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ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

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4.7 Pattern Multiplication
In Section 4.1 we found that the electromagnetic fields E r ( )

equal those radiated by a reference element, E r
ref
( ) , multiplied by the array factor
ARFAC( , ) or
(4.43) E r E r ( ) ( ) ( , ) =
ref
ARFAC
Sections 4.2 through 4.6 focused on methods for computing and sketching the array factor
for various types of array antennas. In this section, we will study the effect of the pattern
of the individual antenna element on the pattern of the array antenna. In addition, we will
learn how we can construct patterns of complex arrays which can be decomposed into
several LCPESAs by treating each LCPESA as an element of a composite array.
Specifically, we will use the principle of pattern multiplication to obtain patterns for
linear binomial arrays, as well as for two-dimensional arrays. We will see that the
principle of pattern multiplication can be applied recursively to obtain patterns from
complex antennas. The above program will be completed by demonstration using a
number of examples.
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Example 4.3: A LCPESA of colinear short dipoles.
Consider an LCPESA array with N=5 comprising of colinear short dipoles in an endfire I
array configuration. Hence, the dipoles are spaced a distance ( ) d = = ( / ) / / 2 1 1 5 2 5
and k kd
0
4 5 = = / . Assume that both the dipole axis and the array axis coincide
with the z-axis (Figure 4.22).
The patterns of a short dipole pointing along the z-axis are plotted in Figures 4.23 (a-c).
The patterns of an N=5 endfire array with main beam along +z are plotted in Figures 4.23
(d-f). The products of the two patterns are plotted in Figures 4.23 (g-i). Note that the
dipole array does not radiate along the z-axis: the effect of the pattern of the individual
dipole element on the overall antenna pattern is significant as it introduces a pattern null
along the array axis.
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Example 4.4: A LCPESA of perpendicular short dipoles.
Consider an LCPESA array with N=5 comprising of short dipoles perpendicular to the
array axis, again in an endfire I array configuration. Hence the dipole spacing d and feeder
phase progression k
0
are identical to those in Example 4.3. Assume that the dipole axis
is along the x-axis, and the array axis coincides with the z-axis (Figure 4.24).
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The patterns of a short dipole pointing along the x-axis are plotted in Figures 4.25 (a-c).
This pattern is identical to the dipole pattern of Figures 4.23 (a-c), except for an
interchange of the axis. The patterns of an N=5 endfire array with main beam along +z
are once more plotted in Figures 4.25 (d-f). The products of the two patterns are plotted
in Figures 4.25 (g-i). Note that, in contrast to the dipole array studied in the previous
example, the present does radiate along the z-axis. This is because the dipole pattern in
this case is maximum along the z-axis, and not zero as in the previous example.
However, again in contrast to the array studied in the previous example, the pattern of the
current array is no more axisymmetric with respect to the z-axis.
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Example 4.5: A nonequally spaced linear array.
Consider the array depicted if Figure 4.26(a). The array consists of 4 nonequally
spaced but equally excited isotropically radiating elements. The center elements are
spaced one wavelength apart, the outer elements are spaced only half a wavelength apart.
As shown in Figure 4.26(b) and (c), this array can be considered as an equally excited,
two-element array with an interelement spacing of 1.5 wavelengths, where the element of
the array itself consists of a two element equally spaced array with an interelement
spacing of half a wavelength. All antenna elements are fed in phase, hence k
0
0 =
applies to both arrays. To construct the array factor associated with this antenna,
construct the array factors associated with its constituents, and multiply out. The various
patterns associated with the array factor of the array of Figure 4.26(c) are shown in Figure
4.27 (a-c). The patterns of the array factor of the "master" element of Figure 4.26 (b) are
shown in Figure 4.27 (d-f). The array factor pattern of the antenna of Figure 4.26 (a) is
obtained by multiplying the previous patterns and is shown in Figure 4.27 (g-i).
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Example 4.6: the binomial array.
A binomial array is an equally spaced array which is constructed to have no
sidelobes. The array is obtained starting from a 2 element uniformly excited array with
interelement spacing d=/2 (Figure 4.28 (a)), the field patterns of which are shown in
Figure 4.29 (a-c). Higher order binomial arrays are constructed as illustrated in Figure
4.28 (b-c): in general, an n
th
order binomial array is obtained by superimposing two (n-
1)
th
order binomial arrays such that they overlap in n-1 elements. Hence, the n
th
order
binomial array can be considered to be a two element array: each element is an two (n-
1)
th
order binomial array, and these two arrays are spaced d=/2 apart. All arrays are fed
in phase, hence k
0
0 = for both arrays. The fact that the two arrays overlap does not pose
any difficulty when applying array theory. Hence, the pattern of n
th
order binomial array
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can be constructed by multiplying the pattern of the (n-1)th order array with the pattern of
the two element array of Figure 4.28 (a); for example, the pattern of the three element
array is obtained by squaring the pattern of Figure 4.28 (a), and is shown in Figure 4.29
(d-f). Patterns of fourth order binomial arrays are shown in Figures 4.29 (g-i).
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Example 4.7: A 3 x 2 planar array.
Consider the two-dimensional array shown in Figure 4.30 (a), consisting of a three by
two array of isotropic elements, all excited in phase. The interelement spacing along x
and y measures d=/2. This antenna can be regarded as a two element LCPESA with
interelement spacing d=/2 and phase progression k
y 0
0 = (the y subscript is added to
indicate that this phase shift applies to the y-directed array), where each element itself is a
three element LCPESA with d=/2 and k
x 0
0 = , as is illustrated in Figures 4.30 (b-c).
The pattern of this array can be obtained by plotting the patterns of these constituents, and
by multiplying out. The patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30 (b) are shown in Figures
4.31 (a-c). The patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30 (c) are shown in Figures 4.31 (d-
f). The patterns of the three by two array of Figure 4.30 (a) is obtained by multiplying the
patterns of the arrays of Figures 4.30 (b-c) and are shown in Figures 4.31 (g-i). The three-
dimensional radiation pattern of this antenna is shown in Figure 4.32.
In a similar vein, Figure 4.33 shows the construction of the pattern of a five by five
LCPESA planar array residing in the x-y plane. Again, it is assumed that d=/2 and that
all elements are fed in phase. Figure 4.34 illustrates the construction of a five by five
LCPESA with interelement spacing d=/2 residing in the x-y plane, but assumes a phase
progression k
x 0
4 = / , no phase progression is assumed along y, hence k
y 0
0 = . In
other words, a phase progression from column to column is assumed. One observes that
the scanning action of the beam in the y-z plane, the plane perpendicular to the axis along
which the phase progression is applied. In both Figures 4.33 and 4.34, the pattern of the
LCPESA residing along x are plotted in insets (a-c), the patterns of the LCPESA residing
along y are plotted in insets (d-f), and the planar array patterns are plotted in insets (g-i).
The three-dimensional pattern of the antennas considered in Figures 4.33 and 4.34 are
shown in Figures 4.35 and 4.36.
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x
y
z
d
Figure 4.22: A LCPESA of 6 colinear short dipoles considered in Example 4.3
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.23: Patterns of the enfire array (Type I) of short colinear dipoles discussed in Example 4.3. (a-c)
Dipole patterns, (d-f) array factors, (g-i) antenna patterns.
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x
y
z
d
Figure 4.24: A LCPESA of 6 perpendicular short dipoles
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.25: Patterns of the enfire array (Type I) of short perpendicular dipoles discussed in Example 4.4.
(a-c) Dipole patterns, (d-f) array factors, (g-i) antenna patterns.
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x
z
y
1
1
1
1
/2
/2

