlnues Lo be LhaL lnLernaLlonal forces ln
favourably Lhey vlewed uk lnLervenLlon ln
AfghanlsLan are lmpacLlng on Lhe overall securlLy
AfghanlsLan. unsurprlslngly, Lhe number of Lhose
slLuaLlon ln aklsLan, especlally ln lA1A, an ouLcome
LhaL looked mosL favourable on uk acLlvlLles
LhaL has caused lnLernal dlsplacemenL, loss of llfe
equalled only 4.6, whlle Lhls ls Lo be expecLed lL ls
and desLrucLlon of properLy.
Lroubllng LhaL Lhls flgure ls approxlmaLely half LhaL
recorded ln 2010(and LhelowesL flgureslnce2008). ALLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS are equally poor (see
llgure 8.18) buL wlLh a concernlng decrease of
1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs had sLrong feellngs
supporL from Lhose LhaL would conslder Lhelr
1owards Lhe end, respondenLs were asked Lo
respondenLs were agaln spllL on Lhe lssue, buL
lndlcaLe how Lhey would deflne Lhe uk's
approxlmaLely half of Lhose surveyed were noL able
lnvolvemenL ln AfghanlsLan: alLhough one-quarLer
Lo provldean answer.
of respondenLs were unsure, Lhe mosL common
Uk |nvo|vement |nAfghan|stan
percepLlons offered by lnLervlewees were negaLlve.
WhllelnLernaLlonal lnvolvemenL ln AfghanlsLan and
ln LoLal, almosL one-Lhlrd of respondenLs sLaLed
lraq, led by Lhe uS and uk, are ofLen dlscussed as
LhaL elLher Lhe uk should noL be Afqboolstoo ot oll
one and Lhe same, Lhls survey soughL Lo exLracL (20.3) or Lhey were eoqoqeJ lo oo ottock oo lslom
aLLlLudes Lowards AfghanlsLan ln lsolaLlon. 1hls ls (18.1). Powever, lL should be noLed LhaL Lhese
because AfghanlsLan ls lnexLrlcably llnked flgures are conslderably lower Lhan Lhose recorded
eLhnlcally and geographlcally wlLh Lhe people of ln 2008.
lA1A, whlle lraq ls a sLaLe LhaL has llLLle lmpacL on
As Lhe survey was conducLed before Lhe deaLh of
Lhe Lrlbal areas, however, lL would be naive Lo Lhlnk
Csama bln Laden Lhe answer: Lhe uk wlll leove
LhaL news abouL Lhe confllcL has noL Lo some exLenL
Afqboolstoo os sooo os Osomo blo loJeo ls foooJ
lnfluenced or relnforced lndlvlduals' aLLlLudes.
has Laken on lncreased slgnlflcance as Lhese 16.1
1
3
.
1
7
.
6
2
2
.
0
4
1
.
3
2
7
.
9
8
.
6
1
8
.
4
3
3
.
9
3
3
.
8
1
0
.
0
2
8
.
7
3
0
.
7
1
8
.
8
8
.
6
2
9
.
1
4
3
.
3
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.14: Do you th|nk that the Uk: ne|ps to make the wor|d more prosperous
1
1
.
1
9
.
3
2
2
.
9
3
3
.
0
3
3
.
3
8
.
8
2
2
.
6
2
3
.
7
4
1
.
4
1
0
.
4
4
9
.
3
3
0
.
2
3
3
.
9
3
6
.
6
9
.
8
1
9
.
8
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.1S: Do you th|nk that the Uk: ne|ps to safeguard the g|oba| env|ronment
6.0
36.7
20.8
1.1
3.2
1.2
6.4
7.4
34.3
19.2
11.0
0.2
12.6
9.1
4.2
16.1
20.3
18.1
4.9
0.1
23.3
11.1
32.0
3.6
7.2
26.0
23.6
31.0
7.9
Are commlLLed Lo Lhe
long-Lerm sLablllLy
of AfghanlsLan
Wlll leave AfghanlsLan
as soon as Csama bln
Laden ls found
Should noL be ln
AfghanlsLan aL all
Are engaged ln an
aLLack on lslam
ls a parLner ln
rebulldlng/developlng
AfghanlsLan
CLher
uon'L know
no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.16: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng best descr|bes the Uk's |nvo|vement |n Afghan|stan?
undersLandlng lA1A
136
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
137
nA
nA
nA
of respondenLs (double LhaL recorded ln 2010) have agalnsL uk acLlons, wlLh 31.3 conslderlng
LhepoLenLlal Lo elLher escalaLeopposlLlon Lo Lheuk Lhemselves Lo noL be ln favour, a furLher 11.4
or lncrease lLs leglLlmacy ln soppottloq stoblllty (as were less favourable. Whlle Lhe sLrengLh of
c o n s l d e r e d b y 4 . 2 l n 2 0 1 1 ) a n d opposlLlon remalns compelllng, lL ls however
tebollJloq/Jeveloploq Afqboolstoo (as consldered reduclng (from almosL 90 ln 2008). 1hls change ls
by4.9). ln Lhe mosL parL Lhe resulL of lncreased lndeclslon
on Lhe sub[ecL. Accordlng Lo male lCus Lhese
1o furLher lnvesLlgaLe Lhese percepLlons, Lhe survey
concerns wlll be malnLalned as shared oplnlon
asked Lhe parLlclpanLs Lo deflne exacLly how
conLlnues Lo be LhaL lnLernaLlonal forces ln
favourably Lhey vlewed uk lnLervenLlon ln
AfghanlsLan are lmpacLlng on Lhe overall securlLy
AfghanlsLan. unsurprlslngly, Lhe number of Lhose
slLuaLlon ln aklsLan, especlally ln lA1A, an ouLcome
LhaL looked mosL favourable on uk acLlvlLles
LhaL has caused lnLernal dlsplacemenL, loss of llfe
equalled only 4.6, whlle Lhls ls Lo be expecLed lL ls
and desLrucLlon of properLy.
Lroubllng LhaL Lhls flgure ls approxlmaLely half LhaL
recorded ln 2010(and LhelowesL flgureslnce2008). ALLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS are equally poor (see
llgure 8.18) buL wlLh a concernlng decrease of
1he ma[orlLy of respondenLs had sLrong feellngs
supporL from Lhose LhaL would conslder Lhelr
1owards Lhe end, respondenLs were asked Lo
respondenLs were agaln spllL on Lhe lssue, buL
lndlcaLe how Lhey would deflne Lhe uk's
approxlmaLely half of Lhose surveyed were noL able
lnvolvemenL ln AfghanlsLan: alLhough one-quarLer
Lo provldean answer.
of respondenLs were unsure, Lhe mosL common
Uk |nvo|vement |nAfghan|stan
percepLlons offered by lnLervlewees were negaLlve.
WhllelnLernaLlonal lnvolvemenL ln AfghanlsLan and
ln LoLal, almosL one-Lhlrd of respondenLs sLaLed
lraq, led by Lhe uS and uk, are ofLen dlscussed as
LhaL elLher Lhe uk should noL be Afqboolstoo ot oll
one and Lhe same, Lhls survey soughL Lo exLracL (20.3) or Lhey were eoqoqeJ lo oo ottock oo lslom
aLLlLudes Lowards AfghanlsLan ln lsolaLlon. 1hls ls (18.1). Powever, lL should be noLed LhaL Lhese
because AfghanlsLan ls lnexLrlcably llnked flgures are conslderably lower Lhan Lhose recorded
eLhnlcally and geographlcally wlLh Lhe people of ln 2008.
lA1A, whlle lraq ls a sLaLe LhaL has llLLle lmpacL on
As Lhe survey was conducLed before Lhe deaLh of
Lhe Lrlbal areas, however, lL would be naive Lo Lhlnk
Csama bln Laden Lhe answer: Lhe uk wlll leove
LhaL news abouL Lhe confllcL has noL Lo some exLenL
Afqboolstoo os sooo os Osomo blo loJeo ls foooJ
lnfluenced or relnforced lndlvlduals' aLLlLudes.
has Laken on lncreased slgnlflcance as Lhese 16.1
1
3
.
1
7
.
6
2
2
.
0
4
1
.
3
2
7
.
9
8
.
6
1
8
.
4
3
3
.
9
3
3
.
8
1
0
.
0
2
8
.
7
3
0
.
7
1
8
.
8
8
.
6
2
9
.
1
4
3
.
3
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.14: Do you th|nk that the Uk: ne|ps to make the wor|d more prosperous
1
1
.
1
9
.
3
2
2
.
9
3
3
.
0
3
3
.
3
8
.
8
2
2
.
6
2
3
.
7
4
1
.
4
1
0
.
4
4
9
.
3
3
0
.
2
3
3
.
9
3
6
.
6
9
.
8
1
9
.
8
?es no uon'L know no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.1S: Do you th|nk that the Uk: ne|ps to safeguard the g|oba| env|ronment
6.0
36.7
20.8
1.1
3.2
1.2
6.4
7.4
34.3
19.2
11.0
0.2
12.6
9.1
4.2
16.1
20.3
18.1
4.9
0.1
23.3
11.1
32.0
3.6
7.2
26.0
23.6
31.0
7.9
Are commlLLed Lo Lhe
long-Lerm sLablllLy
of AfghanlsLan
Wlll leave AfghanlsLan
as soon as Csama bln
Laden ls found
Should noL be ln
AfghanlsLan aL all
Are engaged ln an
aLLack on lslam
ls a parLner ln
rebulldlng/developlng
AfghanlsLan
CLher
uon'L know
no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.16: Wh|ch of the fo||ow|ng best descr|bes the Uk's |nvo|vement |n Afghan|stan?
undersLandlng lA1A
136
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
137
nA
nA
nA
posslblllLles offered ln 1able 8.16. osslble noL auLomaLlcally mean Lhey are poslLlve Lowards
alLernaLlve reasons Lo Lhose llsLed are: shared Lhelr lmmlgraLlon pollcles, becauseof bad personal,
culLureand rellglous values or 1allbanlsaLlon. famlllal or communlLy experlences. Also, general
aLLlLudes, when expressed, are llkely Lo be based on
ln splLe of Lhls, some dld oplne LhaL Lhe uk had
less Lhan adequaLe lnformaLlon (e.g. rumour) as
lnvesLed AfghanlsLan's lnfrasLrucLure developmenL
dlrecL lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhese lmmlgraLlon pollcles ls
and were Lherefore worklng Lo lmprove Lhe long-
unllkelyfor Lhema[orlLyof respondenLs.
Lerm sLablllLyof AfghanlsLan.
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhese caveaLs, lL appears LhaL
Iema|e IGDs
respondenLs Lo some exLenL possess a negaLlve
Lxcluslon of women from pollLlcal debaLe agaln
polnL of vlew - a clalm LhaL ls however, slgnlflcanLly
denled female parLlclpanLs Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
llmlLed by over 30 of respondenLs noL belng able
provldelnformaLlon on Lhls lssue.
Lo provlde an answer, of whlch some 30 had oo
oploloo and Lhls could represenL a cerLaln
Att|tudes towards the |mm|grat|on po||c|es of
amblvalence Lo Lhe domesLlc pollcy of Lhe uk LhaL
the USandUk
could be swayed elLher way by acLual lnLeracLlon
As was seen ln ChapLer 1 (llgure 1.8 - 1.13): Lhere
wlLh relevanL processes. Cnly 3.9 of respondenLs
appears Lo be some deslre from Lhe people of lA1A
were most fovootoble ln Lhelr oplnlon of uk's
Lo leave Lhe Lrlbal areas. 1he ma[orlLy would prefer
lmmlgraLlon pollcy. Slmllar flndlngs regardlng
Lo remaln wlLhln aklsLan buL some would conslder
favourablllLy, lf more exaggeraLed, can be seen wlLh
Lhe uS (1.4) or Lhe uk (2.4). 1hls lnLeresL has
regard Lo LheuS.
encouraged Lhe survey Lo make a sLudy of general
percepLlons Lowards Lhe lmmlgraLlon pollcles of Ma|e IGDs
LheseLwo developed naLlons. ln conLrasL Lo Lhe flndlngs recorded above, Lhe
ma[orlLy of male respondenLs were favourable
lL musL be noLed LhaL Lhe number of respondenLs
Lowards emlgraLlon Lo elLher Lhe uk or uS, posslbly
LhaL prevlously ldenLlfled uS or uk as preferred
showlng LhaL whlle Lhese desLlnaLlons are noL Lhe
desLlnaLlons are llkely Lo have a poslLlve aLLlLude
flrsL cholce of many, Lhey remaln an aLLracLlve
Lowards Lhe pollcles of Lhese counLrles buL lL does
lnvolvemenL Lo be favourable: from 8 ln 2010 Lo fovootoble varlables arecomblned.
less Lhan 3 ln 2011.
Ma|e IGDs
Slmllar reducLlons ln Lhe number of people LhaL are
As seen ln ChapLer 3, aLLlLudes Lowards AfghanlsLan
oot fovootoble can be seen Lo Lhose en[oyed by Lhe
and Lhe Afghan 1allban are very lmporLanL Lo
uk, buL aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS are lmprovlng aL a
respondenLs, consequenLly, lL was unsurprlslng
slower raLe. Also, lL appears LhaL Lhe sLrengLh of
LhaL lL lnsplred sLrong argumenLs ln LhemalelCus.
feellng opposlng uS lnLervenLlon ls greaLer Lhan
Cenerally, respondenLs opposed uk lnvolvemenL ln
LhaL for Lhe uk, wlLh 62 of respondenLs sLaLlng
AfghanlsLan: Lhe reasons for Lhls were noL enLlrely
Lhey were oot fovootoble, a flgure LhaL ls equalled
clear as respondenLs dld noL fully engage wlLh Lhe
by uk dlssenLers lf Lhe oot fovootoble and less
3
.
0
4
.
8
4
.
27
.
1
9
.
0
1
3
.
3
6
3
.
6
3
.
7
4
.
4
4
.
6
1
1
.
4
3
1
.
3
1
6
.
8
1
3
.
8
8
.
1
8
0
.
0
1
2
.
8
6
3
.
9
7
.
3
6
.
8
MosL favourable Less favourable noL favourable no oplnlon no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.17: Uk ko|e |n Afghan|stan
2
.
6
4
.
7
4
.
3
4
.
7
8
.
0
1
3
.
3
7
0
.
6
4
.
8
3
.
1
2
.
9
3
.
8
6
2
.
0
1
3
.
6
1
3
.
7
8
3
.
2
3
.
2
3
.
3
4
.
9
7
8
.
6
6
.
3
MosL favourable Less favourable noL favourable no oplnlon no 8esponse
I|gure 8.18: US ko|e |n Afghan|stan
3
.
9
3
0
.
3
2
4
.
9
2
6
.
2
3
.
9
1
1
.
4
3
1
.
9
2
0
.
3
1
2
.
3
1
.
44
.
0
6
1
.
3
2
0
.
3
2
6
.
2
1
4
.
7
2
4
.
3
9
.
4
3
3
.
3
2
7
.
0
2
.
1
MosL favourable Less favourable noL favourable no oplnlon no 8esponse
2011 () uk 2011 () uS 2010 () uk 2010 () uS
I|gure 8.19: US and Uk Imm|grat|on o||cy
undersLandlng lA1A
138
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
139
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
posslblllLles offered ln 1able 8.16. osslble noL auLomaLlcally mean Lhey are poslLlve Lowards
alLernaLlve reasons Lo Lhose llsLed are: shared Lhelr lmmlgraLlon pollcles, becauseof bad personal,
culLureand rellglous values or 1allbanlsaLlon. famlllal or communlLy experlences. Also, general
aLLlLudes, when expressed, are llkely Lo be based on
ln splLe of Lhls, some dld oplne LhaL Lhe uk had
less Lhan adequaLe lnformaLlon (e.g. rumour) as
lnvesLed AfghanlsLan's lnfrasLrucLure developmenL
dlrecL lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhese lmmlgraLlon pollcles ls
and were Lherefore worklng Lo lmprove Lhe long-
unllkelyfor Lhema[orlLyof respondenLs.
