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32

4.7 Pattern Multiplication

In Section 4.1 we found that the electromagnetic fields E r ( )

radiated by an array antenna

equal those radiated by a reference element, E r

ref

( ) , multiplied by the array factor

ARFAC( , ) or

(4.43) E r E r ( ) ( ) ( , ) =

ref

ARFAC

Sections 4.2 through 4.6 focused on methods for computing and sketching the array factor

for various types of array antennas. In this section, we will study the effect of the pattern

of the individual antenna element on the pattern of the array antenna. In addition, we will

learn how we can construct patterns of complex arrays which can be decomposed into

several LCPESAs by treating each LCPESA as an element of a composite array.

Specifically, we will use the principle of pattern multiplication to obtain patterns for

linear binomial arrays, as well as for two-dimensional arrays. We will see that the

principle of pattern multiplication can be applied recursively to obtain patterns from

complex antennas. The above program will be completed by demonstration using a

number of examples.

________________________________________________________________________

Example 4.3: A LCPESA of colinear short dipoles.

Consider an LCPESA array with N=5 comprising of colinear short dipoles in an endfire I

array configuration. Hence, the dipoles are spaced a distance ( ) d = = ( / ) / / 2 1 1 5 2 5

and k kd

0

4 5 = = / . Assume that both the dipole axis and the array axis coincide

with the z-axis (Figure 4.22).

The patterns of a short dipole pointing along the z-axis are plotted in Figures 4.23 (a-c).

The patterns of an N=5 endfire array with main beam along +z are plotted in Figures 4.23

(d-f). The products of the two patterns are plotted in Figures 4.23 (g-i). Note that the

dipole array does not radiate along the z-axis: the effect of the pattern of the individual

dipole element on the overall antenna pattern is significant as it introduces a pattern null

along the array axis.

________________________________________________________________________

Example 4.4: A LCPESA of perpendicular short dipoles.

Consider an LCPESA array with N=5 comprising of short dipoles perpendicular to the

array axis, again in an endfire I array configuration. Hence the dipole spacing d and feeder

phase progression k

0

are identical to those in Example 4.3. Assume that the dipole axis

is along the x-axis, and the array axis coincides with the z-axis (Figure 4.24).

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

33

The patterns of a short dipole pointing along the x-axis are plotted in Figures 4.25 (a-c).

This pattern is identical to the dipole pattern of Figures 4.23 (a-c), except for an

interchange of the axis. The patterns of an N=5 endfire array with main beam along +z

are once more plotted in Figures 4.25 (d-f). The products of the two patterns are plotted

in Figures 4.25 (g-i). Note that, in contrast to the dipole array studied in the previous

example, the present does radiate along the z-axis. This is because the dipole pattern in

this case is maximum along the z-axis, and not zero as in the previous example.

However, again in contrast to the array studied in the previous example, the pattern of the

current array is no more axisymmetric with respect to the z-axis.

________________________________________________________________________

Example 4.5: A nonequally spaced linear array.

Consider the array depicted if Figure 4.26(a). The array consists of 4 nonequally

spaced but equally excited isotropically radiating elements. The center elements are

spaced one wavelength apart, the outer elements are spaced only half a wavelength apart.

As shown in Figure 4.26(b) and (c), this array can be considered as an equally excited,

two-element array with an interelement spacing of 1.5 wavelengths, where the element of

the array itself consists of a two element equally spaced array with an interelement

spacing of half a wavelength. All antenna elements are fed in phase, hence k

0

0 =

applies to both arrays. To construct the array factor associated with this antenna,

construct the array factors associated with its constituents, and multiply out. The various

patterns associated with the array factor of the array of Figure 4.26(c) are shown in Figure

4.27 (a-c). The patterns of the array factor of the "master" element of Figure 4.26 (b) are

shown in Figure 4.27 (d-f). The array factor pattern of the antenna of Figure 4.26 (a) is

obtained by multiplying the previous patterns and is shown in Figure 4.27 (g-i).

________________________________________________________________________

Example 4.6: the binomial array.

A binomial array is an equally spaced array which is constructed to have no

sidelobes. The array is obtained starting from a 2 element uniformly excited array with

interelement spacing d=/2 (Figure 4.28 (a)), the field patterns of which are shown in

Figure 4.29 (a-c). Higher order binomial arrays are constructed as illustrated in Figure

4.28 (b-c): in general, an n

th

order binomial array is obtained by superimposing two (n-

1)

th

order binomial arrays such that they overlap in n-1 elements. Hence, the n

th

order

binomial array can be considered to be a two element array: each element is an two (n-

1)

th

order binomial array, and these two arrays are spaced d=/2 apart. All arrays are fed

in phase, hence k

0

0 = for both arrays. The fact that the two arrays overlap does not pose

any difficulty when applying array theory. Hence, the pattern of n

th

order binomial array

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

34

can be constructed by multiplying the pattern of the (n-1)th order array with the pattern of

the two element array of Figure 4.28 (a); for example, the pattern of the three element

array is obtained by squaring the pattern of Figure 4.28 (a), and is shown in Figure 4.29

(d-f). Patterns of fourth order binomial arrays are shown in Figures 4.29 (g-i).