x
z
y
1
1
3/2
x
z
y
1
1
/2
=
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 4.26 (a) nonequally spaced array under consideration in Example 4.5, (b) equally spaced array
equivalent to the array shown in (a), provided that the elements of the array are as shown in (c).
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.27: Patterns of the arrays considered in Example 4.5 (a-c) patterns of the array shown in Figure
4.26 (c), (d-f) patterns for the array shown in Figures 4.26 (b), and (g-i) patterns of the composite array
shown in Figure 4.26 (a).
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z
/2
1
1
=
/2
/2
+
/2
1
1
1
1
(a) (b)
/2 /2
1
2
1
/2
(c)
1
2
1
1
2
1
+
=
1
3
3
1
Figure 4.28. Construction of binomial arrays. (a) 2 element array, (b) 3 element binomial array obtained by
superimposing two 2 element arrays, (c) 4 element array obtained by superimposing two three element
arrays.
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.29: Patterns of binomial arrays (a-c) N=2, (d-f) N=3, (g-I) N=4. Note that as N increases, no
sidelobes are introduced, but the main beam becomes narrower and narrower.
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x
y
z
d
d
d
(a)
d
x
y
z
d
d
x
y
z
d
(b)
(c)
Figure 4.30. (a) A 3 x 2 array and its constituents (b) a 3 element array along the x-axis, and (b) a two
element array along the y-axis, the elements of which are shown in (b).
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.31: Patterns of the 3 x 2 array discussed in Example 5 (a-c) patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30
(b), (b) patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30 (c), and (c) patterns of the 3 x 2 array of Figure 4.30 (a).
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.
Figure 4.32: 3D Pattern of the 3 x 2 array discussed in Example 4.7 and shown in Figure 4.30 (a).
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.33: Patterns of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7.
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(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
Figure 4.34 : Patterns of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7 with phase progression
along x.
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Figure 4.35: 3D Pattern of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7 without phase
progression.
Figure 4.36: 3D Pattern of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7 with phase progression.