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10°C (----) and 20°C (---) annual isotherms --- OM SINGH A

Area of
Area of the
the world
world vineyard
Total in 1997: 7.8 10 6 hectares
Total in 1997: 7.8 10 hectares

Europa not UE
UE at 15 1 620 (21%)
3 259 (45%) Asia
1 448 (19%)

America Oceania
799 (10%) 98 (1%)

320 (4%)

Source OIV:106 hectares

World wine production by country in hectoliters in 1999
Country rank Production 1999 % 32. NEW ZEALAND 601 966 0,214
Hectoliters 33. AZERBAIJAN 599 960 0,214
34. CYPRUS 554 957 0,198
1. FRANCE 60 230 251 21,439 35. SLOVAKIA 513 965 0,183
2. ITALY 58 068 448 20,670 36. MOROCCO 492 958 0,175
3. SPAIN 32 676 435 11,631 37. TUNISIA 467 977 0,167
4. UNITED STATES 20 210 424 7,194 38. ALGERIA 421 952 0,150
5. ARGENTINA 15 886 743 5,655 39. CANADA 370 968 0,132
6. GERMANY 12 295 043 4,376 40. TURKEY 277 970 0,099
7. AUSTRALIA 8 510 345 3,029 41. TAJIKISTAN 195 003 0,069
8. SOUTH AFRICA 7 967 387 2,836 42. KAZAKHSTAN 190 991 0,068
9. PORTUGAL 7 805 389 2,778 43. LEBANON 188 001 0,067
10. ROMANIA 6 503 501 2,315 44. LUXEMBOURG 183 989 0,065
total 230 153 965 81,924 45. BELARUS 182 967 0,065
11. CHINA 5 199 606 1,851 46. TURKMENISTAN 179 977 0,064
12. CHILE 4 806 609 1,711 47. LITHUANIA 150 000 0,053
13. GREECE 3 679 701 1,310 48. PERU 126 003 0,045
14. HUNGARY 3 338 749 1,188 49. LATVIA 114 004 0,041
15. BRAZIL 3 189 733 1,135 50. ALBANIA 104 996 0,037
16. BULGARIA 2 943 784 1,048 51. PARAGUAY 92 997 0,033
17. AUSTRIA 2 802 793 0,998 52. MADAGASCAR 90 991 0,032
18. RUSSIA 2 139 850 0,762 53. ISRAEL 90 007 0,032
19. CROATIA 2 093 824 0,745 54. ARMENIA 79 977 0,028
20. MOLDOVA 1 899 843 0,676 55. BOSNIA - HERCEG 54 012 0,019
21. UZBEKISTAN 1 499 882 0,534 56. MALTA 35 011 0,012
22. MEXICO 1 426 869 0,508 57. EGYPT 26 987 0,010
23. YUGOSLAVIA 1 399 882 0,498 58. BOLIVIA 19 985 0,007
24. SWITZERLAND 1 309 913 0,466 59. KYRGYSTAN 18 017 0,006
25. JAPAN 1 300 905 0,463 60. UNITED KINGDOM 12 983 0,005
26. MACEDONIA 1 226 908 0,437 61. ESTONIA 9 992 0,004
27. URUGUAY 1 049 921 0,374 62. BELGIUM 2 006 0,001
28. GEORGIA 829 937 0,295 COUNTRY TOTAL 280 909 907 99,991
29. CZECH REPUBLIC 749 960 0,267 OTHER COUNTRIES 24 981 0,009
30. UKRAINE 727 931 0,259
31. SLOVENIA 687 962 0,245 WORLD TOTAL 280 934 888 100,000
World wine production (source OIV 2000)
Oceania Asia
3% America
3% 18%


World wine imports (source OIV 2000 )
1% Asia


Country thousands of Hl %
Germany 12 024,00 19,99
GB 9 631,00 15,56
France 5 583,00 9,28
USA 4 615,00 7,67
Russia 3 768,00 6,26
Netherlands 3 388,00 5,63
Belgium 2 210,00 3,67
Canada 2 194,00 3,65
Switzerland 1 817,00 3,05
Denmark 1 677,00 2,79
world total 60 166,00
World wine exports (source OIV 2000)
Asia America
1% 10%
Oceania Africa
5% 2%


Country thousands of Hl %

Italia 17797 27,49

France 15,85 23,3
Spain 8651 13,36
USA 2973 4,59
Australia 2849 4,4
Chile 2697 4,17
Germany 2537 3,92
Portugal 2100 3,24
Moldavia 1524 2,35
South Africa 1395 2,15
total world 64744
Total Wine Consumption (source OIV 2000)
Asia America
4% 21%


