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Reference number: 2012-5983389
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CENTRAL ASIA - ARTS MANAGEMENT, 2013
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21
bine pop music with folk traditions. In this respect the groups "Avesta"
and "Shams" are interesting. They have the main thing - creativity,
ability to deal with the folklore and ability to create unconventional
music. They are in constant search and achieve real creative discov-
eries.
However, unfortunately, along with these groups there are many oth-
er groups that till air and concert venues, broadcast in the bazaars
and taxis. Youth's interest in popular music is high and unfortunately
there are non-professional, imitative groups to meet this demand. The
wording art of the songs is absent, and in combination with primitive
music songs become tasteless. It is an inevitable trend in the develop-
ment of the modern world "pop music" and it is impossible to "jump
over" this kind of music. However it has its own positive side, "one-day"
culture has a unique ability of "self-elimination", leaving the true musi-
cal values.
All the credit on the stage of honor of Tajikistan almost several dec-
ades has master and guru Daler Nazarov - Tajik legendary multi-in-
strumentalist, who owns almost all musical instruments, a singer and
composer, who wrote the sound tracks for many movies, including
those as "Luna Papa" "Chic", "Opium Wam, England, Love and
philosophy." So far his concerts unite people of differen! _views, be-
cause the idea of his work is to preserve the cultural trad1t1ons of the
East, inherited from their ancestors, and to develop new ways of in-
tegration with the legacy of Western and European musical culture.
Doler Nazarov pioneer of the World Music, he combined the mode:n
instruments and ancient melodies, which serves him as an organic
part of the musical world view. His music - is fusion of ancient musical
and poetic traditions of the East and the modern music of the West.
Contemporary musical art of Tajikistan on the stag_e is
also represented by Parvin Yusuti, who bravely performs 1n a variety
of genres. She is called an "experimenter with the As we
can see, there are musicians in Tajikistan who carry their m1ss1on from
the past to the future.
Eth no jazz
Michael Frishkopf,
M usico/ogist,
Canada
Jazz's definitions are innumerable, bewildering in their diversity. Some
are musicological: jazz defined as rhythms (e.g. swing eights, or syn-
copation), forms (blues, or 32 bar AABA), or tonalities ("blue" notes,
modes). Jazz as characteristic timbres (e.g. saxophone, scat vocals),
textures (vertical strata: solo lines, "comping" harmonies, bassline, and
percussive groove), or ensembles (trio, quartet, big band). Jazz ashar-
monic extensions (9ths, 1 lths, and 13ths), distinctive progressions (I -vi
- ii - V - I: tritone substitutions) or melodic patterns (licks, riffs, tills). Jazz as
improvisation-melodic, harmonic, or free-simultaneous (early jazz},
sequential (bebop}, or other.
Definitions are social: Jazz as socio-musical organization (head - solos
- head, cued aurally or visually, interleaved with applause). Jazz as a
musicians' music, connected to popular styles, butmore sophisticat-
ed, virtuosic, creative, and collective. Jazz as the music of nightclubs,
former scenes of popular social dance, subsequently elite venues of
intensive listening, eating and drinking. Some definitions are historical,
e.g. jazz as an encounter between European and African American
musics, or as "America's classical music". The narrowest are canoni-
cal: jazz as a set of compositions, standards, artists, even specific re-
cordings. Critics evaluate jazz according to aesthetic metaphors of
movement and temperature (swing, cool, hot), transposed to sound.
All these definitions are linked: collectively rich, but individually limited,
subject to change. None captures an enduring essence.
49
Better definitions are more universal, permanent. Unsurprisingly, jazz
musicians best articulate their music's essence, even if elliptically, of-
ten avoiding the word "jazz" itself. Duke Ellington famously remarked
that "jazz is freedom. "Don Cherry commented that "When people
believe in boundaries, they become part of them"; Bix Beiderbecke
remarked of jazz that "I don't know what's going to happen next." Bil-
lie Holiday said "I can't stand to sing the same song the same way two
nights in succession, let alone two years or ten years. If you can, then
it ain't music, it's close-order drill or exercise or yodeling or something,
not music". Charles Mingus quipped: "In my music, I'm trying to play
the truth of what I am. The reason it's difficult is because I'm changing
all the time." Charlie Haden: "don't think of yourself as a jazz musi-
cian. Think of yourself as a human being who plays music." According
to Max Roach, "Jazz ... comes out of a communal experience. We take
our respective instruments and collectively create a thing of beauty."
