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Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.

Technology for Learning


1. Introduction
1.1 Tools of Teaching
1.2 Types of teaching tools
1.3 Tools selection
1.4 Tools Appropriateness
1.5 Use of Tools
1.6 Use of Multi Media
1.! "it #o$ preparation
1.% Infor&ation and 'o&&unication Technology
1.( Technology for Testing
1.1) *reparation of Teaching Learning tools
1.1).1 +,er -ead *ro.ector
1.1).2 'o&puter *o/er point presentation
1.1).3 0lide *ro.ector
1.1).4 *reparation of Models
1.1).5 *reparation of 'harts1 2lash cards1 Mathe&atical graphs
1.1).6 *uppetry
1. 11 'onclusion
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 1 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
Introduction:
Different types of Learning experiences are needed to retain the learning
concepts. Teaching materials become essential for the expansion of learning. Our
senses are the gateways of acquiring knowledge about the surroundings. As people
are different in their appearances, thoughts and in actions, the fie senses are also
different from one another in its actiities. Learning through senses create a clear and
quality learning. The functions of brain is to select all the sensual experiences,
classify, inter change and interlink these experiences into general concepts. The
sensual experiences stimulate the arious concepts about the world.
!any senses are inoled while performing an actiity or gaining experiences.
"xample# During teaching, the learners listen to the teacher and also obsere the
facial expressions by their eyes. Learning takes place at different leels among the
learners. $ome learn by isual sense and others by learning skill and few others by
tactile, and listening skills. $o, the teacher tries to teach through multi sensory
approach to the students. %t is essential to use more additional Teaching and Learning
!aterials in multi sensory approach. &se of the best result oriented equipments is
known as '"ducational Technology(. %n short, "ducational technology inoles in the
best use of techniques, preparation and uses of methods and ealuation.
1.1 Tools of Technology
The instruments which enhance the learning experiences come under
Technology of "ducation. The ultimate aim of educational technology is to attain the
learning ob)ecties in a short period in its designing, application and ealuation. The
following technologies are used in education#
*. +ardware technology.
,. $oft ware technology.
1.1.1 Technology in education
&sing of technological instruments for teaching and learning is known as
Technology in "ducation.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 2 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
1.1.2 Instrumentation Technology
-y using the properties of magnetism and engineering, arious electrical
equipments are prepared for teaching. This is called as %nstrumentation technology.
Example: Over Head Projector (OHP), Tape Recorder, Radio, Television, CCTV, Computer are the
equipments of instrumental technology.
1.1.3 Technology of Education
Technology of "ducation consists of .sychology related concepts, methods of
retaining students attention, application of methods, attaining teaching ob)ecties and
immediate reinforcement usages.
1.1.4 Software Technology
$oftware technology equipments are prepared with the help of hardware
technology. /ew inentions in technology are the result of deelopment of knowledge.
The Learners( behaiour can be modified if the psychological theories are integrated in
the preparation of $oftware Technology.
Example: Text boos, !e"spapers, Pictures, Video pictures, Radio lessons, Recorded ne"s, #ilms
and #ilm strips are prepared on Ps$c%olo&$ based concepts'
$o, all these materials come under $oftware Technology. .reparation of teaching
equipments hae become essential because of increase in population and
abundant deelopment of technology. The designing of teaching equipments
must be suitable for teaching and information oriented.
Five important reasons for teaching:
*. !otiation of students.
,. Actie participation of the learners by using isual and actiities based
technology.
0. 1ood rapport is maintained by the transformation of effectie information.
2. $tudents( contribution in Teaching3Learning actiities.
4. +ealthy feedback.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 3 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
The equipments in educational technology help the learners in effectie learning.
%t should deelop knowledge, retention, capacity, motiation, comprehension, interest
in learning and widen the acquired knowledge. The use of technology in education
enables to improe all types of teaching methods and enhances students learning
outcome.
1.1.5 Uses of Teaching!earning Technological aids :
%t stimulates the interest of the student in learning by actie participation.
%t helps to reali5e the real characteristics of the teaching concept.
"ach actiity helps in concept formation.