Country thousands of Hl %
France 32 900,00 15
Italia 30 800,00 14,04
USA 21 400,00 9,76
Germany 19 565,00 8,92
Spain 14 500,00 6,61
Argentina 12 749,00 5,82
GB 9 146,00 4,17
China 5 535,00 2,52
Russia 5 500,00 2,51
Romania 5 215,00 2,38
total world 219 357,00
Wine Classification

1. Classified by Fermentation Process

1.1 Natural Wine, 10-14 % alcohol (v/v)
1.2 Fortified Wine, 15-21 % alcohol (v/v)
1.2.1Sweet wine
White wine : Muscatel, white port
Rose wine: California tokay, tawny port
Red wine: port, black muscat
1.2.2 Sherry Aged types, Flor sherry types,
Baked types
1.2.3 Flavoured wines : Vermouth
Wine Classification(2)

2. Classified by Carbondioxide
2.1 Still wine, Table wine
2.2 Sparkling wine: Champange, Carbonated wine

3. Classified by Sweetness
3.1 dry wine
3.2 semi-dry wine
3.3 sweet wine
Wine Classification(3)

4. Classified by Colour
White wine: Chablis, Chardonnay, Pinot blanc, Rhine
wine, Riesling, Sylvaner, Treminer
Rose wine: Rose, Vinorosso
Red wine: Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Claret,
Carnelian, Gamay, Pinot noir, Pinot St.
George, Zinfadel
Wine Classification(4)

5. Classified by Place of Production

5.1 Classified by country : American wine, Australian
wine, French wine, Italian
5.2 Classified by region: Bordeaux, Burgandy,
California, Chablis

Family : Vitaceae
Genus : Vitis

European grape: Vitis vinifera 5000 cultivars

Amirican grape: Vitis labrusca 2000 cultivars
“Foxy” flavour or methyl anthranilate

Vitis rotundifolia
Grapes (2)

1.Vitis vinifera
1.1 Muscat flavour
White wine: Muscat blanc, Gold, Malvasia,
Gianea, Muscat otonel,Orange
Red wine: Muscat
Grapes (3)
1.2 Flavour related to grape cultivars (except Muscat)
White wine: White Riesling, Chadonnay,
Emerald Riesling, Helena, Melon,
Muller-Thurgau, Sauvignon blanc,
Red wine: Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon,
Carnelian, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Durif,
Shiraz, Pinot St. George, Ruby
Cabernet, Tinta Madiera, Tinta Cao,
Grapes (4)
1.3 Flavour unrelated with grape cultivar
White wine: Aligater, French Colombard,
Green Hangarian, Grillo,
Palomino, Thomson seedless,
Exemples of Interspecific Varieties
Baco noir Extremely vigorous variety which is best grown
on heavy soils. Excessive vigor often occurs on light soils,.
The fruit is usually high in acid and produce wines of good
quality which are usually deeply pigmented but low in
tannin content.

Cascade is a productive and moderately hardy variety..

Wines are generally light in color and body with low acidity.

Chambourcin is a late ripening grape which may

produce a highly rated red wine when fruit fully
matures. It requires a long growing season and a
site less subject to low winter temperatures.
Exemples of Interspecific Varieties

Chancellor was once widely planted in France for table wine

production. It is moderately cold hardy and productive. In terms
of wine quality, Chancellor is among the better French-American

Chelois wine quality ranks highly among the French-American

hybrids.. Chelois is suitable for blending with other red hybrids .
Vines are healthy, vigorous and productive,

De Chaunac is a very productive and vigorous variety.. Wine is

only fair in quality and the vine is subject to soil borne virus
problems. Because of shrinking demand, acreage has declined
dramatically in recent years.
Exemples of Interspecific Varieties

Maréchal Foch is a very early ripening black grape with small

berries that produce a fruity light red table wine. The vines are
hardy and medium in vigor and production. Maréchal Foch
should be grafted on a resistant rootstock to ensure adequate

Rougeon The wine is of high color and is used primarily for


Villard noir is a late ripening, productive variety which, on

favorable sites, produces good quality red wine. For best
performance, choose a site with moderate winter temperatures
and a long growing season. Grafted vines are recommended to
improve vigor, especially on heavy soils.
Examples of Interspecific Varieties

Vincent was released in 1967 by the Horticultural Research

Institute of Ontario (HRIO) at Vineland, Canada. The vine is
medium in vigor, very productive and ripens late. This dark blue
grape produces a very dark juice that is useful for blending with
varieties with low pigment content.