John Coltrane said "My music is the spiritual expression of what I am -
my faith, my knowledge, my being ... When you begin to see the pos-
sibilities of music, you desire to do something really good for people ...
I want to speak to their souls."
These quotations point to jazz's ineffable essence. Jazz is free, per-
sonal, spontaneous-hence unpredictable-musical expression that
is nevertheless communal, the musical embodiment of genuine, open
human communication, connecting diverse communities of perform-
ers and listeners in musical understanding. Jazz is aural, fundamentally
independent of the visual (even if notation is used) or mass media
(despite all the recordings, and their fans). Jazz enables impromptu
communication that is individual, yet also collective. Freedom means
jazz is permeable, flexible, absorbing any and all instruments and mu-
sics, adapting to the widest possible range of musical and social cir-
cumstances through local engagement. Considered broadly, jazz
transcends any stylistic purity. Unlike ordinary language, jazz knows
no ethnic limitations, its fluid forms flowing anywhere and everywhere.
Jazz is boundless possibility. Jazz is open, connective, immediate, per-
sonal, and expressive.
These abstract properties bestow a unique capacity to connect com-
munities around the world. Jazz globalizes by establishing local roots,
while retaining the capacity to transcend the local. Through its cul-
tural prestige, Western classical music has also globalized, but with
aninsistence on fixed standards-in repertoire, instrumentation, peda-
gogy, and style, in a complete and rigid musical package-restricting
its ability to connect cultures; rather, it wants to transform them, to
make them European. Jazz, by contrast, revels in local sounds, devel-
oping local dialects, without losing its global connections:
According to stylistic definitions jazz should sacrifice its essence by
blending -by incorporating new rhythms, forms, timbres, ensembles,
harmonies, social forms, or aesthetics, drawn from contrastive musi-
cal traditions or cultures. Yet it doesn't. Such blending only makes jazz
stronger, able to communicate more broadly. Western classical music
blends awkwardly, borrowing world musics for color, but never stray-
ing far from its familiar aesthetic terrain. Jazz, by contrast, wanders far
and wide, adapting, blending easily and elegantly, without losing its
integrity.
That is because stylistic definitions - jazz as particular rhythms, forms,
harmonies, ensembles- don't capture jazz's essence, which is rather
about individual expression, collaborative creation, and human com-
munication, across boundaries: cultures, nations, ethnicities. Jazz is in-
herently fluid and liquefying, mixed and mixing.
World music hybridity abounds in jazz today, featuring inter-cultural
inter-musical mixes, across festival programs, or even within perform-
ing ensembles. But such mixing was always present in jazz, undisguised
and unapologetic, from the outset. Early jazz mixed ragtime, work
songs, blues, band music, church hymns, black spirituals, and gospel,
genres themselves infused by multiple European and African musics.
New Orleans jazz was already multicultural and multi-musical, reflect-
ing that city's polyglot multiculturalism.
Later jazz of the Americas mixed Tin Pan Alley songs (the rise of the
"standard", reconstituting popular music as a vehicle for individual
expression), Latin and Cuban (Afro-Cuban jazz), and Brazilian (bossa
nova) musics; by the late 60s the term "fusion jazz" denotednew
combinations with R&B, funk, and rock. Intercontinental mixing oc-
curred throughout the 20th century. Swing-era jazz returned to Afri-
ca-branching to kwela, marabi, and mbaqanga in Southern Africa,
and highlife, juju, and afrobeat in West Africa, and spread around the
world, from Manila to Moscow.
