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IIlTu,uapl'lja To.iopa It HaY1UOBHha BaCHHa p" op. 15 I

CPllCKaAtJiAPOllY

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L 190~.

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· ... " IloAaT~H 0 aamoj erepoj ApmaBHoj OpraHHSa~HiH BeOMa cy rrOBpmHH . . .. Ceasojaso 6H HymHo 6H.10 06paTHTH rraanbY na ... TaM'y, soiox je jotn jeAHaKo saaajeuo noran.e ApmaRHO ypeherse nO.1HTHQKH H cO~Hja.1HH OAHOCH, uocmyu'HU tao« y ucmopujcr>o.n pa86Ufi1j paSHHX MOMeH8Ta, B:OjH cy yTH~a.1H na 06.1HK ApmaBHe opraHHsa~HJe, na HapoAHO cran.e y onurre H T. A.

rJI. repmHii U.eHTPaJlII3a~lIja II caaoynpaaa r.1acHIIK LV. CTP, 177 Ii 178

"HapOAe, rrosaaj ce6e CaMOI'a, aKO me.1Hm Aa cpehao TBOj HapoAHH omHBOT ocayjem, YTBPAHUI, rrpoAymHIll H rro MorylicTBY OBeKOBeQHll«.

~. ~a.BH,u;OBB'k

Hcropnja aapoaa cpncxor Beorpax. 1846. r. CTP, 4.

nPBA rJlABA

ETHorPAtncKA OC06MHA ••

IIS,II,Il Y O'lU, lIITO IUll'II:' IU8,11,S •• saua y eaoBeHCKUM jeeanaaa naxoa uucy IIOpeK.1lS ,II,oMaher HO 'CTpSHor. II snea U KpS.Ib U l.\ap U 6SH CBe C.Y TO Ty~e pe'lO, reoje C,Y O.1l0BeHH YCBOjU.)lO 0,11,

.CTpSHI1l.\a1). KHes, no MOK.)lOIllUhy. ,II,O.)laSH 0,11, rOTCKe pe'lo kuniggs; KPS.Ib, ,II,O.)laSH 0,11, UMeHa Kapaa Beaaxor; l.\ap, ,II,O.)l3S0 0,11, Gaesars), a, 6aH je ·"'aBapCKa. pe'l, H MO' CMO je npOMU.1lU 0,11, Ma~apa3).

Y ,II,eMOKpaTCKOM SS.Je,ll,HOl.\aMa C.)lOBeHCKUM pe 6erne y npBR Max 'IOBeKa, KojH 6u ce UCTHuao xao HeOrpaHH'IeHH rocno,ll,ap. C.)lOHeHU He nposHaBaxy Ha,ll, COOOM B.1laCT jeaaor 'IOBeKa4). C.1l0BeHU 6exy CBU paBHODpanHH. 0 ,II,eCDOTCKOM

1) Dr. Gregor Krek, Einleitung in die Slavische Literaturgeschichten Zweite Auflage. Graz.1887. CTp. 363~. ~) Dr. O. Schrader, Sprachvergleiehung nnd u,;ge:schichte. Jena 1883. r. CTp. 115.

3) Johan von Asboth, Bosnien lind die Hcrzego-

wina, Wien 1887 r. CTt). 37. "", ':;:;,

4) Krek.160.

PA8BHTAK. Bi. B~A.(:TIt

nonamarsy B.JI3,ll,aOu;a aaje MOr.JIO OUTU HU noxena. ITor.JIaBapU ce C.JIOBeHCKU MaXOM CMRTpaxy .eaMO icao UpBU Me9Y paBHUMaO).

YaajMHu ,ll,orOBOp '6eme OCHOBa ,ll,pYlIITBeHOM ~UBOTy C.JIoDeHCKOM. Haoop oeme rryT, KOJUM ce ~oJlaao.JIo ,ll,O rrOI'JlaBapCTBa. Ha6opHU'IKa COMrr~T~Ja acrauame rroruaaane na YHpaBY, a. OHO ,l0J ce Mopa,ll,Ome O,ll,a3UBaTO U rrOKopaBaTH, He Moryliu CBOjy BJI!\CT npeeo Hapo,ll,He BO.Jbe yTBp9uBaTU, rrpo,ll,ya~aBaTM, na HM Y HaC.JIe,ll,CTBO OCTaB.JbRTu6). Ta ua60pHa oCOOUHa acraae O.JIOnene na BU,ll,UK Me9Y ,ll,pyroM aapoaaaa. II aceae cy MOr.JIe 6MpaTO 0 001'0 aaaopane").

SHaqaj Harne UOC.JIOBUu;e ,,(~orOBOp Ryliy

Ryho", reao ,ll,a oerne O,ll, BajRa,ll,a noaaara CBOMa ·C.JIOBeHOMil. HaoopHOCT, paBHorrpaBHOCT n: ,ll,eMO.KpaTH3SM 6eme TaRO Y jerey, ,ll,a ce ra ,ll,pYllITBeHa OCOOHHa HH nocxe aaje MOr.JIa .JIaRO ,ll,a D.CRopeHU . . Ca OCRY,ll,uu;e Y, je,ll,HHCTBY BJiaCTH n: HeorpaHH-

., .

qeHOj npe,ll,aHOCTH je,ll,HOMe qOBeRY CJlOBeHCKH

HapO,ll,H He Morome sa paHa ,ll,oho,ll,~ oHaRQ CU.JIHHX ,ll,p~aBa, ,ll,o KaROBlIX ,ll,oJla~axy ,ll,p.yrn: naPO,ll;H,BUqHH Rrrco.JIyTH3MY. Heorpaaaseaa Te~Eba sa 'HCTHu;alb~M- . .JIu.qAOr . MUlII.JbeEbR ,ll,OB09ame ,ll,O aecaore, ROJa Je Je,ll,HO,ll,ymlIoM pa,ll,Y xaoro cxera.JIa. Berne C.JIOOO,ll,e, na oerne n: H~C.JIOr~ a Aa je OO.JIO cmeee U oojaauu. HeC.JIOre Heoo MOrJlO OHTH. OTY,ll,a je necaora ca CBOjHM nocaeaanaxaaeoxa DH,ll,na Y Hapo~uMa C.JIOBeHCKuM, a OCoOHTU y

0) Krek ib. U) Krek, 364

~) Krek, 163.-- fo). Ba.l.\eTH'l'L Osepsa Orapoii Cep6ill. Dec'hl,a, 1871 V.CTp. 352.

aamex HapOAY. AAB, SKO' HSPOAI£ C.IISOeHCKB CS CBOjHX AeMOKpaTCKHX OC06HHS He xorome AoliB 0AMSX AO CH.lIe H BeJUI'IUOe, AO xoje cy AO.llSSH.lIH APyrB HapoAu, OHH oner HBKS~ He AOaasaure HH AO OHaKBe poocRe OOTHWTeHOCTIl CBO-

. .

.JUM BASASO~UMS, AO KSKBecy A0.llaSH.lIU ApyrH

HapoAH.

O.llOBeHUMa yHyTpSWILS c.lI060Aa 6ewe APSmBja oA COOwl>SWFber 6.l1eCK::l. Taj cy 6.l1eCaK OHB PIlAo mpTBOBa.llH csojoj y ay-rpamtsuo] paBHoopaBHocTB H 0ApmaFbY cTapHHcKuX odasaja.

»Caoja RyliH~S - caoja c.lI060Au~a« 6ewe· C.lIOBeHHMa MH.lIHja oA caera na CBeT.Y. OHB He Morsxy OO~HOCHTH. Aa ce, sa .lby6aB ApmaaHe Be.llH'IHHe, JeAaH 'IOBeK HCTaKHe HaA CBHMa TaKO. Aa llacTY na ocerna B eraaaa pas.~uKa HSMe~y BamHOCTH a.erose H BBmHOCTB nojeaaaax 'IAaHOBa ApYllITBeHHx.

To Be'lUTO OrpaHH'Ia03lbe BAaCTB noraaBapcKe A~'TO je H Ayro sSApmaoaAo C.IIOBeHCKe HapoAe y narpajapxaaaox cTaFbY H oAeMeHcKoj nonenaaocra, soja Hl\J y MHorHM 0pHAHKaMa Buje AaAa M3xa, All ce "umy Me~y APyrHM HapoAHMa AeMoKpaTcKe C.ll060Ae C.IIOneBCKe BUCY Aa.lle Aa ce paaaaja MOHapXH'IHO YSBuwsnalbe BAaAa.lla~a, H ~K.O je TO 00HeK8A 6UAO aa WTeTY S;\jeABu'IROJ Ja'lHHH C.IIOBeHCKHX ApYIIITilBa.

IIpoTHBy ueOrpaHH'IeHe O.llaCTH nojeaaaana, CAOBeHCKa ce AeMOI:paTCKa eaecr 60puJl.a OH8KO, aao WTO ce KOA J eaaaa 6paHHAR oCTpaKHsMoM TemILa sa C.ll060AOM OA COHjy, K~jH '68 joj 00- CT~iaAU onacaa, OHa Temlba sa c.IIo60AOM, xa H y (,Rp(m!IH~f rp:lHH~RMa ApmaoHaM, m.~,..... ~~ ~k

8 l'A8B.0TAg BA. BAACTti

"-----------------

Hac onaaea EOA Iflaajnapana, ieao Aa ce OAB8.1- EaAs on~aAa EOA CAOBeHCKHX HapOAa.

Oa Te AeMOKpaTCKe HAH, ynpano, penyri.lLHEaHCKe oc06HHe C.lLOBeHC.EHX HapoAa, ApmaBe CAOBeHCKe H AaHac nOK8sYJY Be.lLHKY HaKAOHOCT ynyrpaurrsoj CAoooAH H je,ll,HaKocTH. Te oc06HHe MO-'K,lI,a he H Y 6y,lI,ybe cAy-'KHTH reao ieaacan sa HenpecTaHo Meljyc06Ho TpBelbe 00 flpmaBaMa CAOBeHCKHM, C Te ocooaae CAOBeHCKH Hapo,ll,H Mory H y 6Y,ll,yhHocTH, Kao H Y ,lI,aAeRoj npOll.lLOCTH, 00- FasHBaTH name HaKAOOOCTH npeMa peny6.lLHICRHCgOM ypehetsy Hero npeMa xoaapxajcsoj qBPCTHHH, soja je CAOBeHCKHM H8pO,ll,BMa" YBeK OCRY,ll,eBa.lLa. OC06HTO je caMoynpaBHH mHBOT y saAPYSH CTBOPHO aamex HapO,ll,Y BOJbY na nO.lLHTHqRY caaoyrrpaay. JeAaH <l>paHqYCKH nacau BeAH: ,lI,a He 6u 6HAO qy,ll,O, Ka,ll, 6H "TeR OC.lL060ljeHR Op6Hj~1, ~oKasaA8, Aa je crrocoriaa sa caMoyrrpuBy sa" KP:1Y .10ll HHCY ,lI,OpaCAU xacra HSpO,ll,H aa ,san8,l1,y. To 6u BeAH, ,lI,OAaSHAO OTy~, nrro je cpnCKH oapo,ll, y Sa,ll,p_vsH HMao npHAHKe, ,lI,ft ce HSBeI.I6a Y cBeMY, mTO jeaan HapO,ll, rpeoa Aa SHa, na ,lI,R Mome~ U C.lL060AHO -'KHBeTH If cax C060M ynpaBJba TH8).

O.lLOBeOH ,lI,OAase y pe,ll, OOHX HapO,ll,a, ROJHMa je nojeaaaasxa cAo60,ll,a ,lI,pa-'KHja oA CH.lLe ·sRje,ll,HHqlCe. OAoBeHH cy Ha.lLHK aa je.lLHHCKH naPO,ll,,"KOjH je BOAeo ,lI,a OCTaHe MaJleH If rrouenaa aAH caoooaaa, Hero ,lI,a ce CHAH H jeAHHH na llTeTY' caoje yHyTpawlbe c.lLo60,ll,e xao: IlepcnjaHqH, PAM H T. ,lI,.

8) Emile de Laveleye, De la propriete et de ses formes primitives. Troisieme editon, Paris. "1882 CTp. 217.

~THorpA~CKA OCOBRHA

9

OHH HerrpeCTaHH HeMHpH Y CPIICRHM Ap.maBH~RMa rrpBora A06a. jacao rrorcasyjy RaRO ce aanr HapoA, xao 'HlC'f~ c.WBe~CRO II.!IeMe, HepaAo rrOROpaRa? CTa.!lHO,l BOJbH JeAHor xoeetca H OHAa, RaA My Je rpOSH.!Ia orraCHOCT 0,'1. HapOAa, ROjH' cy MOI'.!I'H AU ce ocaae, 6.laroAapehH cBOjHM MOHapXHqHHM H arrco.!lYTHCTHqRHM oc06HHaMa, xao nama cyceAH, rrOMOHrOJbeHH C.!IOBeHH, 13yrapH H APyrH.

Haje HeBepoBaTHo, Aa je ce ROil. Cp6a ca AeMoKpaTcRor r.!lef,HrnTa pernRBa.!lO H nararse 0 CHMrraTHjH npeMa BepH. Beaasa HaRJlOHOCT 60- CQHCKHX Cp6a rrpeMa 60rOMHJlCTBY MOl'.!Ia je 11.0- ,naSHTU H oTYAa, IIITO c,Y 60rOMH.!IH, RO.!lHKO na o~HOBy IIpacTapHx xpamhaacaax nojaoaa 0 6paTcxoj Jb.y6aBH, TO.!lHRO ~ aa OCHOBY rrpacTapHx AeMoRpaTcKHx TpaAH~H.Ja HapoAHHx 0 HeRclAaUlIbOj jeAHaRocTH H 60.ibHM arpapaae OAHocHMa, rroAp.maBa.!lH CBeCT 0 oTrropy rrpeMa arrco.!lyTHCTHqRoj BOJbH B.!IaAapCROjO).

A.!IH H caxa TBPAU Bepa cprrcRR ~IOpa.!la je Aa rrOA.!IerHe, Rail. ce pernaBa.!lO naran,e 0 .!IHqHOj HesaBlfCHOCTH - TO.!lHKO je c.l060AR Cp6HHY Apara. - CeTHMO ce caxo RaRO ce 60rOMHJlCRa naacreaa y BocHH. mpTBOBa.!la MCJlaMY, Aa 6H caxo oAP~aJl.a CB0.JY CH.!Iy H HcsaHHCHOCT.

0) A. H. Il unana II B. A- CUaCOBH'Ia, 11C'i"OpIIlI C.II.aBlIHCKIIX'I, .II.IITepaTYp'h. I1sAaHie llTopoe, C. Ilerep- 6ypr'h 1881. rOA. TOM'b I. CTp. 68.

-- Asboth, Bosnien und die Herzegovina.

qeA· MIIjaToBMh. JeAHo Be.ll.HKO naraa,e, HCTopnj CKe qpKBe. OTaJ,16. KIh. XXVUI, 13:38.

10

I

.,

Kao CJl060AHH HCe~'beHHI\H A MepHKaHcKH, Cp6H HHC~' MOrJlH HMaTH MHpa HH y 3eM.iI>H Y reojoj naje 6HJlO cJl060Ae. OHH cy ce 3601' Jbe H ea aaaasajex eBojHM paCTaB.iI>aJlH. 3a TO cy ce epnCKa I1JleMeHa qeCTO H ce.saaa. Hekexo Aa rpaaeaxo Y3pOKe I1pBOj ce06H aa BaJlEaHCKO IToJlYOCTPBO H aKO je OHa MOr.JIa I10Teli.H OA orpana-rea,a JlUqHe cJl060Ae, KaA je HaCTYIIHJla ceotia napoaa. Iloaaa.exo caxo OHO ce.easau.e ea ceHepa ua jyr Y MaEeAoHHjy H rrOBpaTaK H3 MaKeAoHHje na CaBY H AYHaB. IToMHJbeMO eeooy Opncsor HapO,lla Y YrapcEoj. IToMHJbeMO YCKOKe H xHjAYKe. Cp6HH je cBYAa caxo C.JI060AY TpamHO. rAe je CTRO, T.Y ce yreonao, caxo Aa 6YAe CBO.] rOTIIoAap. IToAceli.aMo aa Cp6HI\Y, sojy je Cp6HH 1I0A caMHM 06JlaKOM 1I0AH1'aO, qHM ce cKpaCliO aa BaJlKaHCKOM Iloayocrp 3y. IIoMHl-b8MO OHe .ibYTe 60jeBe, soje je Cp6HH 6HO, qHM je, I1pe6eraBIIIH H3 Cp6Hje, crynao aa Y rapcKo 3eM.ibHllTe. OH 6e3 cJl060Ae HHrAe HHje MOI'O 6HTH aaaoao.eaa, ITa He eaao 6e3 caorioae, Hero H 6e3 OCBeTe Xaj4YE as rope aaaehe ~a APYM rrpeA AYllMaHe, a YCKOK HH Y CTpaHol 3eM.iI>H He Mo.me Aa xapjje, Hero IIO.JIa3H Y qeTOBafbe npoTHBy 3JlOTBOpa10). Cp6HHY 6e3 cJl060Ae aexa paAOCTH. II EaA Mopa Aa OCTaHe noraurren y CBOM eaausajy, OH He ceAH MHpHO. KaA He Mome Aa ce CBe'!'H jararaaox OH 6ap AoxBaTH r'ycJle .1aBopoBe, rra y3 JbHX TymHHM H paT060pHHM neCMaMa OAOJleBa epI\Y CBOM

J

10) qeA' MlfjarOBHh. IILTa je aceaeo If paAHo (,paererr HnpoA y XVI BCKy. rONflI1IbIfI\U L CTp. G1.

ii

Ho Y RO~HRO TO c~ymH na AHRy H Opnc-THy H O~OHeHcTBy; y RO~HICO je Ta Team:.a sa c~060AO.M 6H~a OA HajlCaAa SeMaA.C~H 6paHH'l OA CaMOBOA.e B.1l8A80'leHe, y TO~HKO je y MHorHM I1pH~HKaMa 6H~a lIITeTHa no HapOAHY 60p6y ca CTpaHl\HMa. "IJecTo cy s60r Te upeTepaHe TeaUbe sa ~HqHOM c~060AOM He eaxo Cp6H HO M OCTa~H O~OBeHH Mopa~H Aa nOA~e~y CTpaH4HMil caxo sa TO, lIITO cy OHH 6H~H cTa~HH.iH y ApmaBHOM jeAHHCTBY H y noc~yllIHOCTH rrpeMa B~aAao~y.ll) Ta AaBHallIH>a oc06HHa C~OHeHCKa 6H~a je AO- 6po n03HaTS H CTpaHHM nHeU;HM3 H cyceaaaa C ... OBeHCKHM, H OHH cy ce H>OM ROpHCTH~H -. A.Hi H aRO cy APyrH MOHapXH'lHH HapoAH Mopa~H sa CBOjy Moli MHorO Aa 6 ... arOAape CBOjOj craaaoj B~aCTH. ROjOj cy ce 6es norOBopa rrOKopaBa~H, one ,' perry6~HKaHCKe <:~OBeHe, H aKO cy Hepa,!J,O Tprre~H roclloAape, HH.le y TemKOM 'lacy OCTaB.ba~a YHH~aBHOCT. Y 0ACYAHoj 60p6H C aenpHjaTeA.HMa OHH HHC,Y 6H~H 0,11, paCKHAa, Aa ce sa HelCO BpeMe YApy~e H rrOABprH,Y B~aCTH jeauor soneiea. A~H je re rr 0 K 0 P H 0 ~ T H necraja.io qHM je orraCHOCT MHHy ... a12). Rao rOA llITO cse peIIy6~HRaHeKe ,wmaBe aehy rra~H>y oopakajy CBOjOj yayrpaunsoj c.l(060AH H caMoynpaBH Hero crro.eaunsex 6 ... ecKY H yr~e4Y TalCO cy H AeMOKpaTeKH e~OBeHClCH HapoAH y OrrIIITe paaaje noraeaaaa na CBOjy epehy yH'yTpa Hero na ejajHOCI' c'no.ea. IIpBO je OC06HH8 penyriaasaacsa,

1 t) Constauntin Jos Jirecek Geschihte del' Bulgaren. Prag, 1876, CTp. 98.

12) Jirecek, ib.

12

PAsiUITAK BJl. B.UCTlt

ll.pyro MOHapx~jcKa. <I>paHUyCEea je yaeK E3 ,-\0- My c~060AHHja, a na CTpaHH KpOTEeHja, KaA .le penyriaarea, a yaere je . aa AOl\fY orpaaa-reaeja, a npeA cnerox CTpalIIHHja, KnA je MOHapxuja. KaA. je .y SeMJbH najeeha CT~ra, oHAa je H~CH~HHJa, Jep ce He I'~eAa na JaBHO MReH:.e, aer-o na BOJbY jeARoI' -roaerea. CeTHMO ce CSl\fO AYk BHKa XIV H Hanoxeoaa.

C3MocBecT 0 ~HqBO.i c~060AH H HesaaHCHOCTH 6luaje IWA CHO.ly Caoseaa TO~HKa, Aa cy ce OHH eaMH BeOMa TemKO y.ieAHH:.aBa~H. Aa Pycaaa H ByrapHMa He 6e1lle cTpaHau,a, (lHH 6H MomAa AO AHHac: 60~H nouenaua H HeyjeAHH:.eHH, reao saocraaa naexeaa C~OBeHCKa y MalieAoHujH

lIa H RnA cy ce yjeAHHH~H H nOA jeAHy naacr noaaeaa, oner Meljy Caoaeaaaa H~je Mor~o Aa 6YAe jeAHOAYIIIHOCTH H noc~yxa, [ep .ie. CBaRO, XTeB1llH Aa ce c~y1lla H Aa YTHqe aa ,laBHH mOBO']', qe~TO OHTepece AOMOBHHe' npHHOCHO na mpTBy CB01HM aaXTeBHMa.

Ilperepaaa caoaeacxa Teml-ba sa ~HqHOM C~O- 60AOM, ieao Aa ce HapOqHTO oraeaa y K.r~MHHau,ojH H:.eHOI' ycrrexa, y K061I0M CKYU1llTHHCICOM Hsoasy "veto· KOjH je nOJbCKoj Apa(aaHoj ueaa-

HH H ja':lHHH AOBP1llHO rpori, IWjH cy noxeaa '<1

reorra'ra HesaBHCHH rr~eMuhH jOlII oA oaora AaHa,

. .

KaAa cy rrocae Jare~oHcKe ARHacTH,le eraae AO-

~aSHTH au rrpecTo asadpaaa B~aAaou.u nOA yroBo-

pOM. •

Il.lro AaHa1llH:.a Pycaja, H aKO je caoeeacsa ApmaBa CTOju na qBPCTOj MOHapxH~HO.l OCHOBH, TO reao Aa neaoaasa TO~HRO OA oc06HHe C3Mor Hap01I.3 PYCKor, IW~HKO OA CO~HHX MOIlrO~CKUX

PA8BHTAK BA.BAACTH

13

e .... eMeH3T3, RO.1H CY YHeCeHH Y Opr3HH33M ,il,pm3· anor ~HBOT3 p.ycRor.13) KH.YT Me~y C .... oaeaaxa aaje 6HO aaasejaa, ,il,OK Y PJ cree PYKe aaje npemao 1'13 MOHrO .... CKHx. C .... OBeHCR3 HapO,il,H HHCY x re .... H,il,3 SH9;lY sa B .... aaa .... a<JEtY CHA.V 1'1 ne .... ~lKaUI -. KO Y3f1,HsaIbe, fl,OK HHCY ;~OUI""H Y fl,O,il,Hp C fl,pyrHM HapOfl,HM3.· 3a TO lie c .... oneHCKH napOfl,H 1'1 y 6YAyli(\ reao 1'1 Y npom .... OcTH aHTHuaTHcaTH _ aeorpanaseaoj BO.,bH B .... afl,aA.3<JKoj 1'1 YBeK npe eaera TemHTH S3 Ofl,p~aIbeM no.1efl,HHa<lKe A.H'IHe caoriofl,e na Ma TO 6H .... 0 H aa IllTeTY fl,pmsBHe jaqllHe. Ta lie ocoriaaa npefl, Hac HSA3SHTH Y MHOrHM rrOA.eMH'IHHM O~HocHMa.HBMe~y HA3f1,3 .... al\a II B .... acre .... e y cprrcKO.l fl,pmaBH

\

13) lIeoAaroAapHOCT Cp6a cnpasr Pyeaje. Orav- 6UHa, KIb. XXI. CTp. 559.

APyr A r.itA BA.

PA3BHTAK BnACTH

Aa 6H ce MorAO IIOjMHTH qe~TO TpBt'fbe 83- Me~y aaurax BJl3Aapa H BAaCTe.Jle, BeOMa je IIOTpe6HO 6aI~HTH noraea na OHO narpajapxaaao A06a. RaA ce IbHXOBa BAaCT IIOqeAa pasaajara. Tpe6a ce YilOSHlt'J'H ca 1l0CTaHROM H IIpHpOI\OM BAaCTH ROA CAOBeHa.

AaAeRo OA BepOBaIba HeRUX Hap04a, Aa je BAaCT OA 60ra H Aa ce Mopa 060maBltTH reao llITO. ce H ~aHac 060maBa ROA Xaaesa H APyrHx HltPOAU aSHJCRHX, CAOBeHeRH -s HapoAH 0 CBO_jHM BJlaAaOl\HMa MHMHAH cAo60AHO.

To ce rJleA"I?Te H AaH~c y H~ROAHRO oAPaeana no OHHM Rp3,leBHMa, ROJ" cy .lOllI y IIaTpujapxaaaon CTl:lIb'y,H oraeaa ce Y HapoAHoM IIOHallalbY IIpH 6Hpafby cTapellHHe.

y HeRHM HallHM RpajeBHMa Rail, ce ceOCRH tcaea asariepe, H A3Hac My ce reaaee:

n H3a6paJlH CMO re, Aa 'Uoc.!£yiJlCum ceao, a l\IH heao TH IIOMaraTH RaA aarperia" .14)

14 15) 1M. 'E. MH.Ilm..eHHh. Onmraae y Cp6l1jll. :rQ~ AlIWlbHI\& II. CTp. 196. II 203.

PA8BHTAIC BJl.ACTH

15

Y TOj HSpel.\H oraeaa ce MHUI.l>elhe aaurer Hap04a ° OHHM, Roje je 6Hpao 4a IbHMe ynpaa.sajy.

Tenneo 40. ce H Y ROMe ,lI,pyroM HapO,ll,y xoaee HaliK TaRaB ,lI,eMORpaTHsaM, RaRaB je 6110 K04 Hac.

Ceao, soje je aaaripaao xaeaa, Ka,ll, je 6UAO ,lI,a ra ieao RyhHer cTapellHmy, RasHU, Rail, je ua rseroaox AOMY 6UAO I1ITO 1'04 Heype,ll,HO, Te je sacayseanao KasHY, Rojml je sa TaKY Heype,ll,HoCT xorao Apyre RasliHTH, OBY H Hi3pHl.\aAo.10)

CTapeUIHHe cy ce 6HpuJle Aa Bpllle BO.l>Y Hapo,WY, a ae aa Hapo,ll, noaspraasjy csojoi BO..l.H.

Ap~a.1IO ce Aa cTapeIlIlme xopajy aacTynaTH rJle4HllITe OHUX, IWjH cy HX Hsu6pnJlH, a 6HpaAR cy CBR 6e3 pasAHKe. 3a TO cy onmTHHCKe CTapeUIHHe MOrJle 6HTH H meHe1(l.)

Oryaa je J1UIW H nacrajao J10M, KaA je RojH cTapelllHHa xreo Aa pa/,H na CBOjy pyRy.

Ilocrynnocr y paaBlJTI\:y BJiaCTH 6HJla je TaKO OCeT.l>HBa, AU ce HH jCAaH nOrJlaBap npeKo oaooperea OHHX reoja cy ra 6HpaAH, HHje xorao aareo AHh H na nehy BHCl.fHY, Hero IIITO My j e OApe~eHO.

OBaKaA cy ce Ta'IHO 3Ha.1e rpaHUl.\e BAaCTH, a Ty rpaHHUy OApe~HBaJiU je 6HpatIKa CBeCT H 06H'Iaj.

Cse, IlITO ce THI~a.1IO ,J,pYU11'BeHOr ypehersa, OCHOBaHO je 6HJlO na HaBHI.\H H cnopa3yMy. A Taj cnopa3yM KojH ce, reao IWBeHH ROHal.\, 1l0BJla'1H0 OA najaaaeax AO HajBHIIIHx rrpeAcTaBHHKa BAaCTH, AOAa3HO ja oTYAa, llITO ce y CJlOBeHCKUX aapoaa ynpaBHa BJiaCT paSBHJla IJOcTynHo H3 p0,J,6HHe.17l

18 II 17) Krek, 163, 15().

16

PA8BHTAlC BA. BAACTIf

IIs ".opoAlfu;e ce paSBlMa saApyra, as saAPyre ce paSBH no CTaHlfUlT.Y onurraaa a no POA.Y 6paTCTBO: OHO je Tpaja.w AO ce.iaorn rraca, upeSHBa.ilO ce .1eAHHM npesHMeHoM H CMaTpa.ilO ce xao POA, Te ce MOMU;H· H AeBojKe HS rsera HHCy MOr.ilH .ysHMa'~H .. 18) IIs 6paTcTBa ce nocae paSBH.JlO II.JleMe, KOJe Je Hsr.JleAa.!Io xao YApyatefbe 6.JlHCKHX H Aa.Jler<Hx pohasa. TyljHHU;H My ce HHCY npH6pa.1a.JlH .JlaKo.19)

CBaKa je sfiAPyra HMa.Jla ·CBOI" cTapellIHHY; CBaKO je 6paTcTBo, rcao H OlIllITHHa HM3.Jla cnor CTapeIlIHHYi·O) CBaKO je II.JleMe HMa.ilO caor CTapellI:~lHy - a\yoaHa, H CBe C) CTapellIHHe MOpa.Jle "MaTH 06SHpa IIpeMa CBOjHM 6l1pa'IHMa.