Aurore is the most widely planted non-labrusca grape in New York.

Processors have used Aurore to extend the harvest season since
the fruit matures in late August and early September, before most
other varieties are ripe.Wine quality is poor and it is being replaced
by interspecific varieties of higher quality. The major use has been
for bulk wine production, frequently blended with V. labrusca
Exemples of Interspecific Varieties
Cayuga White, is one of the most productive and disease resistant
varieties grown in New York. Its wine has been highly rated, having
medium body, and good balance. An important positive attribute is
its versatility; it lends itself to making semi-sweet wines
emphasizing the fruity aromas, and is also made as a dry, less
fruity wine with oak aging. When harvested early, it may produce a
very attractive sparkling wine with good acidity, good structure, and
pleasant aromas.

Vidal blanc is a heavily productive white wine grape which

produces good quality wine when the fruit reaches maturity. It
requires sites with long growing seasons and moderate winter
temperatures. Small berries are borne on very large, compact.

Chardonel (Plant patent 7860) was named by Cornell University

in 1990 due to superior performance. This cross of Chardonnay
produces an excellent wine when fully ripened, with fruit aromas
characteristic of Chardonnay and Seyval.
Vitis vinifera :
Approximately 5000 Types of grape-varieties are described in the
literature. However, about fifteen types of wines only are able to
produce excellent wines almost everywhere in the world.

•cabernet sauvignon
•grenache noir
•pinot noir
•cabernet franc
• riesling
• muscat
• pinot gris Pinot noir
Concurrently to these grape-varieties exceptional,
a few tens of others, excellent on their local soil
(terroir), are not acclimatized easily elsewhere.
Among the best of them, they are :

•palomino fino

Pinot noir and chardonnay

Red cultivars :

Cabernet sauvignon :

Is associated with the finest

European red wines like
Bordeaux wines. The wine
produce from this grape-variety
is known as one of the world's
finest red wines, with its depth
of complexity and richness of
flavour. Red Bordeaux wines
are created with Cabernet
Sauvignon, often blended with
Cabernet Franc and Merlo.
Gamay noir :
It is the primary black grape of France's
Beaujolais region, where the wines are
typically fermented, spared from aging,
and consumed young to appreciate their
fresh, fruity qualities, with more tang than
Varietal aroma and flavours are similar to
fruit (cherry, strawberry, raspberry) and
floral ( violet, rose ).
The wine produce by Carbonic Maceration
have aroma and flavours like banana,
bubblegum, cotton candy (spun sugar).
After aging in oak barrel (rarely) : vanilla,
coconut, sweet wood, oak, smoke, toast,
tar flavours develop.
Nebbolio :

It is the wine of the Piemont

hills in the Northwest of Italia.
It is the base of the Barolo's,
the Barbaresco and several other
Italian superquality wines .
The wine will reach a deep
and intense ruby red colour. This is a
full body wine, with flavours of
raspberry and violet and even
Pinot noir :
It is a "light red" wine, first planted by
the Gauls, before the Roman invasion.
The Pinot Noir grape is the main grape
used in much of Burgundy,
Champagne, and red Sancerre wine .
A Pinot Noir's colour can be any of a
range of colours from cherry red to
puple red and even brown as the wine
ages. Typical flavours include earth,
leather, vanilla (from the oak), and jam.
The fruity flavours of the jam often
taste like raspberry, strawberry, and
Sangiovese :
It is the primary grape used in Northern
Italy in the region of Tuscany, to make
Chianti and also for Brunello di
Sangiovese produces wines that are
spicy, with good acid levels, smooth
texture and medium body.
The flavour profile of Sangiovese is
fruity, with moderate to high natural acidity
and generally a medium-body ranging
from firm and elegant to assertive and
robust and a finish that can tend towards
The aroma is generally not as
assertive and easily identifiable as
Cabernet Sauvignon, but can have
strawberry, blueberry, faintly floral, violet
or plummy character.
Syrah :
It is the only grape used to make the famous
Rhône wines of Côte Rotie and Hermitage, but
also forms the backbone of most Rhône blends,
including Chateauneuf du Pape in the south of
France. Syrah forms intense wines, with deep
violet, nearly black colour, texture and richness,
and often alcoholic strength, with aromas that
tend to be more spicy than fruity.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Fruit: black currant, blackberry
Terroir: musk, civet, truffle, earth
Floral: grass
Herbal: sandalwood, cedar