By the 1950s jazz was combining with musics of India ("lndo Jazz," pro-
moted by John Coltrane, Ravi Shankar, and John Mclaughlin, and
later by Zakir Hussain, L. Subramaniam, and others) and the Arab world
51
52
(e.g. Salah Ragab, who incorporated Egyptian music in the Cairo Jazz
Band from the late 60s), and elsewhere. Meanwhile recombinations in
Europe and North America and Europe included bluegrass, varieties
of folk jazz, gypsy jazz ("manouche"), and mixtures with punk, met-
al, and the European avant-garde, introducing new scales, rhythms,
and sonorities without stretching the jazz concept beyond its breaking
point. Indeed it seemed that jazz, absorbing any music into its orbit,
had no breaking point at all.
Jazz's infinite capacity to blend with other musics without sacrificing its
essence -an open, improvisatory, communicative expressivity cen-
tered on performers (rather than composer, arranger, or conductor)
-makes jazz the ideal sociomusical vehicle for intercultural adapta-
tion, for cross-cultural communication. Despite patriotic pronounce-
ments that "jazz is America's classical music", in fact jazz knows no
boundaries, national, ethnic, or otherwise. Jazz's inherent openness
allows it totransplant effortlessly, growing new roots, absorbing local
musical traditions and audiences and adapting - from Europe, to
Africa, to Latin America; from India to Central Asiato Korea - without
losing itself.
What, then, is "ethnojazz"? Why use such a term? Certainly "ethno-
jazz" should not be taken as a particular "kind" of jazz, much less a
music that results from mixing "pure jazz" with something "ethnic". For
as no jazz is "pure" (its essence being in the mix), and as all music is
"ethnic", so all jazz is "ethnojazz".
Pat Metheny reportedly commented that "jazz is a verb-more like a
process than it is a thing". Likewise, Bill Evans said "jazz is not so much a
style as a process of making music". These insights suggest an answer.
Ethnojazz is away of thinking about jazz, a conjugation of the "jazz"
verb, as juxtaposed with an all-inclusive first person plural pronoun, a
gigantic humanistic "WE". Ethnojazz thus underscores jazz's capacity
to communicate across cultures, representing and forging a bound-
less musical community across cultural and linguistic boundaries.
Ethnojazz isn't a kind of jazz. Rather, "ethnojazz" highlights jazz's most
crucial capacity: connecting people-musicians and listeners alike-
through music. Ethnojazz is a way of jazz, maybe the essential way, a
musical process crucial to a globalizing world in urgent need of self-
understanding.
Cyril Moshkow,
editor of the Jazz.Ru Magazine,
Russia
Ethno Jazz In Twenty-First Century
Back in the 1980s and 90s, when musicians from all over the world were
more and more intensely breeding their homeland native music with
the improvisational drive borrowed from mainstream Jazz and, more
often, from Jazz Rock Fusion, critics and theoreticians were quick to in-
vent a new genre label, Ethno Jazz. As the 21st century emerged and
took on, however, we more and more doubted that Ethno Jazz was
all that different from Jazz per se, after all. Was the Jazz Rock Fusion all
that different from jazz, either? The sound was different, as electrified
and distorted Rock sounds were washing away the delicate acoustic
environment of Jazz; and yes, rhythmic devices employed by some
musician were different, as straightforward eight-to-the-bar Rock time
signatures and Funk grooves were seemingly replacing the fluid swing-
ing rhythms of straight-ahead mainstream Jazz. But in general, it was
Jazz all over again, only mated with new sounds, rhythms, and record-
ing technologies. Was not Jazz itself a similar fusion, only born several
more decades earlier, of similarly different ancestors, such as African
poly-rhythms, European harmony, and the unique modal feel to the
melody which was uniquely American, brought up by a multicultural
society which existed nowhere else?
The true spirit of the 201 Os Jazz is, to a certain extent, Ethno Jazz; only,
the term is less widely used these days, as most of the modern Jazz falls
into that category, and therefore needs no label other than just 'Jazz'.
Here's a few examples of New-York based musicians. Saxophonist
Rudresh Mahanthappa was born in Italy to Indian parents, grew up in
53