Lerm sLablllLyof AfghanlsLan.
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhese caveaLs, lL appears LhaL
Iema|e IGDs
respondenLs Lo some exLenL possess a negaLlve
Lxcluslon of women from pollLlcal debaLe agaln
polnL of vlew - a clalm LhaL ls however, slgnlflcanLly
denled female parLlclpanLs Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
llmlLed by over 30 of respondenLs noL belng able
provldelnformaLlon on Lhls lssue.
Lo provlde an answer, of whlch some 30 had oo
oploloo and Lhls could represenL a cerLaln
Att|tudes towards the |mm|grat|on po||c|es of
amblvalence Lo Lhe domesLlc pollcy of Lhe uk LhaL
the USandUk
could be swayed elLher way by acLual lnLeracLlon
As was seen ln ChapLer 1 (llgure 1.8 - 1.13): Lhere
wlLh relevanL processes. Cnly 3.9 of respondenLs
appears Lo be some deslre from Lhe people of lA1A
were most fovootoble ln Lhelr oplnlon of uk's
Lo leave Lhe Lrlbal areas. 1he ma[orlLy would prefer
lmmlgraLlon pollcy. Slmllar flndlngs regardlng
Lo remaln wlLhln aklsLan buL some would conslder
favourablllLy, lf more exaggeraLed, can be seen wlLh
Lhe uS (1.4) or Lhe uk (2.4). 1hls lnLeresL has
regard Lo LheuS.
encouraged Lhe survey Lo make a sLudy of general
percepLlons Lowards Lhe lmmlgraLlon pollcles of Ma|e IGDs
LheseLwo developed naLlons. ln conLrasL Lo Lhe flndlngs recorded above, Lhe
ma[orlLy of male respondenLs were favourable
lL musL be noLed LhaL Lhe number of respondenLs
Lowards emlgraLlon Lo elLher Lhe uk or uS, posslbly
LhaL prevlously ldenLlfled uS or uk as preferred
showlng LhaL whlle Lhese desLlnaLlons are noL Lhe
desLlnaLlons are llkely Lo have a poslLlve aLLlLude
flrsL cholce of many, Lhey remaln an aLLracLlve
Lowards Lhe pollcles of Lhese counLrles buL lL does
lnvolvemenL Lo be favourable: from 8 ln 2010 Lo fovootoble varlables arecomblned.
less Lhan 3 ln 2011.
Ma|e IGDs
Slmllar reducLlons ln Lhe number of people LhaL are
As seen ln ChapLer 3, aLLlLudes Lowards AfghanlsLan
oot fovootoble can be seen Lo Lhose en[oyed by Lhe
and Lhe Afghan 1allban are very lmporLanL Lo
uk, buL aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe uS are lmprovlng aL a
respondenLs, consequenLly, lL was unsurprlslng
slower raLe. Also, lL appears LhaL Lhe sLrengLh of
LhaL lL lnsplred sLrong argumenLs ln LhemalelCus.
feellng opposlng uS lnLervenLlon ls greaLer Lhan
Cenerally, respondenLs opposed uk lnvolvemenL ln
LhaL for Lhe uk, wlLh 62 of respondenLs sLaLlng
AfghanlsLan: Lhe reasons for Lhls were noL enLlrely
Lhey were oot fovootoble, a flgure LhaL ls equalled
clear as respondenLs dld noL fully engage wlLh Lhe
by uk dlssenLers lf Lhe oot fovootoble and less
3
.
0
4
.
8
4
.
27
.
1
9
.
0
1
3
.
3
6
3
.
6
3
.
7
4
.
4
4
.
6
1
1
.
4
3
1
.
3
1
6
.
8
1
3
.
8
8
.
1
8
0
.
0
1
2
.
8
6
3
.
9
7
.
3
6
.
8
MosL favourable Less favourable noL favourable no oplnlon no 8esponse
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.17: Uk ko|e |n Afghan|stan
2
.
6
4
.
7
4
.
3
4
.
7
8
.
0
1
3
.
3
7
0
.
6
4
.
8
3
.
1
2
.
9
3
.
8
6
2
.
0
1
3
.
6
1
3
.
7
8
3
.
2
3
.
2
3
.
3
4
.
9
7
8
.
6
6
.
3
MosL favourable Less favourable noL favourable no oplnlon no 8esponse
I|gure 8.18: US ko|e |n Afghan|stan
3
.
9
3
0
.
3
2
4
.
9
2
6
.
2
3
.
9
1
1
.
4
3
1
.
9
2
0
.
3
1
2
.
3
1
.
44
.
0
6
1
.
3
2
0
.
3
2
6
.
2
1
4
.
7
2
4
.
3
9
.
4
3
3
.
3
2
7
.
0
2
.
1
MosL favourable Less favourable noL favourable no oplnlon no 8esponse
2011 () uk 2011 () uS 2010 () uk 2010 () uS
I|gure 8.19: US and Uk Imm|grat|on o||cy
undersLandlng lA1A
138
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
139
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
quarLers LhaL held a degree of hosLlllLy Lowards Cp|n|ononma[or Mus||m countr|es
aklsLan's larger nelghbour.
Iran
Ch|na WlLh regard Lo fellow Musllm naLlons, Lhe survey
ln conLrasL Lo Lhe eLhnlc/Lrlbal llnks beLween flrsLly soughL Lo documenL lA1A percepLlons
aklsLan and AfghanlsLan, and Lhe rlvalry beLween regardlng lran. As seen ln llgure 3.13: AyaLollah All
aklsLan and lndla, relaLlons wlLh Chlna are llnked khamene'l ls seen as a LrusLworLhy rellglous leader
Lo more LradlLlonal sLraLeglc-dlplomacy (l.e. Lrade, by a llLLle over 13 of respondenLs, lL ls Lherefore,
securl Ly co- operaLl on and devel opmenL unsurprlslng LhaL glven hls lnfluence on Lhe soclal
23
and pollLlcal dlrecLlon of lran LhaL Lwo-Lhlrds of asslsLance). 1hls relaLlonshlp ls looked on very
respondenLs were favourable Lowards Lhe lslamlc poslLlvely by respondenLs, wlLh some Lhree-
8epubllc: also, lran's lnflammaLory sLance Lowards quarLers descrlblng Lles beLween LheLwo naLlons as
vety fovootoble somewbot fovootoble Lhe WesL ls also llkely Lo have lnfluenced (42.7) or
percepLlons. 1he ma[orlLy (37.9) descrlbes Lhelr (32.1). 1hls compares Lo only10 LhaL dlsagree.
oplnlon as belng somewbot fovootoble.
1hl s dynaml c l s sl gnl f l canL , l n L haL l L
Whlle Lhls endorsemenL of lran ls compelllng, a comprehensl vel y shows L haL bl - l aL eral
sLronger base of opposlLlon ls apparenL Lhan was relaLlonshlps can be forged wlLhouL reference Lo
recorded for Chlna - l.e. Lhe sLrengLh of poslLlve lnLeracLlons wlLh lslam and Lhe Musllm world,
aLLlLudes appear Lo have reduced (wlLh Lhe number however, lL ls posslble LhaL Chlna's aLLlLude Lowards
of Lhose provldlng a conslderable endorsemenL lran and Syrla ln Lhe un SecurlLy Councll may have
24
lncreased LhesLrengLh of supporL for some. reduclng by some 40) - Lherefore supporL
remalns buL wlLh some reservaLlons for Lhe
proposlLlon for a larger proporLlon. WlLh regard Lo Afghan|stan
lmmlgraLlon pollcles, Lhey were however, of Lhe
Cver Lhe lasL four years, oplnlon from lA1A
oplnlon LhaL Lo galn enLry would be very dlfflculL,
respondenLs appears Lo be lmprovlng. ln 2011, a
especlally Lo Lhe uS, and Lherefore Lhls poslLlve
clear ma[orlLy of survey parLlclpanLs (63.8) looked
aLLlLude cannoL be reflecLed ln Lhe flndlngs of Lhe
favourably on Lhelr nelghbour, an lncrease on Lhe
survey as parLlclpanLs need Lo be recorded as aL
approxlmaLe 40 - 43 documenLed ln beLween
leasL less Lhan favourable.
2008 and 2010. A changlng of oplnlon LhaL has also
seen an equal buL opposlLe change ln oofovootoble
Iema|e IGDs
aLLlLudes: wlLh Lhe comblned number of
ln lokbtoo Lrlbal socleLy, women are noL permlLLed
lnLervlewees wlLh a negaLlve percepLlon reduclng
Lo emlgraLefor educaLlon or employmenL so female
byhalf slnce2010Lo under one-quarLer (23.3).
respondenLs were largely apaLheLlc Lowards
lL ls unclear wheLher respondenLs' aLLlLudes are lmmlgraLlon pollcy.
based on supporL for 1allban operaLlons - l.e.
wheLher a resurgenL mlllLancy ln AfghanlsLan has
lnsplred greaLer supporL - or for Lhe sLablllsaLlon
1hls secLlon of Lhe chapLer ls dlvlded lnLo varlous
and developmenL acLlvlLles of lnLernaLlonal acLors
parLs, namely: geographlcally close naLlons, oLher
lmprovlng opporLunlLles (e.g. creaLlng an
lslamlc naLlons, and oLher WesLern naLlons. ln
envlronmenL conduclve Lo Lhe reLurn of refugees or
general, Lhese naLlons have slzable aklsLanl
Lrade).
populaLlons, buL Lhe survey Leam was unable Lo
Ind|a
dlscern lf famlly Lles llnked respondenLs wlLh any of
undersLandabl y, gl ven regl onal Lensl ons,
LhesecounLrles.
parLlcularly over kashmlr, and conLlnual dlplomaLlc
Cp|n|onongeograph|ca||y c|ose nat|ons
lnsLablllLy - e.g. followlng Lhe 2008 (or 26/11)
1he 2011 survey has soughL Lo map respondenLs'
Mumbal aLLacks by aklsLanl lslamlsL lnsurgenLs -
oplnlon uslng a scale LhaL allows for greaLer lnslghL
favourablllLy Lowards lndla ls very low. ln 2011, only
lnLo levels of favourablllLy Lhan Lhose for Lhe uS and
8.2 of respondenLs looked on lndla wlLh some
uk.
degree of approval. 1hls ls ln conLrasL Lo Lhe Lhree-
8.2: Cp|n|ononother nat|ons
1
1
.
3
2
0
.
4
1
2
.
4
4
.
8
9
.
9
1
8
.
7
2
6
.
2
2
0
.
4
2
9
.
4
1
.
33
.
8
1
8
.
3
4
3
.
2
1
0
.
4
1
3
.
0
7
.
2
3
.
6
1
9
.
4
3
1
.
7
1
2
.
2
2
0
.
4
4
.
2
2
1
.
8
3
1
.
6
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.20: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Afghan|stan
2
.
8
4
3
.
9
1
1
.
4
3
.
9
1
0
.
6
1
.
6
4
.
3
1
3
.
1
7
4
.
4
1
.
8
4
.
7
2
.
4
3
.
8
1
1
.
2
6
4
.
8
8
.
3
7
.
6
1
0
.
3
2
3
.
9
7
.
3
1
8
.
0
4
.
3
3
3
.
3
4
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.21: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Ind|a
23
See 'Chlna-aklsLan relaLlons', Councll on lorelgn 8elaLlons, hLLp://www.cfr.org/chlna/chlna-paklsLan-relaLlons/p10070,
accessed 8/12/2011
24
See for example 'AnalysLs: 8ussla, Chlna ready Lo block new un sancLlons on lran', volce of Amerlca, 11/11/2011,
hLLp://www.voanews.com/engllsh/news/mlddle-easL/AnalysLs-8ussla-Chlna-8eady-Lo-8lock-new-un-SancLlons-on-lran-
133720178.hLml, accessed 8/12/2011 and '8ussla and Chlna veLo un resoluLlon agalnsL Syrla reglme', 1he Cuardlan, 3/10/2011,
hLLp://www.guardlan.co.uk/world/2011/ocL/03/russla-chlna-veLo-syrla-resoluLlon, accessed 8/12/2011
undersLandlng lA1A
140
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
141
quarLers LhaL held a degree of hosLlllLy Lowards Cp|n|ononma[or Mus||m countr|es
aklsLan's larger nelghbour.
Iran
Ch|na WlLh regard Lo fellow Musllm naLlons, Lhe survey
ln conLrasL Lo Lhe eLhnlc/Lrlbal llnks beLween flrsLly soughL Lo documenL lA1A percepLlons
aklsLan and AfghanlsLan, and Lhe rlvalry beLween regardlng lran. As seen ln llgure 3.13: AyaLollah All
aklsLan and lndla, relaLlons wlLh Chlna are llnked khamene'l ls seen as a LrusLworLhy rellglous leader
Lo more LradlLlonal sLraLeglc-dlplomacy (l.e. Lrade, by a llLLle over 13 of respondenLs, lL ls Lherefore,
securl Ly co- operaLl on and devel opmenL unsurprlslng LhaL glven hls lnfluence on Lhe soclal
23
and pollLlcal dlrecLlon of lran LhaL Lwo-Lhlrds of asslsLance). 1hls relaLlonshlp ls looked on very
respondenLs were favourable Lowards Lhe lslamlc poslLlvely by respondenLs, wlLh some Lhree-
8epubllc: also, lran's lnflammaLory sLance Lowards quarLers descrlblng Lles beLween LheLwo naLlons as
vety fovootoble somewbot fovootoble Lhe WesL ls also llkely Lo have lnfluenced (42.7) or
percepLlons. 1he ma[orlLy (37.9) descrlbes Lhelr (32.1). 1hls compares Lo only10 LhaL dlsagree.
oplnlon as belng somewbot fovootoble.
1hl s dynaml c l s sl gnl f l canL , l n L haL l L
Whlle Lhls endorsemenL of lran ls compelllng, a comprehensl vel y shows L haL bl - l aL eral
sLronger base of opposlLlon ls apparenL Lhan was relaLlonshlps can be forged wlLhouL reference Lo
recorded for Chlna - l.e. Lhe sLrengLh of poslLlve lnLeracLlons wlLh lslam and Lhe Musllm world,
aLLlLudes appear Lo have reduced (wlLh Lhe number however, lL ls posslble LhaL Chlna's aLLlLude Lowards
of Lhose provldlng a conslderable endorsemenL lran and Syrla ln Lhe un SecurlLy Councll may have
24
lncreased LhesLrengLh of supporL for some. reduclng by some 40) - Lherefore supporL
remalns buL wlLh some reservaLlons for Lhe
proposlLlon for a larger proporLlon. WlLh regard Lo Afghan|stan
lmmlgraLlon pollcles, Lhey were however, of Lhe
Cver Lhe lasL four years, oplnlon from lA1A
oplnlon LhaL Lo galn enLry would be very dlfflculL,
respondenLs appears Lo be lmprovlng. ln 2011, a
especlally Lo Lhe uS, and Lherefore Lhls poslLlve
clear ma[orlLy of survey parLlclpanLs (63.8) looked
aLLlLude cannoL be reflecLed ln Lhe flndlngs of Lhe
favourably on Lhelr nelghbour, an lncrease on Lhe
survey as parLlclpanLs need Lo be recorded as aL
approxlmaLe 40 - 43 documenLed ln beLween
leasL less Lhan favourable.