CBa cpoAHa n.JlElMeHa, xoja s60pHllIe jeAHHM jeaaeox HasHBaxy ce: HapoA, nyx, jeans H uoaaeraxy OlIllITHM 06H'IajHMa.

r .JlaBHH HapoAHII cTapellIHHa, AaK.Jle HHje Morao pal\HTH caxoao.aao HO clIopasYMHo. OTYAa cy IIpOIIS.JlaSH.JlH IIpBH OCHHBa'!H IIo.1eAHHHx 6paCTRBR H IJ.JleMeHa, H CTeK.Jle, BpeMeHoM, OC06HTO npaBo. A06H.ile cy HeKY BpCTy 06H'I~He IIpHBHaeraie, 110 KOjOj ce eaxo as JbHX Morao 6HpaTH ApYllITBeHH CTapeIlIHHa,21)

IIpoTHBHO 06H'IajHMa MHorHX HapoAa, 1<:O.1H cy APYllITBeHH a\HBOT. CMaTpa.JlH reao TepeT na YKHAa.JlH oCHHBaou;e IIOpOAHu;a, 'IHM HHey 6H.JlH

18 H 1Q) B. :M, r. MeAaKoBHh. jRlfBOT If o6lfQag Ilpaoropana. HOBH OaA, 1860. CTp. 77., 7\)., 80

20) MeAaKoBlfh, id.

:11) Dr. Franjo ~Racki. Kada i kako se preobrazi hrvatska knezevina u kraljevinu Rad jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Knjiga X VII. CTp. 75 76 If 77

I

I

PAIIBBTAIC B.IIACTH

17

RaApH Aa ce crapajy sa APymTBo, O.WBeHH c.y ApymTBeHH mHBOT CMaTpaJlH ieao Ao6po sa xoje HM3;_jy Aa SaXB3.J1.e CBOjHM OqeBHM:i. H npaO~HMa, RojH cy rs OCHOBa.JI.H, na cy HX sa TO· YBruKaBa.JI.II II rrOmTOBa.JI.II II sa mHBOTa H nocae CMpTH. IIo fbHX(lBOM C,Y ce HM'Hy qHTaBa RO.JI.eHa HaSHna.JI.a.

Babe, Aa je .JI.enH H SaAOBOA>HH saAPymHH mHBOT no6y~HBao y O.JI.OBeHHMa oceliaje 6.J1.aI'OAapHocTH rrpeMa OCHHB30~HMa saAPyra, AORJleJe ROA ApyrHx HapoA!t rerora HHOROCHor ~HnOTa HSaSHBa.JI.a y nOpOAHqHHM q.JI.aHOBHMa Mp~fby npexa OHHM, RojH cy T3j .iRHBOT OCHOB3.J1.H.

IIpH ce06H Caoaena aa 6a.JI.R3H. nOJlyocTPBO Beh je 6H.JI.O 0A.JI.HROB3HHX nopoAII~a.

Y CBaROM OA OHHX ABaHaeCT pOAoBa XpnarCRHX, IIITO cy ce HaCeJlH.JI.H y HOBOj nocrojriaua 6HJla je no jeAHa nopOAHIW, HS reoje ce . Morao 6Hpa1'H mynaH H 6aH.21) Oaera AaK.JI.e, 6eIIIe 12 TaKBHX nopoAH~a. YIs IIIeCT c.y 6HpaHH 6amf, a HS mecr ~ynaHH.23) A Me~y CBHMa THM IIopoAMuaua 6eme y II.JI.eMeH,Y jeaaa H3 ieoje Je 6HpaH KHes.21)

OBe nopOAHI,e CMaTp3.J1.e cy ce reao II.JI.eMHIiCRe, Te ce ROA Xpsara qaK y 14-oM neKY CMaTpa.JI.H sa II.JI.eMMlie OHM Xpaaru, xoja cy IIPOMS.JI.aSH.JI.H HS TUX nopOAM~a.23)

A sa CBe RHeSOBe Xpnarcrce Apma.JI.o ce, Aa npOHS.JI.aSe OA onora rcaesa, IIITO je Xpaare AOBeo Ha Ba.JI.RaHCRO IIO.JI.YOCTpOBo.24)

22) Brasnic Zupc u Hrvarskoj Rad XXV, 39.

23) Racki, ib.

24) ~acki ib,

18

PAaBHTAK aa, B.lAC'l'If

o TaRBHK u~eKHkcKBK UOpOAH~aMa, RaKOHX y UPBO Bpelle HHje 6H~0, H HS Koj8K cy ee AOl\BHje jeAHHo Mor~e 6HpaTH HapOAHe CTapemHoe, HMa HCTopHCRor noxeaa H ROA qexa, ROA Kojax je 6H~a Hajo8AHHja U8pOAR~a Ihneaaeaoeaha, 8 KOA IIoA.aKa ROA RojHX je 6H~a Hajo~,J,HHja nopOAH~a Iljacronaaa. Ila H sa aame XYMcKe aaaAao~e saa ce, Aa cy 6H~H UOpeRA.OM OA aese CTape UopO~8~e Hit Koje cy KHemeOH 6H~H 611- paHH OA OS.1KaA8.

lis TaKBHX UopoAH~a, Roje ey 6H.Ile saao- 6H.Ile upaoo HS B.IlaCT, Mopua ey ce BpeMeHoM pasHHTH H nama B.IlaCT~a, Rojoj H eaao HMe noaaayje, Aa cy ce oA oeraaor oapoAa B~awh.y °A~BKOOaA.a,

Y U;PHOj- Topa ee ionrre saApmao 06H'I~j; Aa ce r.llaBapH 6upajy HS cTapHHcKHX r~IlBapCRHx nopoAB~a, 'lRjH cy ce Upl"ATJ,H jYHIlWTBOM 0A.4.HKOBS.IlR. To opaBo Ha r~aBapcToo 'laR ce MOr.110 H UpOAIlTH.20) IIRIl'le je peTKo Koja Kyha raa-

BapcKIl Mor~a OCTaTH 6es CBora upaua. ry6H.Ila .

ra je caxo oaaa, KSA ce KOjH r.4.a8ap us K.vhe I

He6H noieaaao y 60jy Kao jyaax. 068'1HO je . raa- .j

sapeaa B.IlaCT 0pe.llasu.Ila aa r.ll8BapCKe caaose

OH8KO, ieao WTO ee CBeWTeHH'IK8 napoxeja upe-

Aaje CHHOBUMa coemTeUHIJKHlIrf. Peuraaao je Hs60p,

a.llH ce MSXOM Y HaupeA SHUO aa xora lie na-

CTH. KaA· r.llaBap yMpe, OBAS OCT8.1le eTspemHHe

caSOBY s60p, H jeaaa, K~j8 je Me~y I:bUMa UORSj-

erapaja, HSBeAe Upl"A a60p r~aBapeua CHBa, na

ra AOXBaTH npeRO naea H 06pHe TpH UyT ORO

ce6e. rosopeha: "xaiAe CHHKO aa OIJHOO MeCTo!26)

26) II 16) MeAaKOBilli. JKHBI)T II o611'1ajll l~pHoropa~a 8 I 182.



PA8BBTA.1C B.llACTH

Hs60PBO npaBO, AaIC.lle, BapoA no 06ABRY,

Baje aauynrrao, a ... H je ce neh 6H 0 yByIC.110 na-

C..teABo npaBO. AO~Haje, KaA cy n eMeBCKe. AP-

)KaBe HpeTBopeBe y xoaapxaje, BapoABH Hs60p l' ... aBapa Mopao je H BJlaAaJl8U Aa nOTBPrlH ea OCTa.;tHM CTapemHHaMa, KO.1u cy sacryuaaa B0.l1>Y CBojHx·6HpalJa. Taso je jomre Y I\PBO.1 ropHY)

"lJHM je aecraja ... ocnopaSYMa, 0AMax je nacrajaxa s ... oynorperia BJlaCTa. Ilpeacrojaao je H~U Aa ce CTapelUHBcl S6al,\H, HAU· Aa BaCTaBe pac~elI .?~ Aa CBaKU ApYlUTBeHH Aeo paAH sa ce no CBO.10J BOJbH.

OTYAa je Mora no CJlOBeHCRe HapoAe 6HJla B80IIa BaZHa. Hajsaa,a BeCJlOI'a KaApa .je 6H ... a Aa npoasseae 0IIDlTJI pasAOp.

Onopaaya je OHO. Ayma eaera. APymTBeBOl' )KUBOTa. H ynpaB.Il>~""O ce no 06HlJ"jBO. AOrOBOpy.

Rail. je rpeoaao pemaBa'fH KaRBO Ba)KBO- nilTalbe, CaSUBaJlH cy ce aeha, a KaA je rpeoaao lUTO' rOA npecyhaaara. CaSUBaJlO ce "KpBHO Roio" HJlB "CYA AOOPUX JbYAH."

Y CBeMY ce Benpec'faHo oApmaBao nocrvnaa cnopasYM uSMe~y HapoAa H cTapemRHa

Aa ce .nopeMeTH Taj 06UlJajHu cnopa3yM, ua Aa ynpaBHa UJIH CYACRa BAaCT 6YAe caMO y jeAHBM pYKaMa, aaje fl,a ... a US60pBS CUCTeMa.

HH ynpaBHB~a, BB cy~aje BHCY 6upaHa na neo BeR, BO eaxo na aeao BpeMe:' rrocae xora cy 6UJlH na pacnOAomelbY CBOjHX 6upaQa.

HHT je jeaaa '<IOBeR xorac urparpadara CBY

20

PA8B~AK BA. BAACT~

BAaeT Y csoje PYRe, HHTH je xorao OCTaBHTH y Hac..t.eACTBO, .ilp HaCAeAHe B.lstCTB Y UpBH Max

lIHje 6HAO.28) , .

. OTYAa. [e ee sa xac jaaeaaa orrosanaja H

6op6a, qBM je JWjB BAaCHBR: xreo Aa nOCTaHe aUCJAYTaH BAH. HaCAeAaH rocIl04ap HapoAH~

OHora,IC~ju aaje 6uo asadpau sa CTapeUJBHY. HapOA naje xreo Aa npBSHa. qaIC H~je x reo Aa npaaaaje HU OHe Maw>e CTapeUIU.He, xoje 6.B Belie CTap~ IIHlHe IlOCTaBA'>Ue caxe no CBOjOj BOA'>H,

CaMOBAaCHH ~ap BOAHH, reaeeha Aa My CHH ,w~e aa BAaAY noryriao ie caoje pohaee, All My ne 6ucMeTaAH. Ho lIapOA, CT8BUI9 na 6p&HUR: 06BqajHOI' npaBU U cnopaSYMU, Hlfje Aao Aa My CUH OApmH npecrc."}

KOAHRO je 6UAO jaxo TO 06Hq~jHO "p.IHO IIIlPOAHO Mo.me ce CYAOTU no TOMe; nrro ce no cnOMeHU~BMa saaasa. 'rparOBa, K8&0 y XpB1lTCICOj ·IaIC HB J10A Ty~Ol\l MAeTaQICOlI BAaAoM Y 14-0M HeRY, Hoje Y OIILlITUHU Morao Aa 6,VAe caTHBIC oaaj, reor-a 6B xaea nOCTaBHO, nero caxo oaaj, ieora 6u usa6paAa BOA'>R 6UpaQICa80).

28) Krek, 364.

19) Ilairreanja C",amWD, Cpebxoaah. Hcropaja CpuCKOra aapo.ta, Beorpaa 1884 KIb. I. CTp. 449.

80) M. Brasnic, Zupe u Hrvatskoj .Rad jugoslovenske akademie znanosti i umjetnosti. Zagreb, knjiga XXV CTp. 37.

..

TPE'BA r ~ABA nOCTAHAH BAACTEOCTBA

BUAe • .tH CMO, Aa ieRQA Caoaeaa naacr 61f.lla Hs60pHa; Aa cy CRU ApymTBeHu lI.llaHOBU 6H.llK nOfl.jeAHaRu, If Aa je CTapelllHHa 6HO caxo rrpBH Me~y paBII _ Ma.

RaA je TaRO 6u.ll0 y rrpBH Malt. orraa ce If BexOTH~e jaaaa naratse: KaKO Me~y Cp6HMa HeCTa jeaaasocra? Kaso Me~'y IblfMa HaCTa H~ie . AHaRoeT.

Hejeaaaxoer ce ROA Cp6a, reao If ROA oeTa.llHX HapoAR rrojaaaaa ca pasBHTKoM Ry.llType, nonoaox H~ieAHaKHx Jb'y ACRUX cIloc06HOCTU 0 rrpoPOAHUX ,lI,apOBa31) Y npHMHTHBHOM cTalbY, aeje,lI,HRROCT je Me~y Jb,YAHMa 6H.ll~ neoceraa.") TeR, Ra,ll, cy Jl,y,ll,H OCeTH.llH, ,lI,a cy jeaaa ,lI,PYI'OM KOPBCHH H nOTpl·6HU, naeryrraaa je I10HOCHTOC'1' 0 Hf'jeAHRRo T. Ta ce H~je,ll,HaKOCT yaaupeaaaa ca pasBHTKoM MeTa.llypl'uje33) Oeo6HTo y ~OBHMa

31) J. J Rousseau. Discours sur I'origine de I'inegalite parmi les homes, Petits' chefs d'ornore de J. J. Rousseau. Nouvelle edition. Paris (aesra roaaae) CTp. 76. 311) Rousseau, 66.

83) Rousseau.



22

BA8BHTAIC B.Il. B.IlACTH

H HeIlpH.mlCaMa, lCaA cy HapOAH MOpa.llH Aa HCTH'IY aa ynpase . .lbYAe ·,Il,apOBaTHje H enoeodaaje.

IIoBOAOM Tora HCTHL\aFba MOPa.110 ee 0AAH- 1C0BRFbe nojeAHHau;a IIojaBHTH H ICO,ll, Cp6a. Ho 1ol1C0 ee TO O,ll,AHICOBaFbe Y HelCHM . IIpH.IlHICRMa H jaaaaao, OHO je MOPa.110 6HTH TpeHYTHO, HeCTaAHO, jepMY HHje ocrajaao ICRCTH'IICOr Tpara Y 'IHCTOM HapO,ll,HOM ~HBOTY. Baaereocsa HMeHa y C.IlOBeHCICHM jeaanaaa nosasyjy, ,Il,a HBCY nopelC.Ila C.IlOBeHCICOr HO crpasor.") CBH 'aapsjerera pe'IH "W.lbaXTa", 1C0jOM cy ce 1I0 pasHBM C.IlOBeHCICBM SeM.lbRMa OC06HTO y Ilo.scsoj, osaasaaaaa naeMHhll, HHCY HBWTa ,Il,pyro HO oA,jelC TY~HHClCe HeMatIICe pe'IB: "slahta" (lI.IleMe, nopesao."

B.IlaCTeOCTBa, ,Il,alC.Ile Me~y Cp6HMa H y 01IWTe ,Il,aIC.Ile Me~y C.IlOBeHBMR y UpBH MaX HBje 6H.IlO; OHO ce nojasaao TelC no,ll, YTHL\ajeM CTpa-

. HBX HapO,ll,a B 06H'Iaja. .

TYMa'IehB nOCTaHalC aaacreae CTpaHBM YTB. u;ojeM, nOTpY,Il,BheMO ce ,Il,a BH,Il,HMO WTa je 1C0,ll, Cp6a MOr.110 yTHU;RTH HR O,ll,JlBICOBaFbe uoje,ll,BHHx ,Il,e.llOBa ,Il,pymTBeBBx.

Aa BB,Il,BMO, nrra je 6HO yspoIC, re cy ee HORB. ,Il,pYIllTeHH 'I.IlaH<;)BH, IIO,ll, IIOBO.lbHBM cTpaHHM yTHL\ajeM MorAH YSBHCHTH Y APYIIITBY Cprrcreox.

Ap~HMO ,Il,a je aaseras YBameFbY H O,ll,.IlHICODalby,. a ,Il,OL\HBje H O,ll,BOjHTOCTH ,Il,PYIIITBeHBX 'IJla· HOBa,-~:-ao y erapoj CPIlCRoj H C.IlOBeHcICoj OCO- 6HHH .A-.Y IIOWTOBalbY CTapOCTB.

Ao\~ ce RO,ll, MBorHX IIpHMHTBBHHX HapOAa, oIla.ma M'p~FbR IIl'eMa . CTapOCTB, ,Il,OT.Ae cy ROA

8~) Krek 365.

8~) Krek, ib.



IJOCTAHAIC D.IlACTEOCTRA

23

C.~OBeHa CTSP4H !CSO OCHHBSO~H nOpO,ll,Hl.\a, 61'1AH Y BeAHKOM nOmTOBSIDY·

AOKJle ce MHOrH rrpHMI'ITHBHH HSpO,ll,I'IHHCy YCTeSSAH ,11,3, rrpH CeAelDY csoje CTSpe U caade OCTaBA'>ajy 663 saurrare II MHAOCTH Y cTapoM SaBH'Isjy,3.) ,ll,OTAe CY CAOBeHH YBeIC IIpBO IIOMHm.b~AH na cnoje erapaje, 1'1 MeCTS Y CBOjHM HOBHM 1I0CTOj6HHSM8 HaSHBaAl'I 110 HMeHHMS CBOjHX PO,ll,OHS<IeAHHICs.87)

. AOICAe cy ICO,ll, MHorHX IIpDMBTHBHHX HapO,ll,a BSHeMorAH CTapl.\H MopaAH CSMH,II,a ce ,ll,aBe H aeuraiy, aKO same HHCY MorAI'I ,ll,S 6y,II,y APYlIITBY 0,11, ICOPHCTH,38) ,ll,OTAe cy nopO,ll,Hl.\e CAOBeHCKe Ae6,11,HAe Ha,ll, caMprHHqRHM HOCTeA'>aMa CBOjHX crapHX, c-reieyjyha 0,11, IDHX, ca cysaMa y OqHMa, OIlPOInTSj D 6AarOCAOB.

AOKAe je, 110 cBe,ll,0J,I6aMS. CTapHX naeaua, RO,ll, HeRHA31IIFbHX HapO,ll,a qeCTO 6HAO y 06H'Iajy ,ll,a Hec-rplIJbHBH CHaOBH csoje poheae O'IeBe y6Rjajy 'IBM ce p3s60Ae HAH sa pa,ll, oHecIIoc06e39) ,ll,oTAe cy, no aamaa H3 pO,ll,HHM necaaaa, CHHOBH na rAac 0 CMpTH pO,ll,HTeA'>CICoj jYPHAH ICyhH DS ,ll,aAeICHX xecra, MOAehD 60ra, ,ll,a CSMPTHHRY npoAymH aeuaor, ,ll,OIC He CTDrHY AS ra BH,II,e 1'1 saTeRY aeaaa, ,ll,a aa IbHM8 RAeTBS He OCTaHe.

IIOIIIToBslbe cTapocTH jaBA'>aAO ce caxo KOA HanpeAHH.iH 1'1 .y HCTOPHjU BHljeH~jHx HapoAa: Je-

36) L. J. Alfred Mauru. La terre et I'homrne, Qua-

trierne editon, Paris. 1877 CTp. 688. 87) Krek, 157.

38) Maury, 688.

119) Mary, ib.

24

PA8BHTAIC, B.IL. BJlACTH'

peja, Hlnapranana, PHM.ibaHa, <I>paHI\ysa40) 1'1 A pal1.ibaHa,41) a AO.llaSH.IIO je oTY,lI,a, IIITO cY CTapI\H MaXOM HMB.IIH BHIIIeSHafba 1'1 HCKYCTBa Hero "pyrH.42)

Iloaoaox rora nOIIITOBaa.a crapasaor HCKycTBa CTapI\H cy HCTHI\UHH 1'1 sa HapO,ll,He CTapelIIHHe, Te ce noaerae liMe CTapaI\a H,lI,eHTHcI>HKOBa.110 ca HMeHOM B.IIa,ll,B.IIIlI\a. ApaB.ibaHCKa peq tuejux H <l>paHl\YCKa petl seigneur, IIITO THM uapO,ll,HMU cayaee sao B.IIa,ll,a.llaqKH HaSBBH, He aaase nnurra ,lI,pyro Hero CTape Jl>Y,lI,e.48) A pycKa pelJ cmapocma nusauyje, ,lI,S cy ce H sa CTapeIIIHHe DO C.IIOBenCKHM ceaaaa 6Hpa.ll.H CTapH .ibY,ll,H.

To Heo6HQHO HOInTOBRfbe cTapocTH, reoje ce

KO,ll, nae or.lle,ll,a y pesa auapeuuwa; 6H.IIO je yaPOK, IIITO cy ce H s cprrcRoM HapO,ll,y sa naeaeHCRe cTapelIIHHe - m.ynaHe ?6HQHO 6Hpa.ll.H CTapl\H H.II.M, Y onIIITe H'I.JcTuPH.1H s rropO,ll,HI\H, H IllTO cy ce nexe nopO,ll,HI\e noueae rrOIIITOBaTH name Hero ,lI,pyre •

.iK.vnaHH HaSHBaUJe ce HS npBa BEl.llHKHM mynaaaaa sao OpBH Me~y ce6H paBHHMa, a nocae Epa.seaaxa. TH KpaJbeBH noeae OCHOBaIIIe ,lI,Huaeraje, a a.HXOBe HOBe ,lI,p.maHe 06HlJHO ,lI,06Hjaxy HMeHa DO D.JIeMeHCKOM SeMJI>HIIIT,v, na KOMe cy 6H.JIe y,ll,pya~eHe m.yoaHcKe noxpajaae - mynannje. Hasaane TaKO DO mynaHHMa,44) reao InTO

40) Rousseau, 87.

41) Mauru.

42) Rousseau

43) Mauru If Rousseau aa HaBel\eHHM MeCTHMa.

44) Jnrah, 22.

nOCTAHAK B~ACTeOCTBA

25

cy aeynana rrpOSBaHH 110 ~ynaMa •. Te cy ce naeMeHCI~e SeMhe nope,ll, ynpaBHe O,ll,BOJHTOCTH MaXOM HS,II,Bajs.IIe 0,11, OCTa..tHX n.lleMeHCKHX noepajaaa H no noaoseajy: 6p,ll,HMa peKaMa HOCTa.llHM npapo,II,HUM rpaHH~aMa.41i)

TaRO IIOCT911Ie ,II,pa(IlBe: Tpasyaaja, 3axYMhe, Hepersa, Bera H T. ,11,.46) Y II>HMa cy ce aa BpXOBHY BAaCT HS,II,HsaAH MaXO&i BAacTohy6HBH npe,ll,CTaBHH~H Ha.iB~eHHjHx nAeMeHCKHX nOpO,ll,H~a, Roje ce HS,II,Hsaxy Ha,ll, OCTa..tHMa jom 0,11, CTapHHe Y CBHMa THM t-lpmaBBMR ocraure CTape mynaHHje RAH He reao sacedae ~eAHHe, Hero xao OKPYSH, a II>BXOBe, a(ynaHHjcKe CTapernHHe, HesaBHeHH aeynaaa, nocrame nororsera B.IIaCTeAa.

mehHH CTaAHe B.IIaCTH, H60jehH ce OTnopa 0,11, HapOAa HAH BAaCTeAe, HOBH KOBheBH TpamHme no HeKaA salIITHTe U aa CTpSHH. Y ?AHOCHM.a upeMS CTpSHHM. seMhaMS, nOBoAoM ROJHX HX Je .aapo,ll, Ha Hs60py y paTHO ,II,ooa H YSBHCHO, OHH Y MHpHO ,II,06a Haljorne OCAOHa~ H sarnTHTY ,Y OTIIOpy CBOjHM 6HpaQHMa, 1<o,jH cy y pe,ll,OBHOM CTSfbY MorAH 0,11, IhHX TPaJRHTH, ,II,a ce O,ll,peRHY BASCTH soja HM je sa BpeMe nOBepeHs.

To ce OCBelIITa HapOQHTO OH,II,a, KR,II, CprrCKa naexeaa y 60p6H C BHSRHTH.i~HMa 6HlIIe npHHyljeHa ,II,a npucTaH,Y aa ,II,pmaBHO ~eHTPaAHCall>e H lea,ll, }IX BHsaHT~jcRH ~ap Bacaaaje Mahe,ll,OHa~ 871 1'0,11,. ,II,OBe,ll,aBlIIH HX ,Y Hesr0,ll,Y, nycTH, re OHa us CBOjHX BAaCTeoeKHX nopO,ll,H~a Hsa6pame

41i) CT. HOBaKOBHh. CplICKe 06~aCTH X ir XII aesa. Taaeaaa XLVIII CTp. 88. H T. A.

46) Cpehreonah I, 438.

26

PA.80HTAK n ..... O .... "CTIt

B,}laAao~e, KOJe OH nOTBPAH 8 rrpHSHaAe, aa-raaasma OX CB~iuM B8sIMHMaY)

Taso oA MHorHX c,}l060AHOX cpncRux nae.MeHCKHX ApmaBa - myrraH~ja, Koje ey HeKQA mHBe,}le HeSRB8CHO nOA cBojHM Bsa6p8HI1M myrraHHMa, rrOc.T81IIe HeKO,}lHRe ApmaBe C HaC.}leAHUM B,}laAaol\UMR, xoje HaA C060M npusHaBaxy B,}laCT saaanraicsy, U Y xojaxa U,}lMaO~H craaome cao- 60ARHje pllAHTH no CBOjOj BO.lbH, oC.}laH>ajyI;.B ee HU saliiTuTY eyceane BHsaHT8:je. a 1'""Y[llel;.o ee cae Burne 0 name npeMa r""acy HapOAa BO'lHOr .CTal'0M OOO'JajHMU Ii ypeA6aMa.

KaA cy neh cpnCKe ApmaBe TaRO 0prSHOSOBaHe, OH4a je ApmaBHO ype~eH>e y H>OMa 6H .... 0 OBaKO:

r ""aBap JjeM.lbB 680 je B,}laAa,}la~

Ilocae rser-a AO.!l.asuo je 6aH, Kao 06.!1.aCHB ynpaBHoK. OH je y enojoj 6aHoBoHu 6HO BPXOBHO aojsoaa H cYAuja IbeMY cy ce 1I0AHOCH,}le anexare.

TeK sa H>HM HlIIllO je HeKaAamH>8 HeS80PlCH8 npeAcTaBBHR C.!I.060AHe BO.lbe HspoAHe, HeRMalIIlbO 8 uojsoaa u c.YAHja 0 rrj>BocBemTeHHK - mynaH. ?H je y cn014 CKPOMHOM no,}(om~iy 600 HapoAY

.lorn caxo aAMHHucTpaTop H BplIIo,}(a~ rrpaBAe, S ~

Kpa.bY CRMO caeeraare H 'lHHOBHHR. OA H>~rOBe

aeraa aesaaaeue aeyne, nocrao je 600 npocTo

oRpyr ApmSBHO 48)_ mynanuja, Rojo je y 140-

pHO BpeMe Annao Kpa.lbY. A3HaK.

I

47) CP!'lhKool'lh. I, 442. •

48) THMOcl>e1l <PAOplfHCKoro, lOzHble C.Il8.0IlBe H BSSRHTill 00 BTOpoii '1eTOepTiJ' XIV OtM. BLIByCK'L D. C. IJeTep6ypr'L 1882 r. 00'p. 26.

"tJETBPTA rAABA

nOJABA HACJlEliA

Y npBMBTIiIBHO "S.ilaTHO Aooa" naje 61i1.il0 csojase. SeMA>a je 61i1.ilR cBa1IJi1ja49).

Ha HeRUM OCTpBIiIMa no IiIHAliljCIWM OReaHY HH AaH AaHH ce HeSHa sa CBOjHHY.

Ha AHAaMaHCIUlM iii HUEe06apCRHM OCTpBHMa CBaRH nYTHHR Mo.me CBpaTBTIiI Y CBaRU ,110M H jecra H IUITU RO.ilBKO My je Aparo, HURO My Helie peha HH: "nOTaMO ce 1 "

,2i.OK naje 6B.il0 ceojaae, rocToA>y6A>e je 6H.il0 CBYA Y jexy. CBaR je UMao, HURO BBje OCKYAesao. Ho 'IBM je 'IOBeK, sayseBmH nap'Ie seMhe, peRao: "TO je Moje I" iii 'IBM My ee nOBepOUR.ilO,

.. . TaEeB je H8CT80 Y APYUITBY npeodpaaeaj'").

qUM je 'IOBeK peRao: nOBa je SBepKa Moja I" 'IBM je nOABURHYO: "OBO 'je MecToMoje I" HacT8.11a je aaoynorpeda caera na seMhuf>l).

Kao KOA APyrux narpajapxaaaax aapoaa, TaRO iii KOA C.ilOBeH8, BeRaA ce Huje SH8.il0 sa CBOjBHY. SeM.b8 je 6u.ila sajeAHB'IKa.

49) Laveleye, 152. 00) Rousseau.

51)' Rousseau? ib.

28

PA8BHTAiC B.1I.. B.1I.AC1'H

-----------------

I1lTo ce rrpUBpeAH.lO, rrpurraAuo je CBlIMa.

Ae~a usa pOAuTe.lba HUIIY MOI\ila HaC.JI.eAJolTU oseBlIRY, HO cy, reao 'LIlRH(IBU sa,ltpYI'e, HaC.JI.e~HBa.il.H CBe ea COHMa OCTa.il.HM qAaHOBHMa02).

TeE, ERAa cY ce 1I0pOAH~e no aaAPYI'aMa TaEO YMHo.mHwte, Aa name Huje MOI'AO 6UTH jeAUHcTBa HU cAOI'e, *) H icraaa je Ae06a saAPYl'a U saapyaenor HMeTER03). II Tl'E, nocae re Ae06e, MOl'Aa cJ H 1I0jeAuHa .tana "MaTH rrpaBO aa CBORHY HMaIDR, xoje je rrOCJLe rrpRrraAaAO JDHHOj Ae~H.

Yo6HQajelbY aacaeha rrpRIIOMOl'Aa je H AHQaa TeKOBHHa HAH A06uTaE nojeaaaax saAPYI'apa.

Y THM TeEOBUHa~:a H cTBapalbY HHOEOIIITHHe M~XOM je npefVba<JHAa 6~CHa BJiaCTeAa, a aaPOA Je TelIIKO ocraaa.ao saJeAHHQKY HMaoBHHY· ITa H KaA ce ABOjHO, OH je sRApmaBao npehamIDe saApYI'apcEo ypelierse.

