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Interactive and Integrative Lesson Plan

Ossification and Osteoporosis


(Date)
I. Objectives
Cognitive : Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system.
State the other functions of the skeleton.
Infer that inactive bones will be deprived of calcium.
Describe the process of bone formation.
Psychomotor : Investigate the effect of removing calcium from bones.
Affective : Practice desirable habits in avoiding osteoporosis.
Relate the structure of a bone to the character of an individual.
II. Integration
A. Value: Eercise: a desirable health habit.
B. Makabayan: Physical education
III. ubject Matter
1. !nit : !uman Skeletal and "uscular System
"opic : #ssification and osteoporosis
ub#topic : #ther functions of the skeletal system.
$eference : i$etbook %& Science and !ealth % by 'essie (. )illegas& pages *+,**
Materials : chicken bone& plastic cups& water& hydrochloric acid-vinegar
2. %oncepts&$elated Ideas
*. .ones have other functions aside from giving the body shape& protection& strength and fleibility of movement/
they also serve as the factory for red and yellow marrow.
0. "ost blood cells are made in the red marrow of certain bones.
1. 2at is stored in the yellow marrow in the cavity of long bones.
%. 3alcium and phosphorus are stored in the bone itself. 4hen these minerals are needed by the body& they are
released into the blood and delivered to all parts of the body.
5. 3alcium is necessary for blood clotting& beating of the heart& contraction of muscles& proper functioning of the
nervous system& and for balancing the good and bad cholesterol.
6. ( bone that is not active becomes soft and weak because the system assumes that there is no need for strong
bones& and therefore decreases the calcium in bones. $his condition is called osteoporosis& a form of calcium
cannibalism.
7. .ones usually develop from cartilage. 3artilage is a strong& fleible tissue that gives shape to some parts of the
body& such as the ears and tip of the nose.
8. 3artilage also covers the ends of some bones to keep bones from grinding against each other.
9. 3artilage makes up disks between vertebrae as shock absorbers.
*+. 3artilage has a covering that contains bone,forming cells. .efore birth& the skeleton is mostly cartilage. (fter
birth& the bone,forming cells absorb calcium from the blood and change it into calcium compounds that cannot
dissolve in the blood. $hese compounds are deposited in the cartilage& causing it to harden and become bone.
$his process of bone formation is called ossification.
3. Process kills
#bserving& inferring
IV. Procedure
A. Preparatory Activities
:reetings
3hecking of attendance
3hecking of assignments
1. $evie'
How are bones classified according to shape?
How are bones classified according to composition or how they are made up of?
What type of bones provides strength?
What type of bones provides protection?
What types of bone provide flexibility?
Why are leg bones hollow?
2. Motivation
Who still have grandmothers or grandfathers?
How can you describe their posture?
Why do you think they can no longer maintain an erect posture as most young people can?
3. Presentation
The calcium in our bones makes them hard and strong. When people grow old, they reduce their physical activities. As a
result the body assumes that the bones do not need calcium so it stops storing ade!uate amount of the mineral in bones. Hence,
the bones become softer and weak. The body also loses most of the advantages of healthy bones.
What are these advantages? What are the other functions that the skeletal system cannot perform if the bones are
unhealthy?
4. %oncept (or)ation
". #pen your books to page "$.
%. &ones serve as the factory for red and yellow marrow. 'ed marrow is where blood cells are made. What is yellow marrow
and where is it found?
(. )alcium and phosphorus are stored in the bone itself. What does the bone do when these minerals are needed by the body?
*. What are the uses of calcium in the body?
+. What is osteoporosis? Why does it usually occur in old people?
,. Why is exercise a desirable habit not only for old people but most especially for the young ones?
-. When a bone is active, the body supplies ade!uate amounts of calcium in the bones.
.. What is the process by which calcium is deposited in bones?
/. &ones usually develop from a strong, flexible tissue that is softer than bones as those in your ears. 0eel your ears. What is
this tissue called?
"$. )artilage is what gives shape to some parts of the body, such as the ears and tip of the nose. Why are the ends of bones
such as the vertebrae covered with cartilage?
"". )artilage has a covering that contains bone1forming cells. &efore birth, the skeleton is mostly cartilage. After birth, the
bone1forming cells undergo a process of bone formation called ossification. 2escribe the process.
"%. 3our assignment was to immerse a chicken bone for several hours in vinegar, or if available, in hydrochloric acid. Show
and tell the class what you have done, what materials you used, how long did it take to achieve a result, and what
happened to the bone. 4Allow "$ minutes per presentation5
"(. 42iscuss the results5
"*. What happened to the bone that was immersed under water?
"+. What happened to the bone that was immersed under vinegar or hydrochloric acid?
",. What can you infer from your observations?
"-. What do you think was the role of the acid in making the bone soft?
".. How can you relate your investigation with osteoporosis?
5. *n+ance)ent Activities
What makes bones hard and strong? pages "$1""
6. ,enerali-ations
What are the other functions of the skeletal system?
What are the uses of calcium in the body?
Why is an inactive bone deprived of calcium?
What is ossification?
What happens to bones that lack ade!uate supply of calcium?
7. Application&Integration
People who fail to exercise are more likely to suffer bone fracture and other bone-related diseases !he value of exercise
must not be taken for granted An active bone is a healthy bone !he body has a uni"ue way of removing anything that is not being
used Do not be a victim of bone cannibalism #ow would you treat other people who are handicapped by one type of bone
ailment or another$

