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SCI ENCE fP\) DI RECT
ELSEVIER Linear Algebra and its Applications 402 (2005) 390-396
www.elsevier.comlocatelaa
!o"nds o# Laplacian spectr"m o# grap$s based
on t$e domination n"mber
%ei L"
a
,*,
&
' ("i)ing Li"
b
' *eng +ian
c
,
2
a
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, hina
School ofMathematical Sciences an! "#M, $an%ai University, Tianjin &000'1, hina
c
(nstitute of Systems Science, )ca!emy of Mathematics an! Systems Sciences,
hinese )ca!emy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, hina
,eceived 23 %arc$ 2004- accepted &3 .an"ar/ 2005
Available online 3 %arc$ 2005
0"bmitted b/ , A. !r"aldi
Abstract
Let * be a connected grap$ o# order n+ A dominating set in * is a s"bset S o# ,-*. s"c$ t$at eac$
element o# ,-*. Sis ad1acent to a verte2 o# S+ +$e least cardinalit/ o# a dominating set is t$e
domination n"mber. 3n t$e paper' we will give bo"nds o# t$e Laplacian spectr"m o# * involving t$e
domination n"mber. 4 2005 5lsevier 3nc. All rig$ts reserved.
)MS classification/ 05650- &5A&7
0ey1or!s/ 8rap$- Laplacian spectr"m- 9omination n"mber
1. Introduction
Let G = (V, E) be a simple "ndirected grap$ wit$ n vertices. *or v e V' we "se
N(v) to denote t$e neig$bors o# v, t$at is' t$e set o# all vertices in G ad1acent to v+ *or
* 6orresponding a"t$or. 23mail a!!resses/ ml":mat$.tsing$"a.ed".cn (%. L")'
li"$"i)ing:e/o".com ((. Li")' #tian:mail.iss.ac.cn (*. +ian).
;artiall/ s"pported b/ <<0*6 (<o. 60&=2005).
;artiall/ s"pported b/ <<0*6.
0024-3=95> - see #ront matter 2005 5lsevier 3nc. All rig$ts reserved.
doi?&0.&0&61.laa.2005.0&.006
ENCE^I
M+ "u et al+ 4 "inear )lge5ra an! its )pplications 406 -6007. &809&8: 39&
a s"bgrap$ ; o# *' let $;-v. < $-v. @ ,-;. and A$;-v.A B !;-v.+ (f ; < *, t$en
$;-v. and!; -v. are written as $-v. and !-v. respectivel/. Let A-*. and =-*. be t$e
ma2im"m and minim"m degree o# vertices o# *, respectivel/. Let S ,-*..
9enote b/ *>S? t$e s"bgrap$ o# * ind"ced b/ S+ 3n t$e case o# no con#"sion' we
write $S-v. an!!S-v. instead o# $*>S?-v. and !*>S?-v., respectivel/. A dominating
set in * is a s"bset @ o# ,-*. s"c$ t$at eac$ element o# ,-*. 3 @ is ad1acent to at
least one verte2 o# @+ +$e least cardinalit/ o# a dominating set is t$e domination
n"mber o# *, denoted b/ A -*.. A set B o# vertices o# a grap$ * is called a cover o#
* i# ever/ edge o# * is incident to at least one verte2 o# B. +$e least cardinalit/ o#
a cover o# * is called t$e covering n"mber o# * and denoted b/ C-*.. 3t is eas/ to
see t$at a cover o# * is also a dominating set o# *. +$"s we get
A-*. C C-*.+
Let )-*. be t$e ad1acenc/ matri2 o# * and D-*. < !iag-!-v1., !-v6., + + +, !-vn..
be t$e diagonal matri2 o# verte2 degrees. +$e Laplacian matri2 o# * is "-*. <
D-*. 3 )-*.+ 6learl/' "-*. is a real s/mmetric matri2. *rom t$is #act and
8ersgorinDs +$eorem' it #ollows t$at its eigenval"es are nonnegative real n"mbers.