110 ceaaxa EaA 6H ce .H pacIIaAa saA pyra aa HHOKOCHe rropoAI11W rroJeAuHHx sRApyrapR, CBaEa Ta rropoAuua naje 6uJla HHIIITa APYl'O ao EAH~asa HOBY saAPYI'Y UAH, .vrrpaBo, MaAa saAPyra 4). II Y IIOPOA'I~H, Y KOjoj je 6uo CRMO OTa~ ca OApaCAHM ClIHOM, HMllOBHHa ce y CAY-

I

~

*) Ms npBa ce IHABajao MS 8aAPyre caao oaaj, reora je 8aApyra MCKJbyqM.IIa H 0A6aI.\H.1I.a, xao XYAOI', pl)aBor, OTYAa cy noeae XYAM, MaxOM 6H.1I.H H CMpOMaWHJ,I, Te ce eaasea.e: I ljaB }I cHpoMax HAeHTH<z>KKoBa-

.11.0 Y peqR xYA· I

'52) Dr. B Petranowic 0 pravu nasijedstva kod '

Srba. Rad xxm, CTp. 59. .'

03) Petranowic, i J.

0) Dr. B. Boram ah, 0 06.11.HKY HaBDaHOM HIIOKOWTHHa y ceoesoj nop<'AHI.\H Cp6a H XpBaT8. 0 <z>paHI.\YCKor.npCBeo Jonaa A iHlUOo}lij, Eeorpa.i. 1884 r. cTp.51

nOJAB A. HACJlE~A

29

.,..

xajy Ae06e nOA,jeAHaIW Ae.,1(H.IIa, RO.iUIR0.Je IIpHnaaaao CHHY, TO.llHRO je HCTO lIpHlJaAa.110 ouy jep ce CMaTpaO HH I HIDe HH MaIbe HO sao 06H<JaH <J.IIaH aaapyre").

o nOr.lleAOM aa 06H<JajHo npaBO nOAa,. CHHOBH cy HMa.llH nplleHCTBO npH aacaehaaarsy. A.IIH lIH Rh.epH HHC.Y 6H.IIe HCICJbY<JeHe HS aacaeaCTBa. Bap ce Aym lHOB saROH lIHje npOTHBHO IbHHOM HaC.IIeAHOM IIpaBy(6). meHC~HIbe je, . MaXOM, nOAMHpHBaHO 0AMax IIpH YAa.1H cnpeMOM H BeH<JaHHM PYXOM, :1 xynnearse je, 06H<J(-:0 rrocae O<JHHe CMPTH, IIOAieAH3Ro Ae.llH.IIO O<JeBHHY .

KOAHRO je TO Ae06HO HaC.IIelje AOIJ,HHje yse.110 xaxa, BHAH C(· no TOMe, mTO cy no HeRaA B.IIa~aOIJ,H MOPS.IIH CHHOBHMa H sa mHBOTa Aa Aa.JY IbHXOB Aeo, .Ha ]:OjH cy "Ma.llH npaBo. 0 TOMe Hac .YBepaBa.1Y " anaaaaen cpnCICHX. npeCTO.llOHaC.IIeAHHRa II OTM HIJ,e II YCTaHu,H IIOJeAIIHHX B.IIaAa.lla<JROX .COHOI~, RojH C,Y npe BpeMeHa xreaa Aa OB.IIa,l\aJ,V CB0.10M O<J.eBHHOM.

Ho H RaA je YID.IIO y 06H<Jaj TO .IIH<JHO HRc.:.elje, oner H~ je HaIIYIlITeHa as BOA a POA6HHCRa

nesa.

ARO HHj() 6H.IIO Aeu,e H.II~, RaA 6H HSYMP.II~ npaBH Hac.IIeA'IHu,H, HMaOBHHa .Je npHIIaAa.lla AaJboJ pO,l\6HHH H TO MaXOM IIO RpBH(7)

1I0 aer-ae meHCRHIbe HHje MOr.110 OAHeTH HMalbe y Tylje II.IIeMe Y reoje 6H ee YAa.IIO, H aRO

55) Dr B. Boramab, HHOlWillTHHa cTp.36 H 44.

56) M. '8. MHJlOBaHoBHh. HacJleAHO npaBo Y eraPOM c~nCItOM npaBy. rO,-\HillIM!l\a V. CTp. 4:'02.

5 ) Petranowic, 0 prawu r.asljedstva kod Srba.

Ra,d. XXill CTp. 34.

30

PA.8BHTAK BJI.. iUAcTH

j e HMIlJlO 0PaBO aa }bera.· I" .IleAcUo ce Aa HMau.e ocraae Y UCTOM O.lleMeBY Y KOMe je U 6u.Ilo, Te je ce U.IlH YCTyoa.llo U.IlU opOASBa.110 ROMe OA MYWKHX CpoAHBKa BS Tora naeaeaa, caxo Aa He 6u amao y TY~HHy08)

Aa ea He 6u oTy~HBa.llo O.lleMeHCB'O UMau.e Y U;PROj Fopa je saocrao 06u'Iaj, Aa ce MOMaR Roju y~e Y AeBoja'IKY Ryliy, Y ROjoj je MymKgu.e HSYMP.llO, OABOjU OA csora pOAa na npehe ea CBUM meHBHOM, H He HOCB saure UMe caora 6paTCTBa Hero ce SOBe AOMaseTOBHliD9).

Ho Y RQ.IlHKO ce lJpU .IlH'IHOM Hftc.ie~uBalby HenOKpeTHOCTB aoaesae r.lleAft.110 na opaBO naC.IlelJa 00 6.uiaHHH cpop,eTBa II no KpBII, Y 'l"O.IBItO je Belia e.l060,iVl 0IU8,ltaAa npu naC.le~UBalby OORpeTHOCTB.

AOK.lle ce caojaaa HeUORpeTHOCTB nuje MOraa .IlaKO opeHOCHTH y Ty~e naexe HS 06SHpa aa cTapy II.IleMeHCRY sajeAHHI\Y B TeKOBHHY, AOT.Ile je eaoiaaap OOKpeTHOCT xorao .()CTaBHTH ROMe je

xreo U RaRO je xreo, -. /. _, .

OA HaC.ll~~a O~RpeTBOCTB;. reao .IlU'IHe TeROBBHe, xorao Je CBOJUHap 'IaK H Aa HCIWLy'IH 00 aese esoje HaC.IleAHUKe, sao lIITO je Xepner CTeHIlH Kpca1Ja UCICJbY1JHO cnora CBRa B.IlaAUC.Il3Ba. AO!C.Ile Apyru CUHOBU A06ujajy 00 30000 A,Y!CaTa AOT.Ile OH y HOHI\Y He A06Hja HUWTa.

Y U;PHOj Topa ce caxo opymje H~je CMe.110 opeHOCHTH y Apyro naexe, na HH !CaA Je YAsTa Rliu 6H.IlS jeaaaa HaC.IleAHHl\a, Hero ce pSSAftBa.110

~8) Petranowic, 36.

fi9) MeAaKoBHn, CTp. 77

I 1

nOJA.BA HACAElIA

31

..

jeaaao pO~a~HM8 nOlcojHHKOBHM BS BCTor nAOMe· ua, Paaaor je 6HO Taj, urro cy ce nOIcojBH&,Y Y HeBO.lbH HaAaSHJlH po~a~R a H3 ser, GO)

RitA ce 6a~H IJorAeA aa HCTopHjCIce Aora~oje, YBm,a ee Aa je 06H'IajHo Hsc..te~e, ieora HeKilA HRje 6H~\O, npoHsBeAo npeBpaT Y APYUlTOY CJlOBeHCKOM, xoje ee AYI'O H Ayro oApmaBaAo CTllpHM sajeABH'IKHM .2RHOOTOM.

AOK Haje 6HAO HRCAeAHe BAaCTH H UMIlOBHHe aaa, '1HM ee CTaAa HacAe~HBaTB RAaCT B lIMaoHHHa 1!0'leAe cy rocnoAapHTH nojeAHHe nOpOAHIJ;e H AH'IHOCTH, soje cy nOCAe no csojo] BOAtH MOrae M~lbaTB OHO, nrro je BeKOBUMa OCTl\jSAO HeupOMeFLeHO.

ROABKO je TO AH'IHO ABojelbe - YSBHmasarse B u60ralielbe yTBIJ;UO aa aam ApYUlTBeHH ;KUBOT eaao Y H8U1eM HapOAY, Haj60.i&e ce BHAH Y OHOM A06y, KitA ce. nopeA cT8pe BJlSCTe.te H HM80BHHe, nosese jaasara H HOBa caMOHHK!la, BAaCTeAa 11 HOBa, A1I'IHU ere-rena, HMaOBHHa.

Baocraaa nopeAaR, Koju ce jom y aesoaaso oApm8oao HA.CAe~UOaFLeM BAaC],H 11 HMaoBHHe, Mopao je Aa IIoAAerHe HOOOMe nopeTKY, KojR je YBeAeHAtYA1IMa, UITO 6ex~F caaa KOBa-'1H esoje cpebe ,

A 'IHM je AH'IHO I'AeAHUlTe ca COUM noseao Aa rOCDOAap1l ODUITeM CTapHHCKOM rAeAHUITY, H y ApmaBH cy cpncsoj MOpa.JIe HacTynHTH npHAHKe Roje cy xorwe 6HTH nOBOAtHe nojeAHHRM AHqHOCTHMa, aAH Roje aHCY xorae 6HTH nOBOAtHe cpuesoj sojeAHH~H. Ihy je HeHRAHo eraaa ceha Heeaora 11 HeSOAOBOAtCTBO, reao UITO MyTHO He60 npecensjy Mylbe 11 rpOMOB1I.

60) Petranovic.Sf

llETA rJ.ABA

Cje,\UHUBWU CpnctCe SeM.lbe, HeMaFb8 je, KaO UJTO nOMUIbaCMO. ·H.JIa,WOl~e TUX SeMR.Ib<l HQqUHHO

. . .

CBO,JOM B.JIaCTe.JIOM, ~mle Je MHW.lbeIbe upeAe.JIO

na . ApmaBHOM soopy, a.JIH rrOpeA KOm je OH,

• ouer, paAHO .CaMOBO.lbHO .U CaMOCTa.JIHO.

II OH H HaC.JIeAHH~R IbeI'OBR He CQMU WTO HHCY IIOK.JIaFba.JIH AOBO.lbHY rramFbY BO.lbH H saxTeBHMa B.JIaCnMe, nero cy nOKa3RRaJlH cue name H murre Temfbe sa ~lHCTHM anCO.JI,YTH3MOM U OCaajaurraox, ieoje cpnCKOM HapoAY oaur Huje TO.JIHKO aeaeaao na cp~y reao HeKHM OCBaJaqKHM HapOAHMa: HopMaHHMa, l\IoHrO.JIHMa, XYHHMa H T A.

Teaeeka ~,a pRAH CBOjHX HaMepa, IIOAHI'HY CBeIJl'l'eHCTBO, OHH ey MaHaCTHpUMa SeM.lbe U .lbYAe rrOR.JIaIba.JIH oes AOBO.lbHOr AOI'OBOpa C B.JIaCTe.JIOM na C.V H aarcoue H3AaBa.JIH H caMY UO.JIHTHKy H paTOBe BO.ll,H.JIH aa CBOjy pyKy.

Ao Ayme OHR C.Y H B.~aCTe.JIH, TpamehH OA rse eaao Ml1p H uoc.JIyx OCTaB.lba.JIH OApellieHe PYRe Y nocrynaa.y C HapOAOM, H OHa cy, .lby'fH'fa aa C{1.MOBO.lbY B.JIaAa.JIa~u,y, aaacra ~ ~HllH.la



CJE,\HlbElhE

33

'IYAa C ~apOAOM, AOBoAehH ra CDe same u saure nOA CB0.JY HenocpeAsy BAaCT U. nOTnoMamyhll CTBapalbe CTaAe.m8.

AAU, K8A B.1I~aAa'lICa eaaoao.sa U CYBHme paCTH CTaAe, OHa nOTpamHme aaxana, Aft joj cTaHY rra "YT. Sa TO CBaICOM npHAHICQM 1I0Tnoxaraxy u nOA6.YfbuBaxy aesaaoao.eae nperenaeaTe npecToAa, Temehu, Aa nopeMeTe HOB pea HaMe~a, H Aa nOBpaTe cTapu nopeAaIC Y ICOMe 6u OHU 6HAH BHAsujU.

. AAH HM ce, M9XOM, CBYA naaa oeyjesasaaa,

a, H~isaA, JiJlaAa0J4a no-reme y CBOjO.i C9MOBO..!.. TepaTa TaICBY nO.1lHTHICY, Aa ce OHB nooojaure OA onora, mTO HX je, AO~HHje, nOA AymaHoM, sa-' U~Ta a CHaJITAO.

meHeliu ce rp'lICHM npuH~esaMa, u YCBoJajyliu Y cBeMY 06H'Iaje H pacsoura BusaHTHjcICe, epncICH B.1IaAaO~a HM)' CTHme ca CBHM HapoAHo r.1leAHlIITe H xreaouie Aft 0,11, cpnCKe apaease sa'1UHe Apmauy ea CTpftHHM ype~efbeM, y ICOMe ce He6u OICpeTaJlO raaee na BOhY HapoADHx CTapeuIHHa H HeICaAailllbY CaMOBOJbY 06AacHHx YIIpaBHHKa.

no Ka", jOUI MBAyTHH, crynaenra, 110,11, YTHl~ajeM CHl\IOHBABH.HM, .y 6.11HCKO "pHjftTe.JbCTBO c' BHsaHTHjO)J, HRYMH, Aft Cpncieo ~RpCTHO cnoja c' RHa~lH:rHjoM, a He 6ellle 0,1, pacKltAa .HH Aa, .V ('.lyt1a.lY YCIIeUIHe IIO~HTHKe, OCTaDH Y.leAHfbElHH "pe(':ro KOMe 0,11, CB0.lHX mypaKll, npHH'IeRa BHSaUTl'ljcKHX, HElaR,II,OBOJbCTBO BJiRCTeOCKO (w~e ,\0 BpXYIU\H.

34

PA8DHTAK D~. B~ACTH

Cpesox 0,21, MBJlYTBHOHH ITJlaHOBa He 6H HBmTa. Ha "peCTO Ao~e ,L\parYTHHoB CHH BJlRAHc.ran. a.ia KIl,\ co ",iI,BHaCTH'IKa 60p6a aa HOBO O'1'BOP", H K3A ce IT06eABJl9.1J, BJl9.AHCJlaB "ORMla xao THpIlHHH, 0,21, reora ce HJlRCTeJla HHC,Y xoraa HaAaTH HHR8RBOM A06py, OHa ITperome~ Te aa npeCTO YSABrome, Ma If eaerrora, Ae'laHCKora.

Y saaroure ra, aJlH He xao BJlaAaolJ,a no naCJleljy, Hero xao Hsa6paHor Kpa.ea OHaKo, reao nrro c,Y p,VCRa aaacreaa rroaarwa AHY MBaHOBH,); ouareo, K3KO cy'y caoje BpeMe, .BY'IBii et cornp. AOBeJlH na npecTo Kassa MHXaHJla.

Y sAHraBmJ1:, ,L\e'laHCKOra na npecTo no CBO.10.1 BOJbH, OHa My, ,21,0 Ayme, orwaeame H CHHa M,lI3AHM KpaJbeM, H,aCJleAHHKoM. AJlH ce ITOCTapame Aa ra OrpaHHqe, TaKO Aa OH saute HHje xorao HHmTa paAHTH 6es orisapa MU BOJbY naacreae, OrpaHH'IHBmH AeqaHCKOra aaaereaa ce6H A3Ae aeher Maxa H nOJleT3 Y 'CBOjHl\I 06Jl3CTIiM9.. 0,21, Tora ee ,21,063, cKyqeHH caMoApmaBHH BJlaCTeJlH eTaHY nOHoeHO HaSHBaTH "BJlaAaoIJ,HMa APaeaaa", Y KojuMa cy BpeMeHoM saHCT3, reao caMOeT3JlHH BJl9.Aaoll,H saR.lLY'lHBaJlH yroBope ca OKOJlHHM ApmaBaMIl, .BOABJlH paToBe sa CBOj pa'I'yH, KOBaJlH HOHu,e, na qaK H rptione eaoje HMaJlH. Ta npaBa OHH, reao B3SaJlH KpaJbeBH, HMaljaxy H npe, aJlU HX ellA npomHpHme H jour KpaJba OrpaHH'IHme.