%t stimulates planning and experimentation.
%t enhances learning process and helps retention ability among the learners.
$elf learning gies real experiences and deelops self3confidence.
%t paes way for the stimulation of continuous concept related thoughts for
knowledge.
%t registers pictures in mind 6mind mapping on concepts7 and helps to recollect
correct information.
%t helps to motiate the learners in their actiities physically and mentally.
%t helps in effectie learning in a short time.
1.2 Types of Teaching learning materials :
"dger Dale, an educationist, classified the Teaching learning materials for
teaching. The learning experiences are diided under three broad categories. They
are as follows#
*. Actiity based experiences.
,. Obseration based experiences.
0. 8eali5ation of concepts.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 4 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
"xperiences gained through actiities strengthen knowledge. $econdly,
obseration based experiences help the learners for concrete knowledge. The third
type of knowledge is not dependable.
"dger Dale constituted a cone shaped experiences for knowledge. %t begins
from erbal to Direct experience.

For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 5 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
"lassification of audio visual aids :
The aboe mentioned learning materials are used for teaching. According to
"dger Dale, the learners should get direct and real experiences from the real tools. %n
the absence of real tools, .icture charts and other materials can be used.
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Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
1.3 #election of Tools#
Teacher should select the teaching materials depending upon the learning
ob)ecties and the learners abilities. 9irst, the selected topic is diided into small units.
The unit starts from simple concept to complex in an interlinked manner to achiee
expected learning outcome. %dentification of appropriate tools, collection or preparation
of tools are essential to teach each unit. %f many tools are aailable while teaching a
unit, the tools can be used by the learners indiidually or in groups.
.roisions should be made for self3ealuation to assess the learners( progress.
The teacher must hae a thorough knowledge of tools and its functions. Apt tool for a
unit and its use within the time frame in teaching helps the learners in understanding
the concepts or ideas better.
1.$ %elevance of Teaching !earning &aterials :
The uses of teaching learning materials depend on its designing and utility.
$uitable material in a suitable enironment brings out the desirable learning outcome.
The following steps may be mentioned for the preparation of TL!(s.
*. $election of TL! must be based on students( ability and on the contents of
the lesson.
,. TL! should be used at the appropriate time.
0. -efore using the selected teaching learning material, students must be
motiated. Teaching readiness, readiness of the material, material related
actiities,
Teacher3material3$tudent3learning actiity, its consequences or results are also
to be considered. %s the teaching learning material is suitable for the students
knowledge leel: Does it need any alteration: Are they lesson or content oriented:
Different types of questions like the cost of TL!, time factor and economic
iability and its benefits to the students are also to be taken into account before the
TL! is designed.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 7 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
2. ;hen the TL! is used by the teacher, it should motiate and inole the
learners in learning.
4. After the use of TL!, the students should be engaged in lesson oriented
learning actiities.
;hen teaching is completed, the performance of the TL!, its use and
its releance to the lesson are to be studied, reised and ealuated.
1.5 'roper uses of ToolsInstruments :
The best use of a tool lies in identification of its arious functions and conerting
of its different functions for teaching and learning purpose.
-efore its use, the reason for its selection, utility, performance, aailability,
necessity, durability and its functions are to be considered. %f selection is done
on these basis, the tool will be properly used by the learners.
.lanning is more important for the effectie use of tools by the learners. $tudents
not only should obsere the tools but also know the purpose of using the
tools.
The tools play a major role for effective learning. $o,
*. $elect the tools on the basis of their uses and limitations.
,. <lear the problems and difficulties by testing the tools before using.
0. &se tools to achiee the teaching ob)ecties within the stipulated time.
2. 9ollow up work.
1.( &ultimedia usage
Texts, 1raphics, Art, $ound, Animation and .ictures are combined and
presented through computer or in any other electronic deice in a multimedia.
The combined presentation of many medium for teaching is called multimedia.
$oftware packages, tools and simple media (objects, models, pictures, c%arts, maps and
dia&ram) can be used to explain a single concept or idea.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 8 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
&se of many medium in teaching enhances not only the skill of learners but
also the skill of teaching.