+$e eigenval"es o# an n E n matri2 M are denoted b/ D1-M., D2-M.,+++, Dn-M., w$ile
#or a grap$ *' we will "se Di-*. < Di to denote Di-"-*.., i < &, 2,+++, n and ass"me
t$at D1-*. C D2-*. C F F F C Dn31-*. C Dn-*.+ 3t is well Gnown t$at Dn-*. < 0 and t$e
algebraic m"ltiplicit/ o# Hero as an eigenval"e o# "-*. is e2actl/ t$e n"mber o#
connected components o# * I&&J. 3n partic"lar' t$e second smallest eigenval"e Dn3
1-*. E 0 i# and onl/ i# * is connected. +$is leds *iedler I2J to de#ine it as t$e
algebraic connectivit/ o# *. +$e eigenval"es' D1-*. (also call t$e Laplacian spectral
radi"s o# *) and Dn31 -*.' $ave received a great deal o# attention (see' #or e2ample
I3'=-7'&0-&3'&5J). 3n t$is paper' we give bo"nds o# t$e Laplacian spectral radi"s and
algebraic connectivit/ o# * involving t$e domination n"mber A-*.+
2. Lemmas
Lemma 1 I5'6J. "et M 5e a real symmetric matriF 1ith eigenvalues G1 C G6 'H I I I
'H Gn+ *iven a partition K&, 2,+++, nL B A& A2 F F F A m 1ith AAr- B ni E 0,
consi!er the correspon!ing 5loc%ing M < -Mij., so that Mij is an rn 2 A j 5loc%+ "et
eij 5e the sum of the entries in Mij an! put B < -eij4ni. -i+e+, eij4ni is an average
ro1 ineJualities
Gi E Ai E Gn3mKi -i < 1 , 6 , + + + , m.
hol!+ Moreover, if for some integer %, & C % C m, Gi B Ai for i < 1,6,+++ ,% an! Gn3mKi
< Ai for i < % M &, % M 2,+++, m, then all the 5loc%s Mij of M have constant ro1 an!
column sums+
average ro1 sum in Mij.+ "et A & L A 2 L I I I L Am 5e the eigenvalues of B+ Then the
392 M+"u et al+ 4 "inear )lge5ra an! its )pplications 406 -6007. &809&8:
Let * be a grap$ and @ a dominating set o# *. *or an/ v e @, denote
M-v, @. < Nu e ,-*. 3 @O$-u. #i @ < NvPP+ Ne #irst
s$ow t$e #ollowing "se#"l lemma.
Lemma 2. "et * 5e a connecte! graph 1ith !omination num5er A-*.+ Then there
eFists a !ominating set @ of * 1ith O @O < A-*. such that for each v e @, OM-v, @.O C
&+
Proof. Let @ be a dominating set o# * wit$ O@O < A-*.+ 6$oose @ s"c$ t$at 16v-Q@
!@-v. is as large as possible. <e2t' we will s$ow t$at OM-v, @.O C &.
0"ppose t$ere e2ists a verte2 v R2 @ s"c$ t$at M-v, @. < 0' i.e.' $@-u. - NvP < 0
#or all u e , -*. - @+ +$"s we $ave $-v. # l @ B 0' (ot$erwise' @S < @ - NvP is a
dominating set o# *' a contradiction). 0et $-v. < N11, 16, + + +, 1l L+ +$en l C & b/
* being connected. !/ ass"mption' $@-1i. 3 NvP < 0 #or i < &, 2,+++, l. Let @S < -@
O K1&L. NvP+ +$en @S is a dominating set o# * wit$ O@SO < A-*. b"t 16vT@S!@S-v. E -
vP@!@-v. (since !@S-11. E !@-v. B0)' a contradiction wit$ t$e c$oice o# @+ Q
Lemma 3. "et * B -,, 2. 5e a connecte! graph of or!er n an! *1 5e an in!uce!
su5graph of * 1ith n1 -n1 R n. vertices an! average !egree r1-i+e+, r1 < L
ve,-*1. !*1 -v.4n1.+ Set !1 < L6ve,-*&. !-v.4n1+ Then
n-!1 - r1.
D1-*. C --------------+
n 3 n1
Moreover, if the eJuality hol!s, then !*6-u. < s for all verteF u e ,-*1. an!
!*1-v. < t for all verteF v e ,-*6., 1here *6 < *>, 3 ,-*1.O
Proof. 0et ,-*1. <
N v1, v6, + + + , v n 1 P and
,-*6. <
Nvn1K1,vn1K6,+++ ,vn Let
r6 < L ve,-*6. !*6-v.4-n 3
n1. and !6 < vs,-*2.
!-v.4-n 3 n1.+ ,ewrite "-*.
as
"11 "16D11 - )-*1.