Paayxe ce, 4a je .y TOMe OrpaHHqern,Y ys BJlaCTeJl'y HrpaJlO ~eJlHK'y yJlory H CBemTeHCTBO. To ee BHAH ITO IIOCJleAHlJ,aMa Tor a OrpaHH'Ielba. 0,21, Tora A06a cpnCKH BJlaARoll,H HWI'H HSAlljy nose.se H saeoae, HUTH AeJle aeMJbe MQHaeTH-

~~~-- -------.----

1

cjeAlflbElhE

iJ5

..

pHMa caMH no CBO.JOJ BO.J.H, Hero CBe .f AorOBOpy ca BJiaCTeJlOM lfCBemTeHCTBOM, A AOTJle Tora He 6eme.

AORJI.e. ce, reao mTO SHaMO, Y BOCHH, aaaAaOlJ,H jour OAaBHa AoroBapaxy C BJiaCTeJlOM. H nanohaxy je reao cseaoxe, AOTJle y Cp6HjH aaaAaolJ,1f CBe ql'IHHme caaa qaR AO BpeMeHa CTeBaHa AeqaHCRora.

Y CROPO npOHuljeHOM CBeTo-CTe~aHCROM XpHCOBYA>Y, ROjH je RpaA> MllJlyTHH ca CBOjHM 6paTOM ,L1,paI'YTHHOM HS4ao, caA Bet. aanycreaox'") MaHacTHpy . BalbcRoM, oxo 1315 rOA. aa XpHCOByJby .ie, OCHM Kpa.eeaor 6paTa, rrorrracaa caxo apxejeuacreou ca jerracaonaxa H HI'YMaHHMa 62). Y XplfCOBYJbY Oresaaa AeqaHCROr OA 1330 rOA. y ROM ce jcasyje, xaso je OR no meJbH CB. Cane, IIOJ],Hrao . M3HacTup AeqaHe) KpaJb npaaaaje, Aa je BeHlJ,eM KpaA>eBCTBa CpnCROI' 6HO OBeHqaH "Ba npasAHlfR 60I'ojaBJleHHja aa JleTO.· C;OO'ltO (6829-5508 =1321), oJiarocJloBeHlfjeM ... npeocnenrrenora apxajenacieyna HHIeOAHMa If ncex jenHcRyn If eceeo stiopo. Cpncsaro'")", Taj MaHacTHp sa TlfM oApeljyje sa CTaHHIDTe RaJlyljeplfMR oner "c' 6JlarOCJlOBeHujeM rocnoaaaa MH If orua AaHUJla H ncex jenacieyrr M eceeo stiop« cpucxaeo." A XTeBIUH ynaoaeara npMJlOre MaHacTHpy BeJlM: »Ca6pax soop cpneieaje SeMJbe apxajenaercvna H

61). R. .J. Japeaes, TprOBa<JKlf ,WYMOBlf no Cp- 6l1jlf If HOClIlf Y cpefl,{beM BlfjeRY, Ilpcnco .,.h, OrojaHOBHh, Orauoana Rib. IX, CTp. 1 ~3.

6~) .l>. I\OBaqellHh CReTO-CTe<l>anCKH XpU('OB)'.Ib,

OTar,r6HHa lOb. 24. CTp. 247.

68) Mon. Serb. 90

PA8BHTAK B.Il. Il.llACTH

-----------------

36

jenHCKYIIH 11 HrYMaHH H xaeaaue H TenqHje H BojeB6AH H C.lyrH, H SrOBOpHX ce C IDHHH H npajex 6.mrOCJlOlJeIHI.je oA rOCnOAHHa MH H OT~a apxajenHcKynR AaHHJla H BCeX jenaexyn H BCeX HI'YMaB H om eceeo /J6opa epaceaeo jeaee 0 npH.lOmeHHM xpaMy ceay ... 64 j"

HH paTOBH ce nocae He MOl'axy orARUIaBaTH 6es IIpeTXOAHor CilopaSYMa c' BAaCTe.lOM. HaCTa BAaCTeOCKa KOHTpO.la.

K?.ilUKO je y ~pKBeHHM IIHTalbHMa 6HAO ~peT6mHHJe MHUIA.elDe CBeUITeHCTBfl, TO.lHKO.1e y BOjHHM IIHTalDHMa MOpUO 6HTH npereseaaje MHe· IDe naacreae.

KaA ev IIpHCTa.lH~e AHAPOHHKa erapajer, MO.llH.ile AeqaHCKOr 4a HM nOHorRe y paTy npoTHB AH4pOHHKa M ... a~er, OH je aajnpe narao sa MHWA.elbe BAaCTeOCKO Belie, H, KaA ce IIHO aspasu.lo IIpOTHB paTR, OH ra HHje HH BOAH060).

Taxo je, 110 C.II e, H AYUIaH IIpH YI'OBapalbY casesa C KaHTaKyseHoM aajnpe IIHTao caoje paTHO Belie y ROMe cy 6H ... a 24 HajsHaMeHHTHja B.lRC'Te"'HHa8&).

B ... acTe.la ee 6H.la onpOCTH.la OHora no.lO'Raja, Y ROju jy je 6HO 6a~uo HeMa1D8; caxoAP~aBHH cy B ... aCTe.lH IIOCTa.lH. aesaaacaaja y CBO.JHM 4pmaBaMa;~e ... OKynHa .Je ApmaBR c~nCKa IIOCTa.lla OrpaHHqeHa Be.lHKaUIKa MOHapxHIR. KRA je AeqRHCKH, npU6J1H3CHBUIH ce, xao H IDe· rOBH npeTxoAHu~H BHsaHTHju, crao :nORasHBaTH

(\4) Moo Serb. 99

M H 6~ Cpeh~oBHh II, 300 H 427.

37

nehy CBMlIaT~iy UpeMR CBOjOj ,l\e~B 0,1\ BHsaHTBjClce npaauese Hero npOI'AameHOM MAa,l\OM Rpa.II.y If. HaCAeAHHRY 0,1\ rrpBe aeeae naacre •• a oaaojehesa, 0AMax je YCTaAa, na ra S6al.\BAa B na npeCTO noaaraa AymaHa. C' FLHMe . cy OHa MHCAH..ta Aa he BAaARTH no CBOjOj BOJI,H, SAB cy ce rrpeBupHAa. OB jy je 0,1\ cB~iy CBOjHx npeTxOAHHKa aajaame CYS6HO O1'paHH<JHO H IIOHHSHO.

l

I

\

,

I ~l

,

mEOT A r Jl.ABA.

~APCKM 6MPOKPATM3AM

Baacreaa nOAHraB rna aa npecTo ,2J,ymaHa, A3Aome BJlaCT Y PYRe qOBeRY OA reora cy saxTeBaJl3, Aa S3ROHOM ypeAH craa,e, RO.Je.Je y seMJhH BJl3f,aJlo.67)

OH joj je TO o6ehao, a OHa cy, oner, rseroBOM CHHY rrpeCTO o6es6eAHJla. II Ypom ys ,2J,yuiaaa, xao H ,2J,ymaH ys AeqaHCROr, 6eme npasnar sa HacJleAHHRa npeCTO.il.a. Ilpeua TOMe je AO:U;·· naje, RaA je ,2J,yrnaH rrpOrJlameH sa :u;apa, OH HUSBaH KpaJheM.

IIsr.il.eA3IlIe ieao Aa cy SaAOBOJheHe 06e CTpaHe: H aRTHBHa H nacanaa.

Ho OTIIOqeBIlIH B.il.aAY H yseaura sa meny Jeaeay, cecTp'y 6yrapcRor :u;apa A.il.eRCaHApa68), eaora sasaaa H Aa.il.eROr poharea ITO BYRaHY HeM3IbH~OM69), ,2J,YIlIaH 0AMax noreaaa RaFO Ma.il.O BOAH paqYHa 0 rJleAHIlIT'y HapoAHoM.

67) Cpeheoaah, II, 340, 497.

68)Jirecek, Geschichte der Bulgaren, 298. ijll) Cpeh.lwlIllh, II, 343.

~APCRR BRPOTAKPH8AM

39

y CIIOMeHa ~a.. TO IIpeB~afbe I'JleABmTa aapOAHoI' OCTaJl.a Je s HapOAHHM necaaaa 0 meHHA- 6H AymRHoBoj.

AymaH He 6eme KOHsepRRTHBaH. OH 6eme pe<l>OpMaTOp ,Y AYXY cYBpeMeHocTH, a reaeame H sa 3ajeAHu'IKoM rrpaBOCJl.aBHOM ApmaBoM. iO)

JbyTHT aa I'p'lK'y naprajy, a HaRHKH,YT aa RHsaHTHjcKo ApmaRHo ypeherse, c' K~jHM je HMRO rrpHJl.HKe Aa ce ynosaa AOK je c' onea 6HO y BHsaHTHjH, OH je meJleo Aa Cp6Hjy CTaBH aa MeCTO TpyJl.e BHsRHTHje, rra AR yjeaao H OTRJl.OHH orrRCHOCT oA cnoje ApmaBe H Aa je YSBBCH.

OK 6ewe pRT06opaH, rrpeAYSHMJbBB H caaoBO..t.RH, "na H AeCIIOTH'IaH sao H CRe BeJlHRe BOj - BOAe H Ro,iHH'IHHe.

CTpaH~H r-a IIR3lmRXY I'TpallIHHM71), a Cp6H CHJl.HHM.

Y 06J1.HKY H H,lpaBH rseroaoj, reao Aa ce oraeaame OC06HHR, K(\jy A06H OA aoae MaTel'HHe72). A MaTH My 6erne KliH 6yrapClwr ~Rpa CMHJb~e, sa KHM je 6HJl..a yHYKR rp'lROI' ~apa AHAPoHHKa73).

OH reaeame SR RIICOJl.YTHSMOM, ~eHTpa.u'3a~HjOM, rra H sa paToM, jep aozsame 6J1.eCRK CIIOJbaIIIIbH H BeJl..H'IHHY ApmRHHY.

70) 4eA' MHiaToBHfi, 1\OC080. Ol'aQ6HHa KIb xxn.

CTp. 1 H 2.

71) J. Paa-rs Heropia pa8HhlX'b CAooeHCKHX'L Hapo- 1\00'b H8HOa'Ie nOArapOB'L, XopOaTOO'b R Cep60B'L. B'L. BYARMt rpaAt 1823, r. qacT Il, 337.

72) Cpehsosah, II, il37.

78) Jireerk, 283.

1>A8BRTA.1C B.lI.. B.UCTK

H upe rsera je 6H.1IO H8. CPIICIWM IIpeCTO~.Y , .]by,l\H, KOjH cy ce c~8.6() 06SHpa~H Fi8. H8.pO~HO r~eABWTe, a~H, OH ra Sa6a~H ca CBUM.

OR 6ewe cIIoc06aR ,l\a aeprayje CBe, caao ,1\8. nOCTaHe CH~8.R H Moh8.H. lbeM,Y He ,l\aBawe MHpa OH8. Te.mlb8. S8. HeOrpaHUqeHOM aaamhy H nocaymaourhy, R8.J(Ba ce jaaa,a caxo y cTpaHe pace H NaRBe C~OBeHH MaXOM HeMajy.

Sa npa80 nOTHIIlTeHor Hapo,l\8. He XTe ,1\8. qyje. OH je saao ,l\a paTOBH, Koje je B0,l\UO B Koje je MHC~UO Aa BO,l\H,He Mory rO,l\BTH c~060ABHM Cp6HM8, KojHMa je aaure 6H~O,!l,O YHYTp8.llilbe c~060,!l,e HO ,!I,O cno.eaunser 6~eCK8. .

.iKHBehu y qHCTHM CPIICKHM KpajebHM8. SeTCRUM, OH je UMao IIpH~HKe, ,!I,8. ce YBepH, ,!I,a aa pO,l\ aeroayje caMOBJ.Y B~a,!l,a~aqNy, IIa, sBajyliH nrra je IIOMOhy Beaaaa yqHHHO, MO.m,l\8. je a aaSHP8.0 0,1\ raaca HapoAHor.

Sa TO je r~e,!l,ao, ,!I,a ra yrywH ,1\8. He6H cayurao pOIITalbe lberOBO. Baao je ,l\Q OHO, lliTO xoke Aa qHHU, He rO,!l,H ,!I,yxy HapO,l\HOM, KojU je 6HO IIpOTU~8.H c»ey,!l,HOM cHcTeMY H ancoxyrasay, H KOjH je c' YS,I\acHMa noaarsao c1'apo ,!I,06po apexe, K8.,I\ ce Y ,l\p.maBHHM IIOC~OBHMa H HapO,!l, IIHT8.074.)

He XTeBWU ce 06supaTH aa HSHeMOI'~e .meJbe Hapo,!l,He, ,!I,a pec»opMHwe B~a,!l,aBHHcKy CHCTeMY y ,!I,yxy RapO,l\HoM, OH ce no Tapao ,!I,a ce 06es- 6e,!l,H O,!l, HeMupHor eaexeara, NOjU My je xorao CMeT8.TH.

74) Stojan Bochkovitch. La mission du psuple Serbe dans la question d' orient. IT edition Bruxelle 1886. r. CTp. 25.

~I

I

.1lAPcttH :bHPOTAKPHBA'M

ITo yroBOpy e' Bo1\aC'feJlOM a c' 06SHpOM aa SRICOHCICe aapearie npesaunsax BJlR,ll,aJla~a H aa saICOHO,ll,BllCTBO BHsaHTHjcKO, f\YlIIaH ,ll,a.ie saKOH, aaa sao ,ll,a ra HHje ,ll,ao. ,ll,OK asjnpe H~je 6Ho1\O 6yHe H HesaAOHO.l&CTBa. O,ll, rseroaor ,ll,OJlaCKa aa B..ta,ll,y, 6H~0 je npOlII..tO HeKOJlHKO roaaaa, a OH sasoaa HU.le ,ll,aBao.

A TO je 6u.l\o asjrope OHHMa, qoje je ;ieM.l&e OCBOjUO, a Hoje 6HO C IbHMR oaaoce pery.llHcao. Hajsa,ll" HeKH 011. C8MO,ll,pmaBHnx .aaac '.re.lla H a.eroaax sasaaa y nOICopeHHM aJl6aHc, ICHM KpajeBHMa cTaHY pa,ll,H1'H npoTHB a.era76). (1338 r.) 360r Tora je /l,YlIISH 6HO IIpHHy~eH ,ll,a TpalRR ]d..teTaqICO rpa~aHcTBo H ,ll,a ce 06es- 6 e,ll, H, aICO 6R 6RO npaayhen ,ll,a oera HS seM.l&e H ,ll,a TpRlRH CK..toHHlIITa76). Aa ..tH je, y OCTa.IIOM, osaj YSPOK 6HO je,ll,RHH H IIpaBH, R..tH je AymaH H c' ,ll,pyrHx pas..tora TemHO ,ll,a ,ll,o~e y 6..tRme oaaoee ea M..teTKl\Ma - TO ce nexoaee SHaTH. TeR, <l>aKT .ie, ,ll,a je AYlIIaH y je,ll,HO. BpeMe, 1340 ro,ll,. TpamHo sa CBaKH c..tyqsJ CIC..tOHUlIITe y M..teTKaMa. To HaM ,ll,oICasyiy M.IIeTaqICH CIIOMeHU~U.

Baao ,ll,a je ,l1.ymaH, Hajs8,ll, npucTyIIRO HSpa,ll,H sasoaa, mTO je Mopao, 6H.il0 lIITO My je ~~,ll,Hja.lla onosanaja y SeM.I&U, na Je YBH,ll,eo, ~a JOJ Mopa OApe,ll,HTH rpaHuo;e, CBaROJ8ICO - OH Je HS,ll,80 SaKOH! K H yaeo ra Y mHBOT. A..tH y KO..tRICO je y rrpBOM HS,ll,aIbY 1349 H ,ll,BO Be..tHICe IIOB..t?CTHo;e naaereaa II CBemTeHCTBY, y TO..tHICO ra Je

76) 76, Cpehaoaah, IT, 403, 401 405.

77) A. MajKoB, Heropaja CpnCKOJ;'a Hapoaa, AaH~PIPlheB npcBOA II HaAalbe. Beorpaa. 1R76 r. eTp. 5354.

41

42

PABBHTAIC BJl. BJlACTH

y ,lI,p.yroM HS,lI,aFLY 1354 roa. ,lI,0IIYBHO II HSMe· aHO na mTeTY OCH.lbeae BJLaCTeJLe. BHhe,,lI,a jy je xao K,p~.Ib, pa,ll,H CBOjHx TemFLa, .Mopao Aa MHTH, aJLH Je IIOCJLe, nocraraaura cBOJe TemIne u upOrJlaCHBmll ce, Llapea, O,ll,~ax aacTao,ll,a Je yRpOTl'I, sao mTO .Je H Hapo,ll, .Jom rrpBHM H3,l1,RIbe~1 6uo n pHTerao.

IIo,ll, Ae'larrCRHM ce BJLaCTeJla 6ex~' OCHJlHJla aa mTeTY saaaaona H HapO,ll,a, a rro,ll, A} maHOM cy II saaCTeJlU U HapO,ll, OrpaHH'leHH .V KOPHC'!' BJla,ll,aOI ta. 77)

»ARO JLII coli a He,ll,a BAaCTeJlHH na (o.ipe~eae) pOROBe, ,lI,a ce caeaee aa napcreox (,BOpy, II ,lI,a ce ,lI,pam, AOKJLe OJlaTH ABojHHoM" - TaRO neJlH jeaaa lfJLaH A.ymaHOBa saKOHa78.)

CBOjllM . saKOHHKOM~ AymaH je rcao HeROM saillTHTOl\1 CBO.Je BO.lbe o,ll,pmao .v CTeSH H HapoA H BJiaCTeJlY. Y TemKOM paTHOM A06y H Y 'lacy OCTBapeIba IberOBHX U;eHTpaJlHCTHlIKHX HaMepa T2j My je saKOH 6uo O,ll, BeJLHKe KOpHCTH. Morao je noha, RYA je xreo, a naje ce 60jao yHyTpalIIIber s.ia II aepeAa. OH My je Y 0ACYCTBY 6HO sao HeRO HaMecmHIITBO.

Ho OH ce naie SaAOBO.lbHO HH caMHM THM saROHHROM Ibeay HHje 6H.'I.O ,lI,OBO.lbHO ,lI,a y ype ~eHoj SeM.lbH 6es6pHmHo BJlaAa. OH je xreo ,lI,a Ty CBOjy seM.lbY MOAH4>HRyje rro YI'JLeAY aa BII~ sanrajy sa 'lHjer ce BAa,ll,aoU;a H copeMao.

:If Y TOj TemFLH, Y sojoj My ce I10peA saROBHRa MOI'JlO cMeTaTH, OH je OC06HTO ueurro HSHrpao BJLaCTeJlY, soja cy ce 0,11, rsera Ha,ll,aJla IIOCJlyXy. Oaa cy TemHJla sa ycraaaornhy, a OH .Je TemHO sa aneoavraaxou.

·S)CT. HOBaICoBHli., q.ll. 33. CT. 10.

1 I

nAPCICH BHPOTAICPH8A.M

43



Tora P~AH, OH Je, nOCTaBllH ~apeM, .~e..1'y ApmaBY CBOJY peorpaHHSOBao no BHsaHTHJCKOM CHCTeMY, H aa MeC'l'O CTapor ll..1aCTeOCTBa, no

. po~eInY, YBeo qHHOBHHllTBO, - 6HpOKp~THsaM - no SaC..1ysH. Kao .llTO je HeMHIna OA uesaBHCHHX B..1aAao~a rroJeAHHHx ApmaBa HaqHHHO rror-rasseae caMoApmaBHe B..1aCTeJle, TaKO je ilsmaa, na MeCTO THX CTa..1HHX H oA AeqaHCKOra A06a OCH.J,eHHX B..1aCTe.JIa, na Be..1HKO InHXOBO asaeaaherse, CTBOPHO HOB peA HeCTa..1HHX qHHOBHHKa, xoja cY, paAM nocraaaa,a InerOBIiX naMepa MOpa..1H qHHHTIi CRMO OHO, nrro je OH XTeo.97)

KaA ce 1346. rOA. rrpOr..1aCHO ~apeM, na yneo H crao pasAaBaTH CBOjHM .J,y6HM~HMa qHHOBHHqKe THTY..1e II 0pAeH, OB. OTeHaHa,80: OB je jaCHO nozasao Aa My aaje AO yra~alba yoopaseeHOj B..1aCTe..1H, HO AO y~AHSaJba ce6e. OH aaje TpamHo MH..10CTH, Hero .le xreo At\ Ae.JIH.

llOCTaBWBlllH jerracxone MHTpOrrO..1HTHMa, R apxajeuacsona narpajapxox; HaqHHHBlllH OA mynaaa RerJja/tuje a oA myna xope 81); YCTaHOBHBrna enarsa: oecuotua ceeecuumpasuopa, Iiecapa, aOJl,omema, 'Uiexapnuna, uaoaopnuna nO'lbapnuna (XI noreoxoca) 'UipOmOBecmujapa, upomoctuouapa, napmoffiUJl,anca, nO.Mopnuna u m. 0.81) OH je 6a- 1\110 y saceaare csora cjaja CBe HapOAHe 06Hq~je, a yrieaexayroj B..1RCTe..1H OX0..10 nosasao, Aa OB ~eHH eaxo OHe, lCOjn: My yrat,ajy H lCojn: Myome

79) MajlCoB, 54,

80) PajHB, II, 750,

81) CpehICOBHh, n. 526, 903,

82) Pajl1h, II, 750, Cpehsoaab n, 527.

44

l>A8B1fTAK SA. BJl,ulTH

H>erOHoj MOBapxH'IBoj HAeju. YBe,l\eBUM THTYJl.aM8 H qHBOBHMa OH je aaacreaa OTBOPUO BO.lbY Aa :'f~ ce YAJUl.pajy H Aa ce CaMO ORO ABopa canHJaJY ieao mTO ce nocae MHora U saacra U Y A'"" Bapa.lla U caaajaaa. OA BeRaAalIllDUX C.Il060AHHX US60pHHRa, ROjH cY B.IlaAaol.\a OrpaBUqaBaJl.H, nOCTa YABapa'lRa ABopcRa RaMapH.Ila. B.IlaCTeJlR cy ra poncRH .lby6u.Ila .y CR.yT U .Y pyRy, a lbeHH cy CHHOBH CMaTpa.llH sa cpehy, Rail. cy MOr.llK 6UTH BeRO BpeMe y ABOPY aa aacnararsy U 0- 6y"tJelDY Y nOBamalbY ABOPCROM, KaRBa nOACMeBKa HerAamlDeM aapoaaox 0ABOCY npeMa 6upaHHM cTapemuBaMa, .mynaBHMa, Roju C.Y ,OU.IlH caao npBu Me~y paaaaaa!

Taso je AymaB paAR CBOjl'lX BaMepa USRrpao B.IlRCTe.llY. A.m je ce jom name orpemao o HapoA.

3aROHHROM CBOjUM OB ra je aesao TaKo, All Huje cxeo BR nUCHYTR. OBe TepeTe, R OBa 01'paaasea,a, IlITO je HapoA no-teo CBOCHTH oA RaKO cY ce Heaarse noxeae oA BapoAa oABajaTu u csoje nopesao AOBOAHTii 011. BO.lbe 60~je H I.\apa KOBcTaBTHHa83); OHe TepeTe, 011. IWjHx ce HapoA, Mo.mAa oupourrajy aaaao, AYlIIaH je yaasoaao.

AymaH je CBOjUM salC~HuR0:'f npeRRByoAoTaAamlDY HeHSBeCHOCT, rWJR ce JaB.lba.lla y OHOM HenpeCTRHOM RO.lle6albY uSMe~y CTapora U HOBora AP:ymTBeHor ypehea,a y 60p6u HSMe~y sapOAHe JeAHaKOCTU, caMoyrrpaBe, YCTaBHOCTH H <t>eYAa.IlHe CUCTeMe. II Taj "peRHA yqRlDeH je HR mTeTY aapoasor r.lleAHmTa Aa ce Taj saROHHK

83) Cpelneouah, n, 892, 81}8.

f

qAPCICH BRPOTARPH8AM

45

npaBHO Y BpeMe CTape mynaHcICeus60pHe CHCTeMe U HapOAHe caMoynpaBe H jeAHalCocTH, saHCTa He 6H TaICaB 'HSI'.le,ll,ao. 1'pe6a caxo 6a~HTH noraea na npaBHe 06H'Iaje 1C0A Cp6a H sa AymaHOB saICOHHR, na ce cTpecTH.AYllaH je ycBOjUO H YTBPAHO CBe HapoAHepe<I>OpMe, reoje cy ce y cpncRoM ApymTBeHoM mHBoTY ,11,0 H>erOBa 406a nojasaae, H aa TOMe je MOPaolO OCTaTH.

Ko ee rAe saresao, T.Y je Mopao Sa'IaMHTH.

HHRo ce ca csora MeCTa aaje Morao noaaha. MeponcH ce HHCY CMe.lU Ce.lHTU; O'rpO~H ce HHCY CMe..t8 Y nphujy AaBaTu; a rocDoAapu ce HHCY CMeAU MeH>aTH. CBe, llTo.ie 6u.lo aesaao sa SeMeLY B.laCTe.llTHcRY, 6H.la je ClJOjHH8 BAaCTeAunCKa HMorAO je A06BTB c.l060,ll,Y caxo onaa lCaA MY je us MUAOCTH Aao BAacTeAHH HAU rse rosa IIHpOABl.\a.84) BAaCTe.lY je nOABprao ce6B a BapoA BAaCTeAB. Kao IJJTO saaxo, OTPOIC ce HUje xorao HU maAUTU HB l.\apCI~HM BpaTBMa C auAOM npHcTynBTH:8li)

Ho HHje 6HAO AOBO.l.bHo. urro je HapoA 0,11, ?BOjHX Bpam OA6Ho; HHje 6H.ilO AOBO.l.bHO, nrro .Je HapoA rposHuM KaSHaM8 IIOHumaB80, Hero ce jour nOCTapao H sa CBaKHC.ilyq~i. Bojeha ce ,II,a HapoA Y CBOMe HeroAOBaH>Y He 6H CRO'JHIJ _ aa 0p.v~je, OH ce IIOC.lymHo aajrposaajaa cpeACTBOM, re My je aa01/:!'ituo c.Jtooo{)y e~opa U Boeoeopa !

Yseo ,~.Y'~ cJl060AY, 1C0.Jy My HH Hexarsa HHje ,II,upao:

Pe'reHHIJ;OM: "Ce6poBa s60pa Aa rsecr .. 86)!"

AymaH je saaao nOC.le,i\H>H YAap CBaROM IIORY-

84 85 86) OT HOBaKOBHn, ,llymaHoB IJaKOHHK, '1'\, 41 CTP, 12. '1,\. 4 CTp. 7 H '1'\, 19 (lTP, 6.

46

PABBHTAK B.II.. B.II.ACTH

msjy Aa HapOA AHrHe r.ilaBY, TOM je peqeHHI.I,OM AYllaH yryllHO raac HapoAHIf, TOM je peqeHHI.I,OM sareorrao CTRPY H360PHY cHcTeMY HapoABY,

38 Jb,v6aB CJl3Be, cno.eaunser cjaja H YI'JleAB 4pmaBHor, cprrcRH je HapoA, no Aym8HoBoM saROHY. Mopao Aa ce UOHH3H AO CR01'R. ARo je TaRO y OHO BpeMe MOpaJlO Aa 6YAe rro APyrHM Cf)eYAa.ilHHM ApmaBaMa jesponcsaa, naje MOpa.ilO 6HTH Y AeMoKpaTcRoj Ap.maBIf Opneso].

AJiH H aRO je yrymeH raac HapoAa, aaje xoraa Aa ce yI'YllH IneI'OBa me.I.a .sa CJl060AOM H aeeasacaomhy, He cauo y IneM:V, Hero . H Y rrOT,'ItiIneHHM aaacreaaua, H OHa ole AOI.l,HHJe, y CH~Je BpeMe, asauraa na BHAHR,

AymRH je ycrreo H noaarao ApmaBHY srpaay .,\erry H BeJlHKOJlerrHY, aaa y TOj srpaAH xoja HHje 6HJla rrOAHI'HYTU y CTH.ilY HapOAHOM, CprrCTBO HHje Mor:t0 OlICTaTH, OHa je ce MOpaJl3 CPYllHTH, SH.W HX .Je AocTa rrpeBapeHHX, OI'Op'leHHX H crrpeMHHx AU je ipassaae H pasHeey. M pnSHeJiH cy ,je,. A OHO MaJlO I.I,eHTpaJiBe cprrCRe ApmaBe, urro ,le .lOll 6eme OCTaJlO, reorre-raao ce H AaJbe aJiH saaaa.

IIaAa y OqH, RaRO BJlaAaOI.l,H HHey yBH~aJlH Aa CBa aecpeha AOJla:'lH oA pOBeIna aa cTpaHY H oA O,lJ,BajaIna oA HapoAa, OHH cy caaae H. OCHameIna TpamHJlH HenpecTaHo Y H3AHsalbY BaA uaPOAOM H Y rroapaaeaaarsy CH.ilHHM BJlaAaolJ,HMa H InHXOBHM paCROllHHM ,lJ,BOpoBHMa, IIITo ie rOA ROjH BJlaAaJlaI.l, 6HO c"\a6HjH, CBe ce BehMa xone'lBO, HH sa BpeMe AYllaHa He 6erne OHURBHX ,'I,BOPCRHX AocTojaHcTBeHHKa, RaRBHX 6eme y AOIJ,HHja, ropa, BpeMeH3, Ha AymaHoBoM ABOPY 6exy MaXOM casro "JlOrOTeTH"l a aa AecrroTcRHM ABQ-

i\APCK'M IlMpOTAKPIHL\M

47

POBHMll 6exy 06H'IHe nojase "Be~lHCH ~orOTeTH" . Cae ce <'aMO y rocnOCTBO AaBa.lO. Rao 06H'IHO, ynopeil,O ea JTO~HTHTJKOM naAoM HapOAHHM, 6Hpoxpa'rasax ce CBe BeliMa AHSll087).

Kao Aa je caxa cYA6HHa KaSHH.la Harne aaaAaOI~e sa TO~UKO YSAnSalb(~, IIPOTHBHO AYXY naPOAHOM, Te, KaA ep6oja, nOCAe TypcKor poncTBa !CKpCe HS nOAUTH'IKOr rp06a, He 6u cYgeHo,Aa ole npeABoAe BARAa~a'IKH nOTOM~H, ao COHOBH npOCTor HapoAa. rOcnOA~ je, 1I0peA cnera BeAH'Ialba, HeCT8~() a HapOA Je, lIopeA CBe lJOTHIl1Te HOCTH, OCTao H nOBpaTHO CBOj.v nexaaamrey YH'yTpamlbY paBHonpaBHOCT H c~060AY SOOPR, AoroBopa H Hs60pa.

e' lIaAoM cTape cpnCI~e M?IJapxo:je ca CBHM cY IIpolIa~a COMO B.1IaCTe.;Ya, KOJd cy ea MOHapXH'IKUM allco~yTHSMOM H 1I0eTaJia.

OHa ce naure HHKRrl, He 06HOBume H He IIOAHI'Ome88), a HapoA noxaaa, Aa H ncs IbHX caaoynpaBHo Mome Aa 6YAe CBOj crrae H caoje epehe KOBa'!.

t!7) F. Tepnrah, IIoI'.,e.\ na 6()p6y 118Me~y nenrpa '\H8&I\Mje II eaaoynpaae 'Ae~eHTpaJlHRaI\Hjfl) na aanaay If y Hac. r .\aCHIfK 55, CTp- 157.

88) Vladimir Jovanovics Les Serbes et la mision de la Serbie dans I' Europe d' orieni Paris 1870 .. r. CTp. 266.

CEAMA rAABA MA1\EAOHCHO ~APCT80

Y OHOM lie MO 0AeJbRY uCTaliu jeaaa <l>aRT,.

ROjU lie BaM, y MBorOMe, MoIm Aa o6jacHu AymaHOBO rroaamaa.e,

AymaH Hoje xreo Aa noaaaee caxo qOCTY U Hal..\UOBs.my CpnCKY·f1pmaBY. OB je xreo _Aa rseroaa ApmaBR 6YAe OHO, JDTO je HeICaA 60.18 Basaaraja U PHMc'RO-HeMaqKa l..\apeBuHa HAO mTO je cSA AycTpo-YrapC-Ka H Pycoja. OH je. aRO ce He BspaMo, x-reo aajupe y HeICO.ILHKO Aa OOHOBD ApmaBY A.lLeRcaHApa Ma~eAoBcKor86), na noeae npuAo6oBmo MslieAoHCKH _ CBeT sa ce6e, Aa yce,,-