Processing Bouquets/Flavors:
Oak (light): vanilla, coconut, sweet wood
Spice: black pepper, licorice, clove, thyme, bay
Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, tar
Bottle Age: cedar, cigar box,
Tempranillo :
It is originated in Spain, Rioja
region. Also grown in Argentina and
Young Temparanillo has a
distinctive strawberry and cherry
When aged, tends to have a
plummy spiciness overlaid with hints
of vanilla oak.
Grenache :

Grenache noir is the world's most widely

planted grape used to make red wine,
sometimes made into a stand-alone varietal,
frequently as a rosé, but most often as a
backbone of red blends. It is one of the primary
grapes of Chateauneuf du Pape and used nearly
exclusively for Rhône rosés and as a major
component in many red Rhône blends in France.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours :
Fruit: black currant, blackberry
Character: rustic, fleshy, sweet, dusty.

Processing Bouquets/Flavors :
Oak (light) vanilla, sweet wood.
Oak (heavy) oak, smoke, toast, tar.
Bottle Age: tobacco, dried apricot, cigar box.
Malbec :
Malbec is popular in Argentina and Chile.
While it once was also grown in Bordeaux, it is
rarely used here in modern years. Malbec is now
the dominant red varietal in the Cahors (France)
area. The Appellation Controlée regulations for
Cahors require a minimum content of 70%. In
Argentina it is almost the most-planted red grape,
and is the third most planted in Chile.

This black grape creates a rustic, mid-bodied

wine, but is most often used in blending with
other wines.

One of the traditional "Bordeaux varietals",

Malbec has characteristics that fall somewhere
between Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. A
midseason ripener, it can bring very deep colour,
ample tannin, and a particular plum-like flavour
component to add complexity to claret blends.
Merlot :
It is by far the most widely planted grape of the entire Bordeaux region
and third, behind carignan and grenache as the most planted black variety
in France. It is the basis of the wines of St. Emilion and Pomerol. Château
Petrus (most expensive Bordeau) is over 90% Merlot. Merlot usually plays
a supporting role in typical Medoc blends with Cabernet sauvignon and
Cabernet franc. It is to the American wine consumer in the 1990s as
"burgundy" was in the 70s. Less than 2,000 acres existed in California in
1985; there are over 12,000 acres today.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours :
Fruit: currant, black cherry, plum .
Spice: caramel, clove, bay leaf, green peppercorn
Herbal: bell pepper, green olive
Floral: violet, rose

Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
Bottle Age: truffle, mushroom, earth, coffee,leather,
cedar, cigar box.
Oak (light): vanilla, coconut, sweet wood.
Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, tar.
Cabernet franc :
Recent studies in ampelographyhave determined that Cabernet franc is
one of the genetic parents of Cabernet sauvignon (the other is sauvignon
blanc). Both Cabernet varieties are among the five major grapes of
Bordeaux. There are Cabernet franc vineyards in Romania, Hungary, the
Balkans, north eastern Italy). New in Australia, New Zealand, and
Argentina. In the United States, Cabernet franc is planted in Long Island,
New York, and in Washington state. California has about 2,000 acres,
mostly planted since 1980.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Fruit: raspberry, cherry, plum, strawberry.
Floral: violet .
Herbal: bell pepper, stems.

Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
Oak (light): vanilla, coconut, sweet wood.
Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, tar.
Bottle Age: musk, mushroom, earth, cedar,
cigar box.
White cultivars :
Chardonnay :
Is ther most well-known wthite cultivars. Its
popularity comes from its consistent
production of an appealing fruit fragance.
Chardonnay also produce Champagne, the
finest sparkling wines and the finest Burgundy
wines like Meursault.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Stone Fruits: apple, pear, peach, apricot.
Citric Fruits: lemon, lime, orange, tangerine.
Tropical Fruits: pineapple, banana, mango,
guava, kiwi.
Floral: acacia, hawthorn.
Terroir: flint, mint.
Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
Malolactic: butter, cream, hazelnut
Oak (light): vanilla, sweet wood, coconut
Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, lees, yeast.
Gewürztraminer :
It is one of the most pungent wine
varietals, easy for even the beginning
taster to recognize by its heady, aromatic
scent. It is one of the major vareities used
for Alsace wines in France near Germany,
bout also in Germany and in Italy's
Tyrollean Alps.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Floral: rose petal, gardenia, honeysuckle.
Fruity : lychee, linalool, peach, mango.
Aggressive: spice, perfume.
Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
Petroleum: terpene, diesel.
Wood: oak (not usually)
Late Harvest: Botrytis, honey, sweet
Semillon :
It is the majority white variety in Bordeaux, Graves, and
Sauternes,There are more in Chile than anywhere else on earth. Early in
the viticultural development of Australia, Semillon dominated as the major
white variety. Semillon grapes make up 80% of the blend in the most
expensive and famous late-harvest wine in the world, Château d'Yquem. It
seems the favorite foil of Botrytis Cinerea, the noble rot which concentrates
the sugars, flavours and aromas of Sauternes wines in France (Bordeaux).