EXAMPLE: First, the teacher teaches orally. Then, he does activities to strengthen the idea or
concept. He stimulates the learners to practice the activities. The teacher displays diagrams.
Thus, the teacher appeals to the dierent senses o the learner such as sight, hearing, touch
etc., to enhance learning through multimedia.
1.) 'reparation of *it +o, :
=it -ox contains tools related to the topics of a lesson for the purpose of
teaching and learning. %n this =it -ox, real ob)ects, models, booklets, children
encyclopaedia, graphs, pictures, maps, 1lobes, puppets, picture collections, maps of
different countries, necessary materials for demonstration, map sketches, low cost
material tools, film strips, O+., slides, audio3ideo recorders are collected and kept.
The teacher prepares the kit box based on the content for his method of
teaching and usage. $tudents are also inoled in the collection of tools. The students
inolement in this actiity will increase their interest. $o, the learners handle the
materials or tools with much care. They become responsible for the safety and
security of the tools. These tools can be prepared for indiidual teaching, indiidual
learning and group learning. The tools must be easily aailable and cost effectie.
'oints to ponder -hile preparing the *it +o, :
*. The tools must be collected and used to attain a specific ob)ectie in each
lesson. %t should deelop the skills of the learners.
,. !ake the students handle the tools for their learning actiities.
0. ;hile using the teaching learning material, the learners recall the lesson
oriented concepts.
2. The teacher poses questions at eery leel to the students to assess their
performances.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 9 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
Uses:
*. %t stimulates the student(s participation.
,. %t enhances self3learning and multisensory learning.
0. %t makes learning )oyful and interesting.
2. Learning becomes easy when well defined teaching ob)ecties are taught
through tools.
.ctivity:
The teacher prepares three kit boxes ie., 9or language, !aths and $cience
sub)ects. $ome of the tools are displayed to the students by the teacher. The students
are asked to collect three tools related to the three sub)ects. The teacher arranges in
the releant kit3boxes. 8epetition of the same teaching aid in a kit box is to be aoided
by the teacher. The teacher asks the students to prepare a kit box for each sub)ect.
The trainees are instructed to prepare a kit box with skill oriented teaching aids for
each lesson for the three subjects.
1./ Information and communication Technology:
%nformation technology plays a ma)or role in enhancing learning. "ffectie
learning takes place when teaching, students learning, content and teachings aids are
in equal distribution in the classroom. Let us see more about %nformation and
communication technology.
*. ;hat is %nformation > <ommunication technology:
,. +ow do you communicate an information:
0. -y what means information is communicated:
2. Do we need tools for communication:
4. !ention some %nformation and communication tools.
%nformation Technology grows ery rapidly. $tudents( exposure to %<T will
enhance their learning. The digital %nformation and <ommunication Technology, has
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 10 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
brought radical changes in the present educational system. %t integrates multimedia
and caters to an indiidual(s educational needs.
%nformation and <ommunication technology is not a separate technology.
%<T comprises of hardware, software and media. %nformation and <ommunication
technology stands apart from the other preious technologies. %t has arious
dimensions such as integration of multimedia, method of transformation of information
flexibility in usage and it has the specialty in linking one another in an effectie manner
for learning.
1./.1 Information and "ommunication Technology and !earning
Enhancement :
The %<T has enhanced the use of knowledge and sharing of knowledge in the
field of education. %n the present educational scenario, the educational system faces
multiple challenges in meeting the needs of a learner. "specially, when a computer is
linked to the %nternet, it can change the regular classroom actiities completely.
This technology will improe the quality of teacher training > the teaching
profession too. %t is not to be considered as only a technology but eery teacher must
use %<T to the maximum for the benefit of the learners in transferring information.
The teaching learning ob)ecties are easily attained if a balance is maintained
among the teacher, learner, content and teaching learning materials in a class room
teaching. Therefore, a teacher has to restructure his teaching actiities, concepts of
the lesson and TL!(s correctly. %<T seres as a bridge to the learners to achiee their
learning ob)ecties. %t prepares them as eligible students to face the information
oriented society in future.