81) Mome 6l1TH Aa je Aymam TO aeeaeo 8601' HCTOBeTHOCTH eTHOrpa<l>CKI1X eJleMeHaTa, HaCe.4>eHHX y Cp·6HjH 1'1 Mahel\OHHjH y OHO BpeMe, KaA cy.ce C.tOBeHeRR naexeaa AOC!MH.ta aa IIo..tyoCTPBO Ea..tKaHCKO. Te [e Hc:rOBeTHOCT <iHAa, H8B6CHO, 6H..ta noaaara Ii npH- 8HaTa 60.4>e Hero l~aHac. ea Te eTHOCpa<l>CK6 H(lrOBeTHOCTH aa KOjy rYHAYJlHh noaeeha, naaaaajyha Cp6.4>aIIHHOM 'IaK 1'1 erapoce.iaaaseor MaheAoHcKor B.tRAaOl\a AJleKC8UApa Be.tI1KOr", MOrJl.a je 6HTH rajeaa me.4>a sa yjeAHlbelbeM CBHjy HCTOBeTHI1X naexeaa Ha EaJlK. [10- J1.yCTp. Aa '!oy HaCe.4>eHH'IKR MaJieAoHcKa nJl.eMeaa OA noiKll,\a Te»(HJl.8 aa yjeAHlbelbeM l,oKaa HaM je ArmaDa,

...

BASBl'IT AK BJI.. BJl.ACTH

49

He na rrpeCTO Bn3aHTHjCI~H, a, M om,ll,a, H ,ll,aJ&e CBeT ,ll,a ocasja.

OTY,II,a, Mome 6nTH, ,ll,OAaSH reaeaaonneo HSBoljeIDe HeMaIDHHe ,ll,n:HacTnje 0,11, .ihu~nHn.ia H KOHcTaHTHHa BeJlHKOr, u;apa pHMcKor; oTYAa AOJl8SH aeraraaacaa,e Hapo,ll,Hnx YCTaHoBa n: oeo-

, 6nHa cpncRnx, na H MaheAOHCKJlx. -

/ Aa ce He 6ncMo xaoro 6aRTa.lH OKO rora

/Ha~emheMO eaxo THTyJly AymaHoB'y 'yHeRHM napHjau;n:jaMa, na he MO ce 'yBepn:TH, ,ll,a je AymaH'y ruanaaja 6HAa BAaCT Ha,ll, Mahe,ll,OHnjoM Hero Ha,ll, Cp6HjOM. OH Cp6njy CM8Tpa rrpOCTO ieao cacranaa ,ll,eo CBOJe J~apeBHHe.

EBO AOKQSa:

6peja'lKor I\apa Illanraaaa I, reojy JHpeqeK geschichte der Bulgaren, 186, 188, 1891" norpeumo HaSHBa "SaIJaAHOM Byrapesoa"- II ApmaBa }berOBOr CHHa CaMYaaa, HHje MOrJl.a 6HTH HHmTa APyro, aer-o MalieAoRcKa ApmaBa, Koja je caoje rpaaane HsMaKJl.a y SeMJl>e 6yrapCRe H BeTCKe Die gro~ serbische Jdee .Die grenz poten, 1889. m. crp. 435).

AymaBoB8 TemIha aa Mahe,l,OHHjoM. MomAa je 6HJl.a noapaaeaaaaa TemIhH CaMYHJl.oBoj. Csaieojarco Ta je Te)Rlba 6HJl.a onpanaaaa, Caxo ie e' UOr.lleAOM aa eTHOrpa<l>CKe oc06HHe MalieAoH. craHOBHHWTBa, ·rpe6a.llo ocHHBaTl1' ApmaBY "l,eMOKpaTcKY, Y AYXY HapoAHOll1, a He anCOJl.YTHY MOHapxHjy, reao WTO je panao AYUlaB a HBBeCHO H Ilfamaan H CaMYHJl.O, yr.lleAajyhH ee aa BH' BaHTHjy. AKo YBMeMo Aa je CaMYH.IloBa ApmaBa 6H.Ila MalieAoHcKa, onaa HB.IlaBH Aa je, AaHac HecpeTHa Ma~e,'l,OBHja 6HJl.a y X BeRY TaKO CIMBa, Aa je BaXBaTlI.Ila orpOMHY npocropajy. ua KojOj cy, OCIIM IJpeCToHHqe Oxpaaa, 6lI.IlH '1YBeHH r-paaoaa: Beorpaa, HHm, Il pamTOHa, CO<l>l'Ija, Be.ll6ymA ('By ereaaaa) CKOITJ.Oe, Beaec Ilpaaeu, BOAeH8, KocTYP, AaBo.ll, Bepar, Jarsaaa H KanHa (Jirecek, geschichte der Bulgaren 190-91.

Pa8BHTaK BlI. BJJaCTJI

.

50

MAhE~OHCKO ~APCTRO

Y PaBaHH'IKOM PYKOIIHC.\ AymaHoBor 3aKOHHKa H3 THTyole AymaHoBe, IIpH HaTIIHCY RRKOHR BHAH ce, Aa je TO 3aKOH "O.l.arO'IaCTlmaro H Bepnaro H XPHCTOA>YOHBaro MU'Ileao'HUC'Ilaeo t~apa Cme!fta'Ha" .. 90),

A y pyKOIIIH~J .J YCTHHHjaHoBor H AymaHonor , 3aKOHa, IIITO je Ha~eH Y CO<l>HjH, y HaTnHcy 3aKOHa CTOjH "o.i\arOqeCTHBaro H XpHCTO.l>yOHBaro M a Ii e A 0 H C K a ron; a paC T e <I> a H a cpncKaro, O.i\rapCKaro, yrapCI\aro AaolMaTCl~aro, apriaacxaro, yrpo-saaxajcearo H UHUM IfHorHM IIpeAe.i\OM H 3eM.I>aM cllMoApmn;a cynrraro MH.i\OCTHjy aamn-aro Bora Mcyca Xpacra: SaKoH H YCTaB" .. ~1)

Jacao ce ARI\.i\e BHAH, AU AymaHY HHje 611- ao AO lip ane cpnCKe ApmaBe92) y xojoj OH, AO 60A>HX IIpH.i\HKa A0.i\aSHola CBa SeMA>a MalieAOHCKR ca spajesaxa OCTaolHX HapOAR soje je 1I01\0PIIO H Y CBOjy AP~aBy YBeo.93)

90) T HMO e H <P A 0 P H H C K 0 r 0 TlalllHTuHKH saKOHOAaTeJlbHOH: ,'\iHITeJlhHOCTH Ayw8Ha ~apMI Cep60B'b H I'pexoirs, Kien, 1888 roa, Hpaaoaeeaia CTp.31.

91) <PJlOPHHCKH etc. IIpH.IlomeHiH 75-X 315, 3aKOHO,\aBCTBO H BJlar,aO~H cpnCKH XIV BeKR H aapoaaocra y MaKeAoHH1H. OTaJ,I. KIh. XIX. cr}'. 310. 92) Dr. M.' 'B. M H Jl 0 BaH 0 B H h, Haseao HapoAHOCTH y MeljyHapo,~HoM npaBy H McljyHapoAHoj nOJlHTH~H, OTaJ,I. KIb. XXII, CTp. 326.

93) lis ,2i,ywaHoBe THTy.lle y HaBeAeHOM CO<l>HjCKOM pYKonHCY BHAH ce, a, H HUaqe:HB APyrnx HCTOPHjCKUX CIIOMeHHKa SHa ce Aa je H Byraperea Kao aasaaaa seM~a 6HJla IIO" AywaHOM. Meljy THM Byrapa, TemehH sa 06HOB~elheM BeJlHKC Byrapcse Hebe TO Aa npaaaajy, liMa jeARH npHMepaK AywRHOBor saKOH8, ROjH je y pyKODKCY BRljeH, K9.0 WTO ee 'leCTO AewaBa ca J yeTHHH-

PABBHTAK BA. BAACTH

51

AymaBY je ,ll,aK.lI.e, y IIpBU Max, 6u.lI.o,ll,0 06- BOBA>eFha ApmaBe A.lI.eKCaB,II,pa Malie,ll,OBCKOr, reao mTO je U MH.lI.YTUflY 6H.lI.O ,11,0 06BOBe BB:SaBTHjcsor jeaaacraa aa IIo~yocTPBY Baasaacsoa. Ba TO ce AymaB H seaasa najaame no Malie,ll,OBHjH. Taxo My je H npeCTOB~n;ai TaMO CEl npor.ll.ama~a H. l.\apeMi TaMO HS,lI,aJe H aareone - TaMO My je CBe.

CpnCKH je Bapo,ll, ocerao, nrra AymaB xolie, na, H aKO je 6HO saaono.saa-ca FherOBOM CH.lI.OM H Se.ll.H<JuHoM, Huje 6HO saaoao.eaa ca FherOBHM HeocBpTaFheM aa ,ll,pmaBHe YCTaHoBe y ,ll,yxy HapoAHoM. To cy MHm.ILeFhe ,ll,e.Hl.lI.a H HSHrpaBaBa naaereaa. 3a TO cy C HerO,ll,OHaFheM raeA8.l1.a na oaaaosaaeea,e CpnCE<:HX Han;HOBa.ll.HHX 0-

jaHoHHM saKOHOM H KOjH Helie 6HT1-1 HHnITa. ,wyro Hero upeUHC ea u3MeHYTor pYlComfCa CO<l>HjcKor, caao j e y HaTUHCY y TH'fyAH AymaHoBoj HS upe,J,eAHHX rrpnAeBa HSOCTaB !beH npHAeB "ByrapcKH". IIuaqe je AymaHOBa THTyJla y CBeMY OHaKBa aera ieao H j CO<l>njCKOM PYKOUHCY. II Ty ce sa AymaHoB aaKOH BeAH: "B.'IaroqeCTHBaro H XPHCTOJ:oy6nBaro MaFfellOHCKaro l\apa Oreeaaa cepnCItaro, yrapclCal'o, AaAMaTHHcKaro, yrpoaaaaxacsaro H HHHM MHorHM npeaeaax H aeMJ:oaM eaMOAeplUl\a eymraro MH.IlOCTHjy BHlUEbarO Bora Ilcyea XpHCTa, saKOH H YCTaH noaoaeeaa BO .IleTO" ..... (,~aTyJl' je norpeuiau) IIlTo ennjy aAjeKTHsa y TOM APyroM HeMa, OHne Aa je YSPOK oA KaICBOf' atrrepecoaaaor npe":

UIiCHBaqa Byrapaaa (B Erweis dass die Walachen nicht romischer ab kumft sin. dies nicht aus tiret italianische SJavischen Sprache folgt. Mit mehrheren Grunden verrnehrt, und in die Walachisehe Sprache iibersetzt durch S. T. (Hexansa H aaamea je TeKeT CTaBJ:oeH ynopeao), Of en 1827 CTp. 54.

25

MA 1>EAOHCl(O I\APrTBO

eooaaa npeM8 ~eHTpa.1lHCTBq&Oj AP.maBHoj }lBMB anCO.1lYTHOr ~apa MaheAOHCKOr '. If TOM CT:JOM HeI'OAOBaIDY AaBaxy BSpaSa y cB~le BpeMe, B areo -je HapOA no eTHOrpa<l>CKBM e.1leMeHTBMa s Ma he,ll,OHojB, BII,eH'l'H<I>dKOBaO MaBY cpncKy ca eaaHOM MaheIl,OHCKOM.9~)

9~), X ._ 45 3aKoHoAaBcTBo H B~aAaoQH CPlJCKH XIV B KIl, OT&J,l6HHa Kib. XIX CTp. 311.

ne• Pysapan, ;JpH~omqH. I "MalipAOllI1ja" "Ro~o" sa 1890 rOA. 6p. 6 H 7 ..hy6, CTojaHoBHh'CTapo cpnCKH XpHCOBy~H, aRTH H T. A' CnoMeHRK Ill. 6D. 166.

I

l

I

I

[

OOMA r .,lABA.

OIiHOBA OIiJiACHE HE3ABMCHOCTM

Hcropaja CPIICKHX BJlaAa.llaqa Huje HUUlT~ APyro HO acropaja OrpaHUtIaBalba ceriaperee cao-

60Ae Ii sa6aqRsalba CTapUHCKUX ypeaaoa. .

,21,0 Hexaa,e ce US yxemha Y ApmaSHUM IIOC.IlOBHMa CBe BRUle HBHUle HCI\A>YtIUBaO HapoA a oA Hexaa,e cy ce IIOtIeJla HCRJbYtIHBaTH H aaaereaa,

Hajeaa j~ f\YUl3H IIOK_yrnao, AR CBe IIOABPr'ae Ca}IO CB0.10,1 anCO.llYTHOJ BOA>U.

,2J,YUlaH aaje xreo Aa tIyje HU sa BaII~j IIOTaaseaor HapOAa .. HH sa pOIITalbe oaaxonaaeeae aaaereae. OH je HapOA 6HO IIpeAao aaacreaa, 8 OA Ibe je TpamHo Aa My OHa upeAa ce6e, H AS ce sa A>,Y6aB KaKBOraSBaJba oll,peKHe caor CTapUHcKor IIOHoca H HesaBHCHOCTH.

He 06SHpyhH ce aa JbeSUHO oAYIIHpalbe, OH je CBUjy llOA>Y aamrahaaao IIO~.Ily~OM TO.llHKHX HOBUX n.iacreaa IIO SaC.IlY3H, KO,le Je IIOCTaBA>aO

. . ..

MaXOM no OCBO.1eHHM Kp~leBHMa H KOJUMa .le Aa-

aao IIpBa MeCTa /1,0 eerie.

. Oropsea,e HapoAs U cTape aaacreae AOIIUO je 6uJlO (1,0 RrXYHI~a. HapoA nOTtIHH>eH IlJlHCT(> -.~

pA8BHTAK Boll. BJlACTH

Hllje xorao HHmTa 6.es rse, a OHa cy caxo 'IeRa.lla srO"HY npH.IIIIRy, na Aa rrpeRIIHe CBE. OBe aese, y rcoje je rseae rrpeTRe Hexarsa 6a~HO, II y RO.iIlMa cy je FberOBII rrOTOMn;1I CBe HeE.Ma CTesaaa II noaaaeanaaa.

OrpaBII'IeH3 .ILymaHoBIIM saROHOM, a, y MHOroxe, IICK.I:.Y'IeHa as ApmaBBe ),[JpaBe, OBa cy ce OCeE.3.11a AO epga yspeheaa.

Bo.ieE.II ce CII.IIe AymaHoBe MOpaJl.a cy C IbHM UliH II paTOBaTH. A.IIU, 'IHM cy OCl'TH.IIa, Aa aexa Burne MoliHe pYKe lberOBe, OBa cy 0AMax CKO'I1IJl.l, Aa ce oC.ll060Ae TIIX erera reoje ey C AaHa Bll AaB 6HBa.lle CBe Belie.

lJHM je AymaH O'IH CK.IIOIIHO, B.JlQAaOn;1I cy

ce ApmaBa CT3J1.H Aa uenajy H ABoje OHaKO xao mTO cy ce uenaaa nocae CMpTU TIeC.IIaB.I:.eBe. Be.IIHRa H jeABocT3BHa ApmaBa AymaHoBa. craaa ce Aa nena OHaRO, reao mTO ce nenaae Apmaae A.IIeRcaBApa Beaareor U Kapaa BeJl.HROr IIOC.IIe CMpTIi TUX OCBojH.IIal\a.

Ypom je, AO Ayme, Y1JIIBlW IIoe.lleAIbU KOpaR, Aa .llpmaBY oApmll Y jeAHHCTBY. 3aBeo je . Bap01JHTH ,: cYA ~apClwra ABopa," ROjHM je MHC.IIHO CYAIITH aeypeaaoj H CaMOBO..I.Hoj B.IIaCTe.llH911) a.m je TO 6H.IIO aaxaa

Ypom je 6110 "BejaR. Aa .1111 je TO .6H.IIO C' rora mTO je 600 M.IIaA II aeaemr: Aa Jill c', rora mTO cy ra naaereaa eRCIIJl.OaTHCaJla, H.1H, MomAa " c'· Tora, mTO My je orau yseo po~aRY, Benp".II[l1JHY sa 6pa'lHH mUBOTIl6), II mTO [10 cI>HSUO.llOmKIIM saROHUMa, Aen;a OA CpOAHIIKa Be Mory Aa

9li). CpehKOBHh 11 CTp. 757.

G8). Pajah n. 752, CpeliKoBHh TI, 343, 345.

OBHOBA OBAACHB BB8ABHCHOCTH

6YAY jasocaa - He he MO Aa HcnuTyjeMo HanOMHlbeMO eauo 'f'/,- AS, xao H Hae~eAHu~H TO~URHX APyrux CH~HHX B~aAu~I~a, naje 6Ho RS,J,ap Aa CatIYBa OHO, InTO My Je OTa~ creieao,

Ayx yrfbeTeHor H OKOBaHor napOAa no-reo je, npeRO CBOjUX 06.,lacHHx nor~aBapa paCKHAsTU OKOBe, aaa, PRCKUH.YBmu HX, OH ce OC THO ca CBUXCTpaBa OnRO.iLeB HenpujaTe.iLUMa, xoje je CTBOpH.,la Be~HK~ MohBa H arpeCUBHa ~apeBHHa cprrCI,R. -

JeAUHCTBa Burne naje 6H~O, 'a .Y nouenaao CTH ce aaje MOr.,lO (JAo~eBltTH orop'IeHHM HerrpujaTe.iLHMa, A ,\pmaBHux nenpajare.sa 6eUIe A80- jaxax: cnO.'MHIIIbHX, OCBeTHUKa ea (,TpaHe, H yBy'fpRUIIbUX, 06YRARHUX H nOHumeHHX B~RCTe~a y SeM.iLH.

. OYA u;apCK?ra ABopa, hOjU je YpOII1 6Ho saneo, ('~y.mHO Je B~RCTe~Hlta xao AOKas, Aa ee Burne nelie Moliu 1I0 npOTeCTBOBaTU npOTHB BeKOBHor OrpaHHtIaBRfba ('.,lo60ne IbHHe. OHU eJ YBH~R.,lH, Aa he jeaaors ARHa OHH npecTRTH AR 6YAY lIeKaAflUIlbe qHIb(IHn~e, H Aa lie ce HSI'y- 6uTH y HOBOM, l~eHTpa.1HCTH'IKOM cucTeM.Y u;apeBHHCKOM.

3a TO cy, H nopeA cae onaCBoCTH ea CTpaHe, Ha.jeAaHnYT uper.ta ,J,R paCKHHY cae aese KOjHMR c.y AOT.,le 6o~e aesaue o6.,lRCTH IbHXOBHX, HeKaA, c.lo60AHHX,. aaa, I10C~(\ nOThHfbeHUX rrpeARKa IMH no~o~m,lHux npeTxoAHuRa.

H pRCKuHy.~lI cy HX, oc06HTo nocae YpoITIeBe CMPTH, HR,lIJpe I\IOpa~He. 3, nocae, U npane.

MHoru C,Y, .Y jeaaa Max, 110CT:\.,lH aeaanaemr B~a,-,\apH .Y nojeA~nU\M (',\,\\~,R\\'l-\ ''''~~'\:J\~'ttI.'~:..... ~ ~~

PA8BBTAlC 8.11. li.ll4CTH

C8l\1O mTO name HUCY XTe.ll.1I onmrex rocllo~apy 0f\8BaTH npBSBall>a B f\8BaTII f\aHaR II BOJCRY, Hero By qaR _TpamB.II.H 11 B.II.a"a.ll.aqRH f\OXO.J,aR Of\ TprOBa~8, KO.J" cy 110 II>HXOBBM SeM.lbaMa TproB8.11:H.

'I'azo ce, K30 mTO pesocao, 1I0C.Jle CMpTB AymaBoBe, a jom same IIOC.II.e YpomeBe UOHOBH.II.O. OHO, mTO ce f\eCH.II.O H 1I0C.II.e CMpTH "tJec.II.8BJLeBe.

AYxy HapOAHOM "pOTBBaH ~eHTpa.llB8aM ea OrpaHllqell>eM .II.HqHe C.il060f\e aaje xorao OIlCTaTH. ARO ce aaje xorao OC.II.060f\HTH cas HeMohBH BapoA, OC.II.060lJ,U.II.H cY ce 6ap 1I0jeAHHB B.IlaCTe.1H, KOju cy BMa.ll.H CH.II.Y Y pYKaMa.

ORH ce OTprome acnoa B.II.alJ,aBHJICKOr ype~eIba 110 CTpaHOM CHCTeMY H, aa MeC.TO neaoKYIlHe ~apeBHHe cpIICKe yr.ll.eAa ce, HaJeAaH Max, oneT HeRO.ll.BKO ApmaBa ~pIlCKUX.

Aa AO Tora Ao~e, xaorc je upBlloMaruo H TO, mro je Me~y 06.11.aCHHM yllpaBHB~BMa 6B.II.O IIpaBUX HAil .II.!lmHHX, B.II.a.lla.ll.aQKUX pohaaa, ROjH cy, 1I0HocehB ce CPOACTBOM ca HeMall>aMa.TemH.1U sa IIpeCTO.ll.OM H "CpnCKUM AOXOTROM", lIa, aRO HBCY MOr.ll.B A06BTH B.II.aCT Hall. ~e.ll.OM uapeBBHOM npOrJlamaBa.ll.B cy ce HesaBBCHHM 6ap Y CBOjHM lIoKpajHHaMa97).

'I'areo je KO.ll.HKO nOBoAoM B.II.aCTeOCRe 06ecTH H Of\BOJHTOCTB, TOAHRO H 1I0BOAoM cpoAcTBa ca HSYMp.ll.OM f\HHacTujoM, cprrcxoj ApmaBH 6H.10 cy~eHo, f\a ce KOM8Aa aa saceoae ApmaBH~e.

97) • ..h. KOn8'1e8Ht., By" BpaBKoBHh, roaama-ana X, CTp. 2:!o.

OBUOBA. OMAeRE HE8A.BHCHOCTB

57

Aa .1IU je y 1'HM ApmaB9.M9. nOC.1Ie, U y RO.1IURO, BpeAeo Aym9.BoB saROBHK - He he MO Aa paCnpaB.I.aMo. Pekahe MO eaao, Aa B.1IaAaO~H APmaSBe nap"<IaAu HUCY UMa.1IH pa"<IYBa, Aa ca H9.pOAa cKuAajy mCPBe. OBU cy ee na IDeMY saAPma.1lB AO aajaosajer BpeMeHa.

B.1I9.CTe.1la cy, npOr.1l9.CUBIlIU ~e HeS9.BHCB~M B..taA9.0~UMa, caxo DpeRuHY.1l1:i OB9.J KOHa~, KOJU jy je BeSBHao ea npeCTO.1l0M; OBa cy My OApeK.1Ia AaB9.IDe AaBKa B sojcse, na cy cae, IlI70 cy npHlCyn.I.a.1la B "<IBM cy ce CB9..mB.1la, YIJoTpe6.I.9.Ba.1la C.9.MO rra caoje ojasaa,e H aa CBOjy OA6paBY, na H sa yKpac caora, xaaeaor, 06.11aCHOr npecroaa.

Aa je CBaKH ysypnaTop Y CBOjOj ApmaBB paAuo aa CBOjy PYKy H oxperao r.1laBY OA ypeAa6a y ~apeBHBH, aajjacaaja HaM je AOKas y TOMe, IlITO cy ce HeKH 0AMax CTa.1lH 0APHI~aTH yBe,lJ.eBe cpnClce .D~TpBjapIlIHje. AeclIoT Yr.I.eIlIa je ~pKBy y CBOJOJ ApmaBH . C Me?Ta Cl'aBBO nOA B.1IaCT ~apDrpaACKe rraTpHJapmHJe.

Ba.1lIlIHhH, nOTOM~U HeMaIDBHor CHBa Byxaaa, H 6.11IJCKH CPOAHHI\H AymaHoBe aeeae, napH~e Je.1leHe. peMeTe ApmaBHe oaaoce, OC06HTO C ROTOPOlU, rra, paAH ce6eSBaJl.?CTH, npe.1lase "<IaK H y KaTO.1lHiliTBO.

Kaes .i1.~sap H~npHjaTe.I.ClCe oaaoce ca YrapCKOM saMeIDYJe np"JaTe.I.CKHM a CDB My Y casesy ca TOM BeKaAailiIDOM BenpHjaTe.I.H~OM cpnCKOM TpamH ~OTDopeO~).

gS). lh. ROBO'l8Bllb, AeCUOT Oreaaa Jl.aaapesHli sa apeae TYPCR. Me~yco6H~a. OTaJ,16HUa, RIL. IV, CTp. 289, 442 445 B T, A. - EnBor jfecuoro Or8rjiaHa .IlaBap8Bulia rJlaCBHR x..x..\X ~~~. ~~~, b,._'1.~ ~"}.~.

58

PA8BHTAIC BA. B.!lACTH

Caaama, AymaHoB noaytipar ITO OI~y, Y3- ,ll,ume ce aa ITpeCTO. noaanajyha ce na 06HQajHo up aBO no CTapeIllHHCTBY, 3 noaoeeha ee, IIO MBTepH HMeHOM Ilaaeoaora.

A EpaA> BYKamHH 06.11aQH ~pBeHy 06yliy rrpespeRmu saKoHHTY I\HB!WTujy HeMaJDHHY, 3.1111 rrporra,ll,a Kao HeupHSHaT II YC3MA>eH.

Kaes J1.asap paTOBao je rrpuCTO rcao B~a,ll,a.1131.\ je,ll,He 06~aeTH (sa TO aa KOCOBY HHje HH xorao norieaara). Bop6a MSMeljy isera H AJlTOMaHOBHlia naje HHIll,Ta ,ll,pyro, Hero 06HOBa OHHX 60pa6a, urro cy HX BO,ll,H.HI HeKtl,ll,amfbH apXOHTH y CTapHM epnCKHM ,ll,pmaBRMR. M. A.IITOMaHOBHIi je ApmaBY OCHOBao xao H JDerOB CTpHl_\ Boja-. caaa BOjHHOBBliOg).

A c' nor.lleAOM na AHHaCTHQKe xanoreae 0 nopesay xaesa J1.asapa H BYKa BpaHKoBHliA 0,11, BYKaHa HeM3JDHHOr 100), y 6op6u HSMeljy J1.3sapeRor CHHa H Bpaasoaaha, He HHAHMO HHmTa APyro HO TemJD,V, Aa ce 06HOBH 06.11aCHa HeSBBHCHOCT, a, Y HCTH Max, H 60p6y, Aa ce IIOBP3- TH HaCJleljHBalhe rrpeCTOJla rro erapemaacray Y rropoAH~H: 6op6y, KaKBa ce HeKaA BOAHJl3 HSMeljy BOAHHa H PaAOC.JI3BA>€BHlia. Ta je 60p6a, noeae HSYMp.llOCTH HenocPAHe AHHacTHje HeM3JDHHe 6u.IIa lIpHTymeHa caxo sa anmOTa Imesa J1.3sapa, reao ~ajcTapHjer y aacaeauoj IIOpOA,Hl_\H, a.llH je ce IIo,laBH.IIa 0AMRX, QRM Je aa npecTo Aomao IDe· rOB CHH CTeBaH, Ka,ll, MJlaljH 41,11, BYKIl. MoatAR

90). ,1(. MHJlaRO'BHIi, IIcTopuja ~pHe rope. IIaB'Jeno, crpaBa 28.

100). !h. /(ofJa<J8tJUIi, ByK BpaHKoBHb rOAHW. 222,

Ii I

OBHOBA OBAACUE HE8AB~CaOCTH

59

BapO,lJ, Y TOj TemlDH sa nOBpaTKOM aexaaannser otiasajnor' HaCJle~a H HaJlUSH MOTHBa sa BYKOBO H3,1J,U jCTHO na KOCOBY.

Opnexa ce ApmaBa pacna,lJ,aJla ieao sa,lJ,pyra RR,IJ, ce ,lJ,eJlR. AeJletlH CP TaRO H spahajyka ce y aexaaaurrse caMoynpaBHo eras-e, Mom,lJ,a OH BpeMeBOM ,lJ,olI1J1a H ,lJ,o IIOBpaTICa nereaaama,e HapO,lJ,Be ypel\oe, JlH'l~e cJloooAe H npHOJlHmHe jeaaaROCTH - ,lI.R BHJe na H:.Y HacpHyJla TypcRa CHJla. o TOMe. Hac YBep~Bajy O,lJ,BojeHH H CJlOOO,lJ,HH serCRR RpUJeBl'l, y R0.lHl\1a cy ee ORpen~I>eHH HapOfl,HH OOU'lajR OCOORTO H npRBHR AO Hall1HX ,lJ,aHa Ca'lYBRJlH, na H OHR nalliTpOBCKH ,lJ,pyrH repajeaa

• llITO cy noa MJlaTaqIWM BJla,lJ,oM caoje ocotiaae (}ApmaJlH101). AJIH TO je OHJlO eaxo y HeRUM Rpajeaana, ROjH HH~y Y jesy craaemse Heje,lJ,HaROCTH c' OrpaHH'leHOM CJlOOO,ll,OM nO!,\JlerJlH TyPU;HMa, OCTUJle xpajeae TypCKa je CHJla cxeaa y Te-· mH:.H sa peopraaaaauajox y HapO,ll,HOM ,lI,yxy. Ta TPmlDa sa aenearpaaasanajox y"paBO je KpHBa, llITO CpnCTBO HHje MOrJlO O,ll,OJleTH TYPU;Hl\Ia.102) ITojaBHJlR ce y He3rO,ll,HO BpeMe. Aa cy cprrcse ,lJ,pmaBe OHJle yje,ll,RlbeHe, Ka,ll, cy aa H:.HX TypU;R HaIIaJlH, OHe OH ce, Mom,lJ,a O,ll,yIIPJle HaBaJlH MYxaxeaaacsoj, a paerpojeae Mopue cy rroaaeha. He XTeBllIH ce ysajaMHo nOTnoMar3TH,10S) OHe cy

....

101) B. Mel(aKOBnli, ~HBOT H 06H'lajrr l\pHo['opa ua; (hJenaua .l>y6Hme upanoajeer, Ilaa-reno. 1882. ['Oil, 1 2). CT. CTOKnli, 'I'ypcsa paTOBH y JeBpOUH, y

XIV. H XV nelCy. OTaJ;r6HHa, IClb. XX. erp. 87, - J08. MnmRo8nli Koeoaesa 6HTKa, CTaq6. Klb. XXII CTp. 20. 108), .JJYKa .JJa:'1apefJuli, KpaJbeBHh. MaplCo. Iloseapena~, 1885. 1'. CTp. 13.

60

PA8BHTAK BA.BdACTB

"W'IeKa.lle, Te HX je, KRKO npasa :MHx~i.llo HS OATpBU~e104) TYPCKH CY.llTaH .leAHY no jeAUY nee CBOjy naaer noaaaajao, KRO Bu.mM, na KOMe je 6H.lla .la6YKa, aa Ko.lOM .le TemHO. OT,Y A nopas na MapH~H, OTYA nponRcT aa KOCOBY. YsaMRH je Bocaa noxymanaaa 11.11 06HOBH .leAHHcTBO, KOPHCTE'BH ce y06H(lajeHHM HCTH~aIneM CpoAcTBa caora B.laAa.la'lKOr AOMR ca HeMaELHHOM AHHaCTHjOM.10a)

y BAH3aIne Bocae H TBPTI~OBO rrpOr.llRIIIeIne sa Kpa.ea uH.le HHmTa APyro, Hero H3AH3albe jeaae 06.laCTH HaA OCTa.lHM, sao I1ITO je 6H.lO npe Heaarsaaor yjeAHlbelba.

Ho HU HOCHH Huje 6H.1lO cyheao, Aa nOCTHrue meA>e na HH Aa ce 0AP.iKU: je.wo 360r uerrpHpoAue reaea.e sa ~eHTpa.lHSMOMi Apyro s60r BepcKe KaTO.lH'IKe npeeaje, xojy cy B.lR,lI,aOl.\H, OA HeBOA>e, MOpa.lU Aa Tprre na H All norrroaaaey; R rpehe, H s60r B ... aAa.la'lB'e reaerse sa MOHapXH'IKHM 6.leCKOM, na H .llaTeHTHHM aOCO.lYTHSMOM.

OHa CH.lHa '1HBOBHH'IKR aaarsa YB·eAeua U y BOCHH, reao H y Cp6UjH no yr.leAY UR Basaa TujYi OUH CH.lUH ABOPCKH AocTo.laucTBeHU~H' oujaijU (rpaMaTUI~U, .lOrOTeTU), meultuje uexap'Hu'ijU 1£a8'Ha'UjU, 060pC~U ~'HeJICe6U, cma6U,/W,U, upucma6U ~O.MOp'HU~U upo~ypamopu, upomo~epu, upotaoeu-

104). Dr. JaTlKO UiarPapHK, MHXaHdO ROHcTaHTHHOBHli, Cp6HH H8 OCTpBHl\e. I1cTopHja HdH deTODHC HCDHcaRH OKO roa. 1490. Ilpeseo H C 06jaC'1h8BajyliHIII YBOjl,OM ~8i'\aO - Beorpaa. 1865 r. CTp. 128.

105). W. Klaic. Povijest Bosne Zagreb, 1882 r CTp.

153. 155, - MHJlOOl OejHBoflHIi, Baaoaarse CTe.z>8R8 TBpTKa, OTaQ6HRa, IX, CTp. 289.

1

j

,

OBHOBA ('BAACHE HE8ABHCBOCTH

61

cmapu H T. ,11/°6) RHjH cy a3BHCH.JlH OA A06pe aozse H MH.JlOCTH B.JlaAa.JlaqRe, BHCY MOr.JlH rOAHTH rroToMqHMa BeaaBHCBe B.Jl3CTC.Jle H C.Jl060AHOr B3poAa, BapOAa ROMe cy rOAH.JlH 60rOMH.JlClCH nojMOBH 0 B.JlaCTH.