8. *valuation
Multiple %+oice "est. 3hoose the correct answer.
*. %ne function of bones is to store fat and minerals &at is stored in the yellow marrow while the minerals are stored in the
bone itself 'hen the minerals are needed by the body( they are released into the blood and carried to the body parts 'hat
are the two minerals in the bone that give the bone its hardness and strength$
a; calcium and potassium c5 calcium and magnesium
b; calcium and irond5 calcium and phosphorus
) After a bone was soaked in vinegar for several hours( it became soft and spongy 'hat can you infer from this
observation$
a5 6inegar dissolved and removed the minerals from the bone leaving behind the protein.
b5 6inegar entered the pores of the bone and loosened the materials that make up the bone.
c5 6inegar dissolved the fat in the hollow portion of the bone, thus making it light and soft.
d5 7ince vinegar is an acid, it reacted with the protein in the bone producing a soft and spongy substance.
* Aside from making the bone hard and strong( how else is calcium used by the body$
A Calcium is necessary for blood clotting and beating of the heart
+ ,t is needed for the contraction of muscles
C ,t ensures the proper functioning of the nervous system
D ,t balances the body-s good and bad cholesterol
a5 A and ) c5 &, ) and 2
b5 & and 2 d5 All of the above
. +esides bone( the skeletal system has a strong( flexible tissue called cartilage Cartilage gives shape to some parts of your
body( such as your ears and the tip of your nose 'hat is the purpose of the cartilages in the vertebrae$
a5 They serve as shock absorbers between the vertebrae.
b5 They are used as connective tissues for the vertebrae.
c5 They serve as connective tissues between the vertebrae and muscles.
d5 All of these.
/ +ones usually develop from cartilage +efore birth( the skeleton is made mostly of cartilage After birth( the bone-forming
cells of the cartilage absorb calcium from the blood and convert it into an insoluble calcium compound that is then
deposited in the cartilage( causing it to harden and become bone !his process of bone-formation is called
a5 ossification. c5 osteoblast.
b5 osteoporosis. d5 calcification.
Question and Answer Test.
". 8ame some desirable habits that young boys and girls should practice in order to prevent osteoporosis.
%. 9f your younger brother or sister does not like milk, what would you tell him or her?
9. Assign)ent
". :ake further research on osteoporosis.
%. How are bones connected to each other?
(. What are the different ;oints in the body?