%n this computeri5ed enironment, cost effectieness is an important factor .
!uch progress can be achieed in education if more time and effort is spent in linking
the teaching methods, curriculum, ealuation and innoatie actiities with the
%nformation and <ommunication Technology.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 11 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
1./.2 Uses of Information and "ommunication Technology :
The primary ob)ectie of %nformation and <ommunication Technology is to
transform the teacher oriented education to student centered education.
This technology does not change the teaching methods or teacher learner
concepts. %t is used as a spare for the enhancement of real learning
experiences.
%<T is diided into three categories based on its special features. They are
$ub)ect, Aspect and !edium.
%t seres as a tool for school organi5ation and management.
Though it is not directly linked with learning, it proides an additional support in
the classroom and school leel learning.
;hile learning the fundamental truth of information technology, this technology
becomes a sub)ect. 6ie7 <omputer "ducation Training in the school curriculum.
%f %<T is used in education, it is known as aspect. %t refers to the technical
education. Ex: (rts related computer trainin&, manu)acturin& and calculation t%rou&% computer'
Learning becomes easy when any lesson is taught by using this Technology.
"x# "xperiments in $cience sub)ect in +igher $econdary <lasses.
The main ob)ectie of 'Aspect( in %nformation and <ommunication Technology is
to prepare the students for professions.
%<T seres as a teaching medium for the teacher when teaching and learning
medium for the students while learning in the classroom.
%<T is used as a medium in many ways. They are Drill and practice exercises,
$imulation, %ndiidual learning systems and "ducational Tele /etwork.
A teacher should prepare himself to use the %nformation and <ommunication
Technology as a medium. %t seres as one of the steps of teaching and one of the
methods of teaching profession.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 12 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
Therefore, to enhance teaching, a teacher should gain knowledge in the use of
%nformation and <ommunication Technology during the .re3$erice Training and %n3
serice Training. The contribution of %<T in the field of education will be closely related
to the teaching methods and the expected learning outcome. Linking of %<T with
teaching methods is not introducing a new approach in education, but enhancing
learning as a sub)ect, aspects and medium.
1./.3 #pecific changes in the use of I"T :
The teacher becomes a facilitator and an experienced, trust worthy person.
Actie participation of students.
"ach teaching learning actiity consists of multiple explanations which
strengthens the learning concepts.
%ndependent participation by the students.
.ersonal interaction between teacher student takes place.
%ncrease in 'Discussions( between the students and teacher.
"ducation becomes learner3 centered.
Learning takes place according to the learner(s own pace.
Learning opportunities are equally aailable to the learners.
<onsiderable increase in discussions among the students.
Learning and Teaching is strengthened.
The arious benefits of %<T bring many changes in the role of a teacher and
student in teaching learning process.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 13 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
1./.$ .ctivity01. Identification of I"T resources:
List out some of the communication tools used by you#
;e can mention other tools also along with the computer based tools. #or e&:
*erox mac%ine, Camera, (udio and Video devices. These deices sere as electronic tools to
transfer information. List out the types of tools and the purpose for which it is used.
!o
Tools o) +n)ormation Tec%nolo&$ Purpose
,' Tape Recorder -istenin& to music
. T'V /ovies
.ctivity 02: &a1e the learners use any I" tool in the classroom .
!ake the students understand the ob)ectie of learning from a familiar %<T
tool. E&: +nstructin& t%e students to t$pe a letter b$ openin& /'0 "ord pad ( #older) in a computer'
NOTE:
? %n what way this actiity is better than the other actiities:
? Did any problem occur:
? Did this actiity enhance learning:
? ;hat is the opinion of the students about this actiity:
&se the %nformation and <ommunication tools in such way that, the learners
answer these questions.
1.2 Technology for Testing
;ith this technology, written test, scientific applications, group work, work based
skills and .roblem $oling can be assessed. "aluation is easy in this technology.
Optical /ar Reco&nition Evaluation'
Online Testin&'
Computer /ana&ed Testin&'
TOE#- (Test o) En&lis% as a #orei&n -an&ua&e)
(c%ievement Test
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 14 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
0ta)) 0election 0ervice Commission
!ational Testin& 0ervice
are the some of the tests alued by this technology.