Teaea.a 60caHCRe BJl3CTe.Ae Sa caMOCTa.JlHOIlIhy H cyBHllIe je rrOSH3T3. JOIli 6aH CTeBaH KOTPOM3HBh II, Mopao je OpOTHB HeRHX CBOjHX CaMOBO.if>HUX B.IIaCTe.JlR, AR Tpa~H noxoh 'jaR aa CTpaBH, OA i\y6pOBQaHa.107) I A nocae rsera H TBpTRa 6H.Jl0 je CBe rope H rope. Iloxarseao eaxo 06a~esHH crropasYM Boi1aA3.Jla'JKH ca B.JlaCTe.JlHMa, ROJR ce orweaa Y IbHXOBOM CBeAoqaHCTBY aa 60caHcRHM rroaez-aaa: OOMHlbeMO CH.JlY XPBOjeay, CaHA3.JleBY H KOCa'lHHY KaA cy B.JlaAaoI\H y BocHI! saaeaa THTY.Jle, XTeBIlIH THMe axacreay na rroC.ilYIliBoCT rrpHBO.JleTH, odecaa cy aaacreaa ~eJhHa rO('rrOACTBa, H caxa ce6H THTy.Jle AaBa.Jla, 108) na I! ea CTpaHe Ha6aB.if>3.Jla Xpaoje je THTy.JlY Xepuera A06HO oA B.JlaAHC.JlaBa Hanyz.czor-, a OTeBaH BYR'IHli oA cY.JlTaHa MexMeAa109) IloeraHaR Xepnerosaae HHje HHIlITa Apyro Hero 00- c.IIeAHqa Te~lbe sa 06.JlaCHOM aesaaacsornhy.

IIpH oCT~apeIbY ceOapaT!ICTH'IRe Te~lbe, caMOApmaBHHM .1e B.IIaCTe.JlHMa MHoro noxaraao no-

106) EM. JiHJleR. H8 ApymTBeHOI' H ApmaBBOI' yerpojerea BocBe-Xep~eI'OBHBe y CpeAlbeM BHjeKY. Ce,\MO H8Bjemhe neamee I'HMHa8Hje y Oapajeay. Capajeno, 1889 r. CTp. 17 -33.

107). "h, ROBa'JeBuh 3HIlMeHHTe cpuexe BJlaCTeOCIte nopoaaue CJlcAlb~I'a nexa. Foaama.aua X. CTp. 199, 108). JiHJleR, aaajemhe, CTp. ~3- 25.

109). H PytJopoq, 0 HaTllHcy aa IlpKBH Xepuer-a Oree-aaa Y Topaaeay. I'Jlac. XVI) CTp. 17, 21.

62

PA8BHTAIC a... B.;tACTH

Apama~afbe HapoAHB" TpaAHD;Bja H oeehaja, npoTBB KOJBX cy aUCO.1lYTB3MY Ha[UOfbeHB. B.1la4aOD;B qeCTO aojeaaaa. Kao H 14HO~B ApyrB 06.1laCHB yHpaBHUD;II, urro cy ce R3ABa,Ja.1lB H3 D;e.1l0RYITHe cprrCIce ApmaBe, II Kocasa je 30. CB~i ycnex IIMaO MHOrO ,lI.a 6.1larOAapB' CBOMe orisaparsy HB HapOk HO r.1leABillTe y orrnrre, a na BepCI:e ocehsje na no ce.lIO) Aa cy ce aa TO HapOAHO raeaamre II cprrCKB BJlaAaon;H name OCBpTUB. ae 6B yjeaarserre cprrCKe ApmaBe 6B.1le TaICO TpOillHe, reao mTO cy 6B.1le.

KO.1lBKO c,Y cprrCKOM HapoAY Apare rserose TpaARD;Bje H YCTaHOBe, Haj60.f>B je AOIma y TOMe nrro cy ce qaK H AO aaaac nerea cHamHBj a naeMeHa y Xepneroaana oApma.1la Y cTapoM ype~elby H oA6paHH.1la oA aeaapoaaax pe<I>OpaMa rropeA CBHX arrCO.1lYTHCTH'IKHX Team,a B.1laAa.1la'IKHx.

OHa ce, H aKO cy Ma.1leHa, oceliajy cperaa.

IJpeMa 6.1lecKY cpeAluIIHe B.1l~CTH HHRaA HHC.Y rroKa3HBa.1la .f>y6aB, Ka~ rrpeMa CBOjOj CaMOBO.f>H. Ta: paAH OnCTaH.Ka Y TO,1 CaMOBO.f>H - YHYTpamlb0.l c.1l060AH - aexa cy H BepoM rrpeBpHy.1la. Jeer, OH~ cy CBe 'IHHH.1la caMO Tork paAH, a He p3AH ApacaBHe HAeje cprrCKe H.1lH TypCKe. C' TaKRM C,Y rr.\eMeHHMR I1M~.1le MyR'y ApmaBHe B.1laCTH H cprrCKe H Typmce,tll) Hl'ro c.y 061f'Iajlf H rrpeAafba jeaaor' HapoAa y nehoj orraCHOCTB, CBe ce 6pHm· .f>IIBBje sysajy H CBe BeliMa 'IYBaj,v.

110). /hydOMUp Ja1JaHotJHb, Paroaaa-e Xepnera Orjenaua C' Ay6pOBHHICOM. rOt'l,HUJlbHqa X CTp. 94. 111). H. j{Y'luli, Ko.;tawHs, Bparcrao. II. CTP, 144·

OBHOBA Or.AACHE BEaABHCHOCTH

Koxaxo je CTapHHCRO HapoAHo jpe~eIbe.1l2) QOAO .y aenoj yc.nOMeHO 0 KOA HCTyp'IeHHX nOTOxasa aesa.iauirsax, Y CBeMY rrapAaMeHTapHHX, Cp6a, M()~e ce CYAHTH no TOMe, illTO ce ma, Aa cy Y rrOHeROM RpajeBIIDia Jl OBB Typ~lf, KOjH cy npHSHaBaAB 4pz:lBHO ype~eIbe TypCKO, rropeA caax IC8Auja H haraua, BcoMa· paao 'l'pamHAH cTapH cprrcKH rrOpOTHH'IKa CYA To ce OC06HTO AeillaBaAo y MaIbOM pasl\lHpUl\aMa. RaA cY TYPl\H XTeAH, AY ce ua aeno HaMope. CaMH cY Cp6e nOSHBaAO, na HM OCTaB.iLaAH, Aa OHO no CBOM 06u'Iajy 0 SApaI30M pasyMy npecYAe, lI3Ta je npaao.!")

CBaRa HapOfl, H CBaK8 paca HMa caoje OCO- 6UHe H caoje rJl eAli IlITe, H rrpOTI-1B THX Oc.06HHa H Tora rJleAHIlITa aanrra C YCDeXOM BOJeBaTD He Mome.114) Hc BpeA~ rs HH fl,p~aBHa AHCl\Hnaaaa HH opraHHSal\H.1a, aRO HH.Je YAellieHa Y HapoAHOM AYXY. Haurra ce CHAOM He Mome.I1~) Y eraaoae, saKOHH D ypeAoe .l·...ta6D cy 6e~~MH. aKO fl,YX H caeer HapoAHa HH.1e DPB" H lla.ua'IH

112) 4HMHTpHje A.IIeKcHjenHt" CTaro-Cp6H. Beorpaa 1878 1'. CTp. 35.

118) BYK. CTe",. KapaJ,IHB, KMeT. Ylavische bibliothek herausgegeben von Fr. Miklosich. Erster land. Wien 1851 r. CTp. 86.

114) 4p. M. P. Becaah, Hacaehe y uHTalhY 0 KpMBJPIHoj o"roRoplloCTH. OTaJ,I6. KIb. XXII. CTp. 620. - AHTpOnO.il.OillKO-KpHMHHa.il.HCTl1'IKa msoaa, OTaJ,I6. KIb. XVIII, 1889 r CTp. 559.

115) M. A. Thiers De la propriet Paris, 1848 r.

CTp. 365, 369, 375 H A8.lbe.

63

\

64

PA8BHTA" B.II BJl.ACTH

6eAeM,l18) Bes Tora 6eAeMa .HH jeaaoj ApmaBH aexa craaae oA6paae OA rrpollacTH, na Ma teaICBHM OHa CIIO.f.amIDHM cjajeM 6.1lHCTa.lla.

KaA [e CPIICRH HapoA 6110 IIOA CB~jHM BAaAaO~HMa, OH je APYlliTBeHHM lIopeTKoM 6HO AOBeAeH ,IIOTJle, Aa ce naje xorao 60pHTH sa CBOj JiH'IHH 60.f.HTaR. Ao Ayme, sa CBe BpeMe 6HAO .le jOUITe cA060AHHX ce6apa1l7), e' RojoMa ce y BpeMe paTa sojesaao ca cTpaHHM HapoAHMa, a.110 011- mrs nQTHlIITeHOCT H POIICTBO, HHCY AaAH HapoAY Maxa, aa AHrHe rAaBY. MOHapXII'lHH anCO.llYTHsaM H nearpaaaaanaja, InTO ce paAH OCTBapeIDa 4pmaBHe MHCJlH H ~eAHHe YTBp9HBalIIe OC06HTO sa AymRHa118)' He OCBpTalIIe ce aa ,~HqHO IIOAOmaj nOAaHH'lRH. II OHaRo AHmeH cA060A~, s60pa H AoroBopa ~ npHBesaH sa SeM.f.Y CBOJHX rocnoaapa, HHT ,le ce xorao cnpeMHTH sa YCTaHRK sa CBOj AH'lHH 60.f.HTalC,

Ta IIOT'lHlDeHOCT y'IHHHAa je, Te je HapoA 6HO nocrao X.IlRfl,HoRpBaH H IIpeMa Be.llH'lHHH ApmaBBoj, Te cY cedeeaaaa BAacTeAH, H caxa HesaAoBO.f.HH, J1aRO MorAH .Aa pacnapssjy AymaHOBY ancoAYTHY ApmaBY, Jep cy THMe H sexoTH~e ASBaAM xaxa rAeAMIIITY H aeSaAOBO.f.CTBY RapoAHoM. Jacaa je cTBap, Aa HapoA Y MaAHM ApmaBaMa, ca Ma6HjHM BAR,1I,apHMa, Mome Aa

118) 3aKOHOTBopHa CKYlImTHHa, <JJl.8HqH 0 YCTaaHHM pecl>OpMaMa (npenrr. D8 Cp6Hje) Eeorpaa 1870 r-, CTP 92~

117) Stojan Bochkovitch, La mission du penple

Serbe, 24.

118). I', I'epmah, nea'rpaaaeanaja H caMoynpaBR. r ."ROBME LV, 117.

OBHonA OI"~ACHE HE;JABRCHOCTR

YSMe aame xaxa. To HaM nornpkyje TparHtIHa cY,ll,6HHa TOMe I1pe"J:.y6oBHlia, B.Ila,ll,ao~a jeaao r IJaptIeTa .2I,ymaHoBe ~apeBHHe. A jom 60Jbll HaM je ,lI,olCas SeTa, r,ll,e ce MeCTO Baamaha II BpanEOBHlia jaB"J,a HapO,ll,Ha AHHacTHja Ilpaojeaaha H r,ll,e ey ce, ieao mTO rroaaa.acxo, CBe crape ,lI,p~aBHe YCTaHoBe cne name H name nou.sasaae npeA HapoAHHM YCT8HoBaMa H HaBHlCaMa, Te ce Hajsa,ll" MeCTO cy~eIba rro psmaHoBoM S3IWHHICY, noj3~lH.1IO rropoTHo c'y~eIbe no Hap0fl,HoM 06H'Ia.ly. KO.llHICO .le, noeae pacrra,ll,a .2I,ymaHoBe ,lI,pmaBe, IIopefl, eaMOBOJbe rrojeaanax BeJlHICama, 'yse.lla Maxa II CaMOBOJba caxor HapoAa - Haj60Jbe HaM noreasyje A06a Hlhenana Ma.llorl19).

JacHa .le cTBap, ~a, npeMa OC06HHH H rae-

. fl,HIIlTy cpneaor Hap0,ll,a, cTapa cpncICa ApmaBa HHje MOr.lla oncrara - jeano s60r anCOJl.YTH3Ma B.IlaAa.lla:ICor, .a Apyro' s60r Ae~eHTpa.llHCTH:lCe on03H~H.le, IC~)a ce nOA cprrCICOM yrrp3BoM .laB A>a.lla MaXOM Y .IlHJJ;y nxaereae, a AO~HHje, OCO- 6HTO noa TypCICOM naamhy, H y .IlH~y caaor HapoAs.

TeIC, ICa,ll, je HapOA rroerao CBOj rocnoaap II OCHOBao Ap.maBY ea Jl.H"IHOM CJl060AOM H jeanaeourhy, noreaaao je Aa ce sa }bY anrepeeyje reao sa CBOjy TeICOBHHY, a He eaxo reao sa 6pa HHIIlTe BJla,ll,a.llatIlCe caane H Be.llH'IHHe H aeaaEaIIlKe eaMOBOJbe.

119) .A>y6a Crojaaoaah, II pR~OI" HCTOPRj Ii U;PHC rope BpeMeHa Orenaaa Ma.ilOI". I'oaannsuua. Kin. XI, CTp. 296 H T. A.

65

66

PABBHTAIC Boil. B.ilACTH

CaMO 6op6a sa TY HapoAHY TBopeBUHY MOraa je HsaSBaTH OHe POAoA>y6uBe sB.YKe rYMapcxe, ROju H AaHac Bame ieao XUMHe 60p~uMa sa MOAepHY HapoAHY Ap~aB~ H xao IIoAcTpeR na uperaomTBo oaaxa, ROJuMa je rrpeAaTa na qYBalDe.

AEBETA r.i1.ABA HAKHAAHM nOrnEA HA CnOMEHMKE

BHAeJlH CMO, KaKO je Y 60p6H HSMe~y KOHsepBaTH3Ma caaoapaeasae naaereae, H pell>0pMaTopcKe Te~lbe BJlaAaJlan;a, KOjH cy ce YI'JleAaJlH na BHsaHTHjcKH anCOJlYTHsaM, HajsaA n06eAHJla Aen;eHTpaJlHsan;nja, c' reoje je HajrrOCJI~, paenapqaHa cpncKa ApmaBa nOA~eI'Jla TY~OHY.

y 60p6H HSMe~y BJlIlCTeJle If npeCTOJla, jaBJhaJle cy ce MHOI'e MeHe, aaa ieao Aa ce OS6HJhHa naaea,a Mopa HajBHlIIe saycTaBHTH aa A06y AYlIIaHoBoM.

AOK AYlIIaH, np0I'JlaCOBIIIH ce napex, Hnje CTHO Aa cys60ja BJlacTeJlY no nOpeKJlY, na Aa aaaoaa BJlacTeJlY no S8C.IlYSH ieao Aa ce oaaoc naacreae npeMa B.IlaAaol\.Y HHJe enoxaaao xersao.

Jecy, Y nojeAHHoM CJlyq~jeBHMa, H npH.IlHKOM nOAHs8IDa AeqaH(,KOI' na npecTo H npIf ocTa.llOM npeBpaTHMa~ A06Hja.llH BHlIIe H.IlH MaIDe Maxa xae naacreaa a sac B.IlaAaOn;U, aJiH ieao Aa ce AO AYlIIaHa naje ca CBBM peMeTBo peA Y:

BeAeH sa Hexarse,

SHa ce, Aa je Hexarsa OCTaBHO y ~HBOTy ApmaBHH soop, aa KOM.~ c~ "'A~c.J\.~ ~~~~"'-~ ""~~ creaa If CReWTeHCTBO. tla~()~ )~.. l\\) ~~~~"I ~

68

PA8BHTAK BA. BAACTH

Tor soopa UClCJ>yqeH, aaa je "MaO npaBO aa eaoje ceoapcee s60pOBe, Roje My je TeK A,ymaH YKUHYO.

Tparoaa TOMe ,lI,p~aBHOMe s60py, na KOMe cy ce saaaaona ca B.IlaCTe.llOM U CBemTeHCTBOM ""oroBapft.llU, naaase ce y CIIOMeHHIJ,HMft us ,lI,06a CKOPO CBUjy B.Ila,ll,uaIJ,a HS ,lI,UHacTuje HeMRJOUHe TaKO, ,lI,a aaraeaa, reao ,lI,a Huje 6u.Ilo oceraor H rpajacr npe.ioaa Y. IIap.llaMeHTapHHM O,ll,HOCHMa HSMe~y B.IIa,ll,aOIJ,a U saacreae 6ap no SBaHHqHO.l cno.eamaoera,

HH sa A,ymaHa Huje aecrajaxo rora CIIopa SyMft HU ,l\OrOBOpft, eaxo je OH Y Belie sa caaer, no CBOjOj peeopaaropcaoj BO.l&U YBO,ll,UO U .l&Y,l\e no SftC.llyaceHuM nOB.ilaCTU4aM3, a He eaxo no HaC.IIe,ll,BUM IIOB.IIaC'J'UIJ,aMa.

Aaie TaKO, CB£',lI,Oqe CIIOMeBUIJ,H, KOJH cy HaM SaOCTa.llU O,ll, IIoje,ll,UHUX Henarsaaa.

OC06UTO cIIoMeHUIJ,u, ROju cy CKOPO na janHOCT USHeTH, oa4a.1y CBeT.toCT na TO nUTaJOe, xoje ,lI,0 ea,ll, H TaMBO usr.lle,l\ame.

3Ha ce, ,lI,a cy na $RHqKOM s60py, na KOMe je CTeBaH IIpBoBeHqaHU rrpor.llameH sa Epa.sa, IIope,ll, CBemTeHCTBa, 6H.IIU us CBUjy ,lI,p~aBa: U uuamu u 6oje60,4U. muc!lUtm'HU~U u cam'HU~U, U .Ma.au (JlCyua'Hu) 6a'llyuje c' 6MUICU.MU.120)

3Ha ce U ,l\a je 6uo 06uqaj ,lI,a ce B.IIa,ll,:lo4u, np~.IlHKOM ,lI,aBaJOa npu.IIora MaHacTHpy, AorOBapa.1Y ca B.IIaCTe.llOM H CBemTeHCTBOM.

Kpa.l& B.Ila,l\UC.IIaB Y CBOM XpUCOBY.I&Y, ROJUM Boropoanua HUCTPUqIWj IIOTBp~yje ceaa IIlTO

120) Cpei'lICOBUh II, 884,

HAKBAf\HH norAEA BA CnOMEBHKE

..

joj je npO~O)RHO Heaarsa, OTBOpenO rOBopH, KaK je sa ra ceaa nocrojao XpHCOBYJI. rseroaor AeA Heaarse H ona Oreeaaa Ilpaoaeasasor-, rra C sarytiao, re je Mopao s60r Tora Aa nara MepoAaBHY cTapy saaereay H CBemTeaCTBO Koje je sa TO aaaao, Tex, EaA ee YBepH() Aa je TaK01 6HJlO, on je XpHCOB,VJI. nOTBpAHO: "noneme" Be.m,i "CBeAeTeJI.CTBOllano MH 6HCT OT BCU jeaucnou. u I uey.Ateu u cmapux (jo~ap u eeex na.n,oee_p, jep je' eaje aeraao 6H~0 AanHje H sanaeaaaje AeAa MH eaeraro Oaxeona H I'OCnO"UHa MH H ona aeasanarc Kpa.ea Oreeaaa clljeM,V xaaacrapjy, H ja .• noaas.sajv If oaex npeoaaaaja ceaa, H nO'fBpm-

. Aajy CHM MOjUM XpHCOBy J10M" .121)

Y XPHCOBYJI.y KpaJI.a Ypoma I, KojHH 06- naBJI.a XpUCOB'yJI. csora oua, KojHM je Y'fBPAHO 6amTHny M9HacTHpa CB. Ilerpa na .ilUMY, CTOjU uspeKoM: "IIpusBa KpaJI.eBCTBO Mll apxajenacsona Ap~jaH~j<\ H jerracsona XJlMCKarO CaBY, 6paTa KpaJI.eBCTBa lIH KaKO 6jame yTBpAH~ KpjYCOBOJI. npsoajeasaaa KpUJI. Creeaa, orau Kpa~eBCTBa MH,.. TaKO H as HsjYBja;I,jaB OA 6paTa Kpa~eBCTBa MH C axpujeu.ucnouo.At Apqja't£uje.At u c 8cja.MU jauucnoun u c uejy.ne't£u u c Macme.n,u Be.n,unU.MU u ~a.n,U.Atn Rpa.n,e6cm6a .AtU... HSBjsAjax 0 scex USHJaCTO 0 ceaax H naaaanax H 0 JI.YAex H 0 naacjax KaKO je lIITO OT npjaae 6H~0, H nOCTaBH Kp8.JI>eBCTBO MH SJlaTO -- nesaraa KP.YCOBOJI." 122)

Y XpHCOByJI.y Kpa .. I>a MHJI.YTuna, KOjHM nOKJlau:.a XHJleHAapy ceaaurre YJI.ape, neKO~HKO

121) .,hy6. CTojaBOBl1h, CTapB CpnClCH XpHCOOyJhH, aIeTH, H T. A. CnoMeBHlC III. Beorpaa 1900 roa.

1211) CnOMCHIllC, III, CTp. 8.

70

PA8BHTAtC B.;t. BJlAeTH

ce nyTa noxarse, RaKO ce ,lIorOBapao ea apXHjeIIHcRoIIOM HHKO,llHnOM H ca S60pOM.

Ha jeanosr MeCTY Be.m: "ITo CHX me npajex KplU>eBCTBO MH 6JlCrOCJlOBeHHje H MOJlHTBY OT apxajepeja caojer CBeTHTe.!>a H eceeo etiop« H JlHKa CBemTeHHqCRarO jeJlHK? 6or.O,llapOBa?Hje MH ApmaBe seM.!>e OTaqaCTBHJa xojero BO.JCKH caopas, jaso BeJlHKO APSHoBeHH.1e rrpH.1eM... H H,lIOX •.. aa npe,ll.eJla ..• ~apCTBa rp'tJCRaro12B) •.• «

Ha ApyroM MeCTY, npasajyha 0 rrorH6~iu TaTapCRora Bo~e ~pHOrJlaBa, BeJlH: ~rJlaBY jero KpaJleBCTBY MH IIpHHocome Hme H OT CHX C 8Ce.M 'II autU.M aoopOJot UpOC.lta8u8utU.M" 124) .

. Ha TpeheM MeCTY, rosopeha 0 IIOXO,ll.Y HR BHSIiHTH.1cKe SeMA>e C 6paTOM ApaI'YTHHoM, BeJlH:

"BacIIpHjeMmHM HaM... 6JlarOCJlOBeH~ie OT apxujepeja u 8ceBO 300pa nauieeo caBaKYII.!>a.1eT Kpa.heBCTBO MH.. H H,lIOXOM na ,lIpmaBY ~apcTBa rpqcKaroIl125).

Ha qeTBpTOM MecTY, rosopeha 0 eayaehy 06JlaCTH ,lIa6apCKe H '1'. 4. TaKo~e BeJlH: "Bacnpajexury MU 6JlarOCJlOBeHH.1e OT apxajepeja H 8ceBO etiopa cpuonaeo, H HAoX na AP.maBY rpqCKyjy" 126).

Ha IIeTOM MeCTY, roaopeha 0 noaoha, ROjy MJ je 6paT AparYTHH Tpa.mHo, Y 6op6H rrpoTHBy ApMaDa H KYAeJlHHa. BeJlH: "Oll.1a.me CJlHmaB Kpa.!>eBCTBO MH OT Bas.!>y6A>eHarO CH 6paTa HU MaJlH aasaeaen, Taqujy 6JlarOCJlOBeHH.1e OT apxujepeja u eceeo aoopa cpncsueo IIOCJlaHHjeM rrpujeamex; aacreopje sa ca.1eAHHeHH oria H C Bo.1CKaMH HamHMU aa THje 6es6omHHje HAOXOM" 127).

123,12',125,126,127,) CUOM6HHK, Ill, cTpaHa 19 pr 20

...

T'osopeha xasoje apahao illHIIUIaH.Y .mao sa cpaMOT'y aeaa: "U TaKO caBaK'yOHB AOMaqeAHHje H nee aojcsa orauaeraaja HaWeI'O, npujeM me 6.1laroru.OBeHHje OT apxajepeja U scero s60pa cpOCKaro U BjJ,OXOM... aa ApmaBY cero S.ilOMBC.ilnaro AO rpaAa BjJ,RHaI28).

I'osopeka 0 onaCHOCTH oA Horajesa nOX0r\3 na CPORjy, Kame: "Mo.il6HHje raaroxa C BRSAHxRHRjeM CpAaqHHM rea CBOjeM'y apxajepejy If aoopy cP'U_'lW.My, rrocaasjer Kpa.ILeBCTBO MH C HSBemTeHR.JeM scex XOTemTHX BosABHrHYTU ce aa oraaacraaje Hallie. "1211) A xaao Aa.ILe oner, reasyjyhB sa Horajesy norH6Bjy neaa: »CRja me H3Be~HO rneAeB KpS.lLeBCTBO MB H C rocnOAHHOM apxH.Jepe.JoM B AYXOBHHM B n.ilTCKRM onex apxHienHCKOM TpeTHM CaBOM B 6Ce.M CpUCnuM aoopo.M caasojy npocaaaeajex." 180)

Aa.ILe, roaopeha 0 aenpaaasaxa s601' nepcBjaHal.\R BtMH: "Ca6paBlliy :K.pa.ILeBCTB.Y MH je.IlHKO na 601'OAapoBaHoj MB ApmaBe BOjCKH B c' CBOjBMIJ Ao.MaqeAI.\B npajea 6.ila1'OC.ilOneHHje OT apxajepeja H eceeo aoopa cpuceaeo, npOTHBy Ta· KOBOMY 6es60mHOMY n.ilKy H3HAOX."Ul)

Aa.ILe ouer, rosopeha 0 lliH.lLaFDY sojciee Tpnaxa y noaoh 1I0A HonaKOM T'peoocrjeaoa, TaKo~e seaa: r npajex 6.ilaI'OC.IloBeH~je OT rocnOAHHa MH H ona apxHjenHcKona H eceeo aoopa opueeaeo, OTnYCTHX HX aa THie 6esaKoHHje,

Ilepca ... "1~2). . ~

A nOMHFDyliu nOBpaTaK re aojcse, 1'OBopH

ORaKO: "If npHAamHM HM K' HaM H C rOCOOAHHOM apxajenacsonoa H CBeTHTe.ilH H caemreaonasea-

128, I.g, l~O, 131, 132,) CnoMcHHK liT CTp. 21, 22 TA" 9..

--....._ ..

72

PABBUTAIC BA. BAACTlI

HHKH H qaCTHHMH HrYMeHU H C BCeMH HHORH H 6CeM 'JOOpO.M Cp'Uc'I'Ouje ae.MJbU npOC~aBHXOM ncenrTe,ll,parO H npeMH~ocTHBaro... Bora •. " 133).

Sa THM, roaopeha 0 npH",ory ceaanrra, saaee oner: ,,0 cxepeaajex H MO.ll60jy H3ABOjHX jero Y rocnoaaaa MH If ,lI,YXOBHaro OI~a roraa HaCTOjemraro apxajenacsona KHp HHRO,ll,HMa, If neero Tora 360pa apxajenaceorrsje H npaaoaeax TOj Ce.llHIIITe,,184.)

Ma.llo AaJhe oner, ,lI,RjyhH xpHCOByJh neaa: ,,06HOBHX crapaje XPHCOBO.I>e C rOCUOAHHOM MH H ,lI,YXOBHHM onex apxaj enacreorroa KHp HHRoAHMOM If aOOpO.ll Cp::CIi'LI.M« 135)

II Y CROPO npoaaheaox CBeTb ·OTe<l>3HCFOM XpHCOBY.I>Y, ROjH je Epa.I> MH.llyTlfH 1f3,l1,ao,ca,ll, neh 3anYlliTeHOM136) MaHaCTHpy 6aJl,CROM ORO 1315 roz, na XPHCOB.Y~Y je ocax ~pa.I>eBOr 6paTa, rrOTnHcaH H apxHJenHcRon ca JenHcRonHMa H HrYMaHHMa. A ana-re ce y lI>eMY He jeAaHnYT noMHlI>e ,lI,a HHllITa HHJe npH.llOmeHO HenpaBe,ll,Ho, HO CBe H.llH R) rrzseao H~H HcnpOlIIeHo, H.llH saxerseao ca 6.JlarOC.llOBOM ,,6ceeo stiopa," na ce Y lI>eMY H apxajenacson (H~RO,ll,HM) HapYllIHOU;HMa XPHCOBY.I>a oopaha c' R.JleTBOM H 0/-\ »acex cymTHX C MBOjy H jenacreon H HrYMaH H ncero CBeIllTeHHqCROra xaaa H acero qpHCI~aro H eceeo aoopa137) na aero: (6829-5508=1311) 6.lla-

133,134, 135} CnoMeBHR In CTp. 23 H 24

180) G. J. Jspeses, TprOBa'lKII APYMOBH no Cp6I1jH II bOCHH Y ~peAlheM BHjeRY. Ilpeaeo vb. CTojaHoBHh. Orand. Rib. IX. CTp. 143.

137). Jh. GOtJO<J8'B1l1i, CBeTO CTe<l>aHCRH XPHCOBYJba, (;n011leHflR IV, t~Tp. 11.

HAKRAAHH UOrAEA HA CUOMEHHKE 73

. .

rOCJlOBeHuJeM ..• npeocaemreaaro apxuJenuClwna

Hasoaaxa U scex jeIIHclCYII U eceeo aoopa Cpuc~aeo.198) He naaa Y O'IU TO.1lHICO HO: OHO MeCTo, rae MaHacTHp oApeljyje sa CTaHHmTe lCa.1lyljepuMa, oner, c, 6.1larOC.1l0BeHlljeM rocnoaaaa MH II orna AaHH.1la II ncex jenacsyn II 6ce20 300pa epucxaeo; IIa Hac He HSHeHaljyje fiR Ra,ll" ronopeha 0 ,lI,aBalDY IIpH~ora, Be.1lH: ,,~a6pax aoop cpuc~uje se.M.M, apxH.1elIHclCy:na H J~IIHclCynH H HrYMeHH H ieasuaue H TeII'IH.1e H BOJeBo,ll,H H C.1lyrII H CTana.uie H. sroBopHx ce c IDHMa H IIp~lax ~.1laro C.1l0BeHH.Je OT rocnoaana MH H orua apxH.JeIIHcICYIIa AaHH.1la H ncex jenacayn H ncex HrYMeR H om eceeo aoopa cp'Rc~aeo jeaee 0 rrpH.1l0~eHMH xpaMy cexy. "139)

TIa II cax AymaHoB ciiopasyM ca paTHHM aehex, IIPH.1lHICOM yroBapalDa caaesa ca KauralCyseHoM H lDerOBO reaaauarse y RaTIIHcy sareoHHlCa, HlIje HHmTa ,lI,l'yro, Hero IIo,ll,celiaj na yo· 6HqajeHe AorOBope B.1latl,aOn;a ca CPIICICHM s60pmJ y Hspasy: "cH~e saxoa nocran.aeaa OT rrpaBe,ll,naro (lIpaBOC.1laBHarO, qaCTHal'O) etiopa nauieeo c IIpeocBemTeHHM narpajapxox KHp JoaHHICHjeM R BceMH n;pICBeHHMH Ma.1lHMH H BeJlHRHMH MHTpOrrOJI. H 6HcRynH (jeIIHCIC.) H MHOjy 6J1arOBepHUM n;apeM CTe<l>aHOM (c RHesH) H C BceMH BJiaCTe.1lH r,apCTBa

138,139). Mon. Serq. 90 H 99

140)TuMo6ea WJIOpUHCICaro IIaMllTHHKH sarcoHOj\aTe.llbHOH ;rSllTe.llbHOCTH AymaHa qapbll Cep60B'h H Tpesoa's. KieB'h 1882 r.npaaoaeeaia CTp. 14, 36, 75. 140) MajRoB, Heropaja Cpncxora Hapoaa, AaHH-

'IHheB npcBoA II H8"aFbe CTP, 61.

74

PABBBTAK Bot. B.il.ACTH

MH MaJlHMH J:I BeJlHKHMH SaKOHO eaoaeena 6Hma, d40) He SH,lI.H ce HHmTa ,lI.pyro AO OHO, mTO ce BHAH HS H2BeAeHHX narara HS XpHCOBYJDe KpaJDa MHJlYTHHa H OCT8J1HX, BHAH ce TO: Aa BJlaAaOn;H cpnCKH HHmTa BamHH.le HHCY npeAYSHMaJlH, fJ,OK ce aajnpe, 6ap 06H'laja pRAH, HHCY AorOBOpUJlH ca HeRHM S60pOM, KOjH je saaersanao aexaaarrra,e Belie HapoAHO. Baaereaa cy CBeAO'lHJla npH H3- AaBaIL y nOBeJDa.141)

