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Taseer Fatma

IB Chemistry HL Y2
Mrs. Lamontagne
Redox Titration IA
REDOX TITRATION WITH POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE
An acidified solution of potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent and will be used in
this lab to determine the percentage of iron in a sample of ammonium iron (II) sulfate. The
two UNBALANCED half-reactions are:
MnO
4
1-
(aq) Mn
2+
(aq)
Fe
2+
(aq) Fe
3+
(aq)
SAFETY: It is not advisable to get potassium permanganate on the skin it stains.
ASSESSMENT: This practical will be formally assessed for Data Collection and Processing
(DCP) and Conclusion & Evaluation (CE).
MATERIAL
Ammonium iron (II) sulfate
hexahydrate, Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O
50 mL of 0.0200 mol dm
-3
potassium
permanganate in a bottle
200 mL of 1.0 mol dm
-3
sulfuric acid
solution in a bottle
Distilled water
50 mL graduated cylinder
100 mL volumetric flask
Funnel
2-10 cm
3
pipettes (up to 9 cm
3
)
2 pipette bulbs
4- 125 mL flasks
Buret
Stand
Buret clamp
PROCEDURE
1. Weigh out 2.50 g of ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate crystals. Add to volumetric
flask with a funnel.
2. Measure in 40 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
sulfuric acid solution in a graduated cylinder. Add to
volumetric flask with a funnel.
3. Make up to 100 cm
3
with distilled water in a volumetric flask and thoroughly mix the
solution. Be sure that the bottom of the meniscus reaches the line on the volumetric
flask. Mix thoroughly. (Water wont change the amount of moles)
4. Add the potassium permanganate to the buret.
5. Pipette 10 cm
3
of the Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
solution into a flask (label Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
).
6. Add 10 cm
3
of distilled water into the flask (label the pipette H
2
O).


7. Titrate with 0.0200 mol dm
-3
of potassium permanganate solution to a faint pink color
(first one will be a trial run)
8. Repeat the titration three times for accuracy and record your results.
9. The theoretical value for the percentage of iron in ammonium iron (II) sulfate may be
calculated from its formula located on the chemical bottle.
Raw Data:
Table 1: Qualitative Observations for the Redox reaction of 5Fe
2+
+ 2MnO
4
-
+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+
Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
Substance Before
Reaction
During Reaction After Reaction
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Ammonium
Iron (II)
Sulfate Hexa-
hydrate
Pale blue
crystals,
some are
large and
some small
in size and
some
powdered
residue.
Some of the
crystals spilt
whilst
placing it
into the
solution.
Completely
dissolved in
the Sulfuric
Acid, with
no remaining
solid pieces.
Completely
dissolved in
the Sulfuric
acid, with no
remaining
solid pieces.
Completely
dissolved in
the Sulfuric
acid, with no
remaining
solid pieces.











Light
pink, rose
coloured
clear
liquid.












Darker,
deep pink
coloured
clear
liquid.











Darker,
deep pink
coloured
clear
liquid. Sulfuric Acid Clear,
colour-less
solution
Clear,
colour-less
liquid. When
KMnO
4
-
was
added, the
purple would
disappear.
Clear,
colour-less
liquid. When
KMnO
4
-
was
added, the
purple would
disappear.
Different
shades of
purple would
appear, as
more of the
KMnO
4
-

would be
added.
Clear,
colour-less
liquid. When
KMnO
4
-
was
added, the
purple would
disappear.
Potassium
Permanganate
Dark,
opaque
purple
liquid.