These tests are answered in a short time. Data recording, !ark list preparation
and "aluation are done in a short period in a simple way. These types of tests are
reliable, accurate and acceptable by all.
Example: T%e pupil "%ose mot%er1ton&ue is not En&lis%, %as to 2uali)$ in t%e TOE#- exam (Test o)
En&lis% as a )orei&n lan&ua&e) ' T%is test is conducted in man$ places all over t%e "orld' T%ou&%
t%ese tests are mostl$ computer based, still in some places "ritin& tests are conducted' T%is is to
test t%e sill o) understandin& !ort% (merican En&lis% amon& t%e non1speain& and non1 "ritin&
En&lis% students o) di))erent countries'
1.13 'reparation of Teaching !earning &aterials :
The teaching learning materials are ery helpful in strengthening the learning
process. $o, a thorough knowledge about the different types of audio3ideo materials
and the methods of using the tools are essential in teaching. Therefore, a workshop is
to be set up for the preparation of teaching learning materials. .reparation of teaching
learning tools like Oer +ead .ro)ector, $lide .ro)ector, .ower point slide, !odels,
9lash cards, <harts, .uppets and the methods of using these tools are taught in the
workshop.
1.13.1 4ver 5ead 'ro6ector
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 15 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
The image is always pro)ected oer the head and so the
pro)ector is called Oerhead .ro)ector. The written or drawn
transparency sheet is placed oer the hori5ontal stage of the
pro)ector. The +alogen lamp, the ob)ectie lens system,
9resnel lens, 1lass plate or stage and fan are the important
components of the Oer +ead .ro)ector. The transparent
sheet must be placed on the stage. Ad)ust the mirror stand at
@A(. The angle between the ob)ectie lens system and the
mirror must be 24(.
Preparation of OHP sheets
O+. sheets are prepared in different ways.
They are used in the Oer +ead .ro)ector for teaching learning. They are
*. Oer lay method,
,. !oement method,
0. 8eelation technique,
2. $ilhouette method .
4ver lay method
Oer lapping method helps teaching and learning ery simple > easy. &sing
of transparent sheets by arranging it in an order simplifies the learning of different
concepts. The pictures can either be drawn or printed and arranged. -y placing the
sheets one on the top of the other during explanation makes the difficult concepts
simple.
&ovement &ethod
This method is ery useful to explain the 9unctioning of
the moement of machines or body organs etc., in O+..
%evalation Techni7ue
;hile teaching through O+. multiple picture sheet is placed on the glass
plane. -y this technique, the essential picture is pro)ected, while the other pictures in
the transparent picture sheet are coered.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 16 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
#ilhoutte &ethod
The shapes can be easily taught through silhouette method.
5o- to -rite dra- on the transparent sheets ?
The transparent sheets are used hori5ontally,
&sing these sheets for pictures, graphics and diagram benefit the learners.
The explanations are to be presented on the black board.
.ictures are drawn to emphasi5e a particular concept, Aoid drawing more than four
small pictures in a transparent sheet.
%n the absence of pictures, minimum words are used in a sheet. %n each line maximum
six words may be written.
%t is essential to write the topic and its important words may be highlighted to attract
the iewers.
Legible writingB drawing is ery important.
<omprehension of difficult concepts becomes easy in the oerlapping method by the
orderly presentation of transparent sheets in the O+..
The transparent sheets can be used to teach the following concepts in different
methods.
*. Over lapping method
"g# $olar "clipse, Lunar "clipse, Layers of soil , -irth cycle of the silk worm
,. Silhoutte method
"g# Day > /ight 9ormation
0. Revelation method
"g# Layers of "arth
2. Movement method
"g# -ees collecting the pollen grains from flowers.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 17 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
The teacher should not read or explain by looking at the screen. +e must look
at the sheets and hae eye contact with the listeners.
1.10.2 'o-er 'oint #lide 'reparation
The teaching can be made simple > more effectie through !icrosoft .ower .oint
.resentation.