JaCHO je, Aa, no cnOMeHHn;HMa HSJlaSH, 4a naje 6HJlO ocerne paSJlBKe y OAHocHMa H8Me~y BJl8AaOn;a H noaaamheaoc CT8J1e.ma npe H nocae Ae'laHCKor. Onaaea ce caxo TO, Aa ce y cnoaeBUn;UMa oA Ae'laHCKOra na HaAaJDe sxacreaa H3- peKOM Burne nOMUILY BO ,lI.OTJle. AJIH TO nOMHIL8Ibe MH Ba~OCMO H Y BaBeAeBoM XpHCOByJDy Ypoma 1.

Kao Aa je CBa TajHa y sHa'IeILY "cpncKora s60pa". HeKaA ce, AO Ayme, OB YSHMa H Y SBa'leILY AYXOBHH'lKOr aoopa, aaa no BeKRA, nopeA aaceriaor IIOMHIL8ILa CBHjy BHAoBa CBemTeHCTBa ,lI.pyrHM peqHMa. HSrJle,ll.a ieao Aa Be SHa'lH (sao naeonasax] CBemTeHCTBO HO H OCTdJlH aeo caseTHHKa H 'lJlaHOBa S60pCKHX.

CBaKoj8Ko, 8KO ce Mome rOBopHTH 0 KaKBOM 06pTY :H MeHH oaaoca HSMe~y BJla,ll.aJlan;a H saaereae, npe ce xoaee yseTH BaOKO AymaHoBo saBo~eILe saacrexe no SaC.i1YSH H ILerOBa 6HpOKpaTCKa CHCTeMa, . BO AorOBOp Ae'laHCKOra ca BJlaCTeJlOM.

r

I

BARHAAHH nOrAEA HA cnOMEHHRE 75

HH npe HU nocae AeqaHCI~Ora, Opncsa naafl,aOn;H 06HQHO, HHCY npefl,ysHMaJiH HHIII'ra uaaeaaje ,lI,OIC ce, najnpe HliCY crropasYMeJlH ca CBOjRM "cpncRHM S60pOM." Paayxe ce fl,a je TO HSJla· SHJlO na BRfI,HR HeRafl, BeliMa a H~Eafl, MRH>Ma.

I

i I

J

AECETA rAABA PECbOPME nOA TYP~HMA 6---

Aa je 6H..la jaxa L\6HTpa..lHSaL\~ja H crera, OC06HTO sa AymaHa, BHAH ce nopeA noaarasa 0 He~IOBeqHHM RaSHaMa npeMa Henoc.lIymHHM, 11 no TOMe, mTO aeua 6am TaRO YOq.bHBHX SHaI\OBa Aa je ROA Hac 6H..lO yHy'.rpamIhHx HapoAHHx ycTaHaKa RaRBHX je 6HAO y flpyrHM AP*aBaMa. THX YCTaHaKa HHje MorAO 6HTH, jep je HapoA oA CBOjHx 6HO y6HjeH y r.llaBY H 06esopymaH.142) Aa ce can cpnCRH HapoA OHaKO xao eHrAeCRH YBeK Morao CA060AHO Bem6aTH Y BHTemTBY H BAaAaIhY 60jHHM opym:jeM,148) H tJ,a CA060AOYMHO 60rOMH..lCTBO aaje 611AO yrymeHo Y IMHL\B, na Aa cy ce jaB.baAH nponOBeAHHL\B jeAHaI\OCTH xao no ApyrBM SeM.baM3, BSBeCHO 6B, I\aA - TaA lIapOAHO HesaAoBO.bCTBO H8AaSBAO APYR'lHje na BHABR, Hero mTO je. MOb je ca BHTemTBOM 6uAa

142) qei\ . .MfljaToBHh, J eAHO neaaxo naran-e. OT&I,l6.

RIb. xxxm (lTp. 340.

143) Samuel Jugenheim Geschichte der Ausgebung der Leihei geschaff und Norigkeit in Europa. St. Petersburg 1861 r-o.i, CTP 257.

PE<t>Ol'l\IE 1101'\ TYPLI,MMA

77

MaXOM Y pYRaMa saacreae, a rrOTBmTeHH ,le naPOA, B KaA je Tpe6a.1l0 paTOBaTH, rrpe Y 60.1 Bmao rroA Mopalbe Hero mTO My ce MB.1le.1l0.144) OBAe BaM, B .BeXOTB~e, naasjy na naaer aajaMHH~H qBja je BepHOCT SaBHCH.1la OA naare.!")

'I'eK, KaA je cprrcK~ Hap.oA, MeCTO CBOjBx BapoAHHx CB.IIBHKa, K0.JuMa .le rrpaBo HaCBJha 6B.1l0 saKOBOM .yjeMlJeHO, yr.1leAao HaA C060M TypcKe are H 6eroBe, KOjH cy nOHHIIITH.1lH naaeBOCT AOTaAamlbeM saKoBY H ypehersy, HapoA ie ocerno, Aa liMa rrpaBO, ,2I.a II OH nOHIIIIITH CH.1lY IbHXOBY. OA rora A06a HapoA nospaha ce611 KpHUIOM C.1l060,2l.Y s60pa II ,2I.0l'OBOpa, na ce no rY,2l.ypaMa II naaaaaaaa ~acTa.1e HR catiop II MO., .ilIITBy II aa rrpeneBalbe .JYHaqKHX Ae.ila rro-raa.eHUX Y ROPHCT BapoAHy. O.A rora ,2I.06a c~rr('.KII HapO,21. nosarse IIcnp~a T~JHO ~ nocae D JaBHo BIITemTBOBaTII II H3;1sa,2l., Ka,2l.,le ,2I.om.1lo BpeMe oC.II060~e1bY HapoAHoM, OC.1l060~aBao ce cax naPOA, a oA cTape aaaereae He 6eme BUlIIe HD Tpllra HII raaca. Ocraaa 6elIle caxo caMoyrrpaBa KHemHHCKIl II orrmTIIHcRa.146)

A ICY,21. ce ,2I.eAolIle Ta aaaereaa ? IIlTa HS· je,2l.HalJII Cp6e? Ko ,2I.aAe HapO,2l.Y B.IIaCT Y PYRe? llllM cy Typ~1I sayaeaa cprrCRe :ieMJhe naacreae je eraao aecrsjara. B.IIaCTeOClCa IIMalba

. 144145) qeA. MHjaToBHB. JeAHO Be.!lHRO naraa,e.

Ol'aQ6. RIh 28, CTp. 340, 341.

166) lOB. Bomsoaah, 0 HapoAlfocTH. Beorpaa, 1887. rOA-

78

PASBHTA Ie B.Il. B.IlACTH

npHTHcHY Typ~H; BARCTeOCKRM rrpaOHMa KOPHCTHAll cy ce TYPCKH 6erOBH. U7)

CaMO OHa BAaCTeAa, Koja cy OCTaAa IIOHH3Ha MorAa cy ce AO HeKAe ApmaTM Y CBOM nOAomaJY. CBa IIpaBa MorAa cy 3aApmaTH caxo OHa BAaCTeA3, reoja cy ce, reao 60caHCICa, HCTyp.qHAa. Haase ce ocraaa CBa CBprome ca CBOjHX BHCOICHX IIOAOa\aja, reoje are aayaeme, CBe IIOCTa HHmT3BHJlOM: H BA8CTeJla H HapoA. BHa ce, Aa

.." . .

cy qJl3HOBH HeKHX AHHaCTHJa ,l.o~HH.1e a\HBeJlH oA

MHJlOCTH CTpaHHx ApmaBa. MeCTO cprrCKe BJl3CTeJle nojaaame ce TypCKa aaacreaa, MeCTO IIpOnajapa nojaname ce cuaxuje, a MeCTO 6arnTHHapa 'l(,um.ayr.- caxu6uje, 148) ieoja ce HasHBaxy H "roCIIOAapHMa" .

IIOA .crraxHjaMa, . reojaaa je TypCKa BJlaAa AaBaJla IIOJeAHHe ICp3:JeBe s HMe H3ApmaBalba, rcao ~apCKHM BojHH~"Ma H qHHOBHH~HMa,t'9) 3eM..ba 6erne ce.sa-nea, a nOA qHTJlYK - caxariajaxa rocrroaapcaa.P'')

Y BOCHH, rAe cy ce, reao H y Cp6HjH. na MeCTO cprrcICe aaaereae IIo.1aBHAa TypcKa BJlaC-

147) Jeaao Be.llURO naraa,e, OTa~6uHa Rib. 28, CTp. 349.

U8, 14.9). CT. HOBaKOBHft Ilponajapa H 6amT.IlHap.Il.

Faae. Cpn. Kpa.iI>eB. ARaAeMHje 1. Beorpaa, 1887 rOll. CTp. 79, 80, 84 U 76.

1~O). Maaacrapcsa U IJ,pRBeHa seM.,J,a Huje ce 06H''lO A.Ilpa.lla. OHa je, npeMa HSBemTajHMa, ocrajaaa MeTOxHja .II CMQTpa.lla ce sao MaHacrnpCRU H.IlH IJ,pJCBeHH 'lHT.IlyR. qHT.IlYRe cy Aa:lCJle, MOrJl.e .IlMaTH .II MOpa.llHOrrpaBHe ocooe. (M. C. JacTpe60B, nOAaTIJ,.II sa HCTOPH.iy (mnCRe IJ,pKBe. Beorp. 1879 r. CTp. 13).

PE~OPME aOA TYP~HMA

79

Te.JI.a, qRT.JI.YR: - caxu6~jcR:u ce JhYAR aasaaaxy n.MemU, y Bona nMemU~U, 151) a y Op6uju 't/,urft't/,ujel~2).

Y BOCHR ce R:MeTOBR Moraxy, npexaa TenIleo CeJhaTR, a.JI.H CBY ITPUHOBY Mopa~axy eaxu6ujaMa OCTaBJhaTR. TRMO U R:yh.e ceJha<nee 6exy azune, -qRT.JI.YR:-CRxu6~jHe, Te Ce.lba~R 6exy sao xapajJ,IHje qUTJI,VK-caxH6ujHe. no HeKaA H BO.JI.OBH 6exy JDerOBU, na li eexe sa yces 6eI.IIe arUHO. Ilpexa TOMe My ce, OCUM rroC'.JI.YI.IIaJDa U paAR aaaxe, AftBaJla AamCiuHR. AIW je 6u.JI.0 cse arUHO, ceJhaR:

. .

My Je AaBao 011. JleTUHe noaa: a, aR:O Je arRHO

6u.JI.0 caxo HeI.IITO, oaaa My je AaBRo rpehaay U T. A. Paeyxe ce Aa je aajnpe cnaxaja Mopao asMHpHTU AeceTaR:, na ce TeR: oaaa ca arox paqYHao.153)

Y Op6uju ce.sana HMa~ax.v caoje R:yhe, seMJhe II norpede, caxo a1'U, rropeA cnaxajcieor Aecerxa, 06pa~uBaxy R ARBaxy AeBeTaK II Apyre Aam6uHe.154)

Y Crapoj ce Op6RjR aaaaxa qeTBpTHHa 155) Herae ce 11.0 qRTJlYR:a AOJlasHJlo CUJlOM, a nerae U MH.-tOM, noaoaox phaeax rrpHJlUKa ceJhaqR:UX II rrpes,lAymHoalbeM, reao rOA Y <l>eYAHa BpeMeHa. "IIHT.JI.YR: - caxH6~ja je no HeRaA CTaHOBHURe nor-rarsasao II sa seMJhY rrpRBesliBao

151) KapaJ,mB, KMeT, SIavische bibliothek, I, 86.

152) KapaJ;mli, Pje'IHHK KOA pe'!H 'IHT.ilyK.

153) KapaJ,mn, KMeT. SIavische bibliothek I, 87. 1~4) ib.

155) @. Ba~eTH'I'J.. O'IepKH Crapoj Cepoia. BecilAR 1871, r, v, CTp. 394.

80

PA8BHTAY. B.II B.tACTH

06elialbUMa fJ,a lie HX 6paHUTU U y HeBO.4>H HOBu;eM 1I0TlIOMaraTH ~6) Herae cy TYPJ~u, TemeliH sa qHT.ilYKOM, .4>YfJ,e xaaraaa H BeSUBa.ilH, na HX na CFJAY HarOHUAH, fJ,a UM eaoje SeM.4>e npOfJ,llAy.1(7) AOU;Huje cy IbUXOBU 1I0TOMU;H cxarpaaa Te :ieM.4>e sao OqeBuHY, a.ilH U Cp6H reao AefJ,oBHHY H lI!JafJ,efJ,OBHHy.158) KO.\UKO je qUTAYle - caxariaja 6uo aaacraa 0fJ, esora axaa,a, xoaee ce CYAHTH 1I0 TOMe, 1ll~0 ra je MoraO H nOKARlbaT;'I' Aelllanaao ce fJ,a je 1I0 HeKU rocnOfJ,Rp CBOj qUT.ilYK YCTynao H xarcsoj YU;Be.4>eHoj 1I0pOfJ,UU;R, y HMe nOfJ,MHpelbR ICpBHe yu;eHe.15O)

HOBH caojaaap, aaje xorao qH<I>quje ca aeM.4>e repara, HH HOBe qH<I>quje CaM HaCe.4>RBaTH 6ap y Orapoj Cp6ujU.160)

CBe lllTO je paieraa, KMeT, sa ary epehaB ao, OH My je Mopao can ICyliH 0fJ,HeTu,t61) a a~e cy MaXOM no BapOlllUMa ceaeae, caxo cy aa CBOja fJ,oopa, a na Be.ilUICY pajaay fJ,Bop6y, HSJlaSHAa JleTU HJlR aajaanre npefJ, jecen, na Te<l>epUq. ITo aerae cy ce ara H qU<I>qHje 0 Boaeahy H 6ajpaMy yaajaxao fJ,apUBaJiH. 162 )

1(6) HOBaKOBHn, Ilpoaajapa H 6amTHHapH, I' aae I, 84.

1(7) RapaJ.mn, S1. Bibliothek I, 88. 1(1) Bauern-rs 394.

15(1).it. I', Bje.ilOKOCHh, RpBHH MHp. Bocaaerea BIMa. sa 1890 rOA. 6p. 1 CTp. 9,

160) BaqeTHQ'J" 394.

161) Y Xepueroaaaa ce arna aeo, Tpeiuma, npoqelbHBao, na ce acnxahasao rOTOBHM HonqeM (.TOBO HaKHheHoBHh, IIopHjeK.IIo 3HMoHHha nopoaane, Hona OaA 1878. CTp. 4).

162) BaqeTHQ'J" 395.

PE~OPME rroA TYP~HMA

81

Koja je ara UMaO MHoro RMeTOBa OH je no CBOjUM ceaaaa UMao cyoawe,163) RojuMa cy oner, jaAB~ KMeTOBU oA OHora Ma~ora 6epuheTa, llTO BM je oerajaao, MOpaJlB no BemTO AaB3TB·164)

Hapoa je, AaRJle, BenpecTaHo U Aa.lbe p060- nao, UH He 1I0A Op6UMa Hero 1I0A Typua !la. 3a '1'0 je, TemeliH Aa ce OC~060AU OA 1'ypCKor Bra, HeXOTB~e BUIao U ua oc~060~eH:.e OA Beiek BaROCTH. Ao Te 60p6e lIpOTHBY nejeaaareocra cpnCKH 6H BapoA, reao U Apyru jeaponcaa aaPOAu MOpao aajsaa, AOhu, U Aa cy My OCTa.m iseroaa B~aAao~H, caxo 6H oHAa Ta 60p6a 6B~a YHYTpallfba, rpahaacrea. OHaRO, narc, BOAeliH xajAYQRB 60p6y sa csojy HapoAHY c~060AY, CPlICRU je .HapOA y BCTH Max, BOAHO B 60p6y sa ~HQHy JeAHaROCT.

163) Kapauah. SI. Bibliothek I. 87.

164) RaKe cy npOTH HeH81\OBMhy npH'la.m (Menoapa, 14) a 1'1 KaKO l\apal,IHfi reaeyje (Sl. bibliothek) 1-88- CBe'!' je 'IHUyK - caxaoaje cxarpao ieao Ha(,lM.HHRC 1Ia HH TypcRa HX BAaAa aaje npHsHaBaAa. ;3a TO CJ CpOH jom 1793 1'. noao.rox neaasae xpajaae, a 1'1 AO~Huje 1804. 1'0,],. RaA cy AHI'JlH: YCTaHaR rrpoTHBy Aaxaja, 0,l,pHu;a.UI 'lHTAYE-CaxH6HjaMa rrOCJlymHocT, Te cy nocae, npnaaaaajyha jom cYATaHa, easro cnaxajaua AaBaAH AeceTUI~, a Sa'lHTJl.YK-CaxH:6Hje HHTH oy XTeJl.H Aa 'Ijjy, HHTH cy OHH mTO I'OA CMeJl.H TpamiiTH. Tlpeaa OBOMe HSI'AeAa, reao f\a cy ce 'lHTAYR-caxH6Hje nojasaae nOBoAoM CaMOBOJhHOI' npeoTHMalba 6allITlIHapCRe BJlaCTH. eprreree, sa ROjy aaaansaa Typetea no CBOM ApmaBHoM ype~elby naje MomAa HH SHaAa. '1'0 Mome 6HTl! THM npe, mTO co SHa Aa cy 'lHTJl.yR-CaxH6Mje AOHeKAe MOrAl" 6HTH H Cp6M. AOK HM TYPl\H HHCy'lHTJl.yRe npeoreaa. 'I'ypuaxa je SeMJha Tpe6aJl.a, OHH oy je 1'1 RyrroBaAH, 8.JI.H je eaMH HHCY XTCJlH paAHTH, aa TO cy p.SBeCHO cTapoceAHO~e aa lhOj 1'1 saApmaBaAH, Aa HM paAe, ua

PaSBHTUK Bn. BnaCTH

82

PA8BHTAlC B.Il. B..tACTH

II ycrreo je - oapacao je rro(ieAY.

Mu CMO Y TOMe 6u,)l" MHoro cperaaja OA cyceaaor' HaM HapOAa PYMYHCKor. PyMyHU cy IIOA TyljUHBMa 6UAU CBB jeaaarea, ieao U MB rroA 'I'ypuaaa, aAU Ka.A noaaroure c~o.i.y ApmaBY Me~y IbUMa OBAaAa He,JeAHaKOCT, K~la ce H AO AaHae rrOBAaqu185) Ho TO AOAa3H oTYAa, mTO sa CBOjy ApmaBHY opraaaaauajy HMajy 6AaroAapuTH cTpaH~HMa, AOKAe cY Cp6ujy HS 1I0AHTHQKOr neneaa rroAurAH caMH ovaKoBHhH.

II~jeAHaQHHmu ce Y rraTHHmTBY epncsa je naPOA ycrajao rrpoTHB HaCHJI.a sac oBAe, xae oaae.

IIoCAe HeKOJlHKHX ysaJlYAHHx noayrnaja oaCYAHH je YCTHH8K ycnemao 6YKHyO y illYM8AujU. OHa 6eme Y srOAHOM reOrp8<1>CKOM noxoaeajy aa CYAapHmTY HCTOKa H sanaaa; y Iboj je cprrClCH HapOA 60A>e, Hero 1I0 APyruM Sa6aQeHHM KpajeBUMa TypClce ~apeBHHe, xorao y QeCTHM AyCTPRjCKHM paTOBHMa Aa ce u~Bem6a y BBTemTByI66.) H Aa ce YBepu, Aa TypcKa CH,)Ia uaje

Aa nocae no A0r080py ,\e.lle. SH.IlO je y BocIl~ H TypaRS KMeTOBa To 8HaQH, Aa je Mom"w, H TypKe Bpe·

MeHOM HeBOJDa HarOHH.Ila, Aa ce 1I0Aajy AP)TOM, HMyh· ~

HHjeM. lI.m cy, Mome 6HTH, TO 6H.IlH aajupe Cp6H, na

cy ce nocae reao lCMeTOBH HCTYPQH.IlH.

165), HCTac IIeTpoBHh 0 PyMYHHjH H PYMYHHMS.

OTa\.6HHa 1875,KIb; I, CTp. 234 H T. i'\.

186) MH.IlOBaH BHASlCOBHh, ABTo6irorpacl>Hja. I' .IlaCHHK XXX, CTp. 102, 10~. 110, 114, 125 H T. 1\.

Die freivillige Theilnahme der Serb en nnd Kroaten an den vier letzten ostereichisch-tiirkischen kriegen Wien, 1854 IV CTp. 4, 5, 6 H T. A. - K. C.lIporuh, PSTHH Aors~sjH H8 npaor H APyror cpncaor V CTaBICS. OTaV6HHa KIb. XXIV CTp. 321.

pE~OPME nOA Typ~BMa

83

Herrpe..10MHR; Y IDOJ ce CPIICKOM BapOAY . nOBoAoM TprOBaqKUX sesa u KY..1TypHor yTe~aJa ca saIIaAB pasBeApa.B80 IIor..1eA na CTaIDe Y KOMe ce aaaaaao, Y 1D0j ce u Mucao 0 HapoAHOCTH, 6..1aroAapehu jeaponeeox nporpecy u IClDuaceBBocTH Cp6a y Y rapcxoj, xorwa aajnpe u Haj60Jbe IIOjMhTU.~.187) MHoru ce IIOBOJbBH yspo~u y IflyxaAuju 6exy CTeK..1H. MBoro lIITO lIITa AonpHHece, Te 6am us IDe U8..1eTe BapHH~a, soja sarraaa CB8 POAOJby6uBa cpua cpIICKa aa llO..1YOCTPBY .6a..1- KaBCKOM, H naasaa 60p6y sa c..1060AY H sa YCKpC us neroaesaor rpoda n0..1HTUQKor.'68)

KaA ce, HajsaA, HapoA y lliYMaAuju AWRe H APyre xpajeae noaaaee, npe,.\BoAullie ra JbYAH itS u.eroBe cpeAuHe.169) reoja ce 01\ rsera HUCY AHOjH..1H HII 0,lt~BKOBa..1.II.170) Kapa-Bophe je ea

167) ITo npU'Ialby r. .,lly6e n. HeJiaAoBulia, OHO K06HO nHCMO, oaaj <l>aJlCU~HKaT, y KOMe ee roBOpU.tO o YCTaHKY npOTURY TypaK1. U 8601' xor-a [e U81',.o80 l'ollaBY AolleKCa Heaaaosab, naeao je lberOB CHH, AO~HHie "poTa, MaTujR HeHaAOBuh ca cBOjHM poljaKOM ITeTpoM Moaepox, Aa 6u KOMOpoMuToBalbeM npuHYAHolll1 KHeaeeae aa YCTaHaK. OHU, reao erapaja U UCKYCHUjU, He xreme 60ja HU xanre, aoll ra XTef\e aeerpnzsaaa OM .. aAlUlA. U uecperna peja. KaA cy jCAHOM nocae Tora naTaAU MOAepa, KO ra aaaeae Aa C npoToM name TO naCMO, OH je pexao : ,,4ocuTujeBR Aeolla !"

168) M. I'apamaaaa, 0 AHHacTujaMa. Iloraea. re.

AHBa I, erpaaa 414-418.

169) Dragischa Stanorevitch, La republique, Paris, 1870. 1'. CTp . .123 - BeollU Alt je Cp6Hja y KapaljopljeBo Ao6a 6H.ta xao nexa penyoaaea.

170). ITaAa y O<JU KaKO, KaKO Meljy BuljeHHjHM BOjBOAaMa U8 npBor YCTaHKa 6eme nOTOMaK8. 8eTCKUX K xepneroaaasas. Sa Ka\lal)0\lQ8. ~~ \\\:'1.8. ~~ \~ "'l\.~ ~~~~'&.~ ~

84

• PABBHTAIC BJl. BJlACTH

COOJ.HM R0.JHH~HMa IIOMe.4If>H saaoraj t'te~HO, H, xao H APyrH cax ea OCTaAHM nojsoaaaa maaseae xonao. Cne ce YSARAO caxo y ce. Kapa~op~e je pyCKy ~eAaJ.y aa rpYAHMa yAYIIHO HRAeJ.aosjytm

BpJ.HKe.l7l) .

AAH H aKO jy je yA.ynHo, ouer jy je HOCHO.

IIpH CBeM caMOIIoysARIbY cprrCKora aapoaa, CTpa.HH je yrena] Y Iberoooj rreOOJ.H axao uamHOCTH. Haje ce MHoro rAeARAo aa TO~ 011. RYA IIOMOIi AOAasH. I{apa~ophe je ce oripahao II PYCHjll H <l>paHI(YCRoj.172} HaCTaAO je excrraoaraeatse. 0- CHJ.eHa Pycaja, reoja je p060BaAa MOHrOAuMa ouaa, Rail. je Cp6HjR 6H~aCHAHa, rrpeyseBwH HeRRAaWIbY AywaHOUY HAejy 0 oeaojersy ~apHrpaAa, sa RoillM je H caxa 011. oajRaAa TemlMaY3)

iepajesa, a H 1m Heaaaoaahe ee Boa, Aa cy ce AoceJlHJlH aa Xepneroaaae. 0 TOMe H caM npOTa HeHafJ,OBHh saayje y CBOjHM MeMoapHMa aa CTp. 3. Bahe Aa I'opnrraua BeTCICH H xepnerona-nea, HaBHKHYTH aa BHTeJ1IKll mRBOT, BHCY Mor",a paBHoAyrnHo "AeAaTH na jaAl>, llTO ce eaoce no llHTOMIljRM spajeaaxa, sao HH xajAYI\H.

l71} M. '8. MIfAHnemfh, ICOemeBI'IUa Cp6uja, 261. 172). OrHcT BOll, Kapal)opl)e H <PpaouycKa. AoICYMeHTa 0 oaaomejaaa Cp6l'1je ea HaUOAeOOOM I. OT8J,I- 6HHa 1C1b. XIX CTp. 116 H T. A.

173) A- Haoaajcaa, Kpareie osepaa pyecxoii HCTOpia. HaA80Ilie XI. MOClCBa 1870 I'. CTp. 12. 13 14.

Karl Abel, Sprachnissenschaftliche, Abhandlungen X. (tiber die moglichkeit einer gemeinsamen Schriftsprache fur aile Slaven) CTp. 415. - Alexandre Glenard, La guerre d'orient. Paris. 1887. CTp. 20-23. - Cristian Fridrich Wurm Diplomatiscbe geschichte der Orientalischen Frage. Leipzig, 1858, CTp. J 2 -14. Y OBOj -<\ KIbUI'H aa CTp. 12 npRqa KaKO, nOBoAoM aapoaaor

'1I,8lb8 0 aesoj qYAOTBOPOOj RKOOR R 0600BH CB,

.I

l

06paTH OC06HTJ .naauny sa Op6Hjy If IIpliMH .le no,ll, enojy salliTHTy. OHa je BHllie' nero HKoja ,lI,pyra ,lI,pmaRR HMaJlapa'lyH3: ,lI,a Cp6e ynoTp'eGH na caojy KOPHCT, ()HaKO, Rao urro je To.unto lIyTa H Tlpay ropy ynoTpe6~aBft.)la.174:) II- OHa je ca CBOjHM TemIbaMfl noneaa npOAiipaTH, ~ Cpriaja je noseaa aaocrajara.

YS,ll,ajy6.H ce y PYCHjy, HaHBHa Op6Hja npohe y CBOjOj aaremreoj 60p6H xao Bocaa urro, y IIo(,Jle,ll,EbeM YCT3HRY, ynwpallie O'lH y Baaosaane o,ll,IIKJle ce aa O<I>aHsHBY s60r AYCTpO-Y rapCIce naje HH MHCJl.HJlO.175) OCJlOHHBmH ce na PYCHjy. Kapa~op~e IIpe~~ y AYCTPHjy, aa y <PeHeRY npOJl.HBa cy ae nOKs:]aIba, a Hsurpaae Te')fCfhe HecpeTHe IIIyMa,ll,Hje oeraaome ,lI,u THH:.ajy y rp'y ,lI,HMa OpnCRHM, ,lI,OR He HaCT'yllH sroaaa 'lac, ,lI,a oner IIJl.aHy. If Hajs!tA IIJl.aHyme nJlaMOM IIO,ll, CY,ll,60HOCHHM rpM6H y 'faROBY, no,ll, ,lI,H'lHOM CTaPHHOM, 1C0jH je Mom,ll,a MJl.a,ll,OCT CBOjy npOBO,ll,HO no,ll, HeaaIbHMa.176)

TIOjSBH ce HOB 'lOBeK HS HapO,ll,a H, He naTe6.U v,lI, Rapa~op~eBe HSjHBHOCTH, orrrone HOBY 60p6y, KOJlHKO sa ocaorioben,e o,ll, Typasa TOJlHKO H sa JlaTeHTHO MUrO.iLeffie aerroa m'paHor

Ooe aje Y Ilaparpaay, - rra PYClwr MHHHcTpa cno 'bama.ax nOCAOBa H AaH H HOn qeKajy KOAa ca 6 KOIha cnpe!tfHa sa UOAasaK Y Haparpaa.

174) He6AaI'O,\apHOCT Cp6a cnpaM PYCHje, OTaJ;I6.

RIL. XXI, CTp. 593.

1761 Cp6Hja na BepAHHCKOM R0Hrpecy. OTaJ;I6. KIL, XIJ,IV. CTp. 227, 413.

176) qei\. lViltjaToBHh "Ti,\~OBCKH rpM". OTar,t6MHa RIL. XXII. CTp. 102.

. .

86

PABBBTAK BJl. BJlACTH

yTe~aja. A Ta je 60p6a CYA60HocHa, .lep- rAe J.DYAH He mUBe no CBOM KapalCTepy, HO ce noBOAe no BOJ.DU. U rAeAomTY APyrux, Ty aexa npaBe epeke, lCoja je OCHOB AU'IHOM H APymTBeBoM HanpeTKy.177)

177) I,IOH Oryapr MHJh, 0 CJl060,1\H, rrocpoao sae'-'~"lih II. A. Kapa-'Bopi)eBuh, Be'l, 1868, CTp. 71.

~-

,

JEAAHAJEOTA rAABA nOKYWAJ' AnCOAYT MaMA ~~

Oopeaoaah je Op6ujy OC.JIOOOAHO. OHa [e nOCTa.JIa CBOj rocnoAap, easo je 011. CyJlTana 3aBHCUJla. Bojexa TypcRa eraayjyha y rpaAoBHMR cpncKHM aaje Aa.JIa Cp6HMa MUC~UTU na npoIIIu, pelbe KHeaceBHHe HH na npHc8:JeAulbelbe OCTaAUX cpncKHx Rpt\jeBa. CBe, IIITO ce MOr.JIO trocTHhH, MOr.JIO ce nocraha caxo xenaa - AUIJ.JIOMaTCRHM nYTeM. H MU.ilOili TUM je nYTeM H nomao.

OnaCHOCT 0;'\ aKn;uje 6uJla je y TOAURO aeha, nrro HU jrAnoj ApmaBu naje HllAO y pa'lyH MUIII.f>elbe, AR Cpriajy rperia nYCTHTH Aa ce Ii AaA>e IIIUpH Ii 'lBPCTH.

Crpaae cy AP~aBe y Iboj BliAe.ile caxo jelI,Hy Apm aaany, KO.la Mome C.ily~UTH IbHXOBU.M n;eA>HMa, a Y HCTH Max, H xao ApmaBHn;y ROJa je MorAa nOCTaTH eaeaeaar HepeAa.

HHRO joj ce aaje CBOjCRU HYAHO Aajoj noxorae y meA>aMa. CBaRR je, rrpaseha joj ce npHjaTeA>, rAeAao Aa Cpouja 'lHHU OHO IIITO OH xohe, a He OHO, IJITO OHa xohe, Hseaa [e BOA>a 6H.JIa cnopeAHa. CBe jy je y6uja.il0 y nOMHC.ilH na H-

88

PA.811HTAK 1IJ1.. BJl.ACTH

AeaAe, na jy je, U npu HsjMalbeM nojany rsene HesaAOBO.l>eHe mYAlbe U HeCTpn.l>BBOCTU, yrryhanaao Aa hyTH 1'1 Aa 6YAe 6.taroAapHa aa OHOMe mTO je A06uAa .

. Espoua ce noaamaaa, ieao Aa jy je OHa 0- c.7I060,ll,HAa, reao Aa je Op6H,ia 0,11, rsene MHAOCTU YCKpCHYAa. OHa naje XTeAa HH Aa -ryje sa (!PHTajeHe cprrCIce me.f>ei OHa aaje XTeAa HH Aa noMHC.IIUi All Taj Aojy'lepamEDH p06 exe AHhH rJlaB,Y,' All ce yBpCTH y peA MepoAaBHrrx 'lHIneHHD;a.