2008 and 2010. A changlng of oplnlon LhaL has also
seen an equal buL opposlLe change ln oofovootoble
Iema|e IGDs
aLLlLudes: wlLh Lhe comblned number of
ln lokbtoo Lrlbal socleLy, women are noL permlLLed
lnLervlewees wlLh a negaLlve percepLlon reduclng
Lo emlgraLefor educaLlon or employmenL so female
byhalf slnce2010Lo under one-quarLer (23.3).
respondenLs were largely apaLheLlc Lowards
lL ls unclear wheLher respondenLs' aLLlLudes are lmmlgraLlon pollcy.
based on supporL for 1allban operaLlons - l.e.
wheLher a resurgenL mlllLancy ln AfghanlsLan has
lnsplred greaLer supporL - or for Lhe sLablllsaLlon
1hls secLlon of Lhe chapLer ls dlvlded lnLo varlous
and developmenL acLlvlLles of lnLernaLlonal acLors
parLs, namely: geographlcally close naLlons, oLher
lmprovlng opporLunlLles (e.g. creaLlng an
lslamlc naLlons, and oLher WesLern naLlons. ln
envlronmenL conduclve Lo Lhe reLurn of refugees or
general, Lhese naLlons have slzable aklsLanl
Lrade).
populaLlons, buL Lhe survey Leam was unable Lo
Ind|a
dlscern lf famlly Lles llnked respondenLs wlLh any of
undersLandabl y, gl ven regl onal Lensl ons,
LhesecounLrles.
parLlcularly over kashmlr, and conLlnual dlplomaLlc
Cp|n|onongeograph|ca||y c|ose nat|ons
lnsLablllLy - e.g. followlng Lhe 2008 (or 26/11)
1he 2011 survey has soughL Lo map respondenLs'
Mumbal aLLacks by aklsLanl lslamlsL lnsurgenLs -
oplnlon uslng a scale LhaL allows for greaLer lnslghL
favourablllLy Lowards lndla ls very low. ln 2011, only
lnLo levels of favourablllLy Lhan Lhose for Lhe uS and
8.2 of respondenLs looked on lndla wlLh some
uk.
degree of approval. 1hls ls ln conLrasL Lo Lhe Lhree-
8.2: Cp|n|ononother nat|ons
1
1
.
3
2
0
.
4
1
2
.
4
4
.
8
9
.
9
1
8
.
7
2
6
.
2
2
0
.
4
2
9
.
4
1
.
33
.
8
1
8
.
3
4
3
.
2
1
0
.
4
1
3
.
0
7
.
2
3
.
6
1
9
.
4
3
1
.
7
1
2
.
2
2
0
.
4
4
.
2
2
1
.
8
3
1
.
6
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.20: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Afghan|stan
2
.
8
4
3
.
9
1
1
.
4
3
.
9
1
0
.
6
1
.
6
4
.
3
1
3
.
1
7
4
.
4
1
.
8
4
.
7
2
.
4
3
.
8
1
1
.
2
6
4
.
8
8
.
3
7
.
6
1
0
.
3
2
3
.
9
7
.
3
1
8
.
0
4
.
3
3
3
.
3
4
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.21: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Ind|a
23
See 'Chlna-aklsLan relaLlons', Councll on lorelgn 8elaLlons, hLLp://www.cfr.org/chlna/chlna-paklsLan-relaLlons/p10070,
accessed 8/12/2011
24
See for example 'AnalysLs: 8ussla, Chlna ready Lo block new un sancLlons on lran', volce of Amerlca, 11/11/2011,
hLLp://www.voanews.com/engllsh/news/mlddle-easL/AnalysLs-8ussla-Chlna-8eady-Lo-8lock-new-un-SancLlons-on-lran-
133720178.hLml, accessed 8/12/2011 and '8ussla and Chlna veLo un resoluLlon agalnsL Syrla reglme', 1he Cuardlan, 3/10/2011,
hLLp://www.guardlan.co.uk/world/2011/ocL/03/russla-chlna-veLo-syrla-resoluLlon, accessed 8/12/2011
undersLandlng lA1A
140
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
141
ma[orlLy. And almosL 20 of respondenLs looked on opposlLlon ls held ln l8 ul khan (47.3), SouLh
lran wlLh mlsLrusL, wlLh half of Lhls number WazlrlsLan Agency (40.4). l8 kohaL (34.4), l8
conslderlng Lhelr aLLlLudeLo bevety oofovootoble. Lakkl (30.0), kurram Agency (26.0), and, l8
8annu (18.6) conLaln above average levels of
When aLLlLudes were dlsaggregaLed by Agency/l8
opposlLlon. 1hls ln parL ls Lhe resulL of secLarlan
however lL can be seen LhaL percepLlons appear Lo
dlfferences beLween 5oool ma[orlLy lA1A and 5blo
be overly blased Lowards cerLaln Lrlbal areas: LhaL
ma[orlLylraq.
ls, supporL ls cenLred ln 8a[aur Agency (93.0), l8
1ank (87.3), khyber Agency (72.3), and, Crakzal
Agency (71.4) - whlle ln conLrasL slgnlflcanL
3
4
.
7
2
.
4
6
.
2
3
.
3
8
.
6
4
9
.
9
2
9
.
3
6
.
3
3
.
23
.
9
7
.
1
4
2
.
7
3
2
.
1
4
.
6
3
.
3
8
.
7
6
.
4
3
.
1
4
6
.
2 3
0
.
6
3
.
4
4
.
8
3
.
4
2
9
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.22: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Ch|na
3
3
.
8
4
.
0
1
0
.
0
4
.
6
1
0
.
3
4
4
.
4
3
2
.
3
8
.
3
6
.
3
2
.
8
0
3
.
7
2
7
.
3
3
7
.
9
9
.
9
8
.
9
9
.
8
7
.
3
3
3
.
3
1
4
.
2
3
1
.
7
9
.
4
4
.
6
8
.
0
3
6
.
1
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.23: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Iran
undersLandlng lA1A
142
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
143
52.5
23.9
10.0
10.7
20.0
11.9
15.0
6.3
44.4
21.3
51.3
25.0
40.0
71.3
81.3
25.0
1.0
5.9
8.8
4.7
6.1
14.6
5.0
21.3
30.0
10.0
8.8
8.8
2.9
0.1
17.2
10.8
1.1
13.8
26.3
4.4
20.0
1.3
0.7
1.3
4.7
17.8
15.0
20.9
8.2
31.3
1.3
9.4
20.0
3.8
1.3
2.5
7.9
1.1
15.7
13.9
8.8
19.4
2.5
1.3
1.3
NA
NA
7.5
43.3
27.9
26.8
46.1
16.5
29.2
67.1
18.9
NA
NA
8.9
NA
NA
NA
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan
SouLh WazlrlsLan
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
Very Favourable Somewhat Favourable Somewhat Unfavourable Very Unfavourable No Response Don't Know
I|gure 8.24: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Iran (bteokJowo by teqloo)
ma[orlLy. And almosL 20 of respondenLs looked on opposlLlon ls held ln l8 ul khan (47.3), SouLh
lran wlLh mlsLrusL, wlLh half of Lhls number WazlrlsLan Agency (40.4). l8 kohaL (34.4), l8
conslderlng Lhelr aLLlLudeLo bevety oofovootoble. Lakkl (30.0), kurram Agency (26.0), and, l8
8annu (18.6) conLaln above average levels of
When aLLlLudes were dlsaggregaLed by Agency/l8
opposlLlon. 1hls ln parL ls Lhe resulL of secLarlan
however lL can be seen LhaL percepLlons appear Lo
dlfferences beLween 5oool ma[orlLy lA1A and 5blo
be overly blased Lowards cerLaln Lrlbal areas: LhaL
ma[orlLylraq.
ls, supporL ls cenLred ln 8a[aur Agency (93.0), l8
1ank (87.3), khyber Agency (72.3), and, Crakzal
Agency (71.4) - whlle ln conLrasL slgnlflcanL
3
4
.
7
2
.
4
6
.
2
3
.
3
8
.
6
4
9
.
9
2
9
.
3
6
.
3
3
.
23
.
9
7
.
1
4
2
.
7
3
2
.
1
4
.
6
3
.
3
8
.
7
6
.
4
3
.
1
4
6
.
2 3
0
.
6
3
.
4
4
.
8
3
.
4
2
9
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.22: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Ch|na
3
3
.
8
4
.
0
1
0
.
0
4
.
6
1
0
.
3
4
4
.
4
3
2
.
3
8
.
3
6
.
3
2
.
8
0
3
.
7
2
7
.
3
3
7
.
9
9
.
9
8
.
9
9
.
8
7
.
3
3
3
.
3
1
4
.
2
3
1
.
7
9
.
4
4
.
6
8
.
0
3
6
.
1
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.23: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Iran
undersLandlng lA1A
142
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
143
52.5
23.9
10.0
10.7
20.0
11.9
15.0
6.3
44.4
21.3
51.3
25.0
40.0
71.3
81.3
25.0
1.0
5.9
8.8
4.7
6.1
14.6
5.0
21.3
30.0
10.0
8.8
8.8
2.9
0.1
17.2
10.8
1.1
13.8
26.3
4.4
20.0
1.3
0.7
1.3
4.7
17.8
15.0
20.9
8.2
31.3
1.3
9.4
20.0
3.8
1.3
2.5
7.9
1.1
15.7
13.9
8.8
19.4
2.5
1.3
1.3
NA
NA
7.5
43.3
27.9
26.8
46.1
16.5
29.2
67.1
18.9
NA
NA
8.9
NA
NA
NA
Crakzal Agency
8a[aur Agency
khyber Agency
kurram Agency
Mohmand Agency
norLh WazlrlsLan
SouLh WazlrlsLan
l8 8annu
l8 ul khan
l8 kohaL
l8 Lakkl
l8 eshawar
l8 1ank
Very Favourable Somewhat Favourable Somewhat Unfavourable Very Unfavourable No Response Don't Know
I|gure 8.24: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Iran (bteokJowo by teqloo)
Leam asked respondenLs Lo glve Lhelr oplnlons on banded LogeLher as one-and-Lhe-same. lavourable
oLher WesLern counLrles. percepLlons Lowards Lhe 'WesL' flucLuaLe beLween
approxlmaLely 27 and 30, Lhls favourablllLy ls
1he survey accordlngly focused on Lhree counLrles
very slmllar Lo LhaL documenLed on Lhe uk (6.1:
LhaL had hlsLorlcally welcomed lmmlgranL Musllms
vety fovootoble and 23.9: somewbot fovootoble
members, lncludlng Lhose from Lhe lokbtoo
[see llgure 8.3]). 1he 'WesL' also mlrrors Lhe uk ln
ulaspora, namely: Canada, lranceand Cermany.
Lerms of numbers hol dl ngs a somewbot
oofovootoble aLLlLude, wlLh Lhe 'WesL' scorlng
1he flndlngs are almosL compleLely unlform
beLween 10.0 and 12.0 compared Lo
suggesLlng LhaL, ouLslde of Lhe uS, Lhe WesL ls
approxlmaLely11.0 for Lheuk.
ulfferences beLween Lhe 'WesL' and Lhe uk appear
greaLesL wlLh regard Lo vety oofovootoble oplnlons:
Lheukls percelved ln aparLlcularly negaLlvellghL by
some 37.0 compared Lo an approxlmaLe 17.0-
18.0 for Lhe 'WesL'. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL Lhere ls a
greaLer deal of uncerLalnLy abouL percepLlons
Lowards Canada, lrance and Cermany Lhan ls
apparenL for LheuSand uk.
Cverall, LheuS appears Lo beLreaLed aparL from Lhe
'WesL' and uk, wlLh percepLlons belng slgnlflcanLly
more negaLlve Lhan oLher llke-mlnded naLlons.
Powever, as shown by Lhe uk, aLLlLudes Lowards
WesLern naLlons may decllne lf greaLer numbers of
peopleareengaged ln debaLe.
23
comprlslng some 60 Musllms - was generally Saud| Arab|a
Saudl Arabla ls Lhe slghL of Lwo of Lhe mosL holy poslLlve. ln 2011, some 60 of respondenLs looked
clLles of lslam. Maklng Lhe noj Lo Mecca and vlslLlng on Lhe counLry wlLh some level of favourablllLy, a
Medlna are personal goals for Musllms and Lo do so noLeworLhy rlse ln LhaL recorded ln 2009 and 2010.
wlll earn lndlvlduals Lhe rlghL Lo add Lhe LlLle nojl Lo ln comparlson only approxlmaLely 20 of
Lhelr name. Saudl Arabla ls also a favoured clLy for respondenLs were unfavourable. 1he reason
emlgraLlon, as reporLed ln llgure 1.13, because of behlnd Lhls aLLlLude was lllusLraLed ln boLh male
opporLunlLles for employmenL. Some members of and female lCus, where desplLe llmlLed knowledge
Lhe male lCus also felL LhaL aklsLan should follow of Lhe counLry, lL was percelved LhaL sLrong
Lheexampleof Saudl Arablaand lmposeSharlalaw. developmenL had meanL LhaL Malaysla was a
counLry LhaL aklsLan should asplreLo emulaLe.
Cver Lhe course of surveys, daLa shows LhaL more
Lhan 80.0 of respondenLs are poslLlvely favoured WhaL ls lnLeresLlng Lo hlghllghL ls LhaL Lhe number
Lowards Saudl Arabla: and wlLhln Lhls over Lhree- of people LhaL were noL able Lo provlde a response
quarLers are vety fovootoble. ln conLrasL [usL 4.3 was relaLlvely low compared Lo oLher llgure ln Lhls
are, Lo dlfferenL degrees, unfavourable. 1hese chapLer, parLlcularly Lhose referrlng Lo Lhe uS and
respondenLs are largely 'progresslve' or 'lefLlsL' ln uk, Lherefore, lL appears LhaL respondenLs were
Lhelr values, and Lhey belleve Saudl Arabla has used moreconfldenL ln supplylng an oplnlon on aMusllm
lA1A Lo fulfll Lhelr naLlonal agenda. counLry Lhan one where soclal and rellglous
dlfferences maybemoresLark.
Ma|ays|a
Cp|n|on on Western countr|es: Canada, WlLh regard Lo a Musllm counLry LhaL ls noL of dlrecL
lnfluence Lo aklsLan or a source of global pollLlcal Irance, Germany
scruLlny, Lo Lhe degree of oLher naLlons ldenLlfled ln
1o furLher undersLand lA1A percepLlons relaLlng Lo
Lhls survey: lL ls found LhaL respondenLs aLLlLudes
Lhe uS and uk, as well as Lhose relaLlng Lo
Lowards Malaysla - a counLry wlLh a populaLlon
geographlcally close and lslamlc naLlons, Lhe survey
7
4
.
2
1
.
13
.
6
2
.
6
4
.
9
7
7
.
8
1
0
.
7
2
.
33
.
8
1
.
4
1
.
8
6
6
.
7
1
8
.
8
2
.
3
2
.
03
.
9
4
.
0
1
3
.
7
3
.
0
9
.
3
3
.
0
3
.
8
2
.
7
7
4
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.2S: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Saud| Arab|a
23
'Malaysla', ClA World lacLbook, hLLps://www.cla.gov/llbrary/publlcaLlons/Lhe-world-facLbook/geos/my.hLml, accessed
8/12/2011
1
6
.
0
1
3
.
61
8
.
4
1
7
.
1
2
3
.
6
1
8
.
6
4
0
.
2
9
.
7
8
.
4
1
1
.
8
1
1
.
3
2
7
.
1
7
.
9
2
3
.
8
4
.
9
1
3
.
0
1
2
.
6
2
2
.
2
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable uon'L know no 8esponse
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.26: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Ma|ays|a
6
.