_______________________________________________________________________

Example 4.7: A 3 x 2 planar array.

Consider the two-dimensional array shown in Figure 4.30 (a), consisting of a three by

two array of isotropic elements, all excited in phase. The interelement spacing along x

and y measures d=/2. This antenna can be regarded as a two element LCPESA with

interelement spacing d=/2 and phase progression k

y 0

0 = (the y subscript is added to

indicate that this phase shift applies to the y-directed array), where each element itself is a

three element LCPESA with d=/2 and k

x 0

0 = , as is illustrated in Figures 4.30 (b-c).

The pattern of this array can be obtained by plotting the patterns of these constituents, and

by multiplying out. The patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30 (b) are shown in Figures

4.31 (a-c). The patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30 (c) are shown in Figures 4.31 (d-

f). The patterns of the three by two array of Figure 4.30 (a) is obtained by multiplying the

patterns of the arrays of Figures 4.30 (b-c) and are shown in Figures 4.31 (g-i). The three-

dimensional radiation pattern of this antenna is shown in Figure 4.32.

In a similar vein, Figure 4.33 shows the construction of the pattern of a five by five

LCPESA planar array residing in the x-y plane. Again, it is assumed that d=/2 and that

all elements are fed in phase. Figure 4.34 illustrates the construction of a five by five

LCPESA with interelement spacing d=/2 residing in the x-y plane, but assumes a phase

progression k

x 0

4 = / , no phase progression is assumed along y, hence k

y 0

0 = . In

other words, a phase progression from column to column is assumed. One observes that

the scanning action of the beam in the y-z plane, the plane perpendicular to the axis along

which the phase progression is applied. In both Figures 4.33 and 4.34, the pattern of the

LCPESA residing along x are plotted in insets (a-c), the patterns of the LCPESA residing

along y are plotted in insets (d-f), and the planar array patterns are plotted in insets (g-i).

The three-dimensional pattern of the antennas considered in Figures 4.33 and 4.34 are

shown in Figures 4.35 and 4.36.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

35

x

y

z

d

Figure 4.22: A LCPESA of 6 colinear short dipoles considered in Example 4.3

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

36

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.23: Patterns of the enfire array (Type I) of short colinear dipoles discussed in Example 4.3. (a-c)

Dipole patterns, (d-f) array factors, (g-i) antenna patterns.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

37

x

y

z

d

Figure 4.24: A LCPESA of 6 perpendicular short dipoles

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

38

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.25: Patterns of the enfire array (Type I) of short perpendicular dipoles discussed in Example 4.4.

(a-c) Dipole patterns, (d-f) array factors, (g-i) antenna patterns.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

39

x

z

y

1

1

1

1

/2

/2

x

z

y

1

1

3/2

x

z

y

1

1

/2

=

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 4.26 (a) nonequally spaced array under consideration in Example 4.5, (b) equally spaced array

equivalent to the array shown in (a), provided that the elements of the array are as shown in (c).

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

40

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.27: Patterns of the arrays considered in Example 4.5 (a-c) patterns of the array shown in Figure

4.26 (c), (d-f) patterns for the array shown in Figures 4.26 (b), and (g-i) patterns of the composite array

shown in Figure 4.26 (a).

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

41

z

/2

1

1

=

/2

/2

+

/2

1

1

1

1

(a) (b)

/2 /2

1

2

1

/2

(c)

1

2

1

1

2

1

+

=

1

3

3

1

Figure 4.28. Construction of binomial arrays. (a) 2 element array, (b) 3 element binomial array obtained by

superimposing two 2 element arrays, (c) 4 element array obtained by superimposing two three element

arrays.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

42

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.29: Patterns of binomial arrays (a-c) N=2, (d-f) N=3, (g-I) N=4. Note that as N increases, no

sidelobes are introduced, but the main beam becomes narrower and narrower.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

43

x

y

z

d

d

d

(a)

d

x

y

z

d

d

x

y

z

d

(b)

(c)

Figure 4.30. (a) A 3 x 2 array and its constituents (b) a 3 element array along the x-axis, and (b) a two

element array along the y-axis, the elements of which are shown in (b).

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

44

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.31: Patterns of the 3 x 2 array discussed in Example 5 (a-c) patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30

(b), (b) patterns of the LCPESA of Figure 4.30 (c), and (c) patterns of the 3 x 2 array of Figure 4.30 (a).

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

45

.

Figure 4.32: 3D Pattern of the 3 x 2 array discussed in Example 4.7 and shown in Figure 4.30 (a).

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

46

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.33: Patterns of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

47

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

Figure 4.34 : Patterns of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7 with phase progression

along x.

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4

48

Figure 4.35: 3D Pattern of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7 without phase

progression.

Figure 4.36: 3D Pattern of a 5 x 5 LCPESA planar array discussed in Example 4.7 with phase progression.

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