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Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Condensate Recovery Systems Condensate When steam transfers its heat in a process, he
Condensate Recovery Systems Condensate Recovery Systems Condensate When steam transfers its heat in a process, he
Condensate Recovery Systems Condensate Recovery Systems Condensate When steam transfers its heat in a process, he

Condensate

When steam transfers its heat in a process, heat exchanger, or heating coil, it reverts to a liquid phase called condensate. Condensate is condensed steam, not water.

Condensate contains:

Water

Boiler treatment chemicals

Particulate

Most importantly – energy

chemicals • Particulate • Most importantly – energy Condensate therefore, needs to be returned to the

Condensate therefore, needs to be returned to the boiler to:

Improve energy efficiency

Reduce chemical cost

Reduce make-up water costs

Reduce sewer system disposal costs

Why Have Pumps?

In gravity type systems the condensate lines do not have the pressure to flow the condensate back to the boiler operation; therefore there is a need to have a vented condensate pumping system. Another common application is the main collection point in the boiler operation, where there is a need to collect the condensate and pump the condensate to the deaerator system. In low, medium and high pressure systems there is a need for condensate pumps depending the on the design of the system.

Types of Pumping Systems:

Electric (on-off operation)

Electric (continuous flow operation)

Steam motive type pump (self actuating)

Electric (continuous flow operation) • Steam motive type pump (self actuating) Steam System Training 13-1 2003

Steam System Training

13-1

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems • Air motive type pump (self actuating) • Electric type steam or air
Condensate Recovery Systems • Air motive type pump (self actuating) • Electric type steam or air

Air motive type pump (self actuating)

Electric type steam or air motive pump

Applications for Each Type

Electric (On-Off) As the condensate level in the tank increases to a certain level, contacts close in a float switch and start the condensate pump. The pump operates, until the condensate level decreases to a point that the float switch contact opens and the pump stops. This operation repeats as the water level rises and falls.

The pump is allowed to operate at a nearly constant head-capacity point and not over the entire pump curve as with continuous operation.

over the entire pump curve as with continuous operation. • Condensate capacities of 8,000 lbs per

Condensate capacities of 8,000 lbs per hour or less

Single pump or dual pump

Gravity systems, low pressure or medium pressure return system

Advantages:

o

Low cost

o

Simple operation

Disadvantages:

o

Low capacities

o

Surging in the condensate lines during pumping mode

Electric (Continuous Flow) The condensate level is controlled by a modulating valve, which regulates to keep a constant condensate level in the tank. As the demand increases and the level start to increase, the valve opens further to let more condensate flow though the valve into the condensate return system. As the demand decreases and the level begins to drop; the valve closes down and reduces the amount of condensate being discharged.

the valve closes down and reduces the amount of condensate being discharged. Steam System Training 13-2

Steam System Training

13-2

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems The condensate pump operates continuously and pumps against the modulating valve. The flow
Condensate Recovery Systems The condensate pump operates continuously and pumps against the modulating valve. The flow

The condensate pump operates continuously and pumps against the modulating valve. The flow corresponds to the pump performance curve at various discharge heads relating to settings of the modulating valve.

Continuous operation is more suited to centrifugal pump operation, which allows for wide capacity changes over a smaller change head pressure. Also, the horsepower does not increase as a pump is operating against a nearly closed modulating valve, which can occur during operation.

Condensate capacities above 8,000 lbs per hour (high capacities)

Single pump operation (most common)

Gravity systems, low pressure or medium pressure return system

Advantages:

High capacities

Handles load variations

Continuous flow of condensate in the return system, therefore no surging in the condensate lines

Disadvantages:

More complicated

Higher initial cost

Steam Motive Pump (Self Actuating)

The operating force of this type of pump is steam, and the consumption is very low. Since the pump handles a low volume of condensate at each stroke, its applications are somewhat limited.

