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10977/0814

© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO, 2014.

10977/0814 © Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO, 2014. Smart Grid Power Quality and Stability Measurements
10977/0814 © Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO, 2014. Smart Grid Power Quality and Stability Measurements

Smart Grid Power Quality and Stability Measurements in Europe

P.S.Wright, J.P. Braun, G. Rietveld, H.E. van den Brom and G. Crotti

National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW, UK

paul.wright@npl.co.uk

Aim: “to develop, demonstrate and validate new measurement tools for Smart Grid operational stability and power quality”.

This poster describes a new 3-year (June 2014 to May 2017) metrology project to develop and apply measurement systems in Smart electrical grids. The project involves 14 NMIs and 5 Universities. The project is supported by over 30 industrial and academic stakeholders.

Smart Grids Measurement Needs

• Early warning of Instability – Identify areas of the grid where demand exceeds supply – avoids blackouts.

A “life support monitor” for Smart Grids - Phasor Measurement Units (PMU), in multiple locations to manage stability.

Power Quality (PQ) Disturbances – understand the impact of disturbing connections to the grid

PQ Disturbance “radar” – locate major sources of poor PQ for mitigation and enforcement.

Grid topology and impedance - for grid planning, analysis and mitigate of disturbances.

Transducers – Accurate level transformation, essential for the PMU measurement chain.

mitigate of disturbances. • Transducers – Accurate level transformation, essential for the PMU measurement chain.
mitigate of disturbances. • Transducers – Accurate level transformation, essential for the PMU measurement chain.
mitigate of disturbances. • Transducers – Accurate level transformation, essential for the PMU measurement chain.
mitigate of disturbances. • Transducers – Accurate level transformation, essential for the PMU measurement chain.
Power Quality Propagation and Source Location Network Impedance Measurements Proposed work Problem • Measure
Power Quality Propagation
and Source Location
Network Impedance Measurements
Proposed work
Problem
• Measure impedance using 2 PMUs either end of a grid section.
• Impedance is low, so a small voltage difference must be measured.
• How does a new load/generator disturb the grid ?
• Extend to harmonic impedances
• In a given network do these disturbances decay
or resonate ?
• Can an unknown disturbance be located ?
Solution
PMU/PQ Transducer
Measurements
• Use multiple GPS synchronized digitizers at
locations in a grid
Problem
• Reconcile PQ results with network impedance
and topology.
• Transducers are a vital part of the PMU
measurement chain.
• Investigate source location triangulation
technique from GPS synchronized measurements.
• Frequency response errors will distort captured
waveforms.
• Non-invasive CTs have positional and rotational
repeatability issues.
PMUs in Distribution Networks
Solution
Problem
• Critical decisions to manage grid stability are based on PMUs outputs.
• Characterize the frequency response of VTs using
distorted voltages.
• PMUs in distribution grids require: 1) improved phase discrimination,
2) higher PQ immunity 3) response to dynamic signals.
• Optimize the design and use of non-invasive CTs.
• DSP techniques to correct digitized waveforms.
Solution
Dynamic Performance of PMUs
Smart Grid Test Sites
• Compare new PMU algorithms with signals
of varying frequency, magnitude and phase.
Bornholm Island Test Site
• 28 000 Customers
• Wind Power 36 MW
• Modify existing PMU calibrator to generate
dynamic signals.
• CHP (biomass) 16 MW
• PV 2 MW
• Biogas Plant 2 MW
• 5 District Heating Plants
• Test new algorithms on-site.
Calibrating “PMU Calibrators”
Power Networks Demonstration Centre
• typical 11kV and 400V networks
• replica primary substation
• Commercial PMU calibrators need traceability.
• Characterize the waveform output of the calibrator.
• Improve NMI capability by a factor 10.
Oosterschelde Ring
EDF Concept Test Site
• 3 km of MV grid, 7 km of LV grid,
Alliander LiveLab
• 6 PMUs in 50 kV ring with 5 substations
and 40 km cables
• 2 secondary substations,
• A residential area with 5 smart houses
• Significant RES generation
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European
area with 5 smart houses • Significant RES generation This research is part of the European

This research is part of the European Metrology Research Program (EMRP), jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

www.npl.co.uk