OC06HTO je Pycaja, rroA BHAoM csoje samTHT.e, rrpHlCpHBa.lla T~jHH osaojea rrpeMa CBHMa 6yjHH!'I, me.l>aMa cprrcKHM. OH~ joj HHje AaAa HH Aa ce ynoaa Y peA MOAepHHx JeBpoIlcRHX Apmaa.

Apma.llo ee, Aa je Op6Hja' Ma.lleHa sa HallpeAaR; Apma.llo ce Aa je Op6Hja neaocrojaa Aa CTyIlH s peA npaBux D;UBHJ!usoBaHux ApmaBa. 3a60paB.f>aAO ce Aa je ra rrpespeHa Cptiaja 6UAU HeRaA YSBlfmeHa U HaA TUM ApmaBRMai sa6opa.f>aAO ce, Aa je Ta HCTa Op6Hja rpYAHMR CBOjHM 1'1 saaaarsaaa aeree 0,11, TUX ApmaBa, Te cy ce noaarwe, AOR je OHa Typxe aa ce6u ApmaAR.

Hacv joj AaAH HH AR ce YCYAH MHCAHTH na yHYTpalliIne rrporpecHBHo pe<'PopMUCR!be. CMaTpa.llliJ cy je reao TypCRY rrpoaaanajy, teoja He CMe Hsuhu HM HS OrpaHH'leIna Y ROM ce HaxoAM 'I'ypcsa, a KaMO .IIH HS aI1CO.llYTMCTH'1~Or crarsa, Y ROMe cy ce HaXOfl,H.IIe u HarrpeAHHJe Apmase jesponcse.

Iloaarrras,e pycreor nOCAaHHRa 6apOHa PHR-

• I

I

I

t

I

__ __..-r

MaHa1) HajjacHHje HaM nosaayje, KaKO ce npeMa Iboj noaaurao H lbeHHaj6AHam npHjaTeJb - PYCHja.

Pycaja je qYBaJUl Op6~jy sa ceo OHa ce 60.lua 0;21, rsenor HanpeTKa, rseue ayroaoaaje H FbeHe _HesaBHCHOCTH. OHa je pa,ll,a 6HJla, ,ll,a je o,ll,pam Ha OHOM HHBO~y Ky.nypHoM, na KOM je

. ' ..

O,ll,pamBa.iIa caoje SeMJbe, na ,ll,a .)0.1 caxo nYTeM

cnoje MHJlOCTH, ,ll,aje npHJlHKe, ,ll,a no HemTO ,ll,06Hje.

Y TaRHM rrpHJlHRaMa MHJlOmy HHje 6HJlO aaso. Cpeha jour, Te je, y O,ll,HOCY ca cTpaHHM ,ll,pacaaaaa, 6HO MaJlO HeMa~HHor RapaRTepa, Te ce 110 HeRa,ll, YMeo Aa AOB~Ja

SHajyliH, ,J,a HeM a na CTpaHH HCRpeHor npHjaTeA>a OH je aajaaure aacrojao ORO caxe Typeae, 're je, nor-ahajyha SJlaTHH HaqHH KO.lH ce Mopa ynorperiara npH onxohersy C TypCKOM Y HeROJlHRO H ycrrenao.s)

1). Kaea ~huom. Hpaaor sa HCTOPHjy CIIO~HnOAHTHKe HOBe cpu. ApmaBe. OTaJ,l6. KIb. XXIV. cTapaa 20l.

2) HOBaKOBHli, ronopeha 0 BAaAH xaeaa MHAomR Ii ~ yKHAa~y enax, JI( "lHT~. oaaje xaer aanroj oaaam- 1b0J ApmaBHoj yBH~aBHOCTB', H Be~H, ,lJ,a cy TOM npHAB'KOM CBa cpearseaexoaaa "paBa na mTeTY Typcse 0- cTaB~eHa 6es HKaKHe HaKHaAe. Meijy TUM KHes MlfAom y "CAOBY" ApmaBoM Hapoaaoj CKynmTHBH Y Kpal'Yjenuy 1 cl>e6p. 1834 rOA. (Cp606paH 1889. 1'. 6p. 46) BeAH OA pe"lH flO peqH OBO: "AaBalba cnaxajcaa AaqHja He MomeMO ce HR Y nanpea OliPOCTHTH, sa mTO H ,0He croje y CYMHOHOj OA 2,300.000 rpoma, KojeHMaMO AanaTH cY.II.TaHY, H OB he ce BaAHTH M8 KaSHe HapOAHe, IbRX Tpe6an HaAoKBaAHTH joj oner, Ho IIJITalbC je RaKO)J;a ce Te AaqHje YSMMajy. Je ~H 60.iM Aa ce YSM-

90

PA8BHTAR BJI.. BJlACTD:

IIo,ll, CeHIWM rrOROpHOCTH OH ce rrpeMa Typ- 1I;0Ma noaamao RaO Hexarsa rrpeMa BHSaHTHHJ~OMa, H rrocrarao je ROJlHKO je xorao. CTBOPHO [e HapO,ll,Hy ,ll,HHacTHjy RaKBe [om rrexa HH jeaaa 6aJlRaHCRa ,ll,pacaBa OCOM Ilpae-Tope; nanrao je aanaaa ,ll,a rrpacajeaaaa Op6ujo H OHe oKpyre HS xojax rrYP1l;U HHCY XTeJlU aa aeno ,ll,a asahy ; ocJl060,ll,HO je Cp6ujy 0,11, cnaxaja U 'lUTJlYR - eaXH?HjaB); Ca'lyBao j~ Cp6ujy 0,11, cprrc~Hx cnaxH,la U 0,11, HOBe HeJe,ll,HaROcT~; cpeaao Je seM,!,Y Y PYRe caMOM HapO,ll,Y reao Je,ll,UHO lI>erOBY CBOjHHY; yaehao je Cp6ujy na paAOCT xpajeaa xoja, YS,ll,UmyliH noa TypCROM na Opriajy O'lU yrrupaxy ; pas6Y,II,HO je YS,II,all>e U Y HeocJlo60~eHUM cprrCRHM RpajeBHMa, 600 je Y ,ll,OCJlyxy ca Opncraox y BoeHU; rrO,ll,pmaBaO je neae ca U;PHOM rOpOM; BO-

Majy RaO H 1\0 eaa ? narc Aa npoejesaa OTK:YII naaha IIpallHTeJLCTSY aamexy, a Aa ra OHO Aaje nopra" ....

lIs osora ce BHAIf, Aa Cpe;VbE:'BeROBHIt IIpasa HHCY yRHHYTa 6es HaRHaAe no TypCK:Y. Hapoa je OCJl.060~eH cpeAlbeBeRoBHHx HaM era, 8.m je TYPCRoj ApmasH Y' roAHIIIlbeM AaRRY l\lOpa.lla Aa ce Aaje HaKHaAa 6ap OHO' JlHKa, KO.llHRR je no lby 6H.Ila ROPHCT OA THX Aam6HHR. Tparona OA TUX cpeAlbeBeKOBHHX Aam6HHR HeCTaJl.O je ea CBHM TeK: OHAa, RaA je IJOA KHeSOM MHJlaHOM nporaarneaa aeaasaaoer, H Ral\ ce TYPl.\HMa npeerao naatlRTH AaHaK. Ho H ypehea,e arpapHO[" IIHTaFha y OCJl.O- 60~eHHM RpajeBHMa aaje npOIIIJl.O Cp6Hjy 6e8 HRRHa,\e CaMO je T8na, 6JlarOAapenH 6ep.llHHCKOM yroB~py, HRKHaAa Hm.llR APyrHM, saxoAHHjHM nYTeM. MopaJle cv ce oTRynJLHSaTH He Cal\1O AOTa,\amlbe l\am6"He, nero H aeMJLe 'lHTJl.YK-caxH6HjCK:e (Ilpoaajapa H 6Rm'IHHapH CTp. 98).

3) CT. HOBRKOSHh. Ilpoaajapa H 6amTHHRpH. r aaeHHK L CTp. 95.



"

l

nORYmA.1 AllCOJlYTHBMA

91

fJ,HO HapOfJ,Hy CrrOJbHY I10JlHTHKY H Cp6Hjy fJ,OBOfJ,HO Y rrOSBaBCTBO ca EBPOIlOM na je H CaMY Cp?l'Ijy rro eBpOrrCKH ypehasao - '!HBHO je KOJlHKO Je xorao.

Ho, rrpH CBeM TOM, mTO ce Mopa rrpH:maTH fJ,a je. OB HarrpefJ,aK SeMJbe HMao y ,BHfI,Y, Y rsoj je 6«.11.0 aesafJ,OBOJbCTBO.

OA RYAa TO aeSafJ,OBOJbCTBO?

To je OH3j SJlH fJ,YX cprrCKH; TO je OHa erHOrpa<l>CICa oc06HHa cprrCKa - Cp6H ~HCy ~OrJlH TprreTH fJ,pmaB.HH anCOJlYTHsaM, ROJH ce JaBJbaO H rropefJ, CBHJY rrapJlaMeHTapHHx <l>OpMaJlHoeTH H YCTaB9, y HeHapOfJ,HOM fJ,yxy.

Hapoa je, 0('J1060fJ,HBmH ce TypaKa,6HO meJb3H rrpaBe cJl060Ae, a BeJl.HKamH cy 6HJlH meJba H caxoaaaurha H MepofJ,aBBOCTH, na fJ,a TO rrOCTHrBY 6an;aJtH cy ce Y napysje H caMHM CTapHM fJ,ymMaBHMa cprrcKHM, Typnaaa; a Typnaxa je TO CprrCRO TpBelbe 6HJlO MHJlO HCTO OHaKO, xao HeK3fJ, H BHsaHTHjH.

Ifl'ra je 6'HJlO? •

MHJlom, OCJl060fJ,HJlan; Cp6Hje Mopao je CBOjy SeMJbY HarrYCTHTH, H Y rsoj, aa pafJ,OCT Typcey YSMe Maxa pasfJ,op ROjH cy BeJlHKamH ynorperiJbaBaJtH na CBOjy ROpHCT. 06HOBH ce fJ,06a HeK8fJ,amlbe BJl.aCTeOCKe ce6eSHaJlOCTH.

X reaa ce noaeaa BJlaCTH; xreaa ce neha yHyTpamlba caorioaa, H .aRO C! _je saoynorpeoJba B3J1H H caxa OHH, KOJH cy JOJ ce sa anocroxe HSfJ,aBaJlH. 4)

4) Tpe6a ce eaxo ceTHTH, KaKaB je 6HO By<JHB, KoiH ee sa Ol\Jl.aSeBHM MHJlOmeM KaMeHOM 6aI\HO (B.

92

PA8BUTA~ BA. B~ACTH

Ilocae RpaTI~e B.!lalJ.e MH.!lOmeBOr CHHa MH.!lalm, ,lI,O.!lRSH sa B.!lRIJ.Y APyrH rseron CHH Maxa!JoIlO, aAH He xao HaC.!le,ll,BH Hero ieao uaaoj)(ntu B.!lalJ.a.!lau. Ho H OH rrpOJlaSH Rao H oran My.

AO.!laSH Kapahophenas Berne TO QOBeR c.!la6 H OrpaBHQeB, rrOBO,ll,A>HB, caerro opylje Y pYRaMa meHe H rseae .M/IW8oopoj'H,e palJ.6HHe, Aa 6H ce olJ.pmao aa B.!laCTH, rrourro je IJ.O rse 1J.0mao He reao Bac.!le,ll,BH, aeh Rao uaaopa'H,U ieaea, 6HO je ,lI,o RpajHocTH rrorrycTA>HB rrpeM'a B.!laCTOA>y6HBHM e.!leMeBTHMa H, IDTO je aajrope exeno rroKopaB CTpaHHlI IJ.pmaBaMa: T.VPCKOj H AYCTpHju 5)

~IpHPOAHO ,lI,a TO BapolJ. y CBOjOj aecauaaaA>HBO.l TemInH sa OCTBapeIneM rrpHTymeHHx HlJ.ea.ila aaje Morl:l0 BH caeo lJ.aA>e TprreTH; na rrOTrrOMOrByT BOBOM CoIl060IJ.0YMHOM CTpyjOM rrYBOM YBpe~eBor pO,ll,o.J:.y6A>a rOHH Ii rsera, jep je 1J.0Rasao lJ.a OB B~je RalJ.ap Te H4eaAe OCTBapHTH, aaje rea,lI,ap HapO,ll, .sa,ll,OBOA>HTIi.

Bpaha ce MH.!lOUI, aaa xao 'H,ac.aemu U ca.MocmaJ~'H,U BJla,ll,a.!la~6) RojH TypCKY reao BaSRA HSHeHalJ.H CBOjHM OXO.!lHM 1l01laUIaIneM.7) OR orrpoCTH Op6ujy CTpaHor yranaja H RJl.OH.aUIe ce CTpaBHX RORCY aa, OC06HTO PYCRor H aYCTpHCKor. A.!lH Y yayrpama.oj rrOJl.HTH~H 6eme arreoayraa teao H

Barthelemi - Sylvestre Cunibert - Essai historique sur les resolussions et independanse de la Serbie Laipzig 1885 r-, I - 249.

5) Hu.t Honon. Cpoaja a Pycaja, CpnCI<H npeBOA. Beorpaa 1870 1'. Rib. II CTp. 177. 17tl

6) Haa ITOHOB. Apy1'a BJl.aAa MUJl.oma Oopenonaba.

Cpu. npenoa. Beorpaa 1882 1'. II RIb. CTp. 83. 7) ib.

1

! -

nORymAJ AlICOAYTH8MA

93

npe.8) ITa aKO cy ra H Tprre.JI.H, TO je caxo HS IIHjeTeTa rrpeMa rseroaoj CTapOCT8 H C 06SHpOM na rseroae sac.JI.yre, Te npeMHHy qaCHO Y CBO,lOj ,LI,OMOBHHH H OCTaBH caoje CTape KOCTH Y CBOjOj po~eHoj SeM.lbH sa qHjy ce c.JI.o60,l1.y mpTBOBao y jJ,aHe caoje M.JI.a,Ll,OCTH9) H reoja 6eme OHaKO Heaaxna •. aaa "peMa a.eroaoa HQ.C.JI.ejJ,HHKy.

Hacaehyje ra CHH MHxaH.JI.O. IIpBa My BJla,Ll,a 6erne nyaa pa,Ll,a. Ilperao je 6HO Aa yqHHH KO.JI.HKO ce Mome. Y BOAH Y c.JI.ym6y C.JI.o60AOYMHY

. aarexereauajy. Iloreaajje ce TOJlepaHTaH rrpeMa onoaanaja, IIOABO,Ll,H TypKO<l>H.JI.CKH H OJlHrapXHCB'H10) caner nojJ, csojy BJlSCT,l1) yBO,Ll,H aa BeJlH.KY paAOCT Hapo,Ll,H,Y, cma';f/H,y pezy.Jtapuy .. 60jCUy, 12) Ha6aB.lba "PH CBeM rrOpTlfHOM HeroAoBalbY, opyseje, sa BOjC.Ky/8) Y.KJlalba epaaje HS Cp6Hje, A06Hja rpa-

. Aoue, paAH npe.KO HaIIOJleOHa III, aa npaeajeAHlbelbY Bocae H Xepuerosaae l ! ... H sa CBe TO! rHH8 Y KOWYTlbaKY!

3a nrro ?

CPIICKH HapOA aaje caeo HHIIlTa IIOCTHbH "peKO so.ee Pycaje H Aycrpaje, OHe cy ce 60- ja.JI.e rserrora HarrpeTKa. OHe 6H, HapOqHTO Ay-

8) Dobroslav Jgnjatovitse - Die Zveite regierung

des Fursten Michael von Serbien. Laipzig. 1887 rOA. CTp. I H 1'.

9) IIHJl. IIOIIOB. - Apyra BA8t",a MHJlOma 06peROBHha. Rib. II CTp. 131.

10) T', I'epmah - HeKOAHRO YCTaBHHX naraisa

~. 1881 1'. 1. CTp. 39. 11) Jgnjatovits, 10. 1S) ib.

is) JOB. PHCrI1h. lIoCJle 60M6apAoBalba Beor-paaa.

OTa:v. Rib. VI. CTp. 9, 17. 27.

94

PA8BHTAK B~. B~ACTH

crpaja, rrpeCTa~a OBTB OHO mTO je cy, ,lI,a [e Bocna B Xepneronaaa npBcaje,ll,BlDeHa CpOBjB. OpoBja OB CTBopB~a Aycrpaja ,lI,pyry u 'Uoc.aeo'HJY CU,lI,OBY·

PYCBja nate Mopa~a OH aariopaaara Haparpaa. Aa ce TO B30erHe H Pycaja B AYCTpBja saaTOM H ooeh.alDBMa aaurxa cy ,lI,OCTa B3,l1,ajHBKa KOjH C.Y ce aapoay sa anocroae C~OOO,ll,e B3,l1,aB~H I:OJH cy My npOnOBe,ll,aJlB,lI,a lDeMY - Hap0,ll,Y - He Tpeoa TOJlHKO OJleCKa H BeJlHqHHe, KOJlHICO - enooooe! HapO,ll,y Tpeoa yeTaB a He anCOJlYTB3aM H Aa ~e My TO ,lI,aTH CaMO... Kapa~op~eBHh.!?

IIpeKH eJleMeHTH Hepelta~ IIOTIIOMorHYTH noTOM~MMa K lpa~op~eBHX aojsoaa, HeKR,lI,amlbBX paTHBX ,lI,pyroBa BeJlHKOr MH~oma,* H CJle,ll,OeHH~HMa neaareaurse remlbe sa CaMOBOJl>OM, KaKBa ce jaazsaure H sa BJla,ll,e KHe3a MHJlOma, y JlHl\Y QYIIHha15) IIaBJla U;YKHBa: 16 Ilerpa Moaepa, naa,lI,HKe ,MeJleHTHja, HHKUIHha, KHe3a OHMe MapKonaha, rearre raaa AparHlia HR Pouosesa, .iKn:BtlHa ~olbaKa, Maaoja 'BaKa, 'Bop~a qapalIBba H T. A. sao BJlaCHHqKH notiopuana, Kojn: He Tprre neaTpaJlH3aM oaasaame ce 3AaTY H ooelialbHMa CTpannx KOH3Y aa, rra ~prBOHarne BAa,ll,aOi\a H yqHHHme csoje y KOPHCT Kapa~op~eBHha; aaa yjeauo mpTBOBaUIe H OpOHjy lbeHl.fM ,lI,ymMaHHMa.

*) Paaoaaaonaha cJ 6H~H JHy~H npoTe Haeoae CMHJbaHHha

15) C. MH.IIYTHHOBHh. Hcropaja Cpeaje 02\ nO'IeTKa 1813 AO KOHl\a 1815 rOA· IT H8Aalbe BAOrpafl, 1887 r . CTp. 289.

16) Cunibert I, 141, 143, 148, 150,153,221 H228·

I ,

4

1

)RHBOT If PAA KPAA.A MH.;tAHA.

r

lIa arraae, CBe 11M 611 ysaMaH. Kapahophenaha ce AIIHacTHja He rrOBpaTII. H9MeCHIIIIITHO saIIITIITII AHHacTlljy Oripeaoaasa .. Op6Hja A0611

or - •

YCTaB HerrOTIlYH, npHMHTHBaH,_a.llH,.TelC, CBOJ corr-

CTBeHH - He 6eUIe aaxerayr ca CTpaHe teao OHaJ as A06a xaesa MII.IlOma.17).

Ao~e na rrpecTo rerrea MH.IlaH!

MH.IlaH, MII.IlaH ... OBO liMe 6pyja.llo,ie II 6YPHO oA,jelCIIBa.110 lCpOS 33 rOA. OH BOfl,H paToBe sa ocaoriohea-e ; mHpll Op6l1jy; rrpOr.llaIIIaBa aeaanacHOCT; nospaaa KpM>eBHHy II aOltenyje. .. ame1£mame!

Berne TO qOBe~ caaaeaa YM9, IIsBaHpeAHa Aapa II peT~HX cnoc06HOCTII ; qOBelC Be.llHlCe Ayme II B.IlaAa.llIU\ llIHPOKHX noraeaa.

H 'UfJpea ceeea moea 6uo je uaj uecpem'Huju «oeen 'Uoa cyu~e.M!

Kpa.s MII.IlaH 6110 je crpacraa qOHelC cTpacTaH rrO.llIlTllqap, rra lCaAa ce YMeIIIRo y napTllclCe 60p6e, OH je 6uo II cTpacTaH napraean.

Oa llaAoM Pacrahena ~13611HeTa OH ce oTpece H rseroaor TYTopcTBa reoje je IIMa.110 TalCO K06He nocaeaaue H sa rsera H sa fl,pmaBy, na ce CBHM cpu;e!l npeaaje ~OBHM ..l>yfl,HMa, sanojeaaa BOBHM IIAeJaMa, sa lCOJe 'ce saaaaee CBOM CHarOM H CBHM CBOJHM aYTopHTeTOM, rra ca IbHMa rrOKYmana Aa narpajapxaaay Op6~jy rrpeoripaaa y MOAepHy fwmaBY, II Ma Aa 1882 1". nporaauryje Cpriajy Kpa..l>eBHHOM, BapOA He YMeAe APYl'qHle Aa My SaXBa.llH Hero AeMOHCTpaTHBHO aU.ilaYAH-

17.) HH.;t 1(0 npeBoA II-I.

95

96

mn:BOT II PAA KPAJI>A MIIJLAHA

pa OHHMa, KOjH CBRKH rseron pa,ll" 'CBRRH ycrrex H Heycnex, nponpahajy ca YSBHKOM: "IIorolleAaj, napo,ll,e, rrrra ra je 1.£yoa U 8.J1,a U01.£U'HUO oeaj 8.1U tJtix Cp6uje!·1

. ,ILoollasH 1883 1'0,11.. Ha CK,YnmTHHCKHM Hs60- pHMa, pa,ll,HKaoIlH oaaoce no 6 e,ll,y. Ka6HHeT IIHpOhan-rea ,lI,sje oCTaBKY; ,lI,OollaSH HHKoAa XPJ4CTHh KojH cKynIDTHHy pacnYIDTa. THMe je K.paJ> MHoIlaH jacao norcasao Aa paAHKaoll(')Ma aeke ,lI,a ,lI,a BoIlaCT. Henpeaanarsea.nare, Ap.maBHor opyseja, orrer paAHKaollH cy ,lI,oRassollH ,lI,a Helie,ll,a HSBPmyjy Hape,ll,6e KpaJ>eBe - u 8aje1.£apcna 6yua

. , .

UM'Hy.!ta Je ....

Paaasaaaa exarpanaja, soja je Te roaaae Hs6erAa y Byrapcsy H Pyayuajy, 6HoIla je 'He'l10- cpeo'Hu uoooo sa Opncso-dyrapcaa paT 1885 1',' ROjH ce saBpIDHO O.mSHHU;OM.

Op6Hja aaje MorAa, naje caeaa, MHpHO noCMaTpaTH Byrapcsy, KaRO, raseha' Me~YHapO,ll,He yroBope, nocraje rrpeRO aoh H ABanyT aeh H ja-ra o,ll, a,e, PaT je 6HO HeycnemaH aaa TO je 6HO CBeTH par !

illTO je 6uo HeycrremaH, repaaaua je ao OHUX ROjH rroaara-nee noaoaeaje caarpajy sa cHaeRype reje caMOTaKO BojHaRoMaHA3,MOr.Jla6an;uTu aa rpaHHn;y casro CT3AaH RafJ,ap, aapasao, H He c.!tymeli.u! Aa he Byrapcea KpeHyTH H pYMe.JlHOTcRY BOjcRY.

IIa reao ,lI,a H~je 6H.Jl0 ,lI,oeTa saa H aecpehe, IIpBa Kpa"I,Hn;a 'I'py,ll,H ce ,lI,a saropqa,ll,o spsja mHBOT Kpa.ey M~oIlaHY. Tloreynraaa jaa oKpeae IIO.JlUTHKY na CB0.JY pyKy.

IIaHcAaBHcTKHlba ,lI,o <l>aHaTHSMa caxo sa TO ~I1TO je Kpa.lb MH.JlaH 6HO ,lI,pyror MumJ>efba;

)KUBOT .iii PAI'\ KPAJlJA MHJlA.RA

97

aa ClIpaM lLera U ILerOBe 1I0AHTBKa, HUXBAHCTKBHta, Roja 6u XTeAIl Aa yHBlDTH CBe mTO OH ypaAH. TaKBa je 6HAa IIpBo. Kpahun;a,

. Onoaanaja 0AMax je YO'IHAa ICOAHKO joj TaICBa aeeaa Mo~e ICOPHCTHTH Y ILeHoj 6op6H IIpOTHBy Kpaa,a MHAaaa rra jy je H eICCIIAoaTHcaAa AOIC je KpR.!> MHAaH aa IIpeCTO.ty eeaao, a sa THM jy je satiopaaaaa .....

Heeperaa H Y AOMY CBOMe Kp&lb MHAaH Mopao je 06paTHTH ee n;pRBH Aa rsera H Cp6Hjy Te 6eAe KypTaAHme' II n;pKBa je 6paR paSBeJla. AJIU H reao pasBeAeHa KpahHn;a, OHa H~ie rrpe· eraaa Aa ce 6yaH IIpOTHBy Kpa..I.a H ILerOBHX BJlaCTB, lIaqalt U IIpOnlBY so.se caora CHHa, 110. HajsaA :H IIpOTHBY Bepe .......

BHAeliH Aa ~eMeaTH ~epeAa, IIOA MRCKOM HapoAHHx upajare.ea, npere Aa ICOaa'lHO YHHmTe oay srpaAY, Kojy je OH co. TOJlHRHM TPYAOM H TO.llHKOM hy6a.H.lhY no-reo sHAaTR, H Aa 6H Cp- 6Hjy casyaao OA rpahaacsora paTa, peffiaaa ee Aa cax Aa YCTaB,

21 )1,en;eM6pa 1888 rOA. oTBopeHa je BeAHICa HapoAHR CICyrrmTHHa s Beorpaay Koja IIpHMa YCTaB a aa cax ARH Boaeaha ICpa.!> ra CBeqaHO norrracyje .

...... "HocHTe HapoAY YCTaB, BeAH Kpa.!> Y npecronoj 6eceAH, ROjH OTBopuBmH ABepH HapO,ll.HOI" npeCTaBHHmTBa yqeHHM CHHOBHMa seM.!te, CAO- 60AHOM BOhOM HapoAa asadpaaoj HHTeAHFeHn;uju Iwja je HS HapoAa nOHHICAa, Aalie 6aJboa MoryliHOCT, Aa ce Y Cp6HjH BAaAa HCTHHCKH lIapAR-

, xearapao."

PUBHT&IC u. uaCT.

98

~CTAB 0,\ 188S 1'0,1\,

.;. Hapoa CpnCKH H~ie 6HO Aospeo SI1 OHaKO

c~060AoyMaH.ycTaB.

v ApmaBHIf<IRa MYAPOCT saXTeBa. AR ce Mepa

. THX cA060,ll,a cBarAR YAeli8Ba npeMR CTYIIIDY pasBHTKa oaora HapOAR KOMe cy asaea.eae;

HOBH YCTaB ocarypaaa KpaJbY CBR OHa npaBa B rrpepOl'aTHBe, RojBMa cy CBB 06pasOBaHH HRPOAH :OIcpymHJlH eaoje BJlaAaOl~e,

HOBH· Y CTaB je sajeM'IHo He caxo rrpaao BehHHe Aa yrrpaBJha Ap.maBHHM rrOCAOBHMa, Hero H rrpaBO MalDHHe Aa 6YAe cpaSMepHO aacrynzseaa y saRoHoA3BHOM TeAY,

30 rOAHHa Bo~eR8 je 60p6a sa rpa~aHCR<l H rrOAHTH'IRa npRBa, ieoja je sapotiaaa cae AyxoBe y TOAHKoj MepH AR je saHeMRpeHO xaoro .mlfBOTHO nararse, - HOBHM ~TCTaBOM yjexseae cy rrOJlH-. TH'IRe H rpa~aHCRe eJlo60Ae HCKaSHBRlDa MHCJlH,

JlH'IHR H HMOBHa 6es6eAHOCT. .

A nrro je aajaerrure HOBHM YCTaBOM YBeACHe cy ospyaeae cRyrrliTBHe soje cy Tpc6aJle All 6YAY w/lw.ae HCTBHCRor napJaMeHTapHsMa, aAH paAHR3J1B cTBopHrne 0,11, IhHX oA60pe rae cy ce AOHocHJle KpBaBe rrpecYAe rrOJlHTH'IRHM rrpoTHB' HHl\HMa,

Y eras, ROjH je rperiao Aa. CTaHe aa nyT C!lJ(~BO..I.H janaax opraHa, nocrao je cpeAcTBO s pytcllMa paSYS,lI,aHHx BJlaCHBRa 'IHje c,Y arHTa~e jO_UI y OIi:08Hl\HjB y'lHHHAe Aa je He caxo 0~a6HO Kpa.LeBCKH aYTopHTeT, HO cy y'lHHHJle HeMo·ryhUM H c~yr:u:.alDe nopesa, To je YTBPAHJlO Kpao!.R,lI,1l Bepyje Aa·· YCTaBHa ynpaBIl y Cp6HjH He.he ycueTH, na H He. q:eRajyliH Aa ee HOBH yc-

TI/B YBe,4e y 3£BBOT, 24 ···.e6\l. \88~ I'. npaa

a(HDOT H PAA KPA.bA MHJl.AHA

99;

Rpa.Jb nOCAe Koeona AparOBO.~HO CUAaSH Cit. rr~'f'~ CTO.ll1l U npeHOCU CBOjy RpaJ.eBCRY BAaCT -j_ caora MaAOAeTHor CUHa RpaJ.eBulia AAeRcaHA~'

ITa oA RYAa ROA KpaJ.a MUAaHa OHOAUK'.

HerrOBepelbe, ynpaBo OHOAUKU OABpaT npeMa paAURaAHl~la; oA KYAR TO Aa KpaJ. MHAaH aneoayTHO HUJe xreo HU rrozymara Aa ce ca IbBMa Ma y qel\ly cnopaSYMe, KaA ce SHa Aa je .. OH 6uo qOBeR I'U6aK U 6UCTpa yMa, naRaA cy ra AOMahe HenpUAHRe TO.:tUKO noxeae, OH paABje H RpyHY C raase CRHAa, aAU paAURaAUMa He nonymTa.

OH KOA paAUKaJla Huje xorao TpnUTH OBC) rpydo H 6eSOqHO aacrean,e "CYBepeB&M HapOAY"-

BUAO My [e OAHpaTHO I'AeAaTH, RARO paAHRaAU, Aa 6H AOCKOqHAU npOTHBHUl.\H:ua, creapajy MP.mn:.y ROA HapOAa npOTUB,Y qHHOBHUKa npHCT.JlHqa OCTaAUX crpaaaxa,

Y SBUKa: "qHHOBHHKe rroA Hom! " celiafJ ee AO nocxearser xaca.

Ma Aa je Apman:.e I'apanraaaaa H rseroae crpaase 6u.1O H cA06oAOYMHO B xYMaHo, ouer cy Bo~e paABKaJla HaMepHO U C nAB HOM BapaAH HapoA B HSBPTBJlU HaMepe U AeJia BABAuHR, BH~ AHO je Aa ce na n:.HX He Mome OCJlOHHTH, jep BM je Ap.man:.e 6UAO U YCKO H Ce6HqHO H npHTBOPHO, na HX je AO rpooa cMBTpao reao npeACTaBHHKe nO.ulTHqROI' pasBpaTR.

't~t,

. -,

ABAHAJECTA rAABA HAPOA nOCTAJE rOCnOAAP

II HapO,ll, je y rAaBHOMe Sa,ll,OBOJbaH, rpeIIIHO, He rpeIIIHO - OH je y HeKOAHKO IIO,ll,MH-

peH. IDTO je TpamHO TO je H HaIIIao. ,

BajKa,ll,aIIIIDR My je ~eA>a 6HJla ,ll,a 6YAe rocIIoAap 0,11, cBoJe BOA>e.

BajKaAaIIIfba M.Y je ~eA>a 6HJla Aa My ce rwae He ryIIIH. 0,11, BajKaAa je .meJleo Aa Kame:

"OBO xohy - OBO Heliy!"

II TO je y HeKOJlHKO~ IIOCTHrao.

0,11, KaRO je, cpnCKH HapOA BJlaCT HeCMe CMaTpaTH, Aa je BaH rsera H Aa je HeOrpaHHqeHa, - 6ap TalCO cy ra yqHJlH, na TiH~O ra H eaA yqe lDerOBH HaSOBH npH.i~TeA>~, - Beli Aa je OBa Hspas BOA>e rseroae, Aa .1e oA.leR raaea lDerOBR H TeRoBHHa npHpOAHUX oc06HHa lDerOBHX; xoje cy H ,11,0 oa'Hac ocmaJl,e 'HeCa6!laO"bU6e.? OH, Nt, mHBH y IbHMa H OHe mHBe. y lDeMy!

ilOTHIIITeHa Moli Hs60pHe CHAe rserose - aeae MY, TH eJleMeHTH Hepe,ll,a. H HHHOBHH~H AaHaIIIlDer n.eroaor 6eAHor crarsa - MOpaJla j e BeROBHMR 6UTH Y OROBHMa AOK ee CMHpHJla H rmarajaaa, aaa RaA je IDHMa -. npHjaTeA>HMa

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