The steam-powered pumps can be used in a closed loop system or a vented system to atmosphere. In a closed loop system, a steam trap must be installed at the discharge of the pump unit.

loop system, a steam trap must be installed at the discharge of the pump unit. Steam
loop system, a steam trap must be installed at the discharge of the pump unit. Steam

Steam System Training

13-3

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems A vented receiver or collection header is an essential part of the in
Condensate Recovery Systems A vented receiver or collection header is an essential part of the in

A vented receiver or collection header is an essential part of the installation, as any flash

steam must be separated from the condensate before it reaches the pump assembly.

Condensate capacities of 8,000 lbs per hour or less

Gravity systems, low pressure or medium pressure return system

o

Advantages:

 

Low cost

Simple operation

No electric is required

Used in explosion proof areas

o

Disadvantages:

Low capacities

Needs a fill head

Mechanical failures of the mechanism

Venting on flash steam in the chamber is limited

Air Motive Pump (Self Actuating)

The operating force of this type of pump is compressed air, and the consumption is very low. Since the pump handles a low volume of condensate at each stroke, its applications are somewhat limited.

It is not recommended that these types of pumps be

used in groups to handle larger condensate loads.

CONDENSATE PUMPS

Condensate capacities of 8,000 lbs per hour or less

Gravity systems, low pressure or medium pressure return system

Advantages:

Gravity systems, low pressure or medium pressure return system • Advantages: Steam System Training 13-4 2003

Steam System Training

13-4

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems • Low cost • Simple operation • No electric is required • Used
Condensate Recovery Systems • Low cost • Simple operation • No electric is required • Used
Condensate Recovery Systems • Low cost • Simple operation • No electric is required • Used

Low cost

Simple operation

No electric is required

Used in explosion proof areas

Disadvantages:

Uses compressed air, which is typically a higher cost utility

Low capacities

Needs a fill head

Mechanical failures of the mechanism

Venting on flash steam in the chamber is limited

failures of the mechanism Venting on flash steam in the chamber is limited Steam System Training
failures of the mechanism Venting on flash steam in the chamber is limited Steam System Training

Steam System Training

13-5

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Electrical Steam or Air Motive Type Pump The operating force of this type
Condensate Recovery Systems Electrical Steam or Air Motive Type Pump The operating force of this type
Condensate Recovery Systems Electrical Steam or Air Motive Type Pump The operating force of this type

Electrical Steam or Air Motive Type Pump

The operating force of this type of pump is steam or compressed air. This type of unit uses electrical level sensors to activate the steam or compressed air motive force.

Condensate capacities of 8,000 lbs per hour or less

Gravity systems, low pressure or medium pressure return system

Advantages:

No electrical pump

Disadvantages:

More complex than all other designs

Low capacities

Needs a fill head

More complex than all other designs Low capacities Needs a fill head Steam System Training 13-6

Steam System Training

13-6

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Selecting the Correct Pumping System • Capacity required • Maximum • Minimum •
Condensate Recovery Systems Selecting the Correct Pumping System • Capacity required • Maximum • Minimum •

Selecting the Correct Pumping System

Capacity required

Maximum

Minimum

Normal

Tank sizing

Required discharge pressure

NPSH required due to the temperature of the condensate

Control of the flow of condensate

Flash and neglect steam venting

Location and installation

Capacity Required

The plant needs to document the required capacity of the condensate pumping system. Condensate pumps are used in a variety of process and heating applications. The maximum load is never usually achieved and there is typically a great variance between the normal high condensate flow and the minimum condensate flow. Therefore, careful consideration must be given when defining the condensate capacity.

Sizing of Receivers

The receiver should be sized for capacity sufficient to allow condensate storage for a minimum of 15 minutes.

Example:

Given condensate load:

4,000 lbs. per hour

4,000 div by 8.3 div by 60 = 8.03 gpm

8.03 gpm x 15 = 120 gallon storage tank

The tank material is typically a heavy wall steel tank or a stainless steel. In some cases, the tank is coated with a corrosion-resistive material.

It is recommended that the tank be stamped ASME, even if the tank is vented to atmosphere, to provide a more desirable tank construction for industrial applications.

to provide a more desirable ta nk construction for indus trial applications. Steam System Training 13-7

Steam System Training

13-7

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems What Causes Cavitation As liquid enters the eye of the impeller in a
Condensate Recovery Systems What Causes Cavitation As liquid enters the eye of the impeller in a

What Causes Cavitation

As liquid enters the eye of the impeller in a centrifugal pump, its pressure is reduced. If

the absolute pressure at the impeller eye drops down to the vapor pressure of the fluid, vapor pockets begin to form. As these vapor pockets travel in the fluid along the vanes of

the impeller, pressure increases and the pockets collapse.

This collapse is called

Cavitation is not only noisy but also damages the pump impeller, shaft and seal, and, over time, may reduce pumping capacity. NPSH refers to the minimum suction pressure, expressed in feet of water column, that is required to prevent the forming and collapsing of these vapor pockets.

The diagram shows the change in system pressure (P s ) as the fluid travels through the impeller. To prevent cavitation, P s must remain above the vapor pressure.

The top curve shows system pressure (P s ) remaining above fluid vapor pressure as it passes through the pumps; cavitation cannot occur. The bottom curve shows P s falling below the vapor pressure as it enters the impeller eye. This will cause cavitation. The cutaway view of a pump on the right shows the passage of flow through the impeller.

cavitation

.

the passage of flow through the impeller. cavitation . Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) A critical

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

A critical factor that should be investigated in the

selection of a condensate pump is the NPSH due to the high temperatures that do occur in condensate returns.

NPSH is determined by factors:

Temperature

Altitude

NPSH

Static head

Capacity

NPSH = Barometric Pressure, Ft. + Static Head on suction,ft. - friction losses in suction piping, ft. - Vapor Pressure of liquid, ft.

in suction piping, ft. - Vapor Pressure of liquid, ft. • Defined as a suction pressure

Defined as a suction pressure minus vapor pressure expressed in feet of liquid at the pump suction. Results from the height of water above the pump suction.

Suction Head = Total Pressure of Liquid Entering the Pump Suction

suction. • Suction Head = Total Pressure of Liquid Entering the Pump Suction Steam System Training

Steam System Training

13-8

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Two Values of NPSH There are two values of NPSH: NPSHR and NPSHA.
Condensate Recovery Systems Two Values of NPSH There are two values of NPSH: NPSHR and NPSHA.

Two Values of NPSH

There are two values of NPSH: NPSHR and NPSHA.

NPSHR (required) is the amount of suction head required to prevent pump cavitation, is determined by the pump design, and is indicated on the pump curve. It varies between different makes of pumps, between different pumps of the same design and varies with the capacity and speed of any one pump. This is a value that must be supplied by the maker of the pump.

NPSHA (available) is the amount of suction head available or total useful energy above the vapor pressure at the pump suction. This is determined by the system conditions. NPSH typically is measured in ft of liquid.

Pounds Pressure versus Feet of Head

Each pound of pressure developed by a pumping system is equal to 2.31 feet of head. Therefore, 10 pounds of pressure (PSI) will lift water vertically 23.1 feet.

This can be calculated for any setting using the following formula:

Pounds per sq. in. = Head in Feet

Head in Feet

2.31

= Pounds per sq. in. x 2.31

TABLE 1—NPSHA (at sea level) at various temperatures.

 

Temp., F.

Vapor pressure of water, psia

Vapor pressure of water, ft

Positive head, ft

220

17.186

39.7

0

218

16.533

38.2

0

216

15.901

36.7

0

214

15.289

35.3

0

212

14.696

33.95

0

210

14.123

32.6

1.35

208

13.568

31.3

2.65

206

13.031

30.1

3.85

204

12.512

28.9

5.05

202

12.011

27.7

6.25

200

11.526

26.6

7.35

28.9 5.05 202 12.011 27.7 6.25 200 11.526 26.6 7.35 Steam System Training 13-9 2003

Steam System Training

13-9

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems (Note: Water Temperature Rating) (Warning) One of the most common pu mp systems
Condensate Recovery Systems (Note: Water Temperature Rating) (Warning) One of the most common pu mp systems
Condensate Recovery Systems (Note: Water Temperature Rating) (Warning) One of the most common pu mp systems

(Note: Water Temperature Rating) (Warning)

One of the most common pump systems is the floor mounted horizontal tank with one or more pumps mounted to the side of the tank. It must be understood that this design is usually operated at temperatures below 205 degrees F. If temperature is higher the pumps will cavitate and malfunction.

is higher the pumps will cavitate and malfunction. Another type of electric pump system is one

Another type of electric pump system is one with the tank elevated above the pumps. This arrangement provides the necessary NPSH for the pumps, thus relieving a lot of the problems with high condensate temperatures. This design is able to operate with higher condensate temperatures and is the preferred way of pumping condensate.