"-*. B B,
" 2& " 22 )2& D 22 )-* 2 .
w$ere D11 < diag-!-v &., !-v6., + + +, !-vn1.. and D66 < diag-!-vn&M&., !-vn1K6., +++,
!-vn..+ *or & C i, j C 2' let eij be t$e s"m o# t$e entries in "ij and p"t B -eij4ni.+ +$en
B < !1 3 r1 r1 3 !1
r6 3 !6 !6 3 r6 ,
and t$en OD( 3 BO < D-D 3 !1 3 !6 K r1 Kr6.+ +$"s b/ Lemma &'
D&-*. C !1 K !2 - r1 3 r6+ (&)
0vP,-*2. !*6-v.4-n 3 n1. and !2 B L6v
-"11 "16O -D11 - )-*1. 3)16
< B
,
" 2& " 22 )2& D 22 )-* 2 .
M+ "u et al+ 4 "inear )lge5ra an! its )pplications 406 -6007. &809&8: 393
<ote t$at n1-!1 3 r1. < -n 3 n&.-!2 - r2.' and $ence
!1 M !2 - r & 3 r2 B n-!1 3 r1.4-n 3 n1.+ !/
(&)' we $ave
n-!1 - r1.
D&-*. C --------------+
n 3 n1
3# t$e e)"alit/ $olds' t$en D1-*. < D1-B.+ 0ince Dn-*. < D6-B. B 0' we $ave )16
and )61 $ave constant row and col"mn s"ms b/ Lemma &. +$is implies !*6-u. <
s #or all verte2 u ,-*1. and !* & -v. < t #or all verte2 v ,-*6.+ Q
Let * < -,, 2. be a grap$ and @ a nonempt/ s"bset o# ,+ +$e edge densit/ o# @
is given b/
U-@. < -----------,
| || X
c
|
w$ere @
c
< , 3 @ and 2@ is t$e set o# all edges wit$ one end in @ and t$e ot$er end
in @
c
+ 3n I&J' t$e #ollowing res"lt was given.
Lemma 4 I&J. "et * < -,, 2. 5e a graph+ Vor any nontrivial su5set @ of ,, the
e!ge !ensity of @ satisfies
U-@. < +
Dn31-*. R U-@. <
W@WW@
Moreover, if a graph * satisfies the eJuality for some cut 2@, then there are
integers s an! t such that the follo1ing con!ition must hol!/
-A. 2ach verteF in @ is a!jacent to s vertices in @
c
an! every verteF in @
c
is
a!jacent to t vertices in @, an!
- !.sW @W <t W @
c
W +
+$e #ollowing t$ree lemmas will be "sed in t$e proo# o# o"r main t$eorems.
Lemma 5 I4J. "et * 5e a graph 1ith at least one e!ge+ Then
D1-*. C A-*. M &+
o
W,-*.
Lemma I2J. "et * 5e a graph of or!er n+ Then
Dn31-*. C =-*.+
Lemma ! I9J. "et * 5e a connecte! graph of or!er n+ (f =-*. L6an!* 4 NBiW1 C i
C =L, then A-*. C
2
5n, 1here Bi -& C i C =. are illustrate! in Vig+ &+
Moreover, if * is connecte!, then the eJuality hol!s if an! only if A-*. B
394 M+ "u et al+ 4 "inear )lge5ra an! its )pplications 406 -6007. &809&8:
o oo <x> a <n
<a
Si 2 S3 e4 B^ BQ
*ig. &.
3. "ain resu#ts
<ow' we will present o"r main res"lts.
B7
$%eorem &. "et * 5e a connecte! graph of or!er n C 2+ Then
n-n - 6A-*. M &.
C------------------------+
Moreover, the eJuality hol!s if an! only if* is isomorphic to the complete 5ipartite
graph 06,6+
Proof. !/ Lemma 2' let @ be t$e dominating set o# * wit$ A@A B A-*. s"c$ t$at #or
eac$ v @, WM-v, @.W C &. +$"s we $ave
|EX|
'
Z-1
v
@
A-*.-n
=
C A-*.-n 3 A-*.. 3
- &) \] |W(v, X)|
v@
A-*.-A-*. 3 &.,
and $ence
(2)
A2@A C -n 3 6A-*. M &.A-*.+ +$"s' b/
Lemma 4' we $ave
Dn31-*. C
(3)
n 3 A-*.
0"ppose t$at t$e e)"alit/ o# (3) $olds. +$en we #irst $ave t$at Dn31-*. B U-@.+ 0o
* satis#ies t$e conditions (A) and (!) o# Lemma 4. <ow b/ (2) we $ave t$at A M-v,
@.W B & #or all verte2 v @+ +$"s b/ (A) o# Lemma 4' we $ave t B & and , < @
-v@M-v, @.., and $ence n B 6A-*. and s B & b/ (!) o# Lemma 4. *rom n B 6A-*.
and (3)' we get Dn31-*. B 2. !/ Lemma 6' =-*. C 2. +$"s we $ave t$at * K BiA& C i C
=L b/ Lemma =' w$ere Bi is t$e grap$ listed in *ig. &. <oting t$at A-B1. B
n
2 and #or
i B 2, 3,+++, =' A-Bi. B
3
=n R
n
2' we get * is isomorp$ic to B1 B 02,2.