$tart C .rogram C !icrosoft .ower .oint
<lick a new file in .ower .oint . <lick for a new slide and type the topic. Type
releant news or collect pictures. Ad)ust 9onts and colours. .roide moements to the
wordsB pictures.
<lick Slide Transition Custom animation > $elect the necessary items. 1ather
data B pictures B news related to a particular teaching conceptB idea in different slides.
Arrange the slides in order > use them in teaching.
The information proided through these slides stimulate learners( interest. %t
makes learning simple and easy. This not only retains the concepts in the minds of the
learners but also the concept formation becomes possible and clear.
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Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
'oints to 'onder -hile preparing slides#
To conert the pictures B words in the slides as animation.
To change the types of isuali5ation in the slides.
To use templates for slides.
To change the slides within a stipulated time
To record the oice and play in the slides
To insert films in the slides.
$ufficient training in the preparation of model slides can be gien
These slides must be used in the multimedia tool like L<D (-i2uid Cr$stal
3ispla$) pro)ector.
1.13.3 #lide 'ro6ector
The pro)ector is an electrical instrument. %t is ery easy to handle. The si5e of
the slide is D,x,E. &sing the slide pro)ector, the picture slides or news with pictures are
pro)ected on the screen in a bigger dimension. The main components of this slide
pro)ectors are lens, electric bulb 60AA; to *AAA;7,a small electric fan to reduce the
temperature and a special slide stage or plate.
Merits
? %t gies clear information
? %t is long standing.
? %t attracts eery one(s attention
? Different types of slide presentations are possible like arranging in
sequence or in shuffled manner to explain concepts.
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Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
Demerits
? The whole room should be darkened.
? .reparation of slides are a little expensie.
? %t can be used only for a limited group
? The slide pictures are static
'reparation of different types of #lides:
D,x,E glass pieces are needed to prepare slides in different ways.
*. Cellophane Slide
$elect any colour cellophane sheet and cut it into ,Ex,E si5e after drawing any
shape in the paper. .lace the cut piece picture on the glass piece. .lace the glass on
top and paste the corners with a cello tape. /ow the cellophane slide is ready for use.
,. Grounded Slide
!ix the white portion of an egg 6albumen7 by stirring it properly with the help of
a brush, apply the white sac on one side of the glass piece. 8epeat it twice or thrice
write any releant news or draw any necessary picture on top of it with an ordinary
pen. .lace the other glass piece and paste the corners with a cellotape. /ow the slide
is ready for use.
0. Plain Glass Slide
;ith the help of %ndian ink write necessary information on the glass. .lace the
other glass piece on top and paste the corners along with a cello tape. The slide is
ready for use.
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Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
2. Smoe Slide ! Silhoutte Slider
-lacken any one side of a glass piece with the help of a kerosene lamp. On top
of the smoke write synonyms or antonyms with a sharp ob)ect. .lace the other glass
piece without damaging the written words, and paste the other glass piece with the
help of a cellotape. The slide is ready for use now.
4. Photographic slide
<ut a photo or any leader(s picture accurately and fix it on
,Ex,E glass piece with the help of cello tape. %n this slide only the
outline of the photo or picture is seen on the screen.
1.13.$. 'reparing &odels :
On many occasions, real ob)ects are not easily aailable for the learners to gain
direct experiences. $ome real ob)ects can not be used in teaching in the class room
because of its si5e and some ob)ects need extra precautionary measures in handling
them. "g# $team "ngine, Tractor 6.loughing machine7. %n this type of situation, models
play a predominant role in teaching in the classroom. $o, models replace the real
things in the classroom. !odels are small in si5e, low in cost and easy to handle. They
reflect the original ob)ects in its 0 dimensions.
/ecessary teaching models may be prepared by proiding china clay and
plastic clay to the learners. This helps in the concept transfer thus steadying the
learning process. The models help the learners in a big way in deeloping their
knowledge domain and cognitie domain.
.ims of using &odels in Teaching
*. !odel gies real experience.
,. %t helps to understand the difficult concepts easily.