8
1
1
.
3
1
1
.
9
1
0
.
2
1
6
.
7
1
8
.
1
1
7
.
3
2
6
4
.
4
6
.
2
2
2
.
3
2
3
.
3
2
2
.
7
Canada lrance Cermany
very favourable SomewhaL favourable
SomewhaL unfavourable very unfavourable
I|gure 8.27: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Canada,
Irance, Germany
26
1hls lower level of supporL for lrance may be Lhe resulL of Lhe publlc debaLe and subsequenL leglslaLlon bannlng Lhe wearlng
of vells ln publlc.
undersLandlng lA1A
144
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
14S
Leam asked respondenLs Lo glve Lhelr oplnlons on banded LogeLher as one-and-Lhe-same. lavourable
oLher WesLern counLrles. percepLlons Lowards Lhe 'WesL' flucLuaLe beLween
approxlmaLely 27 and 30, Lhls favourablllLy ls
1he survey accordlngly focused on Lhree counLrles
very slmllar Lo LhaL documenLed on Lhe uk (6.1:
LhaL had hlsLorlcally welcomed lmmlgranL Musllms
vety fovootoble and 23.9: somewbot fovootoble
members, lncludlng Lhose from Lhe lokbtoo
[see llgure 8.3]). 1he 'WesL' also mlrrors Lhe uk ln
ulaspora, namely: Canada, lranceand Cermany.
Lerms of numbers hol dl ngs a somewbot
oofovootoble aLLlLude, wlLh Lhe 'WesL' scorlng
1he flndlngs are almosL compleLely unlform
beLween 10.0 and 12.0 compared Lo
suggesLlng LhaL, ouLslde of Lhe uS, Lhe WesL ls
approxlmaLely11.0 for Lheuk.
ulfferences beLween Lhe 'WesL' and Lhe uk appear
greaLesL wlLh regard Lo vety oofovootoble oplnlons:
Lheukls percelved ln aparLlcularly negaLlvellghL by
some 37.0 compared Lo an approxlmaLe 17.0-
18.0 for Lhe 'WesL'. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL Lhere ls a
greaLer deal of uncerLalnLy abouL percepLlons
Lowards Canada, lrance and Cermany Lhan ls
apparenL for LheuSand uk.
Cverall, LheuS appears Lo beLreaLed aparL from Lhe
'WesL' and uk, wlLh percepLlons belng slgnlflcanLly
more negaLlve Lhan oLher llke-mlnded naLlons.
Powever, as shown by Lhe uk, aLLlLudes Lowards
WesLern naLlons may decllne lf greaLer numbers of
peopleareengaged ln debaLe.
23
comprlslng some 60 Musllms - was generally Saud| Arab|a
Saudl Arabla ls Lhe slghL of Lwo of Lhe mosL holy poslLlve. ln 2011, some 60 of respondenLs looked
clLles of lslam. Maklng Lhe noj Lo Mecca and vlslLlng on Lhe counLry wlLh some level of favourablllLy, a
Medlna are personal goals for Musllms and Lo do so noLeworLhy rlse ln LhaL recorded ln 2009 and 2010.
wlll earn lndlvlduals Lhe rlghL Lo add Lhe LlLle nojl Lo ln comparlson only approxlmaLely 20 of
Lhelr name. Saudl Arabla ls also a favoured clLy for respondenLs were unfavourable. 1he reason
emlgraLlon, as reporLed ln llgure 1.13, because of behlnd Lhls aLLlLude was lllusLraLed ln boLh male
opporLunlLles for employmenL. Some members of and female lCus, where desplLe llmlLed knowledge
Lhe male lCus also felL LhaL aklsLan should follow of Lhe counLry, lL was percelved LhaL sLrong
Lheexampleof Saudl Arablaand lmposeSharlalaw. developmenL had meanL LhaL Malaysla was a
counLry LhaL aklsLan should asplreLo emulaLe.
Cver Lhe course of surveys, daLa shows LhaL more
Lhan 80.0 of respondenLs are poslLlvely favoured WhaL ls lnLeresLlng Lo hlghllghL ls LhaL Lhe number
Lowards Saudl Arabla: and wlLhln Lhls over Lhree- of people LhaL were noL able Lo provlde a response
quarLers are vety fovootoble. ln conLrasL [usL 4.3 was relaLlvely low compared Lo oLher llgure ln Lhls
are, Lo dlfferenL degrees, unfavourable. 1hese chapLer, parLlcularly Lhose referrlng Lo Lhe uS and
respondenLs are largely 'progresslve' or 'lefLlsL' ln uk, Lherefore, lL appears LhaL respondenLs were
Lhelr values, and Lhey belleve Saudl Arabla has used moreconfldenL ln supplylng an oplnlon on aMusllm
lA1A Lo fulfll Lhelr naLlonal agenda. counLry Lhan one where soclal and rellglous
dlfferences maybemoresLark.
Ma|ays|a
Cp|n|on on Western countr|es: Canada, WlLh regard Lo a Musllm counLry LhaL ls noL of dlrecL
lnfluence Lo aklsLan or a source of global pollLlcal Irance, Germany
scruLlny, Lo Lhe degree of oLher naLlons ldenLlfled ln
1o furLher undersLand lA1A percepLlons relaLlng Lo
Lhls survey: lL ls found LhaL respondenLs aLLlLudes
Lhe uS and uk, as well as Lhose relaLlng Lo
Lowards Malaysla - a counLry wlLh a populaLlon
geographlcally close and lslamlc naLlons, Lhe survey
7
4
.
2
1
.
13
.
6
2
.
6
4
.
9
7
7
.
8
1
0
.
7
2
.
33
.
8
1
.
4
1
.
8
6
6
.
7
1
8
.
8
2
.
3
2
.
03
.
9
4
.
0
1
3
.
7
3
.
0
9
.
3
3
.
0
3
.
8
2
.
7
7
4
.
3
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable no 8esponse uon'L know
2008 () 2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.2S: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Saud| Arab|a
23
'Malaysla', ClA World lacLbook, hLLps://www.cla.gov/llbrary/publlcaLlons/Lhe-world-facLbook/geos/my.hLml, accessed
8/12/2011
1
6
.
0
1
3
.
61
8
.
4
1
7
.
1
2
3
.
6
1
8
.
6
4
0
.
2
9
.
7
8
.
4
1
1
.
8
1
1
.
3
2
7
.
1
7
.
9
2
3
.
8
4
.
9
1
3
.
0
1
2
.
6
2
2
.
2
very lavourable SomewhaL
lavourable
SomewhaL
unfavourable
very unfavourable uon'L know no 8esponse
2009 () 2010 () 2011 ()
I|gure 8.26: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Ma|ays|a
6
.
8
1
1
.
3
1
1
.
9
1
0
.
2
1
6
.
7
1
8
.
1
1
7
.
3
2
6
4
.
4
6
.
2
2
2
.
3
2
3
.
3
2
2
.
7
Canada lrance Cermany
very favourable SomewhaL favourable
SomewhaL unfavourable very unfavourable
I|gure 8.27: Cp|n|on on re|at|ons w|th Canada,
Irance, Germany
26
1hls lower level of supporL for lrance may be Lhe resulL of Lhe publlc debaLe and subsequenL leglslaLlon bannlng Lhe wearlng
of vells ln publlc.
undersLandlng lA1A
144
ChapLer 8: ALLlLudes 1owards aklsLan's lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons ollcles
14S
Conc|us|on
1hls chapLer has lnvesLlgaLed Lhe people of lA1A's
percepLlon on counLrles LhaL have an lnfluence on
Lhe pollLlcs, soclal and rellglous LradlLlons and
developmenL. lrom Lhe evldence lL ls clear LhaL
lslamlc counLrles and Lhose LhaL are consldered Lo
be neuLral Lo Lhe affalrs of aklsLan are more
favourably percelved. Powever, from Lhe aLLlLudes
dlsaggregaLed on lran, cerLaln Lrlbal areas may be
moresupporLlveLhan oLhers.
WlLh regard Lo Lhose counLrles LhaL are seen Lo be
unfavourably lnfluenclng aklsLan more cauLlon ls
evldenL, and, ln Lhecases of lndla and LheuS, and Lo
some exLenL Lhe uk, parLlcular hosLlllLy. luLure
research may wlsh Lo analyse how speclflc,
slgnlflcanL evenLs lmpacL on Lhese percepLlons: for
example, ln 2011 Lhe lncldenLs of Curan burnlng ln
Lhe uS and uk, and Lhe release of graphlc phoLos
reporLedly showlng abuses of Afghan clvlllans by
lSAlforces, and whaL LrusL ls placed ln LhereporLlng
of lncldenLs by medla - wlLh parLlcular emphasls on
wheLher Lhe poslLlve and negaLlve acLlons of Lhe
WesLern world arereporLed ln lA1A.
As shown by Lhe dlfferenL lssues quesLloned ln Lhe
case of Lhe uk Lhls aLLlLude perslsLs regardless of
lnLernaLlonal relaLlons sub[ecLs. lL ls also apparenL
LhaL Lhe counLrles of Lhe 'WesL', wlLh Lhe excepLlon
of Lhe uS are percelved ln a generally unlversal way:
consequenLly, acLlvlLles Lo sofLen relaLlonshlps
should perhaps be underLaken aL a mulLl-laLeral
level Lo hollsLlcallylmproveaLLlLudes.
lL ls however, of some noLe LhaL lA1A ls very
defenslve of lLs culLure and LradlLlons and Lherefore
percepLlons of hosLlllLy may noL be unlversal Lo
aklsLan (and Musllms), buL lL ls llkely Lo be an
effecLlve, lf poLenLlally exaggeraLed, gulde. lurLher
research would berequlred Lo LesL Lhls supposlLlon.
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
147
way Forward
6hAPTER 9
undersLandlng lA1A
146
Conc|us|on
1hls chapLer has lnvesLlgaLed Lhe people of lA1A's
percepLlon on counLrles LhaL have an lnfluence on
Lhe pollLlcs, soclal and rellglous LradlLlons and
developmenL. lrom Lhe evldence lL ls clear LhaL
lslamlc counLrles and Lhose LhaL are consldered Lo
be neuLral Lo Lhe affalrs of aklsLan are more
favourably percelved. Powever, from Lhe aLLlLudes
dlsaggregaLed on lran, cerLaln Lrlbal areas may be
moresupporLlveLhan oLhers.
WlLh regard Lo Lhose counLrles LhaL are seen Lo be
unfavourably lnfluenclng aklsLan more cauLlon ls
evldenL, and, ln Lhecases of lndla and LheuS, and Lo
some exLenL Lhe uk, parLlcular hosLlllLy. luLure
research may wlsh Lo analyse how speclflc,
slgnlflcanL evenLs lmpacL on Lhese percepLlons: for
example, ln 2011 Lhe lncldenLs of Curan burnlng ln
Lhe uS and uk, and Lhe release of graphlc phoLos
reporLedly showlng abuses of Afghan clvlllans by
lSAlforces, and whaL LrusL ls placed ln LhereporLlng
of lncldenLs by medla - wlLh parLlcular emphasls on
wheLher Lhe poslLlve and negaLlve acLlons of Lhe
WesLern world arereporLed ln lA1A.
As shown by Lhe dlfferenL lssues quesLloned ln Lhe
case of Lhe uk Lhls aLLlLude perslsLs regardless of
lnLernaLlonal relaLlons sub[ecLs. lL ls also apparenL
LhaL Lhe counLrles of Lhe 'WesL', wlLh Lhe excepLlon
of Lhe uS are percelved ln a generally unlversal way:
consequenLly, acLlvlLles Lo sofLen relaLlonshlps
should perhaps be underLaken aL a mulLl-laLeral
level Lo hollsLlcallylmproveaLLlLudes.
lL ls however, of some noLe LhaL lA1A ls very
defenslve of lLs culLure and LradlLlons and Lherefore
percepLlons of hosLlllLy may noL be unlversal Lo
aklsLan (and Musllms), buL lL ls llkely Lo be an
effecLlve, lf poLenLlally exaggeraLed, gulde. lurLher
research would berequlred Lo LesL Lhls supposlLlon.
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
147
way Forward
6hAPTER 9
undersLandlng lA1A
146
8ecause of neglecL and pollLlcal marglnallsaLlon, also reduclng soclal space for mlllLanLs and
lA1A remalns one of Lhe mosL under-developed exLremlsLs Lo [usLlfy Lhelr acLs.
areas of aklsLan. Powever, lLs presLlge has grown
8ased on Lhe flndlngs of Lhls year's sLudy, we
ln recenL years followlng lLs promlnenL poslLlon ln
propose Lhe followlng recommendaLlons based on
Lhe 'War on 1error', a reallLy LhaL has resulLed ln Lhe
Lhree baslc concepLs: culLural approprlaLeness,
CovernmenL of aklsLan allocaLlng some k8 13
developmenL of local capablllLles, and communlLy
bllllon ln Lhe flscal year 2010-11 Lo lmprove
parLlclpaLlon and Lrlbal lnvolvemenL.
developmenL and lncrease sLablllLy. 1hls fundlng
has been supporLed by addlLlonal ald and supporL
Cu|tura| Appropr|ateness: 1hls survey has placed a
from Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy for poverLy
greaL deal of emphasls on undersLandlng Lhe
allevlaLlon, lnfrasLrucLure developmenL, lndusLrlal
culLure of Lhe lokbtoo, on cusLoms, bellefs and
developmenL and growLh and supporLlng local
LradlLlons. 1he key Lo solvlng percelved problems
economles Lhrough Lhe creaLlon of employmenL
and engaglng Lhe people ln a grand pro[ecL of
opporLunlLles (especlallyLargeLlng LheyouLh).
lncluslve naLlonhood ls Lhrough respecL and
recognlLlon of Lhelr LradlLlons.
ln splLe of Lhls lnvesLmenL of resources, Lhe survey
conLlnues Lo map subsLanLlal mlsLrusL dlrecLed
Deve|op|ng Loca| Capac|t|es: ln keeplng wlLh Lhe
Lowards Lhose governmenL offlclals and pollLlclans
concepL of respecLlng culLure and LradlLlons, lL ls
LhaL are responslble for lmplemenLlng reform, by
cruclal Lo have programmes LhaL develop local
Lhe populaLlon of lA1A. 1hls evaluaLlon of Lhe lS
capaclLy Lo assume Lhe responslblllLles of local
and luA ls based on Lhe dlrecL experlences of
governance and effecLlve law enforcemenL, a
people belng excluded from maklng declslons and
developmenL LhaL would allow for a Lransfer from
monlLorlng Lhe managemenL of pro[ecLs LhaL are
archalc colonlal sLrucLures Lo conLemporary
supposed Lo be for Lhelr beneflL. ln noL
lnsLlLuLlons. Lxperlence lndlcaLes LhaL even ln Lhe
lncorporaLlng Lhe vlews of local populaLlons ln Lhe
mosL challenglng slLuaLlons quallfled local capaclLy
governmenL led lA1A SusLalnable uevelopmenL
has been able Lo negoLlaLe wlLh lnsurgenLs Lo
lan Lhe acLlvlLles are llkely Lo be lnsenslLlve Lo local
enable Lhe conLlnued lmplemenLaLlon of
dynamlcs and lgnoranL of communal asplraLlons.
programmes under cerLaln accepLablecondlLlons.
1hls ln parL, ls Lhe dlrecL resulL of conLlnued supporL
for Lhe archalc colonlal sLrucLures LhaL supporL Lhe
Commun|ty art|c|pat|on and 1r|ba| Invo|vement:
stotos poo.