Table 2: Volume (mL) of 0.02 mol dm
-3
(0.1 mL) of Potassium Permanganate added to solution
of 2.50 g (0.01 g) of Ammonium Iron (II) Sulfate mixed with 40.0 mL (0.06 mL) of 1.0 mol
dm
-3
Sulfuric Acid.
Number of Trials Volume (mL) (0.1 mL) of Potassium
Permanganate added for Solution to Turn
Pink
1 6.4
2 6.6
3 6.5

Processed Data:
Table 3: Calculating the Average Volume (0.1 mL) of 0.02 mol dm
-3
of Potassium
Permanganate added to solution of 2.50 g (0.01 g) of Ammonium Iron (II) Sulfate Hexahydrate
mixed with 40.0 mL (0.06 mL) of 1.0 mol dm
-3
Sulfuric Acid.
Number of Trials Volume (mL) (0.1 mL) of
Potassium Permanganate
added for Solution to Turn
Pink
Average Volume (mL)
(0.1 mL) of Potassium
Permanganate added for
Solution to Turn Pink
1 6.4
6.5 2 6.6
3 6.5
*Average Volume (mL) (0.1 mL) of Potassium Permanganate added for Solution to Turn Pink was
calculated by adding the Volume (mL) (0.1 mL) of Potassium Permanganate added for Solution to
Turn Pink for all three trials and dividing by three, the number of trials. This was done so on the TI-84
Plus Silver Edition calculator.
Table 4: Experimental, Theoretical Value, Percent Difference, Percent Uncertainty and Absolute
uncertainty of Percentage Composition of Iron in 2.5 g (0.01 g) of Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O
mixed with 40.0 mL (0.06 mL) of 1.0 mol dm
-3
Sulfuric Acid titrated with Average Volume
(0.1 mL) 0.02 mol dm
-3
of Potassium Permanganate
Experimental Value of Percentage Composition of Fe in
Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O
15%
Theoretical Value of Percentage Composition of Fe in
Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O
14.23%
Percent Difference 5.4%




Calculation 1: Experimental Value of Percent Composition of Fe in Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O
1) Overall Reaction from the Redox Reaction for Fe
3+
and MnO
4
-

5 * (Fe
2+
Fe
3+
+ e
-
) (Oxidation)
MnO
4
-
+ 8H
+
+ 5e
-
Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O (Reduction)
5Fe
2+
5Fe
3+
+ 5e
-

MnO
4
-
+ 8H
+
+ 5e
-
Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
5Fe
2+
+ MnO
4
-
+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O (Overall Reaction)
2) 6.5 mL of 0.02 mol dm
-3
of Potassium Permanganate needed
a) Moles of MnO
4
-


= (0.02)(= 1.3 10
-4
moles of MnO
4

b) Moles Fe
2+

= 1 mol Fe
2+
: 5 mol MnO
4
-
= 5(1.3 10
-4
mol) = 6.5 10
-4
moles of Fe
2
c) Mass of Fe



=
(


0363025 g of Fe
= 3.6

grams of Fe
There was 10 mL of solution, so the mass of Fe in 100 mL Volumetric Flask:
= (0.0363025 g)(10) = 0.363025 g of Fe
= 3.6

grams of Fe in solution

d) Percent Composition of Fe in


(

* 100 %


* 100% = 14.52%
= 14.5% Fe in Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2 *
6H
2
O Experimentally






Calculation 2: Theoretical Value of Percent Composition of Fe in Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O


(


= 14.23 % Fe in Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2 *
6H
2
O Theoretically
Calculation 3: Percent Difference between the Theoretical and Experimental Values of Percent
Compstion of Fe in Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
6H
2
O



=


= 2.2% Difference
Calculation 3: Percent Uncertainty and Absolute of the Experimental Value of Percent
Composition of Fe in Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
* 6H
2
O
Type of
Uncertainty
Calculation for
Percent
Uncertainty
Percent
Uncertainty for
each Apparatus
Total Percent
Uncertainty
Total Absolute
Uncertainty
Uncertainty of
Mass
(


)*100 =
0.40%
0.40%






5.0%







0.7
Uncertainty of
Burette Volume
(


)*100
1.54%
Uncertainty of
Pipette Volumes
(


)*100

(


)*100


0.60%

0.60%
Uncertainty of
Graduated
Cylinder
(


)