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Fruity: fig, lemon, pea.r
Spice: saffron.
Herbal: grass, weeds.
Vegetal: bell pepper, asparagus.
Processing Bouquets/Flavours :
Botrytis: apricot, quince, peach,
honey, pineapple, vanilla, candy.
Malolactic: butter, cream.
Oak (light): vanilla, sweet wood.
Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast.
Sauvignon :
Is the major white cultivar
in bordeaux and the upper
Loire valley in France.It is
popular in California and New
Zeland. Although, it often
shows green peeper and
herbaceous odours, better
clones possess subtil floral
Riesling :
Because of both its cellar longevity and its ability to maintain varietal identity
while reflecting the individuality of its terroir, Riesling may be the best of all the
white wine grapes. Its homeland is Germany. Finest Late harvest wines are
produced (noble rot) in Germany : Trockenbeerenauslese.
The best German vineyards on the Mosel River produce riesling wines that are
unique in their low alcohol, powerful aroma, and high extract.
This grape also is very successful in Alsace (France), California, Washington
and Oregon, but also Australia, South Africa, Chile, Austria, Switzerland,
Russia, Yugoslavia, and Italy.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Floral: woodruff, rose petal.
Stone Fruits: apple, pear, peach apricot.
Tropical Fruits: (not usually).
Growing & Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
violetPetroleum: terpene, diesel.
Mineral: flint, steel, gun metal .
Muscat :

Muscat is a very ancient variety and,

with its strong and distinctive perfume, was
probably one of the first to be identified and
cultivated. Nearly every Mediterranean
country has a famous wine based on
Muscat and varying from light and bone dry,
to low-alcohol sparkling versions, to very
sweet and alcoholic potions.

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Perfume: terpine.
Spice: coriander.
Fruit: peach, orange.

Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
(best if not aged in wood)
Pinot gris :
probably is the best-known "white" variant-
clone of Pinot Noir. Ripe pinot gris grapes may be
described as having colours from bluish grey to
light pinkish brown.
The main base of Pinot gris appreciation is
Alsace in France and Friuli in Italy.
In Alsace, the Pinot gris grape is called tokay
d'Alsace (no relation to the Hungarian Tokay).
Riesling is produced also in California and

Varietal Aromas/Flavours:
Floral: (vague)
Fruit: apple, pear.

Processing Bouquets/Flavours:
Oak: vanilla, sweet wood, smoke.
Malolactic (unusual): butter, cream.
Grapes (5)

2. Vitis labrusca
“Foxy” flavour or methyl anthranilate
White wine: Niagara, Diamond, Dutchess, Elvira,
Missouri, Riesling Noah
Red wine: Concord, Agawam, Black pearl,
Campbell’s early, Catawa, Clinton,
Delaware, Diana, Iona, Isabella,
Ives, Niabell, Steuben, Vergennes
Grapes (6)
3. Vitis rotundifolia
fruit flavour and muscadine flavour
White wine: Scuppesviong, Topsail, Willard
Red wine: Burgaw, Eden, Hunt, James, Thompson

4. Hybrid grapes
White wine: Verdelet, Vidal blanc, Vigonoles
Red wine: Baco noir, Beta Cascade, Chombourcin,
Chancellor, Colobel, Landal, Rosette,
Royalty, Salvador
Harvest method :
Manual :
•traditional method preserves the
fruit integrity. Some cultivars
(Semillon, Muscat) are crushed so
easily that unacceptable juice loss
occurs during mechanical
•possibility to sort good berries
specially for botrytised late harvest
•In France,few appellation control
wines (Champagne), mechanical
harvest is forbiden.
Mechanical :
Advantages :
•1 - one machine works equivalent to 80 workers.
•2 - fruit harvest under almost any weather
conditions or any time of the day can save a crop,
when conditions demand rapid harvest.
•3 - grape can be quickly deliveried to the winery for
processing without deterioration of the fruit,
especially, in hot and humid conditions (fungi,