As wlLh all developmenL lnLervenLlons, communlLy
parLlclpaLlon aL Lhe fleld level ls cruclal for soclal
1o reverse Lhls dlsconLenL and Lo ensure greaLer
change. uevelopmenL parLners musL ensure LhaL
efflclency of pro[ecL plannlng and lmplemenLaLlon,
communlLy aL large ls Laken lnLo confldence Lo
developmenL acLlvlLles musL seek Lo empower Lhe
beLLer ensure ownershlp of Lhe programme, and Lo
dlsenchanLed ln lA1A, so LhaL lssues concernlng
ald ln Lhe monlLorlng and evaluaLlon of Lhe
securlLy (ln boLh Lerms of 'freedom from fear' and
performance of Lhe leadershlp LhaL ls responslble
'freedom from wanL') and prosperlLy can be
for Lhe collecLlve prlorlLles esLabllshed ln Lhe
champloned. 1hls ouLcomewlll lmprove LrusL ln Lhe
proposed parLlclpaLory plannlng process.
governmenL, and lLs lnLernaLlonal parLners, whlle
Way Iorward
ClAPTER 9
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
149
8ecause of neglecL and pollLlcal marglnallsaLlon, also reduclng soclal space for mlllLanLs and
lA1A remalns one of Lhe mosL under-developed exLremlsLs Lo [usLlfy Lhelr acLs.
areas of aklsLan. Powever, lLs presLlge has grown
8ased on Lhe flndlngs of Lhls year's sLudy, we
ln recenL years followlng lLs promlnenL poslLlon ln
propose Lhe followlng recommendaLlons based on
Lhe 'War on 1error', a reallLy LhaL has resulLed ln Lhe
Lhree baslc concepLs: culLural approprlaLeness,
CovernmenL of aklsLan allocaLlng some k8 13
developmenL of local capablllLles, and communlLy
bllllon ln Lhe flscal year 2010-11 Lo lmprove
parLlclpaLlon and Lrlbal lnvolvemenL.
developmenL and lncrease sLablllLy. 1hls fundlng
has been supporLed by addlLlonal ald and supporL
Cu|tura| Appropr|ateness: 1hls survey has placed a
from Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy for poverLy
greaL deal of emphasls on undersLandlng Lhe
allevlaLlon, lnfrasLrucLure developmenL, lndusLrlal
culLure of Lhe lokbtoo, on cusLoms, bellefs and
developmenL and growLh and supporLlng local
LradlLlons. 1he key Lo solvlng percelved problems
economles Lhrough Lhe creaLlon of employmenL
and engaglng Lhe people ln a grand pro[ecL of
opporLunlLles (especlallyLargeLlng LheyouLh).
lncluslve naLlonhood ls Lhrough respecL and
recognlLlon of Lhelr LradlLlons.
ln splLe of Lhls lnvesLmenL of resources, Lhe survey
conLlnues Lo map subsLanLlal mlsLrusL dlrecLed
Deve|op|ng Loca| Capac|t|es: ln keeplng wlLh Lhe
Lowards Lhose governmenL offlclals and pollLlclans
concepL of respecLlng culLure and LradlLlons, lL ls
LhaL are responslble for lmplemenLlng reform, by
cruclal Lo have programmes LhaL develop local
Lhe populaLlon of lA1A. 1hls evaluaLlon of Lhe lS
capaclLy Lo assume Lhe responslblllLles of local
and luA ls based on Lhe dlrecL experlences of
governance and effecLlve law enforcemenL, a
people belng excluded from maklng declslons and
developmenL LhaL would allow for a Lransfer from
monlLorlng Lhe managemenL of pro[ecLs LhaL are
archalc colonlal sLrucLures Lo conLemporary
supposed Lo be for Lhelr beneflL. ln noL
lnsLlLuLlons. Lxperlence lndlcaLes LhaL even ln Lhe
lncorporaLlng Lhe vlews of local populaLlons ln Lhe
mosL challenglng slLuaLlons quallfled local capaclLy
governmenL led lA1A SusLalnable uevelopmenL
has been able Lo negoLlaLe wlLh lnsurgenLs Lo
lan Lhe acLlvlLles are llkely Lo be lnsenslLlve Lo local
enable Lhe conLlnued lmplemenLaLlon of
dynamlcs and lgnoranL of communal asplraLlons.
programmes under cerLaln accepLablecondlLlons.
1hls ln parL, ls Lhe dlrecL resulL of conLlnued supporL
for Lhe archalc colonlal sLrucLures LhaL supporL Lhe
Commun|ty art|c|pat|on and 1r|ba| Invo|vement:
stotos poo.
As wlLh all developmenL lnLervenLlons, communlLy
parLlclpaLlon aL Lhe fleld level ls cruclal for soclal
1o reverse Lhls dlsconLenL and Lo ensure greaLer
change. uevelopmenL parLners musL ensure LhaL
efflclency of pro[ecL plannlng and lmplemenLaLlon,
communlLy aL large ls Laken lnLo confldence Lo
developmenL acLlvlLles musL seek Lo empower Lhe
beLLer ensure ownershlp of Lhe programme, and Lo
dlsenchanLed ln lA1A, so LhaL lssues concernlng
ald ln Lhe monlLorlng and evaluaLlon of Lhe
securlLy (ln boLh Lerms of 'freedom from fear' and
performance of Lhe leadershlp LhaL ls responslble
'freedom from wanL') and prosperlLy can be
for Lhe collecLlve prlorlLles esLabllshed ln Lhe
champloned. 1hls ouLcomewlll lmprove LrusL ln Lhe
proposed parLlclpaLory plannlng process.
governmenL, and lLs lnLernaLlonal parLners, whlle
Way Iorward
ClAPTER 9
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
149
Lhrough Lhe olosl jltqo. As compared Lo lC8 jltqo, Lo LheproLecLlon of human rlghLs
olosl jltqo ls wldely respecLed, LrusLed and - Lnsure LhaL, lf jltqo ls Lo conLlnue, LhaL a baslc
leglLlmlsed ln lA1A. A recenL CAM sLudy on Lhe codeof conducL beagreed and adhered Lo
jltqo sysLem [Understand|ng : Lega||ty and - LxLend Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe hlgher [udlclary
Leg|t|macy |n ak|stan's Iedera||y Adm|n|stered lnLo Lhe lA1A Lo proLecL Lhose LhaL feel
1r|ba| Areas'] esLabllshes Lhe facL LhaL more Lhan mlsLreaLed byLhejltqosysLem
70 lA1A populaLlon prefer olosl jltqo - ln - Conslder lnsLalllng a modern legal sysLem as ls
comparlson Lo [usL 12 of respondenLs LhaL LrusLed Lhecaseln oLher lokbtoodomlnaLed areas
28
lC8 jltqo. - LvaluaLe Lhe value of demands by some
parLlclpanLs for 5botlo law
lokbtoos have hlsLorlcally preferred jltqo Lo formal
[usLlce because: 1) lL ls conducLed by respecLed
elders wlLh esLabllshed soclal sLaLus and a
knowledge of valued local LradlLlons/values
Strengthen|ng the Iront|er Corps: 1here ls
29
(cusLomary law) repuLaLlons for pleLyand falrness,
lnLernaLlonal, naLlonal, and lmporLanLly local
2) lL dlspenses qulck [usLlce, 3) lL ls cheap, 4) lL ls
supporL for Lhe lronLler Corps, as a culLurally
consldered less suscepLlble Lo corrupLlon or blas,
represenLaLlve securlLy provlder LhaL ls able Lo
and, 3) lL has an elemenL of compensaLlon for Lhe
effecLlvely communlcaLe and empaLhlse wlLh Lhe
vlcLlm.
communl L l es L haL L hey are proLecL l ng.
ConsequenLly, Lhe recrulLmenL and Lralnlng of
AlLhough Lhe jltqo may be preferred for Lhe reasons
Lhese paramlllLarles should conLlnue wlLh Lhe
clLed above, lL ls devalued by varlous sysLemlc
medlum-Lerm goal LhaL Lhese men would become
weaknesses. lL ls of parLlcularly concern LhaL
local law-enforcemenL offlcers afLer Lhelr securlLy
lnLernaLlonally endorsed human rlghLs can be
role has ended, lL ls Lherefore, essenLlal LhaL plans
vlolaLed, especlally wlLh regard Lo women and
be developed for Lhelr fuLure so LhaL Lhey do noL
mlnorlLles, also, ln cases of murder, jltqo may
become a furLher source of mlllLancy or confllcL
30
recommend dlrecL vengeance or boJol, or swoto.
beLween Lrlbes.
lurLhermore, desplLe percepLlons of ob[ecLlvlLy (as
Lhe declslon maker ls nomlnaLed by boLh sldes)
1he fuLure developmenL of Lhe lronLler Corps as a
crlLlcs belleve LhaL declslons are made based on
convenLlonal law enforcemenL body could also be
changlng socleLal values raLher Lhan a falr and
preferable as Lhe aklsLan ollce ls noL a deslred
lmparLlal code of law. vlcLlms also lack Lhe
lnsLlLuLlon ln lA1A. lurLhermore, lL wlll enable
opporLunlLy Lo appeal as under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln
hlsLorlcal communlLy organlsaLlons Lo Lake on new
ArLlcle 247(7): Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe hlgher
poslLlve roles. 1he formaLlon of losbkots, could
[udlclary, LhaL ls Lo say Lhe provlnclal Plgh CourLs
perhaps, be re-focused on meeLlng humanlLarlan
and Lhe Supreme CourL, does noL exLend Lo Lhe
emergencles (e.g. 8ed CrescenL, emergency
lA1A.
rescue).
under lnLernaLlonal human rlghLs law, aklsLan ls
1o Lhls end, LheCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
obllgaLed Lo ensure LhaL, for all Lhose llvlng wlLhln
- lnsLlgaLe a revlew, ln con[uncLlon wlLh
lLs [urlsdlcLlon, Lhelr rlghLs are proLecLed.
communlLy represenLaLlves, of Lhe culLural role
ConsequenLly, Lhejltqolnfrlnges on Lhls.
played by and asplraLlons for Lhe lronLler
Corps, losbkots and kbosoJots
1o Lhls end, LheCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
- LvaluaLe Lhe poLenLlal law enforcemenL
- lully lmplemenL lLs responslblllLles wlLh regard
poLenLlal of Lhe lronLler Corps, and lf
Secur|ty
o||t|ca| reform
Lega| reforms - keform|ng
Powever, Lhese reforms cannoL be allowed Lo sLall,
as fundamenLal changes Lo admlnlsLraLlve sysLem
Cver a cenLury ago, Lhe hlghland lokbtoo Lrlbes of of lA1A (and lLs consLlLuLlonal sLaLus) need Lo be
lronLler [Loday's lA1A], represenLed by few mollks, debaLed and lmplemenLed. lL remalns, LhaL Lhe
slgned an agreemenL wlLh Lhe 8rlLlsh 8a[, whlch need for drasLlc changels absoluLe.
comprlsed Lhelr clvll llberLles on so called freedom
1o Lhls end, LheCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
Lo pracLlce Lhelr cusLoms and LradlLlons. 1hls
- lmplemenL Lhe lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon
arLlcle, served Lhe lnLeresLs of 8rlLlsh and a small
(lC8) (Amended) 2011 and ollLlcal arLles
number of mollks who were prlvlleged by Lhe
Crdlnance
8rlLlsh 8a[ Lhrough allowances. When aklsLan
- uebaLe necessary reforms Lo lA1A's
galned lndependence, and lnherlLed Lhe lA1A
admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLures and puL lnLo pracLlce
reglon, Lhe few prlvlleged mollks negoLlaLed Lhe
ldenLlfled developmenL opporLunlLles
reLenLlon of Lhelr prlvlleges.
- Lmpower communlLles Lo exerL greaLer
1he lssue of admlnlsLraLlve reforms, a process overslghL of local governance
necessary for lA1A Lo be ln a sLronger poslLlon Lo - Lnsure all elemenLs of socleLy are senslLlvely,
malnsLream lnLo aklsLan, has never been debaLed represenLed
properly ln parllamenL. LxLenslon of Lhe AdulL - Champlon pollLlcal educaLlon Lo lncrease LrusL
lranchlse AcL Lo lA1A ln 1996 was Lhe flrsL and beLLer enable communlLles Lo engage wlLh
leglslaLlve change Lo lA1A slnce Lhe lC8 was pollLlcal parLles
enacLed ln 1901. - Lnable opporLunlLles for peaceful campalgnlng
by dl sengaged and underrepresenLed
Slnce Lhe 'War on 1error' has focused lnLernaLlonal
communlLles, soclal groups and mlnorlLles
aLLenLlon on Lhe reglon, Lhe CovernmenL of
- use popular medla Lo sLlmulaLe debaLe wlLhln
aklsLan has been under lmmense pressure from
and beLween communlLles Lo promoLe greaLer
Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, as well as clvll socleLy
publlc monlLorlng and evaluaLlon of local
ln aklsLan, Lo brlng drasLlc governance reforms Lo
governancelnsLlLuLlons
Lhe confllcL-zones of lA1A. 1o lLs credlL, Lhe
CovernmenL of aklsLan led by Lhe aklsLan
eople's arLy has shown lLs commlLmenL when on
12Lh AugusL 2011Lhe resldenL of aklsLan, Mr. Aslf
Iltqo ls a LradlLlonal [usLlce sysLem LhaL has
All Zardarl, slgned Lwo regulaLlons l.e. 1) lC8
hlsLorlcallybeen pracLlced bylokbtoocommunlLles
(Amended) 2011 and 2) ollLlcal arLles Crdlnance
ln aklsLan and AfghanlsLan. under Lhe lronLler
for lA1A.
Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), Iltqo ls Lhe only formal
mechanlsm for dlspenslng [usLlce and resolvlng
1hese amendmenLs, once lmplemenLed, wlll help
confllcLs ln Lhe lA1A. Iltqo ln every day pracLlce
address several local grlevances and wlll also help ln
refers Lo a Lrlbal lnsLlLuLlon of declslon-maklng and
creaLlng a supporLlng envlronmenL for Lhe
dlspuLe seLLlemenL LhaL lncorporaLes Lhe prevalenL
sLakeholders Lo underLake developmenL and
local cusLomary law, lnsLlLuLlonal rlLuals and a body
confllcL resoluLlon lnlLlaLlves. 8esldes, pollLlcal
of vlllageelders whosecollecLlvedeclslon abouL Lhe
parLles wlll need Lo Lake greaLer conslderaLlon of
resoluLlon of a dlspuLe (or local problem) ls blndlng
Lhe asplraLlons of lA1A communlLles and engage ln
27
on LheparLles lnvolved.
campalgns LhaL wlll lnvolve local people, especlally
youLh, ln a producLlve way, reduclng space for Lhe
AL presenL, [usLlce dlspensaLlon servlces ln lA1A
mlllLanL groups Lo explolL Lhe already aggrleved
operaLe Lhrough Lwo sLrucLures: Lhe offlclal lC8
young.
jltqo and communlLy-based dlspuLe resoluLlon
27
All Wardak, unlverslLy of Clamorgan, uk, (2002 b). noLe: 1he ashLun/ukhLun [lrga sysLem ls almosL Lhe same on boLh sldes
of Lhe Afghan-aklsLan border.
28
'undersLandlng !lrga: LegallLy and LeglLlmacy ln aklsLan's lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas', by naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl,
ubllshed by CAM, !uly 2011 (www.camp.org.pk)
29
8ulldlng a osL-War !usLlce SysLem ln AfghanlsLan: All Wardak, unlverslLy of Clamorgan, uk.
