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• Derivation of Momentum Equation
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Lecture7

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 6: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Integral Relation Integral Relation

for a Control for a Control

Volume (Part 3) Volume (Part 3)

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Integral Relation for CV : Integral Relation for CV : Force Force

Momentum Equation Momentum Equation

2

ChapterSummary

Introduction

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Introduction

DerivationofMomentumEquation

ApplicationsofMomentumEquation

MomentofMomentumEquation

Navier Stokes Equation NavierStokesEquation

7.1.Introduction

MotionoffluidisdependentonNewtons

d

Momentum

Principle

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

SecondLaw

Newtons2

nd

Law:

RateofChangeofMomentumoftheSystem

inthedirectionoftheforce=NetExternal

ForceONthesysteminthesamedirection

Forfluid,sincecontrolvolumeapproachis

?????

used,theGeneralControlVolumeEquation

(ReynoldsTransportEquations)needtobe

used.

Notethatforceandmomentumarevector

quantities

3

7.2.DerivationofFME

ConsiderthegeneralCVEquation:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

o i

S C

X X

dt

dX

dt

dX

+ =

Let X be the momentum in x-direction, M

x

:

o x i x

S x C x

M M

dt

dM

dt

dM

, ,

, ,

+ =

B N t 2

nd

L

dM

By Newton;s 2

nd

Law :

dt

dM

F

S x

x

,

=

o x i x

x

C x

M M F

dt

dM

, ,

,

+ =

7.2.DerivationofFME

TheFMEforgeneralnonuniforminletsandexits:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 67 Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Steady Flow FME :

O f if fl

+ =

outflow All

A

o

low All

A

i x

CV

o i

dA u dA u F ud

dt

d

_

2

inf _

2

i x o x

x

M M F

, ,

=

Or for non-uniform flow :

=

flow All

A

i

outflow All

A

o x

i o

dA u dA u F

inf _

2

_

2

Note that these equation can be applied to y and z

directions

4

7.2.DerivationofFME

NotesonApplicability:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Thenetforcearenetofallexternalforcesacting

ONthecontrolvolume

2typesforcesneedtobeconsidered1)Boundary

forcessuchaspressure(actnormaltothesurface

andtowardsthesurface)andshear(actparallelto

the surface and parallel to the surface 2) Forces thesurfaceandparalleltothesurface2)Forces

acrosstheCVboundaryeg.Gravityormagnetic

force

ApplicationofFMEtoCVisanalogoustodrawing

freebodydiagraminsolidmechanics

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example1:

V

1

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Find the horizontal and

vertical component of the

force exerted on the vane

Solution Steps :

Choose a suitable control volume

A

1

A

2

- Choose a suitable control volume

- Identify the inlets and exit positions

- Identify all the external forces including pressure forces

- Ensure that the MCE is satisfied

- Apply the FME in x and y directions

5

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example2:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Determine the external reactions in the x and y

directions needed to hold this fixed vane. Here V

1

is 28

m/s, V

2

= 27 m/s and Q = 0.20 m

3

/s.

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example3:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

A water jet of diameter 30 mm and speed 20 m/s is filling a

tank. The tank has a mass of 20 kg and contains 20 liters of

water at the instant shown. The water temperature is 15

o

C.

Find the force acting on the bottom of the tank and the force

acting on the stop block. Neglect frictions.

6

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example4:(Nozzle)

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Water flows through this nozzle at a rate of 2 m

3

/s. and

discharge into the atmosphere. D

1

= 0.4 m, D

2

= 0.3 m.

Determine the force required to hold the nozzle in place.

Assume irrotational flow. Neglect the gravitational effect.

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example5:(PipeBend Flange&Bolts)

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

When fluid in a pipe

network pass through a

pipe bend, a force will be

exerted on the bend. For

small and medium size

pipes this force is supplied

P

1

pipes, this force is supplied

by a flange bolts or by

welds. Determine the forces

that will be experienced by

the bolts. (Assume the bend

is in a horizontal plane)

P

2

7

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example6:(PipeBend AnchorBlock)

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

For a large pipe the

bolts joint may be not

adequate and a specially

designed anchor block

may be needed.

Determine the forces that Determine the forces that

will be experienced by

the anchor block.

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example7:(NonUniformVelocity)

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

A missile is being tested in a cylindrical wind tunnel. The diameter of the wind

tunnel is 1 m. The measured upstream and downstream pressures are 2 kPa

gage and 0.5 kPa gage respectively. Assume velocity distribution as above. Air

is assumed incompressible with density of 1.15 kg/m

3

. Assume uniform

pressure and negligible viscous forces at the wall. Determine maximum

velocity at station C and the drag force experience by the missile ?

=30 m/s

8

7.3.ApplicationofFME

Example8:(MovingControlVolume)

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Newtons 2

nd

Law (& FME) is equally applicable to control volume

which is moving at a constant velocity. The same FME is applicable

but all taken relative to the moving control volume. Eg. A horizontal jet

of water that is 6 cm in diameter and has a velocity of 20 m/s is

deflected by a vane. The vane is moving in the x direction at a constant

velocity of 7 m/s. Determine the force experience by the vane.

7.4.MomentofMomentumEquation

TheNewtons2

nd

LawcanalsobeappliedtoMOMENTratherthan

forceandstatethat:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

( )

dt

Mr d

T

S

=

( )

( ) ( )

o i

C

Mr Mr T

dt

Mr d

+ =

For steady flow :

( ) ( )

i o

Mr Mr T

=

9

7.4.MomentofMomentumEquation

Example9:

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler through its base at a

steady rate of 1000 ml/s. The exit area of the 2 nozzles are 30

mm2 and the sprinkler rotates at 500 rpm. Determine (a) The

relative speed of water leaving the nozzle (b) The resistive torque

of the sprinkler system.

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 7: Integral Relations for CV (Part 3)

Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

End of End of Lecture 7 Lecture 7

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