Disadvantages :
•1 - the most important is that leaves are present
in the harvested grape gives undesirable
herbaceous flavours, bitterness, and astringent
•2 – impossible sort.
Two movements are possible
According the type of


Vertical vibration
Grape after mechanical harvest
• Wild Yeast
-Candida colliculosa
-Candida pulcherrima
-Hansennula anomala
-Kloeckera apiculata
• Wine Yeast
-Saccharomyces carlsbergensis
-Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-Saccharomyces capensis or fermentati

• Open Fermentor
• Close Fermentor

• Materials of Fermentor
Cement Pond with Glazed Tiles
Wood Barrel
Fiber Glass Barrel
Stainless Barrel
Glass Bottle
Raw material Preparation

Add KMS 100 ppm (0.01%)

Crushing & Pressing

Must Fermented Must & Pressed Fermented

White Wine Rose wine & Red wine

Crushing and stemming


stalk Crushed and stemmed grape


Grape must & pressed

10% Starter
Improve quality
Ferment for 3-5 days
(Soluble Solid: 5-6 obrix) Wine KMS 50 ppm (0.005%)
(filtration, Centrifugation, Siphon)
Maturing (1 Month)
Lees, Sediment
Wine KMS 50 ppm (0.005%)
2 weeks Sediment
Alcoholic fermentation

sugars Carbon dioxide + Ethanol

180 g 88 g Carbon dioxide + 92 g Ethanol


Microorganism : Saccahromyces cerevisiae

Note :
•They are few (102 UFC/g) or no yeast cells on ripe fruits, perhaps, they
are air contaminant or carried by insects.
•The inocculum appears to be the winery. Strains isolated from wine are
typically identical to that isolated from equipment in winery.
Fermentation :
Spontaneous fermentation produces different wines in
relation with the diversity of indigenous yeast strains.

Advantages of using selected yeast strains :

•Rapid fermentation with limitation of spoilage by
undesirable yeasts, bacteria or moulds (killer)
•Total consumption of sugars
•Standardization of the process and the wines
•Resistance to high level of alcohol
•Low level of sulfur dioxide synthesis
•No synthesis of malate
•No or few foaming production
•Good viability after drying
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Microscopic fungi :

•Aerobic or anaerobic

•Optimal growth temperature : 28° C


•Weak Pasteur effect (inhibition of the fermentation by oxygen)

•Strong glucose effect (repression of the respiration,[glucose<1g/l])

pressing White cinnamic acids
must Must
enzymatic oxidation browning

cinnamates whine
flavanols browning
stilbènes O2
Skin maceration
Macération : red musts

Maceration for a long time at 24 to 27° C

Higher O°C increase extraction of phenolic

compounds (pigments, tanins, aromas)
essential for red wines characters

Fermentation begin during macération :

ethanol is the major solvant for pigment
and tanin extractions
Performances of the turbo-pigeage
Macération : red musts

Maceration and fermetation occurs in conjunction

CO2 produced from the fermentation process is traped as

little bubbles in the mass of stems and grape skins,
eventually making them float to the surface, creating a
cap, or “chapeau”
chapeau in French.
Once float to the surface, the juice is no longer in
contact,therefore, the necessary colours and flavours are
no longer extracted.
Macération : red musts

There are seven different methods of vinifying red wine to

have the best extracting colour, aromas and tannins from the
grape skins :

•1 - The traditional french pigeage or punching the cap down,

consists of stamping the grapes with the feet. Today, many
equipments exist like turbo-pigeage.
Macération : red musts

•2 -. Submerged cap process : the juice is placed in a tank below a

stainless steel screen that will keep the skins and stalks below
the surface of the juice. The best version of the submerged cap
incorporates a chimney in the middle of the screen, allowing the
gas to escape and keeping the skins and stalks free.
Macération : red musts
•3 - :pumping over : the juice is pumped out from the bottom
of the vat and sprayed into the top onto the skins and stalks.
The juice extracts colour as it falls through the cap.

Macération : red musts
• 4 Autovinificator: Algeria in the 1950s, there was often no power in
the far reaches of the countr., It resembles a big box with three layers

The top layer is a trough with a tube where juice comes out
and another where it falls back in.