30
Swara means marrlage of a woman from Lhe offender's famlly/Lrlbe Lo Lhe vlcLlm's close relaLlve wlLhouL her consenL
undersLandlng lA1A
1S0
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
1S1
Lhrough Lhe olosl jltqo. As compared Lo lC8 jltqo, Lo LheproLecLlon of human rlghLs
olosl jltqo ls wldely respecLed, LrusLed and - Lnsure LhaL, lf jltqo ls Lo conLlnue, LhaL a baslc
leglLlmlsed ln lA1A. A recenL CAM sLudy on Lhe codeof conducL beagreed and adhered Lo
jltqo sysLem [Understand|ng : Lega||ty and - LxLend Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe hlgher [udlclary
Leg|t|macy |n ak|stan's Iedera||y Adm|n|stered lnLo Lhe lA1A Lo proLecL Lhose LhaL feel
1r|ba| Areas'] esLabllshes Lhe facL LhaL more Lhan mlsLreaLed byLhejltqosysLem
70 lA1A populaLlon prefer olosl jltqo - ln - Conslder lnsLalllng a modern legal sysLem as ls
comparlson Lo [usL 12 of respondenLs LhaL LrusLed Lhecaseln oLher lokbtoodomlnaLed areas
28
lC8 jltqo. - LvaluaLe Lhe value of demands by some
parLlclpanLs for 5botlo law
lokbtoos have hlsLorlcally preferred jltqo Lo formal
[usLlce because: 1) lL ls conducLed by respecLed
elders wlLh esLabllshed soclal sLaLus and a
knowledge of valued local LradlLlons/values
Strengthen|ng the Iront|er Corps: 1here ls
29
(cusLomary law) repuLaLlons for pleLyand falrness,
lnLernaLlonal, naLlonal, and lmporLanLly local
2) lL dlspenses qulck [usLlce, 3) lL ls cheap, 4) lL ls
supporL for Lhe lronLler Corps, as a culLurally
consldered less suscepLlble Lo corrupLlon or blas,
represenLaLlve securlLy provlder LhaL ls able Lo
and, 3) lL has an elemenL of compensaLlon for Lhe
effecLlvely communlcaLe and empaLhlse wlLh Lhe
vlcLlm.
communl L l es L haL L hey are proLecL l ng.
ConsequenLly, Lhe recrulLmenL and Lralnlng of
AlLhough Lhe jltqo may be preferred for Lhe reasons
Lhese paramlllLarles should conLlnue wlLh Lhe
clLed above, lL ls devalued by varlous sysLemlc
medlum-Lerm goal LhaL Lhese men would become
weaknesses. lL ls of parLlcularly concern LhaL
local law-enforcemenL offlcers afLer Lhelr securlLy
lnLernaLlonally endorsed human rlghLs can be
role has ended, lL ls Lherefore, essenLlal LhaL plans
vlolaLed, especlally wlLh regard Lo women and
be developed for Lhelr fuLure so LhaL Lhey do noL
mlnorlLles, also, ln cases of murder, jltqo may
become a furLher source of mlllLancy or confllcL
30
recommend dlrecL vengeance or boJol, or swoto.
beLween Lrlbes.
lurLhermore, desplLe percepLlons of ob[ecLlvlLy (as
Lhe declslon maker ls nomlnaLed by boLh sldes)
1he fuLure developmenL of Lhe lronLler Corps as a
crlLlcs belleve LhaL declslons are made based on
convenLlonal law enforcemenL body could also be
changlng socleLal values raLher Lhan a falr and
preferable as Lhe aklsLan ollce ls noL a deslred
lmparLlal code of law. vlcLlms also lack Lhe
lnsLlLuLlon ln lA1A. lurLhermore, lL wlll enable
opporLunlLy Lo appeal as under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln
hlsLorlcal communlLy organlsaLlons Lo Lake on new
ArLlcle 247(7): Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe hlgher
poslLlve roles. 1he formaLlon of losbkots, could
[udlclary, LhaL ls Lo say Lhe provlnclal Plgh CourLs
perhaps, be re-focused on meeLlng humanlLarlan
and Lhe Supreme CourL, does noL exLend Lo Lhe
emergencles (e.g. 8ed CrescenL, emergency
lA1A.
rescue).
under lnLernaLlonal human rlghLs law, aklsLan ls
1o Lhls end, LheCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
obllgaLed Lo ensure LhaL, for all Lhose llvlng wlLhln
- lnsLlgaLe a revlew, ln con[uncLlon wlLh
lLs [urlsdlcLlon, Lhelr rlghLs are proLecLed.
communlLy represenLaLlves, of Lhe culLural role
ConsequenLly, Lhejltqolnfrlnges on Lhls.
played by and asplraLlons for Lhe lronLler
Corps, losbkots and kbosoJots
1o Lhls end, LheCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
- LvaluaLe Lhe poLenLlal law enforcemenL
- lully lmplemenL lLs responslblllLles wlLh regard
poLenLlal of Lhe lronLler Corps, and lf
Secur|ty
o||t|ca| reform
Lega| reforms - keform|ng
Powever, Lhese reforms cannoL be allowed Lo sLall,
as fundamenLal changes Lo admlnlsLraLlve sysLem
Cver a cenLury ago, Lhe hlghland lokbtoo Lrlbes of of lA1A (and lLs consLlLuLlonal sLaLus) need Lo be
lronLler [Loday's lA1A], represenLed by few mollks, debaLed and lmplemenLed. lL remalns, LhaL Lhe
slgned an agreemenL wlLh Lhe 8rlLlsh 8a[, whlch need for drasLlc changels absoluLe.
comprlsed Lhelr clvll llberLles on so called freedom
1o Lhls end, LheCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
Lo pracLlce Lhelr cusLoms and LradlLlons. 1hls
- lmplemenL Lhe lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon
arLlcle, served Lhe lnLeresLs of 8rlLlsh and a small
(lC8) (Amended) 2011 and ollLlcal arLles
number of mollks who were prlvlleged by Lhe
Crdlnance
8rlLlsh 8a[ Lhrough allowances. When aklsLan
- uebaLe necessary reforms Lo lA1A's
galned lndependence, and lnherlLed Lhe lA1A
admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLures and puL lnLo pracLlce
reglon, Lhe few prlvlleged mollks negoLlaLed Lhe
ldenLlfled developmenL opporLunlLles
reLenLlon of Lhelr prlvlleges.
- Lmpower communlLles Lo exerL greaLer
1he lssue of admlnlsLraLlve reforms, a process overslghL of local governance
necessary for lA1A Lo be ln a sLronger poslLlon Lo - Lnsure all elemenLs of socleLy are senslLlvely,
malnsLream lnLo aklsLan, has never been debaLed represenLed
properly ln parllamenL. LxLenslon of Lhe AdulL - Champlon pollLlcal educaLlon Lo lncrease LrusL
lranchlse AcL Lo lA1A ln 1996 was Lhe flrsL and beLLer enable communlLles Lo engage wlLh
leglslaLlve change Lo lA1A slnce Lhe lC8 was pollLlcal parLles
enacLed ln 1901. - Lnable opporLunlLles for peaceful campalgnlng
by dl sengaged and underrepresenLed
Slnce Lhe 'War on 1error' has focused lnLernaLlonal
communlLles, soclal groups and mlnorlLles
aLLenLlon on Lhe reglon, Lhe CovernmenL of
- use popular medla Lo sLlmulaLe debaLe wlLhln
aklsLan has been under lmmense pressure from
and beLween communlLles Lo promoLe greaLer
Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, as well as clvll socleLy
publlc monlLorlng and evaluaLlon of local
ln aklsLan, Lo brlng drasLlc governance reforms Lo
governancelnsLlLuLlons
Lhe confllcL-zones of lA1A. 1o lLs credlL, Lhe
CovernmenL of aklsLan led by Lhe aklsLan
eople's arLy has shown lLs commlLmenL when on
12Lh AugusL 2011Lhe resldenL of aklsLan, Mr. Aslf
Iltqo ls a LradlLlonal [usLlce sysLem LhaL has
All Zardarl, slgned Lwo regulaLlons l.e. 1) lC8
hlsLorlcallybeen pracLlced bylokbtoocommunlLles
(Amended) 2011 and 2) ollLlcal arLles Crdlnance
ln aklsLan and AfghanlsLan. under Lhe lronLler
for lA1A.
Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), Iltqo ls Lhe only formal
mechanlsm for dlspenslng [usLlce and resolvlng
1hese amendmenLs, once lmplemenLed, wlll help
confllcLs ln Lhe lA1A. Iltqo ln every day pracLlce
address several local grlevances and wlll also help ln
refers Lo a Lrlbal lnsLlLuLlon of declslon-maklng and
creaLlng a supporLlng envlronmenL for Lhe
dlspuLe seLLlemenL LhaL lncorporaLes Lhe prevalenL
sLakeholders Lo underLake developmenL and
local cusLomary law, lnsLlLuLlonal rlLuals and a body
confllcL resoluLlon lnlLlaLlves. 8esldes, pollLlcal
of vlllageelders whosecollecLlvedeclslon abouL Lhe
parLles wlll need Lo Lake greaLer conslderaLlon of
resoluLlon of a dlspuLe (or local problem) ls blndlng
Lhe asplraLlons of lA1A communlLles and engage ln
27
on LheparLles lnvolved.
campalgns LhaL wlll lnvolve local people, especlally
youLh, ln a producLlve way, reduclng space for Lhe
AL presenL, [usLlce dlspensaLlon servlces ln lA1A
mlllLanL groups Lo explolL Lhe already aggrleved
operaLe Lhrough Lwo sLrucLures: Lhe offlclal lC8
young.
jltqo and communlLy-based dlspuLe resoluLlon
27
All Wardak, unlverslLy of Clamorgan, uk, (2002 b). noLe: 1he ashLun/ukhLun [lrga sysLem ls almosL Lhe same on boLh sldes
of Lhe Afghan-aklsLan border.
28
'undersLandlng !lrga: LegallLy and LeglLlmacy ln aklsLan's lederally AdmlnlsLered 1rlbal Areas', by naveed Ahmad Shlnwarl,
ubllshed by CAM, !uly 2011 (www.camp.org.pk)
29
8ulldlng a osL-War !usLlce SysLem ln AfghanlsLan: All Wardak, unlverslLy of Clamorgan, uk.
30
Swara means marrlage of a woman from Lhe offender's famlly/Lrlbe Lo Lhe vlcLlm's close relaLlve wlLhouL her consenL
undersLandlng lA1A
1S0
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
1S1
areas, and Lhen by exLenslon lA1A as a whole. Cne
of Lhe poLenLlal slde effecLs of Lhls sLraLegy may be
Lhe poLenLlal Lo develop Lools LhaL would enable
cl oser bl - l aLeral rel aLl ons beLween Lhe
CovernmenLs of aklsLan and AfghanlsLan.
AnoLher Lheme of Lhls chapLer has been Lhe need
for developmenL sLraLegles and Lhe sLrengLhenlng
of Lhe lronLler Corps, as parL of efforLs Lo counLer
Lhe lnsurgency. Moreover, Lhe governmenL musL
ensure LhaL non-combaLanLs are beLLer proLecLed
from excesslve force from Lhe mlllLary Lo counLer
Lhe lnsurgency. ConsequenLly, mlllLary operaLlons
musL be dellberaLely calculaLed, wlLh long-Lerm
galns belng prlorlLlsed over shorL-Lerm expedlency
(a poLenLlal cause of dlsaffecLlon and soclal and
pollLlcal hosLlllLy).
1he 'Way lorward' may be our concludlng chapLer,
buL lL should be Lhe beglnnlng of a new chapLer ln
aklsLan, Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, and, mosL
lmporLanLly, for Lhe lokbtoo on boLh sldes of Lhe
border.
appllcable prepare Lralnlng mechanlsms for Af ghanl s L an L o l mpr ove ec onoml c
Lhls role oppor L unl L l es among and beL ween
- repare pollcles for elLher lnLegraLlon of communlLles
lronLler Corps lnLo formal securlLy secLor or - Work wlLh AfghanlsLan parLners Lo lmprove
relnLegraLlon lnLo clvlllan llfe poslLlvepollLlcal educaLlon
- SupporL lmproved clvll socleLy co-operaLlon Lo
M|||tary strateg|es and tact|cs: As we have seen ln
ald ln acLlvlLles such as Lhe educaLlon of Lhe
Lhe survey daLa, Lhe lA1A populaLlon supporLs role
lA1A populaLlon Lo beLLer reduce Lhe efflcacy of
and efforLs of Lhe aklsLan Army Lo combaL
Afghan and aklsLanl 1allban
mlllLancy ln lA1A buL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
musL:
- l nvesLl gaLe how excessl ve force has
exacerbaLed lnLernal dlsplacemenL and Lhe
1he 'Way lorward' provldes a subsLanLlal agenda
desLrucLlon of properLy
for addresslng LhedevelopmenL, law and order, and
- LvaluaLe Lhe role lnLernaLlonal ald can play ln
lnLernaLlonal lssues ldenLlfled by Lhe people of
lmprovlng mlllLary efflclency and capaclLy,
lA1A. lmporLanLly, based on Lhe culLural foundaLlon
whlle remalnlng senslLlve Lo local aLLlLudes Lo
of Lhe lokbtoo, Lhe proposed 'Way lorward'
exLernal lnLervenLlon
lncludes a meLhodology for Lhe effecLlve
- Analyse Lhe value of drones ln Lhe 'War on
engagemenL of governmenL wlLh Lhe people of
1error'
lA1A, ln formulaLlng a lasLlng soluLlon Lo archalc
governancesLrucLures.
1he agenda proposed ls a grand pro[ecL LhaL,
ln boLh lA1A and AfghanlsLan subsLanLlal unforLunaLely, does noL have any shorL cuLs for
lnLernaLlonal and naLlonal commlLmenLs havebeen success. As descrlbed, lL wlll requlre bold sLeps on
underLaken regardlng developmenL. Slmllar soclal Lhe parL of Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan,
and economlc condlLlons presenL on boLh sldes of accompanled by dedlcaLed and unwaverlng
Lhe border, enable ([usL as LhaL whlch has occurred supporL from Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, as well
wlLh securlLy) Lhe poLenLlal for co-ordlnaLed as Lhe commlLmenL of Lrlbal culLures Lo relax Lhelr
acLlvlLles. AL presenL, Lhe dlslocaLlon of acLlvlLles long-held LradlLlons.
has led Lo somelncldenLs of resenLmenL.
lL ls clear from Lhe oplnlons expressed LhaL
lurLhermore, Lhe economles of aklsLan and 'engagemenL' of Lhepeoplels deslred. 1heplaLform
AfghanlsLan have ofLen beneflLLed from lnformal for LhaL engagemenL should be devoluLlon ln Lhree
Lrade relaLlons: Lherefore, where securlLy permlLs, key areas: 1) governance, 2) Lhe rule of law, and 3)
a more co-operaLlve border would provlde greaLer sLrengLhenlng of lA1A securlLy mechanlsms. 1he
opporLunlLles for LhecommunlLles of boLh lA1A and flrsL recommendaLlon would requlre radlcal change
AfghanlsLan. ln Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL, because, ln lLs place Lhe
recommendaLlon ls for elecLed leadershlp and
1o Lhls end, 1heCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
publlcly accounLable local admlnlsLraLlon
- Seek Lo faclllLaLe, where approprlaLe, greaLer
lnfrasLrucLure. As descrlbed and polnLed ouL ln Lhe
co- ordl naL l on of acL l vl L l es beL ween
reporL, Lhe second and Lhlrd key areas are
communlLles ln lA1A and AfghanlsLan, Lhrough
lmporLanL culLurally and are respecLed local
represenLaLlve and accounLable bl-laLeral clvll
lnsLlLuLlons.
commlsslons, Lo lmprove Lhe senslLlvlLy of
developmenL pro[ecLs ln keeplng wlLh Lhe hlsLorlcal analysls and Lhe
- Conslder, ln consulLaLlon wlLh Lrlbal sLrucLures, sLraLeglc role LhaL Lhe cross border LransporLaLlon
lmplemenLaLlon of developmenL corrldors, rouLes can, and do play ln Lhe buslness and
across Lheborder employmenL of Lhe people of lA1A, developmenL
- lmprove Lrade rouLes beLween lA1A and corrldors may sLlmulaLe Lhe economy of border
Conc|us|on
Cross-border so||dar|ty
undersLandlng lA1A
1S2
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
1S3
areas, and Lhen by exLenslon lA1A as a whole. Cne
of Lhe poLenLlal slde effecLs of Lhls sLraLegy may be
Lhe poLenLlal Lo develop Lools LhaL would enable
cl oser bl - l aLeral rel aLl ons beLween Lhe
CovernmenLs of aklsLan and AfghanlsLan.
