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# Design of Machine Elements

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A static load is defined as a force which is gradually applied to a mechanical component
and which does not change its magnitude or direction with respect to time.
Engineering materials are classified into two groupsductile and brittle materials. A
ductile material is one which has a relatively large tensile strain before fracture takes place. On
the other hand, a brittle material has a relatively small tensile strain before fracture. Structural
steels and aluminium are ductile materials, while cast iron is an example of a brittle material.
A mechanical component may fail, that is, may be unable to perform its function
satisfactorily, as a result of any one of the following three modes of failure,
(i) Failure by elastic deflection
(ii) Failure by general yielding
(iii) Failure by fracture.
While designing a component, it is necessary to provide sufficient reserve strength in case of an
accident. This is achieved by taking a suitable factor of safety (n).
The factor of safety is defined as

The allowable stress is the stress value, which is used in design to determine the
dimensions of the component. It is considered as a stress, which the designer expects will not be
exceeded under normal operating conditions.

Yield strength in shear is 50% of the yield strength in tension.
Ie:

Design of Machine Elements
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Problems
1. A cast iron link, as shown in Fig. is required to transmit a steady tensile load of 45 kN. Find
the tensile stress induced in the link material at sections A-A and B-B.

Given Data:

Tensile stress induced at section A-A

Tensile stress induced at section B-B

--------------------------------(2-1)
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2. A hydraulic press exerts a total load of 3.5 MN. This load is carried by two steel rods,
supporting the upper head of the press. If the safe stress is 85 MPa and E = 210 kN/mm2,
find : 1. diameter of the rods, and 2. extension in each rod in a length of 2.5 m.
Given Data:

1. Diameter of the rods

2. Extension in each rod

--------------------------------(2-1)

--------------------------------(2-2)
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3. A pump lever rocking shaft is shown in Fig. The pump lever exerts forces of 25 kN and 35
kN concentrated at 150 mm and 200 mm from the left and right hand bearing respectively.
Find the diameter of the central portion of the shaft, if the stress is not to exceed 100 MPa.

Given Data:

Note: Equations for moment of inertia I, for various cross sections, are given in table 2.7

--------------------------------(2-91)
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4. A beam of uniform rectangular cross-section is fixed at one end and carries an electric motor
weighing 400 N at a distance of 300 mm from the fixed end. The maximum bending stress in
the beam is 40 MPa. Find the width and depth of the beam, if depth is twice that of width.

Given Data:

5. A wall rack, used to store round steel bars, consists of two I-section cantilever beams fixed
in the wall. The bars are stacked in triangular fashion as shown in figure. The total weight of
the bars is 75kN. The permissible bending stress for cantilevers is 165N/mm2.

Design of Machine Elements
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Note: Standard beam sections can be selected from table 24.31
Given Data:

6. An offset link subjected to a force of 25kN is shown in figure. It is made of grey cast iron
FG300 and the factor of safety is 3. Determine the dimensions of the cross-section of the

Note: Material properties for F300 is given in table 1-4
Given Data:

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7. A steel shaft 35 mm in diameter and 1.2 m long held rigidly at one end has a hand wheel 500
mm in diameter keyed to the other end. The modulus of rigidity of steel is 80 GPa.
a. What load applied to tangent to the rim of the wheel produce a torsional shear of
60 MPa?
b. How many degrees will the wheel turn when this load is applied?
Given Data:

--------------------------------(2-99)

--------------------------------(2-86)
Design of Machine Elements
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8. A shaft is transmitting 97.5 kW at 180 r.p.m. If the allowable shear stress in the material is 60
MPa, find the suitable diameter for the shaft. The shaft is not to twist more that 1 in a length
of 3 metres. Take C = 80 GPa.
Given Data:

1. Considering strength of the shaft

--------------------------------(2-88)
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2. Considering stiffness of the shaft

9. A hollow shaft is required to transmit 600 kW at 110 r.p.m., the maximum torque being 20%
greater than the mean. The shear stress is not to exceed 63 MPa and twist in a length of 3
metres not to exceed 1.4 degrees. Find the external diameter of the shaft, if the internal
diameter to the external diameter is 3/8. Take modulus of rigidity as 84 GPa.
Given Data:

1. Considering strength of the shaft

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3. Considering stiffness of the shaft

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Theories of failure
The maximum normal stress
theory (Rankines theory)
(Used for brittle materials)

5.29
The maximum shear stress
theory (Guests Theory)
(Used for ductile materials)

5.30
The shear energy theory
(Hencky-Von mises theory)
(Used for ductile materials)

5.31
The maximum strain theory
(Saint Venants theory)

5.32

10. A cylindrical shaft made of steel of yield strength 700 MPa is subjected to static loads
consisting of bending moment 10 kN-m and a torsional moment 30 kN-m. Determine the
diameter of the shaft using two different theories of failure, and assuming a factor of safety
of 2. Take E = 210 GPa and poisson's ratio = 0.25.
Given Data:

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11. A mild steel shaft of 50 mm diameter is subjected to a bending moment of 2000 N-m and a
torque T. If the yield point of the steel in tension is 200 MPa, find the maximum value of this
torque without causing yielding of the shaft according to 1. the maximum principal stress; 2.
The maximum shear stress; and 3. the maximum distortion strain energy theory of yielding.

Design of Machine Elements
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