The middle layer is where the grape stalks and skins are
placed, and where the tube allowing juice back in stops.

The bottom layer is where all the fermenting juice is placed.

As the carbon dioxide gas pressure from fermentation
increases, juice is sent up the tube that empties into the trough at the
top until the juice level falls below that of the gas escape tube. The
pressure drops and the juice that is now in the trough falls back
through, onto the cap and back into the fermenting juice, and the
process continues.
Macération : red musts

•4 Autovinificator:
While, this is an extremely efficient method, it does not
allow for temperature control and there is also a risk of
oxidation for the juice.

It is frequently used in Portugal to make Port, where

extracting as much colour as possible in a very short
time is necessary to the best quality of the final wine.
Macération : red musts

• 5 rotary fermenters : Similar to a cement truck, rotary

fermenters are vats with paddles inside. Turning the
fermenter in one direction uses the paddles to mix the juice
and grape skins, and turning ito the anther direction will
empty the fermenter . These fermenters tend to be very good
with difficult grapes, such as Pinot Noir, that has relatively
smaller amounts of colour pigments found in the skin.
Macération : red musts

•6 thermovinification :
- It easy to extract colour by heating up the juice and skins to 60
to 75°C for about 20 minutes.
-It used to improve colour extraction from pale colour grape
- Thermovinification favours rapid fermentation
- The must is pressed immediately after heating up and only the
juice is fermented.

-The negative side of this process is the prodcution of a cooked

flavour and bluish tint to the colour
Macération : red musts

•7 Carbonic maceration (Beaujolais nouveau) :is

used during primary fermation to produce light red wines
with low tannins, intense colour, and fresh, fruity flavours
and aromas should be consumed early.

• Two fermentations take place during the carbonic

maceration process, temperature is about 30° - 32°C.

ƒ First inside the grapes themselve, anaerobic

metabolism of berries is favoured.

ƒ Second the usual fermentation by yeast.

The carbonic maceration process begins by dumping whole
bunches of freshly picked, uncrushed grapes into the large vats
filled with carbon dioxide and selected yeast.
In this process :
ƒ The bottom grapes are crushed by the weight of the grapes
above them, and fermentation begins with the exuded juice
ƒ Fermentation develops more carbon dioxide gas, which
envelops the upper layers of uncrushed grapes and blocks
the air exposure that normally would occur.
ƒ Fermentation begins within the whole grapes, and in free
run juice.
ƒ. Finally, the whole batch is pressed, and fermentation is
finished in a usual way.
Transformations during carbonic maceration :
¾ 20% of the fruit may be ruptured to release juice.
¾ During the initial phase, autolysis of cellular structures leads
to 35 – 55% ruptured fruits.
¾ Alcoholic content in berry (alcoholic fementation) increases
to reach 2.5 % that stop all berry metabolisms (after 6 to 8
¾ Activation of the shikimic acid patway occurs with
accumulation of aromatic phenolic compounds such as, ethyl
cinnamate, benzaldehyde, vinyl benzene and esters, salicyclic
acid, eugenol, ethyl or methyl vanillates, guaiacols, phenols
¾ Increase in ammonium content and availability of amine
acids explain rapid inception and complétion of alcoholic
Carbonic maceration….
¾ Second phase occurs at low temperature (18 to 20 °C )
To preserve fruity flavour of wines.
¾ Alcoholic fermentation usually complete within 48 hours.

¾ Advantages of carbonic maceration :

1 - Development of a unique fruity bouquet and mild
taste (when transform grape with little unique varietal
aroma). Carbonic maceration enhance the expression
of varietal aromas such as Syrah or Marechal foch
2 - Early maturing character of the wines. Wines are
enjoyable only a few weeks after production (vins
primeurs in french are consumed in November, 2
months after harvest.
Carbonic maceration….
¾ Disadvantages of carbonic maceration :
1- Rapid loss of the fruity aroma that chracterize the
process. Shelf life is only about six months to a year.
2 - Need to harvest manually
3 - Tie up fermentor space at harvest time.
Pressing :
Pressing separates the juice or partially vinified wine from seeds
and skin of the must.

Batch press : vertical or horizontal, requires repeated cycle of filling,

pressing and dumping.

Continous press : more efficient and more rapid than batch press. They
run without interruption. Juice is added at one end and pressed pomace
is ejected at the other end.