AnoLher Lheme of Lhls chapLer has been Lhe need
for developmenL sLraLegles and Lhe sLrengLhenlng
of Lhe lronLler Corps, as parL of efforLs Lo counLer
Lhe lnsurgency. Moreover, Lhe governmenL musL
ensure LhaL non-combaLanLs are beLLer proLecLed
from excesslve force from Lhe mlllLary Lo counLer
Lhe lnsurgency. ConsequenLly, mlllLary operaLlons
musL be dellberaLely calculaLed, wlLh long-Lerm
galns belng prlorlLlsed over shorL-Lerm expedlency
(a poLenLlal cause of dlsaffecLlon and soclal and
pollLlcal hosLlllLy).
1he 'Way lorward' may be our concludlng chapLer,
buL lL should be Lhe beglnnlng of a new chapLer ln
aklsLan, Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, and, mosL
lmporLanLly, for Lhe lokbtoo on boLh sldes of Lhe
border.
appllcable prepare Lralnlng mechanlsms for Af ghanl s L an L o l mpr ove ec onoml c
Lhls role oppor L unl L l es among and beL ween
- repare pollcles for elLher lnLegraLlon of communlLles
lronLler Corps lnLo formal securlLy secLor or - Work wlLh AfghanlsLan parLners Lo lmprove
relnLegraLlon lnLo clvlllan llfe poslLlvepollLlcal educaLlon
- SupporL lmproved clvll socleLy co-operaLlon Lo
M|||tary strateg|es and tact|cs: As we have seen ln
ald ln acLlvlLles such as Lhe educaLlon of Lhe
Lhe survey daLa, Lhe lA1A populaLlon supporLs role
lA1A populaLlon Lo beLLer reduce Lhe efflcacy of
and efforLs of Lhe aklsLan Army Lo combaL
Afghan and aklsLanl 1allban
mlllLancy ln lA1A buL Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan
musL:
- l nvesLl gaLe how excessl ve force has
exacerbaLed lnLernal dlsplacemenL and Lhe
1he 'Way lorward' provldes a subsLanLlal agenda
desLrucLlon of properLy
for addresslng LhedevelopmenL, law and order, and
- LvaluaLe Lhe role lnLernaLlonal ald can play ln
lnLernaLlonal lssues ldenLlfled by Lhe people of
lmprovlng mlllLary efflclency and capaclLy,
lA1A. lmporLanLly, based on Lhe culLural foundaLlon
whlle remalnlng senslLlve Lo local aLLlLudes Lo
of Lhe lokbtoo, Lhe proposed 'Way lorward'
exLernal lnLervenLlon
lncludes a meLhodology for Lhe effecLlve
- Analyse Lhe value of drones ln Lhe 'War on
engagemenL of governmenL wlLh Lhe people of
1error'
lA1A, ln formulaLlng a lasLlng soluLlon Lo archalc
governancesLrucLures.
1he agenda proposed ls a grand pro[ecL LhaL,
ln boLh lA1A and AfghanlsLan subsLanLlal unforLunaLely, does noL have any shorL cuLs for
lnLernaLlonal and naLlonal commlLmenLs havebeen success. As descrlbed, lL wlll requlre bold sLeps on
underLaken regardlng developmenL. Slmllar soclal Lhe parL of Lhe CovernmenL of aklsLan,
and economlc condlLlons presenL on boLh sldes of accompanled by dedlcaLed and unwaverlng
Lhe border, enable ([usL as LhaL whlch has occurred supporL from Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, as well
wlLh securlLy) Lhe poLenLlal for co-ordlnaLed as Lhe commlLmenL of Lrlbal culLures Lo relax Lhelr
acLlvlLles. AL presenL, Lhe dlslocaLlon of acLlvlLles long-held LradlLlons.
has led Lo somelncldenLs of resenLmenL.
lL ls clear from Lhe oplnlons expressed LhaL
lurLhermore, Lhe economles of aklsLan and 'engagemenL' of Lhepeoplels deslred. 1heplaLform
AfghanlsLan have ofLen beneflLLed from lnformal for LhaL engagemenL should be devoluLlon ln Lhree
Lrade relaLlons: Lherefore, where securlLy permlLs, key areas: 1) governance, 2) Lhe rule of law, and 3)
a more co-operaLlve border would provlde greaLer sLrengLhenlng of lA1A securlLy mechanlsms. 1he
opporLunlLles for LhecommunlLles of boLh lA1A and flrsL recommendaLlon would requlre radlcal change
AfghanlsLan. ln Lhe lA1A SecreLarlaL, because, ln lLs place Lhe
recommendaLlon ls for elecLed leadershlp and
1o Lhls end, 1heCovernmenL of aklsLan musL:
publlcly accounLable local admlnlsLraLlon
- Seek Lo faclllLaLe, where approprlaLe, greaLer
lnfrasLrucLure. As descrlbed and polnLed ouL ln Lhe
co- ordl naL l on of acL l vl L l es beL ween
reporL, Lhe second and Lhlrd key areas are
communlLles ln lA1A and AfghanlsLan, Lhrough
lmporLanL culLurally and are respecLed local
represenLaLlve and accounLable bl-laLeral clvll
lnsLlLuLlons.
commlsslons, Lo lmprove Lhe senslLlvlLy of
developmenL pro[ecLs ln keeplng wlLh Lhe hlsLorlcal analysls and Lhe
- Conslder, ln consulLaLlon wlLh Lrlbal sLrucLures, sLraLeglc role LhaL Lhe cross border LransporLaLlon
lmplemenLaLlon of developmenL corrldors, rouLes can, and do play ln Lhe buslness and
across Lheborder employmenL of Lhe people of lA1A, developmenL
- lmprove Lrade rouLes beLween lA1A and corrldors may sLlmulaLe Lhe economy of border
Conc|us|on
Cross-border so||dar|ty
undersLandlng lA1A
1S2
ChapLer 9: Way lorward
1S3
Appendlxes
1SS

1hls research reporL ls based on boLh quallLaLlve seeklng Lhls equal dlvlslon of oplnlons Lhe survey
and quanLlLaLlve daLa. SupporLlng maLerlal was soughL Lo address Lhe culLural Lendency of
used, where approprlaLe, from desk-based marglnallzlng women.
research of publlshed sLudles, newspapers arLlcles
and Lhe hl sLorl cal experl ences of CAM
programmes.
CuallLaLlve lnformaLlon was gaLhered from
Iocus-groupd|scuss|ons (IGDs) elghLeen focus-group dlscusslons. MlnuLes were
1he organlslng of focus groups, as a quallLaLlve recorded and analysed, before belng conLrasLed
research Lool, ls a helpful means of documenLlng wlLh Lhe daLa recorded ln Lhe quanLlLaLlve
Lhe vlews of locally-respecLed lnformanLs. All quesLlonnalre.
secLlons of Lhe lA1A socleLy were lncluded ln Lhese
CuanLlLaLlve daLa was collecLed Lhrough Lhe use of
dlscusslons: wlLh parLlclpanLs chosen ln order Lo
a sLrucLured quesLlonnalre. 1he ob[ecLlve of Lhls
provlde a dlverslLy of pollLlcal, soclal, Lechnlcal and
process ls Lo sample boLh adulL males and females
rellglous backgrounds.
Lo record Lhelr percepLlons of key lssues relaLed Lo
lCus were deslgned Lo provlde a forum for Lhelr llves ln lA1A. As gender plays such an
lnformanLs Lo express Lhelr polnLs-of-vlew, ln order lmporLanL role ln publlc oplnlon, Lhe sample was
Lo represenL and explaln key perspecLlves on Lhe deslgned Lo lnLervlew equal numbers of males and
dlfferenL lssues relaLed Lo Lhe lA1A reglon. A LoLal females ln each communlLy, Lhls was Lhe case
of 18 lCus were held, and aLLended by an average regardless of Lhe posslblllLles of Lrlbal areas havlng
of nlnelocal represenLaLlves, as follows: sllghLly unequal populaLlons of males and females
due Lo seasonal mlgraLlon and emlgraLlon. ln
kesearchMethods andInstruments
I. ua||tat|ve
APPEN0lX l
kesearch Methodo|ogy and Samp|e |an
Iramework M.1
Appendlx l: 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan
1S7
1hls research reporL ls based on boLh quallLaLlve seeklng Lhls equal dlvlslon of oplnlons Lhe survey
and quanLlLaLlve daLa. SupporLlng maLerlal was soughL Lo address Lhe culLural Lendency of
used, where approprlaLe, from desk-based marglnallzlng women.
research of publlshed sLudles, newspapers arLlcles
and Lhe hl sLorl cal experl ences of CAM
programmes.
CuallLaLlve lnformaLlon was gaLhered from
Iocus-groupd|scuss|ons (IGDs) elghLeen focus-group dlscusslons. MlnuLes were
1he organlslng of focus groups, as a quallLaLlve recorded and analysed, before belng conLrasLed
research Lool, ls a helpful means of documenLlng wlLh Lhe daLa recorded ln Lhe quanLlLaLlve
Lhe vlews of locally-respecLed lnformanLs. All quesLlonnalre.
secLlons of Lhe lA1A socleLy were lncluded ln Lhese
CuanLlLaLlve daLa was collecLed Lhrough Lhe use of
dlscusslons: wlLh parLlclpanLs chosen ln order Lo
a sLrucLured quesLlonnalre. 1he ob[ecLlve of Lhls
provlde a dlverslLy of pollLlcal, soclal, Lechnlcal and
process ls Lo sample boLh adulL males and females
rellglous backgrounds.
Lo record Lhelr percepLlons of key lssues relaLed Lo
lCus were deslgned Lo provlde a forum for Lhelr llves ln lA1A. As gender plays such an
lnformanLs Lo express Lhelr polnLs-of-vlew, ln order lmporLanL role ln publlc oplnlon, Lhe sample was
Lo represenL and explaln key perspecLlves on Lhe deslgned Lo lnLervlew equal numbers of males and
dlfferenL lssues relaLed Lo Lhe lA1A reglon. A LoLal females ln each communlLy, Lhls was Lhe case
of 18 lCus were held, and aLLended by an average regardless of Lhe posslblllLles of Lrlbal areas havlng
of nlnelocal represenLaLlves, as follows: sllghLly unequal populaLlons of males and females
due Lo seasonal mlgraLlon and emlgraLlon. ln
kesearchMethods andInstruments
I. ua||tat|ve
APPEN0lX l
kesearch Methodo|ogy and Samp|e |an
Iramework M.1
Appendlx l: 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan
1S7
1he themes d|scussed |nc|uded: Lhe consLlLuLlonal SLraLlfled Sampllng MeLhod (SSM) Lo ensure Lhe
sLaLus of lA1A, lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), mosL represenLaLlvesample. Cneof LheadvanLages
resldenLlal Crdlnances/regulaLlons and Lhelr of quanLlLaLlve sampllng ls LhaL a small proporLlon
lmpacL on Lhe governance sysLems of lA1A, presenL of people can be used Lo make assumpLlons for
soclal, pollLlcal, economlc and admlnlsLraLlve communlLles as awhole. lramework M.2shows Lhe
sLrucLures, pace of devel opmenL, l ocal resulLanL sampleslzebyarea:
opporLunlLles for conLrlbuLlng Lo developmenL
Marg|n of Lrror: 1he esLlmaLed margln of error for
acLlvlLles, law and order ln lA1A, governmenLal
Lhls survey - based on slngle quesLlons of a '?es/no'
declslons ln a posL-9/11 conLexL, Lhe crackdown on
for Lhe'peopleof lA1A' as awhole- ls approxlmaLely
mlllLanL groups ln lA1A and SwaL, uS drone aLLacks
1.3, equalllng a 93 confldence level. 1haL ls, lf a
ln lA1A and Lhelr lmpacL, and Lhe lncluslon of
random sample were Laken 100 Llmes, ln 93 cases
women ln declslon-maklng.
Lhe expecLaLlon would be LhaL dlfferences ln
answers would be plus or mlnus less Lhan 1.3.
Powever, aL Lhe local level (l.e. looklng aL a speclflc
l n addl Ll on Lo havl ng a wel l -sLrucLured
agency or fronLler reglon) Lhen Lhe margln of error
quesLlonnalre, successful soclal research requlres a
lncreases because lL wlll comprlse a smaller
senslLlve sampllng framework: one LhaL ls
proporLlonal sampleslze.
manageable and poslLlvely represenLaLlve. Cverall,
Lhe quanLlLaLlve survey almed Lo sample all of lA1A
31
wlLh only a mlnlmal margln for error. lL was
consldered LhaL for an area wlLh an esLlmaLed
Access|b|||ty
32
populaLlon of four mllllon a sample of 4,000
AL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhls pro[ecL CAM evaluaLed
peoplewas necessary.
lnformaLlon on Lhe accesslblllLy of areas wlLhln
lA1A resulLlng ln a llsL of vlllages, Lowns and Lehslls
Accordlngly, 3,480 people were selecLed from Lhe 7
LhaL were consldered unreachable because of any
Agencles of lA1A, Lhe remalnder belng Laken from
of Lhe followlng concerns: securlLy, governmenLal
Lhe 6 fronLler reglons, uslng a roporLlonaLe
II. uant|tat|ve
Samp||ng |anandI|e|dImp|ementat|on
31
1he deslred margln of error for Lhe whole of lA1A was less Lhan 2 buL lL ls acknowledged LhaL ln areas of smaller sample slze
Lhen Lhe margln of error may exceed Lhls.