0. The functioning of the real ob)ects 6!achines7 can be explained with the help of a
model, since the model consists of all essential properties of the machine.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 21 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
Things re"uired for Models
*. ;hite <ement
,. .laster of .aris
0. 9lour types
2. ;ooden pieces
4. +ard boards
F. <hina clay
G. .aper
H. <lay
@. ! C $eal 6 To coer cracks in tubes7
*A. /ewspaper C !oulds etc.,
1.13.5."harts8 Flash cards and 9raphs
&sually flash cards are prepared in *AEx*,E cards for a small group of learners (,41.4
students) and ,,Ex,HE flash cards for a large group learners 62A34A students7.
A flash card must represent one concept.
On one side a concept based picture is fixed and on the other side, the picture based
word is written.
%n one period ten flash cards may be used to emphasi5e the concepts.
"harts
<harts help the learners to understand the concept easily.
The charts are prepared according to the teaching concepts and teaching learning
actiities. The charts are classified as follows#
I $imple charts
I Tree charts
I 9low charts
I 9lip charts
I Oer lapping chart
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 22 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
<harts must be clear, legible and attract the students( attention. "mphasi5ing
one concept idea in a chart, with a maximum of six parts in it, is drawn. 8eleant topic
in block letters is written. 9or long endurance of these charts, the four edges of the
charts are fixed with the plastic tapes.

&athematical graph
1raphs communicate information isually. The graphs explain the specific
concept precisely, easily and quickly. 1raphs are used as a tool to explain the
relationship of the concepts to the learners in an interesting manner. The different
types of graphs are illustrated below#
Graph
+ar :iagram "hart 9raph
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 23 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths
proportional to the alues that they represent. -ar charts or bar graphs are used for
comparing two or more alues. The alues need not cross more than fie or six in a
bar diagram. The bars can be hori5ontal lines or it can also be used to mass a point of
iew. 'y( represents ertical and 'x( represents hori5ontal in a graph.
#ine Graph
Line graphs illustrate trends, relationships and
companions. They are effectie when you are trying to
illustrate time3frequency distribution. Line graphs are
often drawn on graph paper to assure that certain points
are ery clear.
Pie Graph
A pie chart or a circle group is a circular chart diided into
segments. %t illustrates percents. %t is proportional to the quantity it
represents. The segments together create a full circle or a full disk.
%t is an effectie way of displaying information.
Pictorial Graph
%n pictorial graphs pictures are drawn to gie
information. %t is easier to grasp. %t is often used in
textbooks and articles because of its isual impact. The
statistical data in not only proided is numbers but also in
pictures.
1.13.( 'uppet #ho-
.uppet show is ery useful in classroom actiities. .uppet show helps to
deelop listening, speaking and acting skills
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 24 of 25
Lecture Notes on Technology for Learning.
The teacher gies life to the puppets. Teacher(s oice, hand, fingers and actions can
make the puppet as a real character. The teacher asks two students to hold a screen
and then he performs the puppet show by standing behind the screen.
Types of puppets
$tick puppets, .aper puppets, "gg shell puppets, -alloon puppets, .aper pulp
.uppets, 1loes puppets, $ocks puppets, Thread controlled puppets and <ard board
box puppets.
1.11 "onclusion
!odern technology plays a ital role in the teaching learning process. +ardware
technology and software technology are ery much used in the field of education. An
experience come with different TL!(s to assist in teaching is designed by "dger Dale.
;e can simplify the teaching learning process through Audio Jisual tools.
Teaching through computer or any electronic media is called multimedia. =it
box consists of different types of teaching instruments. %nformation and
<ommunication Technology for testing, Teaching Learning tools like O+., transparent
sheet, slide pro)ector, models, flash cards, charts, graphs are explained in this chapter
in detail. %n this modern period, the technology has brought radical changes in the field
of information.
%ntegrating this technology in the field of education will enhance the quality of
learning and as teachers we would make use of this technology in teaching for the
betterment of the learners.
For the II Year D.T.Ed.(2008-10)students of DIET, Lawspet. Subject: FEL-II. Page 25 of 25