Advantages \ Disadvantages :
- High pressure is usualy required in continous-press operation,
often extract excessive amounts of suspensded solids.
- 0.1 to 0.5% suspended solid favours rapid and complete
fermentation, but higher level leads to add high level of sulfite and
difficult to clarify.
Pressing :
ƒ To achieve better control of the levels of suspended solids, most
premium wine producers use either horizontal or pneumatic
ƒ This press applies pressure more uniformly over a large surface,
permitting the use of lower pressure.
ƒ During pressing, they are several cyles, each is separated by a
ƒ Crumbling breaks up the pressed pomace and permits easier
extraction of the entrapped juice/wine.

ƒNote :
-The individual pressed fraction is often kept for individual
- in red wine making, the latter pressing fractions contain the
highest concentration of pigments and tanins.
-It is possible to blend these different wines to produce desired
Pressing :
In Champagne traditional vertical presses are used.
One batch presses about 4,000 Kg of grape. Three batches yield
1,666 l of must.

Horizontal Press

Vertical Press
Continous Press

Designed as a traditional Champagne Press

New pneumatic vertical press
(firm Coquard, Champagne)
with out crumbling Special feature : a perfect,very fast
break-up of the grape marc due to
the rotating perforated tray
Horizontal pneumactic press firm Willmes (Germany)

go back
Post fermentation practices

Maturation in Oak

Heating oak staves

over an open fire
soften the wood and
ease stave bending
Post fermentation practices

Maturation in Oak

The firing induces the hydrolysis of

hemicelluloses and converts sugars
released from hemicelluloses in
furan aldehydes such as furfural, 3-

Note : because of the considerable expensiveness associated with

barrels and maintenance, one option is the use of long oak stips.
Post fermentation practices

Maturation in Oak

Wine maturation in new oak cooperage is often

used to add elements of flavour complexity
( boisé in Franch )
Post fermentation practices

Maturation in Oak :
•White oak species : Quercus alba, Q. robur,
Q. sessilis, they are different in aromatic and
tanin compositions among these different
•More than 200 aromatic constituents have
been isolated.
•Two thirds of the compounds those dissolve
into wine are phenolic compounds.
Post fermentation practices

Maturation in Oak :
Phenolic compounds are :

•Ellagitanins : polymer of gallic acid / glucose dimers.

•Ferrulic and p-coumaric acids

•Lignins : (with wine) break down to release a wide range of

phenolic aldehydes such as : vanillin, syinaldehyde and
cinnamaldehyde. (vanilla fragrance associated with
prolonged aging in oak)
Post fermentation practices

Maturation in Oak :

•Other compounds are :

•Oak lactones : isomers of 3-methyl-g-octalactone

and γ-nonalactones.
Colour Change in Wine

๏ Red colour of Anthocyanins

- Vitis vinifera : monoglucoside
- Vitis rotundifolia: 3, 5 diglucoside

Factors that effect colour in red wine

1. Period of colour extract
2. Oxygen ( Not over 40 mg. / L. -year )
3. Temperature
4. Acidity & Basidity
5. Period of maturation ( 3 year in barrel or bottle will lost
Anthhocyanins about 50% )
Turbidity in wine
• Suspended substant
• Microorganisms
• Tannin
• Protein ( Molecular weight: 40,00-200,000; pl 4.8-5.7 )
Wines Appellation Control Law in France :

L'INAO (National Institute of the Labels of Origin), Is a public

etablishment instituted by the law of July 30, 1935.
Its missions : recognition of the labels of Appellation d'Origine
Contrôlée (AOC), and labels of origin of higher quality, Vins De
Qualité Supérieure (VDQS)
the different labels or designations are:

AOC : Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée

AOVDQS : Appellation d'Origine : Vin délimité de Qualité
Vins de pays
Vins de table

In E.U there are two classifications of wine :

VQPRD : Wine of quality produced in determined region
Vins de table
AOC :'Verified Place of Origin'
these wines are the finest, and are scrupulously regulated. They are
typical and specific wines whose characteristics are linked to :
geographical origin (french term=terroir)
grape variety
viticultural practices
maximum yield by hectare
techniques of winemaking
minimum alcohol content
physico-chemical analysis
Today : 90,000 wine growers have their activity based on AOC
The surface production is of 459,740 Ha, ie 51% of the whole
French vineyard.
Volume production is 3 billion bottles, 41% of the total
The sales of AOC wine exceeds 61 Billion francs, export
exceed 30 billion francs.