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Languages of India [Sheet 6] [MARATHI] P a g e | 1

Mr.Aekkasit Senaart 55070500263 [ME] Sec 26

Marathi language
Marathi ( Marh [mai]) is a Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people. It is the official
language of Maharashtra and Goa and is one of the 23 official languages of India. It is the 19th most spoken language in
the world. There were 72 million speakers in 2001. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India

Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-European, Indic languages, dating from about 1000 AD.
major dialects of Marathi are called Standard Marathi and Warhadi Marathi.
There are a few other sub-dialects like
Ahirani, Dangi, Vadvali, Samavedi, Khandeshi, and Malwani. Standard Marathi is the official language of the State of

Official status
Marathi is an official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu

and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for all
official purposes. The Constitution of India recognizes Marathi as one of India's twenty-two official languages.

In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Gujarat),
University (Andhra Pradesh),
Gulbarga university (Karnataka),
Devi Ahilya University of Indore
and Goa
University (Panaji)
all have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University
(New Delhi) has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.

The Prakrit vernacular languages, including Maharashtri Prakrit, were originally derived from Sanskrit.
[citation needed]

Further change led to apabhraa languages like Marathi, which may be described as being a re-Sanskritised, developed
form of Maharashtri Apabhraa. The more recent influence of Persian, Arabic or Urdu has also made this language
seem close to mainstream Hindi.
[citation needed]

Maharashtri Prakrit was commonly spoken until 875 CE (875 AD) and was the official language of the
Stavhana empire. It had risen to a high literary level, and works like Karpurmanjari and Saptashati (150 BCE) were
written in it. Maharashtri Prakrit was the most widely used Prakrit language in western and southern India.
Maharashtri Apabhraa remained in use for several hundred years until at least 500 CE (500 AD). Apabhraa was
used widely in Jain literature and formed an important link in the evolution of Marathi. This form of Apabhraa was re-
Sanskritised and eventually became Marathi.
According to the written forms and historical attestations and evidences, Marathi is said to date to the 8th century.

Languages of India [Sheet 6] [MARATHI] P a g e | 2
Mr.Aekkasit Senaart 55070500263 [ME] Sec 26
After 1800 to 20th century
The British colonial period (also known as the Modern Period) saw standardization of Marathi grammar through
the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Christian missionaries played an important role in the production of
scientific dictionaries and grammars.
The late 19th century in Maharashtra was a period of colonial modernity. Like the corresponding periods in other
Indian languages, this was the period dominated by English-educated intellectuals. It was the age of English prose,
reformist activism and a great intellectual ferment.
The first Marathi translation of an English book was published in 1817, and the first Marathi newspaper was
started in 1835. Newspapers provided a platform for sharing literary views, and many books on social reforms were
written. The Marathi language flourished as Marathi drama gained popularity. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also
evolved. Keshavasut, the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in 1885. First Marathi periodical
Dirghadarshan was started in 1840 while first Marathi newspaper Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832.

A few popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006
The first half of 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism
helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature, drama, music and film. Modern Marathi prose flourished through
various new literary forms like the essay, the biographies, the novels, prose, drama etc. Chiplunkar's Nibandhmala (essays),
N.C.Kelkar's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte, Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar, and plays
of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar's are particularly worth noting. Similarly Khandekar's Yayati which has won for him, the
Jnanpith Award is a very noteworthy novel. Vijay Tendulkar's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond
Maharashtra. P.L.Deshpande(PuLa), P.K.Atre & Prabodhankar Thakrey, were also known for their writings in Marathi in
the field of Drama, Samaj Prabodhan. After Indian independence, Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language
on the national level.
By May 1, 1960, Maharashtra emerged re-organised on linguistic lines adding Vidarbha and Marathwada region in
its fold and bringing major chunks of Marathi population socio-politically together. With state and cultural protection,
Marathi made great strides by the 1990s.
Languages of India [Sheet 6] [MARATHI] P a g e | 3
Mr.Aekkasit Senaart 55070500263 [ME] Sec 26
A literary event called Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Literature Meet) is held every year.
In addition, the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Theatre Meet) is also held annually. Both
events are very popular amongst Maharashtrians.


Words/phrases Transliteration Meaning
Namaskr. .
? Tumh kase ht? ?
? T kas hes? ? ( )
? T ka hes? ? ( )
? pa kase ht? ? ( )

Tumhl bhen nad
Punh bhe. . ( " ")
Nako. ,
? Kit? ?
? Kuhe? ?
? Kase? ?
? Kevh? ?
? Ko? ?
? Ky? ?
ubh rtr.