%1.25%
Uncertainty of
Flask
(


*100
0.2%





Calculation 4: Total Percent Uncertainty
= (0.40+1.54+0.60+0.60+1.25+0.2)
= 4.59 Percent Uncertainty
= 5.0 Percent uncertainty
Calculation 5: Total Absolute Uncertainty
Percent Uncertainty = Absolute Uncertainty * 100
Measured Value
5 = Absolute Uncertainty * 100
14.5
Absolute Uncertainty * 100 = (5)(14.5)
Absolute Uncertainty * 100 = 72.5 = 0.725 = 0.7
100 100
Therefore, the experimental value for the percentage of Iron composition in
Fe(NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2
* 6H
2
O

is 15% 0.7
Conclusion:
The percent composition of iron obtained from the experiment was 14.5% with a percent
uncertainty of 5.0 percent and an absolute uncertainty of 0.7 percent of iron composition. The
percent composition of iron, theoretically, is 14.23% in ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate.
The experimental percent composition of iron in ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate is
compared to the theoretical value through percent difference, which revealed a difference of
2.2%. Therefore, the theoretical valued, obtained by dividing the molar mass of iron by the molar
mass of ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate is therefore a more precise and accurate
representation of the percent composition of iron in ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate.
This is because despite both the experimental value and theoretical values being calculated
mathematically, the experimental value required extensive intermediate steps that require their
uncertainties to be accounted for in presenting the final experimental value of iron composition,
which is 14.5% 0.7. The percent difference for the experimental value, 5.4%, is slightly higher
than than the percent uncertainty, 5.0%, which implies that equipment uncertainty allows room
for little error, as well, however it may be significant enough to cause an error, as they are
relative in range.
It should be noted and taken into consideration that both the experimental calculations for
the percent composition of iron and the theoretical value of iron composition of iron assume that
the composition of iron in the compound is based solely on the Fe
2+
ions, disregarding the Fe
3+

that are present, as per the complete reaction shown above. Additionally, the experimental
method of calculating the percent composition of iron in ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate
assumes that the reaction has gone to completion. This, on the contrary, is not completely true,


for when the pink solution was left to sit whilst other trials were being conducted, further colour
changes occurred, where the light pink colour of the solution turned into a light orange.
The experimental value of percent composition of iron in ammonium iron (II) sulfate
hexahydrate is higher than the theoretical value due to random errors, like the fact that, whilst
pouring the ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate into the funnel, some crystals fell onto the
desk. Furthermore, in the second trial, excess drops of potassium permanganate were added due
to delayed reaction. This also implies that human error was also responsible for the experimental
value being higher than the experimental, as it is necessary for the titration to be stopped right at
the designated volume, as there is no excess potassium permanganate reacting with ammonium
iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate and sulfuric acid.
Evaluation:
Error in Experiment Relevance of Error Solution
Too many drops of potassium
permanganate were put into
the solution of sulfuric acid
and ammonium iron (II)
sulfate hexahydrate.

Systematic Error: The solution
of ammonium iron (II) sulfate
hexahydrate and sulfuric acid
may have contained fewer
ammonium iron (II) sulfate
hexahydrate crystals.

Hard to tell when the solution
experience a colour change as
potassium permanganate was
tirated into a solution of
ammonium iron (II) sulfate
hexahydrate.
Hard to identify when the
solution experienced a colour
change as the solution was not
being consistently stirred,
therefore the volume of
potassium permanganate
titrated into the solution may
have varied, causing for an
excess potassium
permanganate to react with the
iron.
Magnetic stirrer should be
used to ensure that the
solution is consistently being
stirred while the potassium
permanganate is being titrated
into the solution. This would
allow for recording of a more
accurate volume of potassium
permanganate to recorded at
which a colour change was
experienced.





Conclusion:
From the data obtained from this potassium permanganate titration experiment, the calculations
explicitly reveal that ammonium iron (II) sulfate contains 14.23% iron according to its mass.
Since

Evaluation: