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Presenter: Dr.

Ginger Levin, PMP, PgMP, OPM3 Certified


Title: How to Best Embrace Change as an IS Professional
Date: 12 September 2014
2014 PMI Information Systems
Virtual Professional Development
Symposium

Here Is What We Will Cover
Change The
Reality
Preparing for Change
Changing Our Culture about
Change
Change Management
Guidelines for Success
Parting Thoughts
Key Questions
How can we best cope with change?

What strategies are the most effective
for use on IS/IT portfolios, programs,
and projects?
Information Systems Work Is All About
Change!
It is part of our careers
It is a constant in our work in this field
We have to embrace it we have no other
choice so


CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING
Indispensable
Look at How Far We Have Come!!!
PMIs Views
Change management is an essential
capability
In project, program, and portfolio
management
Strategic changes in organizations occur
because of programs and projects!
Organizations that are successful are ones
that lead change with effective program
and project management
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide, August 2013, Preface
Change
Nothing remains the
same
All changes involve
people!
Organizations of all type change
It is rare to remain in one
organization for our careers
It is inevitable in the
IS/IT field
It is constant in our lives today
Resist Change!
Adaptive
Approaches
Required
Key Definitions
Adapted from PMI PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition and Portfolio Standard Third Edition
Portfolio
Program
Project
Definitions (1 of 2)
Change is strategic the
movement of a company away
from its present state toward
some desired future state to
increase its competitive
advantage (Hill and Jones, 2001, p. 486)
Changes are of different intensity and
speed and can occur at the individual, the
group, the organizational, or the societal
level (Kasper and Maryhofer, 2002)
Definitions (2 of 2)
Change management
Structured, cyclical, comprehensive approach
To transition people and organizations from:
A current state to a future state
Purpose:
Realize business benefits
Align and integrate people, processes, structure, culture,
and strategy
The goal
Integrate change management into current
methodologies
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, p. 2
11
PROJECTS PROGRAMS PORTFOLIOS
Scope
Projects have defined objectives;
scope is progressively elaborated
throughout the project life cycle
Programs have a larger scope and
provide more significant benefits
Portfolios have an organizational
scope that changes with the
strategic goals of the organization.
Change
Project managers expect
change and implement
processes to keep change
managed and controlled
Program managers must expect
change from both inside and
outside of the program and be
prepared to manage it
Portfolio managers continually
monitor changes in the broader
internal and external
environment.
Planning
Project managers progressively
elaborate high-level information
into detailed plans throughout the
project life cycle
Program managers develop the
overall program plan and create high-
level plans to guide detailed planning
at the component level
Portfolio managers create and
maintain necessary processes and
communication relative to the
aggregate portfolio
Management
Project managers manage the
project team to meet the project
objectives
Program managers manage the
program staff and the project
managers; they provide vision and
overall leadership
Portfolio managers may manage or
coordinate portfolio management
staff or program or project staff that
may have reporting relationships
into the aggregate portfolio
Success
Success is measured by product
and project quality, timeliness,
budget compliance, and degree of
customer satisfaction
Success is measured by the degree to
which the program satisfies the needs
and benefits for which it was
undertaken
Success is measured in terms of
aggregate investment performance
and benefit realization of the
portfolio
Monitoring
Project managers monitor and
control the work of producing the
products, services, or results the
project was undertaken to produce
Program managers monitor the
progress of program components to
ensure the overall goals, schedules,
and budget, and benefits of the
program will be met
Portfolio managers monitor
strategic changes aggregate
resource allocation, performance
results and portfolio risk
The Standard for Program Management, p. 8
The Leading Trending Practice
PMIs Pulse of the Profession 2014 pp. 12-13
Effective Change Management Is Present in:
42% of high-performing organizations
10% of low-performing organizations
Effective Change Management = SUCCESS
69% are successful in strategic initiatives
BUT:
Organizational change with programs and projects is a
challenge!
Frequent use of change management practices is DECLINING
71% In 2011
65% in 2014
The Rate of Change Is Increasing
Complexity
Technology
Social media
Availability of information
Mergers and acquisitions
Downsizing
Resource constraints
Global environment
We need to embrace,
exploit, and adapt to
changes
And we need rigorous
change management
practices
Change management is
essential in portfolio,
program and project
management to achieve
benefits and business value
Strategic agility is needed!
Strategic Agility
The capability of a business to proactively seize and
take advantage of business environment changes while
demonstrating resilience resulting from unforeseen
changes (p. 2)
Strategic plans are continually evolving and are not an
annual event
The goal: make sense of the business environment; be
strategically agile and deliver change through portfolio,
program, and project management
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide, August 2013, pp.2-3
Another Example 1979
Managing an IS/IT Division
The Age of the Mini Computer
Using Word Processors
Indispensable
E-Mail Begins!!!
Here Is What We Will Cover
Change The Reality
Preparing for Change
Changing Our Culture about
Change
Change Management
Guidelines for Success
Parting Thoughts
Why Is This Hard??
The effects of change are
too vague to quantify
We thought we had a
change plan, but we never
followed it
The program is
over, why worry if
we accomplished
any changes
Did we really plan
for change?
We tried to
embrace change
positively before;
it did not work
then, why will it
work now?
No one is responsible
Embracing, Exploiting, and Adapting
We must be responsive to the external environment at
all times.
Loss of precise control, reliability, and predictability that
came from embracing rapid change was considered a
more fruitful strategy than the loss of the competitive
edge that came from resisting it.
Adaptability is regarded to be the key capability in a
dynamic environment.
Embrace the rapid change for survival in the industry.
Participant comments in Aim, Fire, Aim Project Planning Styles in Dynamic Environments, Collyer, Warren,
Helmsley, and Stevens, Project Management Journal, September 2010
Change and Program and Project Management
Benefit
Realization
and
Management
Different
Stakeholders
in
Different
Locations
Internal and
External
Constraints
Interdependencies
among Projects in
the Program
Continually
Linking the
Programs or
Projects
Objectives to
Those of the
Organization
Competing
Priorities in
the Program
and the
Organization
Change Management Tasks
Adapted from Gareis, 2010
Define

The type of
change and its
dimensions

The change
process and
methods

The roles,
communications
methods, and
culture
Plan

The change
objectives
and how to
best control
them
Communicate

The most
effective ways to
communicate
the change
internally and
externally
Manage

The transition
to the new
approach
Consider This Actual Example

You have been selected to manage a project that will contribute to
the safety of the nations milk supply through collecting data on the
testing methods used. This project has a number of key
stakeholders, at the federal and state government levels as well as
in the dairy industry. You feel the best approach is to have a kickoff
meeting with involvement by all of the key stakeholder groups.
How can you
best manage
these
stakeholders
so there is a
common
vision?

How can you
gain support
for your
project?
During this meeting, you find that everyone has a different view
as to what you are to do on your project. Your own team is
confused, and your sponsor provides no direction to you during this
session.
You know that unless there is a common vision for the
project that it will not succeed. The kick-off meeting rapidly
turns into a gripe session. You try to facilitate the session,
but people just start screaming at one another on issues
unrelated to your project.
This Milk Safety Data Base Project
Began with hard copy data entry on a PC using DOS to a server
- 1983
Pilot tested use of e-mail in 1994
Moved to Windows in 1995
E-mail began to increase for data entry!
Then we had Y2K
Moved then to Windows XP in 2003 with the Server Edition
Now reporting is web-based totally, and the system is web-
based enabling access as permitted by anyone at any time
Now using Windows 8
Here Is What We Will Cover
Change The Reality
Preparing for Change
Changing Our
Culture about
Change
Change Management
Guidelines for Success
Parting Thoughts
PMIs Study with The Economist
Why Good Strategies Fail, March 2013
Why strategic initiatives succeed
what are the main reasons?
25% of the respondents Ability
to manage change (p. 8)
Effectiveness of processes to
manage the strategic initiatives
portfolio:
Introducing change:
7% = very effective
34% = somewhat effective
40% = somewhat ineffective
15% = not at all effective (p. 13)
Issues that are somewhat or
very high priority:
Creating a culture receptive to
change:
72% = Best executors
40% = All other companies (p. 14)
Biggest barriers to successful
strategy implementation:
The organization lacks change
management skills = 45% (p. 18)
Priority of creating a culture receptive
to change:
16% = very high% but 7 % = Very low
(p. 22)
IBM Study - 2012
Change is required to meet customer
expectations!
The study showed CEOs are implementing:
Extensive changes to enable faster, more
relevant responses to markets and
individuals
www.ibm.com
Characteristics of Change Models
1. Leaders identify a process and need for the change so
people are engaged and motivated
2. There is a vision for the change
3. Current systems, processes, and capabilities to
facilitate change are evaluated
4. Organizations have a model for improvement, focus
and reinforce small changes, consider PDCA
5. The importance of communications cannot be
underestimated!

Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide, August 2013, p. 12
Change Acceptance Process
1) Unfreezing -- prepare the stakeholders for the change
each person must see why the change is needed
2) Changing -- motivate the stakeholders for change;
make the change meaningful to stakeholders so each
stakeholder internalizes it in his or her work
3) Refreezing -- change is accepted, new ways of
working are in place, stakeholders are following them,
and the change is reinforced and ingrained



Adapted from Lewin, 1947
Another Approach
1) Establish a sense of urgency
2) Create a guiding coalition
3) Develop a vision and a
strategy
4) Communicate this vision
5) Empower others to act on the
vision
6) Plan for and create short wins
7) Consolidate improvements
8) Produce more changes
9) Anchor new approaches

Successful change
then = motivation to
overcome resistance
and high quality
leadership
A change leader
directs the process!

Adopted from Kotter, 1996
Change Management Process
Formulate
the Change
Plan the
Change
Implement
the Change
Manage the
Change
Transition
Sustain the
Change
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, p. 18
Establish Change Roles
Sponsor Ensures stakeholders are ready and support the change;
builds alliances
Leads Support overall change management; coordinate impact of
requirements on business processes; coordinate
communications about the change; escalate change issues
to the program or project managers
Integrators Integrate change into the business; ensure processes
remain aligned to objectives; may be functional managers
or executives
Agents Active proponents and drivers of the change; early
adopters recognizing the business value; work to integrate
change in the organization
Recipients Directly or indirectly impacted by the change; need to make
sense as to what is happening to handle the transition
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, pp. 10-11
Handling Change
But, We All Resist Change
What Should We Do?
Type of Resistance Reason for Resistance
Generic resistance Culture of rejection, refusal
Person-based resistance Personality of a rejecting
type of person a nay
sayer
Provided resistance Too much pressure;
overloaded with the change
requirements and
implications
Argumentative
resistance
Weakness in terms of the
purpose of the change
Adapted from Lindinger and Goller, 2004
Changing the Culture
Culture How we do things in the organization informal and
formal ground rules shared values and beliefs developed
over time
Build on the existing culture
Determine how to transition
What is needed??
LEADERSHIP
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, pp. 17-18
An Actual Situation What to Do??
During the kickoff meeting, it is apparent that you did not win the
contract because of the experience of your team, but because your
price was lower than the competition. The government
representatives really wanted another vendor to win, whom they had
worked with on other programs and projects. However, now you
must manage this program. Your first deliverable is rejected, and the
government representative tells you that you must replace the
technical lead as her work is inferior even though she is nationally
recognized as a SME in the area. You find a replacement. But, the
replacement also cannot meet the customers expectations.
Assume you are working as a government contractor. You were so
pleased to find that your company won a contract from the National
Archives and Records Administration, and you will be the program
manager. The purpose of your program is to set up an electronics records
management system for this Agency. You have assembled a team of
SMEs in this field and are excited. You set up a kickoff meeting with the
governments point of contact.
You realize you
are in trouble
and probably
never can meet
the
expectations:
something
always will be
wrong

What can
you do in
this
situation?
Remember Often the Problem is a Lack of
Information
Only a few people are
in the know
There is no advance
warning of the change
Limited, if any, meetings are held to
describe why the change is occurring
No one owns the change;
it is imposed
The decision has been made,
we then must accept it
People are taken by surprise
Resist Change!
Resist
Change!
Focus on Sensemaking
Sensemaking = Activities to understand and focus on
the activities of the change process and its outcomes;
accept the change with minimal disruption
Approaches to consider:
Clarify vision and strategy
Empower stakeholders
Accept innovative ideas
Tolerate ambiguity
Foster open communications
Develop social networks
Use team building
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, p. 86
Then and Now???
THEN NOW
Change Bureaucratic
organizations
Painful process
Institutional actions

Agile organizations
Big adventures
More revolutionary
Change
Management
Top down
Ordered and directed
Strict methods
Top down and Bottom up
Guided approaches
Flexible methods
Inclusive
People Involved C Level top managers Everyone is a change agent
Change managers
End users
Communications
Approaches
Explain, convince,
decrease resistance,
control
Meetings
Conversations
Dialog, share, participate,
consider as an opportunity
Adapted from Lehman, 2010
Reality?
Programs and
projects and
changes are in
the pipeline
Organization links
Change
Management to
Project, Program,
and Portfolio
Management
Organization used
pre-defined
approaches
Past
Present
Desired / Future
Adapted from Lehman, 2010
Here Is What We Will Cover
Change The Reality
Preparing for Change
Changing Our Culture about
Change
Change Management
Guidelines for Success
Parting Thoughts
Suggestions
1) Prepare a change management plan
2) Recognize some changes are mandatory;
while others may be optional but may benefit
the program, project, or portfolio
3) Realize some changes are more risky
4) Describe the process to follow when a
change occurs on the program
5) Determine how to communicate the change
Adapted from Levin and Green, 2013
Resisting Change
It may not be negative
It may mean dissatisfaction with the solution
Meet with resistors to try to determine their
concerns
Strive to work with them to address and resolve
their concerns
Enlist the support of those who are positive
proponents
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, p. 80
Ways to Enhance Success

Change
Resistance

Assess stakeholder change
resistance; address gaps
Vision and
Values
Determine clarity
among
stakeholders
Change
Initiative
Stakeholder
individual and
interdependent
roles
Build a
Strong
Alignment
Between
stakeholder
attitudes,
strategic goals,
and objectives
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide,
August 2013, p. 18
Is The Organization Ready??
Assess cultural and historical data in dealing with change
Determine how the organization functions during a change effort
Determine who is accountable
Evaluate if the organization can absorb the change
Assess if resources are available to support the change
Determine leaderships support to sponsor and sustain the change
Measure readiness at the portfolio, program, and project levels
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide, August 2013, p. 20
Have the Benefits of the Change Been
Realized??
Do Not Overlook the Importance of
Communications!
Steady messages to executives and sponsors
Need Vision Plan Expectations Confidence
Cyclical communications to mid-level managers
New information Milestones Empathy Successes
Problems
Feedback to people impacted by the change
Knowledge Experience Emotions Issues
Solutions
Situational information to everyone involved
Discoveries Actions Resolutions
Adapted from PMIs Managing Change in Organizations: A Practice Guide, August 2013, p. 106

Here Is What We Will Cover
Change The Reality
Preparing for Change
Changing Our Culture about
Change
Change Management
Guidelines for Success
Parting Thoughts
Parting Thoughts
Failure is not fatal, but failure to change might be. John
Wooden (former outstanding UCLA basketball coach)
If you don't like something change it; if you can't
change it, change the way you think about it. Mary
Engelbreit (artist and illustrator)
If you don't like something, change it. If you can't
change it, change your attitude. Maya Angelou (poet)
Everything you now do is something you have chosen to do. Some
people don't want to believe that. But if you're over age twenty-one,
your life is what you're making of it. To change your life, you need
to change your priorities. John C. Maxwell (author and speaker)



Our Goal
Following the advice of John Chambers, CEO and
Chairman of CISCO
Stay relevant as technology and everything else
is being updated faster than ever.
Chambers says: Our industry is going to be one
in constant disruption, which youre starting to see
across all industries, it doesnt matter which one.
Wall Street Journal, August 9-10, 2014
Thank You!
Contact Information
Dr. Ginger Levin, PMP, PgMP
Certified OPM3 Professional
Portfolio, Program and Project
Management Author, Consultant, and
Educator
954-783-9819 (office)
954-803-0887 (cell)
www.linkedin.com/in/gingerlevin
ginlevin@aol.com
Thank you
2014 PMI Information Systems Virtual Professional Development Symposium
The presenter is available to
answer questions in the chat pod
during the intermission
www.PMI.org