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Lawrence R.

Murphy and Susan Sorenson , Employee Behaviors Before and After Stress
Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Apr., 1988)
Janina C. Latack and Stephen J. Havlovic, Coping with Job Stress: A Conceptual Evaluation
Framework for Coping Measures, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 13, No. 5 (Sep.,

Lawrence R. Murphy, David DuBois and Joseph J. Hurrell, Accident Reduction through
Stress Management, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Fall, 1986)

Robert Loo, The Evaluation of Stress Management Services by Canadian Organizations,
Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Dec., 1994)

Stuart D. Sidle, Workplace Stress Management Interventions: What Works Best? ,
Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Aug., 2008)

Stress Management in Organisational context

Sources of stress

1) Job elements of work overload (and under load), deadline pressures, role stressors,
misaligned roles in tasks/projects, overtime.
2) Physical discomfort caused due to hazardous/uncomfortable environment.
3) Relationship with superiors, colleagues, subordinates.

Why stress management is so essential?

It is difficult to evaluate the monetary loss due to stress, however it had been
estimated that stress costs American industry over $150 million annually in lost work
time, accidents and medical costs (Landers, 1987). This is an old figure, imagine the
cost now in the more-than-ever complex world.
Stress leads to low productivity, poor quality, absenteeism and thus causing a direct
exchequer loss to the firms.
Can cause a lot of physical discomfort as many types of medical problems like
diabetes, high blood-pressure are directly linked to stress.
Can create an uncomfortable working environment, as it may lead to demotivation,
disturbed relationships, heated arguments, etc.
Stress is pervasive and can affect diverse areas of human functioning. Undue levels of stress
can alter one's mood state, perceptions, performance, and thinking processes in addition to
biochemical and physiological functions

How do people cope up with stress?
(J. C. LATACK AND S. J. HAVLOVIC in Anderson's (1976) study of small business owner-
Problem-focusing coping is defined as efforts aimed at altering the person-
environment transaction and emotion-focused coping refers to efforts aimed at
regulating the emotions
Cognitive coping (mental strategies and self-talk) involves retrospection without
much externalities , trying to become self-aware as well as use rational to manage
environmental and internal demands and conflicts affecting an individual that tax or
exceed a person's resources .
Behavioural based-coping (taking action or doing something) involves use of some
temporary respite eg smoking, over-eating, meditation
Appraisal-focused coping, sometimes referred to as cognitive reappraisal, consists of
modifying the meaning or cognition of the situation.
Emotion-focused coping can take a cognitive form as in trying to see the positive side
of things
Control strategies showed a proactive, take-charge approach (e.g. making a plan of action,
thinking positively about one's capabilities). Escape strategies consisted of staying clear of
the person or situation or trying not to get concerned about it. Clearly, the proactive,
control approach differs conceptually

Stress management techniques (LAWRENCE R. MURPHY & SUSAN SORENSON)

Biofeedback, muscle relaxation, meditation, and assorted cognitive techniques were used
to diagnose as well as to design remedies for the same.
As such, stress management in work settings is more properly classified as a health
promotion activity rather than a stress reduction strategy. Company expectations for stress
management and other health promotion programmes include enhanced worker
productivity, reduced absenteeism and turnover, and lower medical care/disability costs.
Projections for such benefits are often uncritically incorporated into cost-effectiveness
formulations and bottom-line estimates of company savings due to health promotion
The results indicated that workers who received muscle relaxation (but not biofeedback)
training had significantly lower absenteeism and higher attendance ratings in the year
immediately following training.