32
As Lhere ls no up-Lo-daLa daLa for lA1A, Lhls flgure ls based on Lhe 1998 census.
undersLandlng lA1A
1S8
lmposed curfew and/or exLreme weaLher lA1A was llmlLed because of dlfferenL concerns.
condlLlons. ln LoLal, 403 locaLlons (42) ln lA1A 1hls, lL musL be acknowledged, lnevlLably llmlLs
were consldered ouL-of-reach of Lhe survey Leam. percepLlons recorded Lo more peaceful areas ln
Cf Lhe remalnlng 337 populaLlon cenLres, 400 were each Agency and lA1A ln general. 1hls omlsslon
sampled. may well have affecLed Lhe flndlngs conLalned
wlLhln Lhe survey, for, as seen by Lhe percepLlons of
1hese 400 locaLlons were selecLed uslng a Lwo-
Lhose who had been vlcLlms of lnLernal
sLage process. llrsLly, CAM randomly selecLed a
dlsplacemenL and Lhose who had noL, dlfferences
sample of accesslble Lehslls, wlLhln whlch Lhe 400
can arlsebecauseof llfeexperlences.
vlllages/Lowns were lndlscrlmlnaLely selecLed
durlng Lhesecond sLage. Asldefrom whaL could bedlscerned from areas LhaL
have suffered slmllar lnsecurlLy Lo Lhose areas LhaL
A LoLal of 10 lnLervlews were conducLed ln each
remaln closed Lo Lhesurvey Leam, lL ls noL clear how
locaLlon, wlLh half of Lhe respondenLs represenLlng
Lhese 42of Lhe approxlmaLely 690 vlllages ln lA1A
male perspecLlves and Lhe oLher female. ln keeplng
would have percelved dlfferenL sub[ecLs ln lA1A.
wlLh local culLure: female enumeraLors lnLervlewed
WhaL ls known ls LhaL parLlclpanLs from Lhese
women, and maleenumeraLors lnLervlewed men.
largely rural areas would have (lf lncluded) changed
Lhe demographlc and culLural perspecLlves of Lhe
1he resulLlng quanLlLaLlve research sLrucLure ls
survey.
shown ln lrameworkM.3:
1hls omlsslon of lnsecure locaLlons should noL
L|m|tat|ons because of |naccess|b|||ty: As
reduceLhevalueof Lheflndlngs for declslon-makers
prevlously noLed, access Lo all populaLlon cenLres ln
Iramework M.2
Appendlx l: 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan
1S9
1he themes d|scussed |nc|uded: Lhe consLlLuLlonal SLraLlfled Sampllng MeLhod (SSM) Lo ensure Lhe
sLaLus of lA1A, lronLler Crlmes 8egulaLlon (lC8), mosL represenLaLlvesample. Cneof LheadvanLages
resldenLlal Crdlnances/regulaLlons and Lhelr of quanLlLaLlve sampllng ls LhaL a small proporLlon
lmpacL on Lhe governance sysLems of lA1A, presenL of people can be used Lo make assumpLlons for
soclal, pollLlcal, economlc and admlnlsLraLlve communlLles as awhole. lramework M.2shows Lhe
sLrucLures, pace of devel opmenL, l ocal resulLanL sampleslzebyarea:
opporLunlLles for conLrlbuLlng Lo developmenL
Marg|n of Lrror: 1he esLlmaLed margln of error for
acLlvlLles, law and order ln lA1A, governmenLal
Lhls survey - based on slngle quesLlons of a '?es/no'
declslons ln a posL-9/11 conLexL, Lhe crackdown on
for Lhe'peopleof lA1A' as awhole- ls approxlmaLely
mlllLanL groups ln lA1A and SwaL, uS drone aLLacks
1.3, equalllng a 93 confldence level. 1haL ls, lf a
ln lA1A and Lhelr lmpacL, and Lhe lncluslon of
random sample were Laken 100 Llmes, ln 93 cases
women ln declslon-maklng.
Lhe expecLaLlon would be LhaL dlfferences ln
answers would be plus or mlnus less Lhan 1.3.
Powever, aL Lhe local level (l.e. looklng aL a speclflc
l n addl Ll on Lo havl ng a wel l -sLrucLured
agency or fronLler reglon) Lhen Lhe margln of error
quesLlonnalre, successful soclal research requlres a
lncreases because lL wlll comprlse a smaller
senslLlve sampllng framework: one LhaL ls
proporLlonal sampleslze.
manageable and poslLlvely represenLaLlve. Cverall,
Lhe quanLlLaLlve survey almed Lo sample all of lA1A
31
wlLh only a mlnlmal margln for error. lL was
consldered LhaL for an area wlLh an esLlmaLed
Access|b|||ty
32
populaLlon of four mllllon a sample of 4,000
AL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhls pro[ecL CAM evaluaLed
peoplewas necessary.
lnformaLlon on Lhe accesslblllLy of areas wlLhln
lA1A resulLlng ln a llsL of vlllages, Lowns and Lehslls
Accordlngly, 3,480 people were selecLed from Lhe 7
LhaL were consldered unreachable because of any
Agencles of lA1A, Lhe remalnder belng Laken from
of Lhe followlng concerns: securlLy, governmenLal
Lhe 6 fronLler reglons, uslng a roporLlonaLe
II. uant|tat|ve
Samp||ng |anandI|e|dImp|ementat|on
31
1he deslred margln of error for Lhe whole of lA1A was less Lhan 2 buL lL ls acknowledged LhaL ln areas of smaller sample slze
Lhen Lhe margln of error may exceed Lhls.
32
As Lhere ls no up-Lo-daLa daLa for lA1A, Lhls flgure ls based on Lhe 1998 census.
undersLandlng lA1A
1S8
lmposed curfew and/or exLreme weaLher lA1A was llmlLed because of dlfferenL concerns.
condlLlons. ln LoLal, 403 locaLlons (42) ln lA1A 1hls, lL musL be acknowledged, lnevlLably llmlLs
were consldered ouL-of-reach of Lhe survey Leam. percepLlons recorded Lo more peaceful areas ln
Cf Lhe remalnlng 337 populaLlon cenLres, 400 were each Agency and lA1A ln general. 1hls omlsslon
sampled. may well have affecLed Lhe flndlngs conLalned
wlLhln Lhe survey, for, as seen by Lhe percepLlons of
1hese 400 locaLlons were selecLed uslng a Lwo-
Lhose who had been vlcLlms of lnLernal
sLage process. llrsLly, CAM randomly selecLed a
dlsplacemenL and Lhose who had noL, dlfferences
sample of accesslble Lehslls, wlLhln whlch Lhe 400
can arlsebecauseof llfeexperlences.
vlllages/Lowns were lndlscrlmlnaLely selecLed
durlng Lhesecond sLage. Asldefrom whaL could bedlscerned from areas LhaL
have suffered slmllar lnsecurlLy Lo Lhose areas LhaL
A LoLal of 10 lnLervlews were conducLed ln each
remaln closed Lo Lhesurvey Leam, lL ls noL clear how
locaLlon, wlLh half of Lhe respondenLs represenLlng
Lhese 42of Lhe approxlmaLely 690 vlllages ln lA1A
male perspecLlves and Lhe oLher female. ln keeplng
would have percelved dlfferenL sub[ecLs ln lA1A.
wlLh local culLure: female enumeraLors lnLervlewed
WhaL ls known ls LhaL parLlclpanLs from Lhese
women, and maleenumeraLors lnLervlewed men.
largely rural areas would have (lf lncluded) changed
Lhe demographlc and culLural perspecLlves of Lhe
1he resulLlng quanLlLaLlve research sLrucLure ls
survey.
shown ln lrameworkM.3:
1hls omlsslon of lnsecure locaLlons should noL
L|m|tat|ons because of |naccess|b|||ty: As
reduceLhevalueof Lheflndlngs for declslon-makers
prevlously noLed, access Lo all populaLlon cenLres ln
Iramework M.2
Appendlx l: 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan
1S9
and key sLakeholders, as Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed on Lhelr conLacL sheeL.
ls sLlll very lllusLraLlve of Lhe LhoughLs and feellngs
L|m|tat|ons |n us|ng the 'start|ng po|nt'
of a slgnlflcanL number of people ln lA1A.
methodo|ogy: 1he sLarLlng polnLs ln each vlllage
ConsequenLly, Lhey should sLlll be used as a gulde
were local landmarks, from whlch enumeraLors
on LhedlrecLlon of amorepeaceful Lrlbal arealn Lhe
would lnLervlew respondenLs by LargeLlng Lhose
fuLure.
behlnd every Lhlrd door or compound. 1hls
approach, lL musL be noLed, creaLed blas ln Lhe
sample Lowards Lhe cenLre of each locaLlon,
WlLhln each selecLed locaLlon enumeraLors were
resldenLs ln Lhese urban areas are more Lyplcally
dlvlded lnLo four areas (l.e. Lwo for male
wealLhy, educaLed and/or from more esLabllshed
enumeraLors and Lwo for female enumeraLors)
famllles. 1hls reallLy ls llkely Lo have lnfluenced Lhe
from whlch elLher Lwo or Lhree lnLervlews were
flndlngs of Lhe survey as percepLlons are llkely Lo
conducLed (comprlslng a LoLal of flve men and flve
have been lnfluenced by experlences wlLhln Lhls
women). ln each area, lnLervlewees were LargeLed
env l r onmenL : a l s o l L may pr ov l de a
around slgnlflcanL local landmarks (or 'sLarLlng
dlsproporLlonaLesampleof llLeracy levels, access Lo
polnLs'), such as: bojto of a promlnenL Mollk,
medla and educaLlonal sLaLus Lhan mlghL oLherwlse
mosques, lmom 8otqob ln Shla communlLles,
havebeen expecLed ln lA1A.
successful shops, schools and hosplLals.
Agaln, Lhls llmlLaLlon should noL dlmlnlsh Lhe value
lrom Lhese areas lnLervlewees were selecLed
of Lhe daLa presenLed, as Lhe asplraLlons of Lhose
randomly, wlLh male enumeraLors selecLlng
lnLervlewed sLlll poslLlvely reveal Lhe developmenL
unknown households from one slde and female
Lrends deslred by a subsLanLlal proporLlon of Lhe
enumeraLors selecLlng unknown households on Lhe
lA1A populaLlon, and also reveals how Lhe lnLeresLs
oLher. ln areas where Lhls rule could noL be properly
of 'ellLes' ln socleLy may lmpacL on Lhe fuLure
applled, enumeraLors made noLe of Lhls dlfflculLy
Se|ect|onof |nterv|ewees
Iramework M.3
undersLandlng lA1A
160
dlrecLlon of llfe ln Lhe Lrlbal areas, ouLcomes LhaL lncorporaLed boLh open and closed response
wlll affecL Lhereglon as a whole, regardless of sLaLus quesLlons, repllcaLlng Lhose used ln 2008, 2009 and
or geographlcal locaLlon. 2010, wlLh some new quesLlons for Lhe year 2011
survey.
Methodof respondent se|ect|on
rlor Lo conducLlng an lnLervlew, Lhe enumeraLors
ensured LhaL poLenLlal respondenLs wereaL leasL 18 rlor Lo Lhe commencemenL of Lhe survey, CAM
years old, lndlgenous Lo lA1A and LhaL Lhey were LnumeraLors were Lralned by lndependenL
from Lhe locaLlon under lnvesLlgaLlon. LnumeraLors consulLanLs, under Lhe supervlslon of CAM senlor
also ensured LhaL lnLervlewees had noL parLlclpaLed managemenL, on Lhe quesLlonnalre meLhodology
ln any survey durlng Lheslx monLhs prlor Lo LhedaLe and on securlLy. 1hls process was accompanled by a
of quesLlonlng. pre-LesLlng of LhequesLlonnalre.
1he klsh-grld meLhodology was used for selecLlng re-LesLlng almed Lo:
respondenLs from wlLhln a sampled house, lf - ueLermlneLheLlmelengLh of LhelnLervlew
33
appllcable. lf Lhe selecLed respondenL was - CheckquesLlonnalreconLenL
unavallable a 'subsLlLuLe' could be lnLervlewed - CheckLhesklpplng and codlng paLLerns
uslng apredeflned rule. - CorrecL and lmproveLranslaLlon
lL ls belleved LhaL Lhls sampllng meLhod provldes a re-LesLs were conducLed wlLh Lhe supporL of adulL
robusL quanLlLaLlve survey wlLh only llmlLed margln aklsLanl males and females, aged 18 and over, ln
of error, buL wlLh somecaveaLs as deflned above. suburbs of eshawar on 4 !uly 2011. 1he average
Llme of each lnLervlew, durlng Lhese pre-LesLs, was
33 mlnuLes: wlLh Lhe mlnlmum Llme Laken belng 43
1he quesLlonnalre used for Lhls 2011 survey
mlnuLes and Lhemaxlmum belng 63mlnuLes.
uest|onna|re
Interv|ewer tra|n|ng
8ox M.1
Some alLeraLlons Lo selecLed survey locaLlons had Lo be underLaken durlng Lhe conducLlng of Lhe
research. 1hese are summarlsed below:
- ln 8a[aur, Lhe survey Leam were unable Lo access Mamund 1ehsll because of cross-border aLLacks
on securlLy forces. ln consulLaLlon wlLh CAM's Survey ManagemenL, enumeraLors changed
focus Lo alLernaLlve vlllages ln 8a[aur.
- MlllLary operaLlon ln CenLral kurram prevenLed Lhe survey Leam from accesslng Lhe local
populaLlon of Lhe lnLended sample vlllage. CAM's Survey ManagemenL advlsed enumeraLors Lo
seek relevanL parLlclpanLs from lu camps locaLed ln Lower kurram.
- 1he survey Leam was unable Lo access Lhe Mehsud areas of SouLh WazlrlsLan because of Lhe
lnLernal dlsplacemenL of Lhe local communlLy followlng mlllLary operaLlon: whlch sLarLed ln
2009.
- Cngolng drone aLLacks ln norLh WazlrlsLan also llmlLed acLlvlLles as Lhe survey Leam felL unable
Lo Lake all Lhelr equlpmenL for fear LhaL local communlLles may mlsLake Lhem for uS sples.
33
klsh-grld ls a form of equal probablllLy sampllng LhaL follows a seL of proLocols where poLenLlal lnLervlewees are llsLed by Lhe
enumeraLor, for example accordlng Lo Lhelr age, and Lhen selecLed by a predeflned rule.
Appendlx l: 8esearch MeLhodology and Sample lan
161
and key sLakeholders, as Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed on Lhelr conLacL sheeL.
ls sLlll very lllusLraLlve of Lhe LhoughLs and feellngs
L|m|tat|ons |n us|ng the 'start|ng po|nt'
of a slgnlflcanL number of people ln lA1A.
methodo|ogy: 1he sLarLlng polnLs ln each vlllage
ConsequenLly, Lhey should sLlll be used as a gulde
were local landmarks, from whlch enumeraLors
on LhedlrecLlon of amorepeaceful Lrlbal arealn Lhe
would lnLervlew respondenLs by LargeLlng Lhose
fuLure.
behlnd every Lhlrd door or compound. 1hls
approach, lL musL be noLed, creaLed blas ln Lhe
sample Lowards Lhe cenLre of each locaLlon,
WlLhln each selecLed locaLlon enumeraLors were
resldenLs ln Lhese urban areas are more Lyplcally
dlvlded lnLo four areas (l.e. Lwo for male
wealLhy, educaLed and/or from more esLabllshed
enumeraLors and Lwo for female enumeraLors)
famllles. 1hls reallLy ls llkely Lo have lnfluenced Lhe
from whlch elLher Lwo or Lhree lnLervlews were
flndlngs of Lhe survey as percepLlons are llkely Lo
conducLed (comprlslng a LoLal of flve men and flve
have been lnfluenced by experlences wlLhln Lhls
women). ln each area, lnLervlewees were LargeLed
env l r onmenL : a l s o l L may pr ov l de a
around slgnlflcanL local landmarks (or 'sLarLlng
dlsproporLlonaLesampleof llLeracy levels, access Lo
polnLs'), such as: bojto of a promlnenL Mollk,
medla and educaLlonal sLaLus Lhan mlghL oLherwlse
mosques, lmom 8otqob ln Shla communlLles,
havebeen expecLed ln lA1A.
successful shops, schools and hosplLals.
Agaln, Lhls llmlLaLlon should noL dlmlnlsh Lhe value
lrom Lhese areas lnLervlewees were selecLed
of Lhe daLa presenLed, as Lhe asplraLlons of Lhose
randomly, wlLh male enumeraLors selecLlng
lnLervlewed sLlll poslLlvely reveal Lhe developmenL
unknown households from one slde and female
Lrends deslred by a subsLanLlal proporLlon of Lhe
enumeraLors selecLlng unknown households on Lhe
lA1A populaLlon, and also reveals how Lhe lnLeresLs
oLher. ln areas where Lhls rule could noL be properly
of 'ellLes' ln socleLy may lmpacL on Lhe fuLure
applled, enumeraLors made noLe of Lhls dlfflculLy
Se|ect|onof |nterv|ewees
Iramework M.3
un