Intermittent

(On/Off)

VS

Continuous

Operation

When designing condensate return pump systems there are two ways to operate the pumps, on/off and continuous flow.

8,000 lbs or less

8,001 lbs or more

On-Off operation

Continuous flow

less • 8,001 lbs or more On-Off operation Continuous flow To select flow rate for condensate

To select flow rate for condensate pumps (on-off), multiply the required flow by 3 to determine pumping capacity of a pump operating 1/3 of the time.

Example:

Given condensate rate

=

4000 pounds per hour

Pumping rate (GPM)

4000 Lbs. /Hr.

 
 

÷

8.33

x 3

÷

60

=

24.1 GPM

Select a pump for approximately 24 GPM

8.33 x 3 ÷ 60 = 24.1 GPM Select a pump for approximately 24 GPM Steam

Steam System Training

13-10

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Continuous flow should have a by-pass orifice or recirculation valve. These devices will
Condensate Recovery Systems Continuous flow should have a by-pass orifice or recirculation valve. These devices will

Continuous flow should have a by-pass orifice or recirculation valve. These devices will recirculate a required flow back to the receiver, if the control valve on the discharge side of the pump closes to prevent the possibility of pumps overheating or cavitating.

Minimum By-Pass Sizing --Consult your pump manufacturer for assistance.

Sizing --Consu lt your pump manufactu rer for assistance. Shown here is a condens ate pumping

Shown here is a condensate pumping system with continuous operation using a modulating control valve at the discharge side of the pump.

Vent Sizing for Condensate Tanks

The vent for the condensate tank should be sized for the amount of flash steam. Please refer to the flash steam tables in the first chapter. Also, the vent must have added capacity for live steam that may occur from a poorly managed steam system.

steam that may occur from a poorly managed steam system. The vent should be a lazy
steam that may occur from a poorly managed steam system. The vent should be a lazy

The vent should be a lazy discharge of vapors without any velocities.

The most common failure of a condensate pump system is the failure to size the vent properly. If the vent is under sized, the tank will pressurize.

VENT - RECEIVERS

properly. If the vent is under sized, the tank will pressurize. VENT - RECEIVERS Steam System

Steam System Training

13-11

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Vent Sizing Example : Load: 20,000 lbs per hour System: 100 psig modulating
Condensate Recovery Systems Vent Sizing Example : Load: 20,000 lbs per hour System: 100 psig modulating

Vent Sizing

Example:

Load:

20,000 lbs per hour

System:

100 psig modulating

Tank:

Vented to atmosphere

Flash %:

13.3

Flash load:

2,660 lbs per hour

Neglect factor:

40 steam traps

20% will be failed

8 steam traps at 500 lbs per hour each

4000 lbs per hour of neglect steam

(size vent to handle 6,660 lbs per hour of steam to atmosphere at low velocities)

Energy Loss of the Vent

The energy loss from allowing the flash and neglect to go to atmosphere can be calculated at:

Steam loss:

6,660 lbs per hour

Cost of steam:

$5.00 per thousand lbs of steam

Hourly dollar loss:

$33.00

Daily dollar loss:

$792.00

Yearly dollar loss:

$ 277,200.00

$33.00 Daily dollar loss: $792.00 Yearly dollar loss: $ 277,200.00 Steam System Training 13-12 2003

Steam System Training

13-12

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-13 2003
Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-13 2003
Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-13 2003
Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-13 2003

Steam System Training

13-13

2003

Condensate Recovery Systems

Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-14 2003
Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-14 2003
Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-14 2003
Condensate Recovery Systems Steam System Training 13-14 2003

Steam System Training

13-14

2003