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Lecture7
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 6: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Integral Relation Integral Relation
for a Control for a Control
Volume (Part 3) Volume (Part 3)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Integral Relation for CV : Integral Relation for CV : Force Force
Momentum Equation Momentum Equation
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ChapterSummary
Introduction
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Introduction
DerivationofMomentumEquation
ApplicationsofMomentumEquation
MomentofMomentumEquation
Navier Stokes Equation NavierStokesEquation
7.1.Introduction
MotionoffluidisdependentonNewtons
d
Momentum
Principle
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
SecondLaw
Newtons2
nd
Law:
RateofChangeofMomentumoftheSystem
inthedirectionoftheforce=NetExternal
ForceONthesysteminthesamedirection
Forfluid,sincecontrolvolumeapproachis
?????
used,theGeneralControlVolumeEquation
(ReynoldsTransportEquations)needtobe
used.
Notethatforceandmomentumarevector
quantities
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7.2.DerivationofFME
ConsiderthegeneralCVEquation:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
o i
S C
X X
dt
dX
dt
dX


+ =
Let X be the momentum in x-direction, M
x
:
o x i x
S x C x
M M
dt
dM
dt
dM
, ,
, ,


+ =
B N t 2
nd
L
dM
By Newton;s 2
nd
Law :
dt
dM
F
S x
x
,
=

So the FME becomes :


o x i x
x
C x
M M F
dt
dM
, ,
,


+ =
7.2.DerivationofFME
TheFMEforgeneralnonuniforminletsandexits:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 67 Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Steady Flow FME :
O f if fl

+ =
outflow All
A
o
low All
A
i x
CV
o i
dA u dA u F ud
dt
d
_
2
inf _
2

i x o x
x
M M F
, ,


=
Or for non-uniform flow :

=
flow All
A
i
outflow All
A
o x
i o
dA u dA u F
inf _
2
_
2

Note that these equation can be applied to y and z
directions
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7.2.DerivationofFME
NotesonApplicability:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Thenetforcearenetofallexternalforcesacting
ONthecontrolvolume
2typesforcesneedtobeconsidered1)Boundary
forcessuchaspressure(actnormaltothesurface
andtowardsthesurface)andshear(actparallelto
the surface and parallel to the surface 2) Forces thesurfaceandparalleltothesurface2)Forces
acrosstheCVboundaryeg.Gravityormagnetic
force
ApplicationofFMEtoCVisanalogoustodrawing
freebodydiagraminsolidmechanics
7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example1:
V
1
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Find the horizontal and
vertical component of the
force exerted on the vane
Solution Steps :
Choose a suitable control volume
A
1
A
2
- Choose a suitable control volume
- Identify the inlets and exit positions
- Identify all the external forces including pressure forces
- Ensure that the MCE is satisfied
- Apply the FME in x and y directions
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7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example2:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Determine the external reactions in the x and y
directions needed to hold this fixed vane. Here V
1
is 28
m/s, V
2
= 27 m/s and Q = 0.20 m
3
/s.
7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example3:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
A water jet of diameter 30 mm and speed 20 m/s is filling a
tank. The tank has a mass of 20 kg and contains 20 liters of
water at the instant shown. The water temperature is 15
o
C.
Find the force acting on the bottom of the tank and the force
acting on the stop block. Neglect frictions.
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7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example4:(Nozzle)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Water flows through this nozzle at a rate of 2 m
3
/s. and
discharge into the atmosphere. D
1
= 0.4 m, D
2
= 0.3 m.
Determine the force required to hold the nozzle in place.
Assume irrotational flow. Neglect the gravitational effect.
7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example5:(PipeBend Flange&Bolts)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
When fluid in a pipe
network pass through a
pipe bend, a force will be
exerted on the bend. For
small and medium size
pipes this force is supplied
P
1
pipes, this force is supplied
by a flange bolts or by
welds. Determine the forces
that will be experienced by
the bolts. (Assume the bend
is in a horizontal plane)
P
2
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7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example6:(PipeBend AnchorBlock)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
For a large pipe the
bolts joint may be not
adequate and a specially
designed anchor block
may be needed.
Determine the forces that Determine the forces that
will be experienced by
the anchor block.
7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example7:(NonUniformVelocity)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
A missile is being tested in a cylindrical wind tunnel. The diameter of the wind
tunnel is 1 m. The measured upstream and downstream pressures are 2 kPa
gage and 0.5 kPa gage respectively. Assume velocity distribution as above. Air
is assumed incompressible with density of 1.15 kg/m
3
. Assume uniform
pressure and negligible viscous forces at the wall. Determine maximum
velocity at station C and the drag force experience by the missile ?
=30 m/s
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7.3.ApplicationofFME
Example8:(MovingControlVolume)
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Newtons 2
nd
Law (& FME) is equally applicable to control volume
which is moving at a constant velocity. The same FME is applicable
but all taken relative to the moving control volume. Eg. A horizontal jet
of water that is 6 cm in diameter and has a velocity of 20 m/s is
deflected by a vane. The vane is moving in the x direction at a constant
velocity of 7 m/s. Determine the force experience by the vane.
7.4.MomentofMomentumEquation
TheNewtons2
nd
LawcanalsobeappliedtoMOMENTratherthan
forceandstatethat:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
( )
dt
Mr d
T
S
=

Substitution into the Reynolds Transport Equation give :


( )
( ) ( )
o i
C
Mr Mr T
dt
Mr d


+ =
For steady flow :
( ) ( )
i o
Mr Mr T


=
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7.4.MomentofMomentumEquation
Example9:
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler through its base at a
steady rate of 1000 ml/s. The exit area of the 2 nozzles are 30
mm2 and the sprinkler rotates at 500 rpm. Determine (a) The
relative speed of water leaving the nozzle (b) The resistive torque
of the sprinkler system.
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
End of End of Lecture 7 Lecture 7