3t is eas/ to see t$at i# * is isomorp$ic to 02,2' t$en D3 -02,2. B 2 and A-02,2. B 2.
+$"s' t$e e)"alit/ o# +$eorem 7 $olds obvio"sl/. Q
n-n - 6A-*. M &.
Dn-&-*. C -----------------------
n - A-*.
v, @.W WM-v, @.W M W@W n 3 W@W 3 O? WM-v, @.W
v@
3 A-*..
3A-*..
-A-*.
&.
n-n 3 6A-*.
+
M+ "u et al+ 4 "inear )lge5ra an! its )pplications 406 -6007. &809&8: 395
0ince Dn-& -*. E 0 i# * is connected' we $ave A -*. R
n

M
2
&
b/ +$eorem 7. 0ince
A-*. is an integer n"mber' we get t$e #ollowing corollar/ b/ (3).
(oro##ar) * I&4J. "et * 5e a connecte! graph of or!er n .s 2+ Then
n
A-*. C S+
2
$%eorem 1+. "et *
D&-*. T -------------+ (4)
A-*.
2Juality hol!s if an! only if )-*. < n 3 &+
Proof. Let @ be t$e dominating set o# * wit$ A@A B A-*.+ 9enote @
c
< , 3 @+ !/ t$e
de#inition o# t$e dominating set' we $ave t$at
W2@W iX n 3 A-*.+ (5)
!/ Lemma 3' we $ave
n-!1 - r1.
D&-*. T --------------------- (6)
n3A-*.
w$ere !1 <-& *. L6v @ !-v. and r& B-& *. 5v @!@-v.. !/ (5)' we $ave t$at
!13r1<---------- U ! - v . - ! @ - v .
A-*. -C-C -C-C
B--------A 2@ A C----------n - A-*..+
----------(=)
A-*. A-*.
!/ (6)' we $ave D&-*. C-
n
* ..
3n order #or t$e e)"alit/ to $old' all ine)"alities in t$e above arg"ment s$o"ld be
e)"alities. !/ Lemma 3' we $ave !@c-u. < s #or all verte2 u @ and !@-v. < t #or
all verte2 v @
c
. !/ (5)' we $ave t < &.
3# A-*. R n 3 &' t$en D& E A-*. M & b/ Lemma 5. 0ince A-*.
$ave
n
A-*. R --------------+ (7)
A-*. M &
<ote t$at
A-*. < W@W, n < W@W K W@
c
W and sW@W < W@
c
W+
+$"s' b/ (7)' we $ave A@A R -s K &.A@A4-A-*. M &.' and $ence s < !@c-u. E
A-*.' a contradiction. +$is implies t$at i# t$e e)"alit/ $olds' t$en A-*. B n 3 &.
6onversel/' let * be a grap$ o# order n wit$ A-*. B n 3 &' t$en A-*. < &' and
$ence t$e e)"alit/ o# (4) $olds b/ Lemma 5. Q
B -,, 2. 5e a connecte! graph of or!er n .s 2+ Then
B n -
63Lv
-we
D & -*.
396 M+"u et al+ 4 "inear )lge5ra an! its )pplications 406 -6007. &809&8:
(oro##ar) 11. "et * 5e a connecte! graph of or!er n .s 6+ Then
(i) I&6J D1-*. C C -
n
* .+ (ii) 2Juality hol!s if an! only if * is a star, i+e+ * is
isomorphic to 01n31+
Proof. 0ince A-*. C C-*.' (i) #ollows #rom +$eorem &0.
0"ppose t$at t$e e)"alit/ o# (i) $olds' b/ +$eorem &0' we $ave A-*. B n 3 & and
A-*. < C-*. B &. +$ere#ore * is a star. 6onversel/' i# * is a star' t$en C-*. B & and
D1-*. < n, and $ence (ii) $olds. Q
Ac,no-#ed.ments
%an/ t$anGs to t$e anon/mo"s re#erees #or t$eir man/ $elp#"l comments and
s"ggestions' w$ic$ $ave considerabl/ improved t$e presentation o# t$e paper.
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