Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

Venture Impact

The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies


to the U.S. Economy
Third Edition
ABOUT GLOBAL INSIGHT

Global Insight is a privately held company formed from the two most respected economic
and financial information companies in the world, Data Resources, Inc. (DRI) and Wharton
Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA).

With the integration of the World Markets Research Centre (WMRC), Global Insight also
provides the world’s first same-day analysis and risk assessment service covering over 200
countries and four industries, providing insightful analysis of market conditions and key events
around the world. With over 40 years of experience behind it, Global Insight provides the most
comprehensive economic and financial coverage of countries, regions, industries, and markets
available, using a unique combination of expertise, models, data, and software within a
common analytical framework to support planning and decision making.

Global Insight, Inc. is recognized as the most consistently accurate forecasting company in
the world. Global Insight has over 3,800 clients in industry, finance, and government with
revenues in excess of $80 million, 600 employees, and 23 offices in 13 countries covering
North and South America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

ISBN: 0-9785015-4-3

Copyright 2007 by the National Venture Capital Association.

All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyrights hereon may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any
means (graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems)
without the written permission from the National Venture Capital Association.

Every reasonable effort has been made to assure the accuracy of the information in this publication. However, the contents of
this publication are subject to changes, updates, omissions, and errors, and neither the National Venture Capital Association nor
Content First, LLC accept any liability for inaccuracies that may occur.
Venture Impact
The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies
to the U.S. Economy
Third Edition — Data Updated Through 2005

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary 4

Venture Capital 101 8

Venture Capital Backed Companies Boost America’s Economic Strength 12

Venture Capital Backed Companies Create Jobs 15

Venture Capital Backed Companies Drive Sales 17

Venture Capital Supports Employment Across the Country 19

Venture Capital Supports Sales Across the Country 21

Methodology 23
Executive Summary

T
his report provides an overview of the key findings contained in the Global
Insight study, Venture Impact: The Economic Importance of Venture Capital
Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy, commissioned by the National
Venture Capital Association (NVCA). The statistics presented here are based
on a database of nearly 23,500 venture capital backed companies. The data
demonstrates the enormous contribution of venture capital backed companies
to U.S. jobs, sales, economic growth, and technological progress. The nation’s
venture capital industry plays a paramount role in nourishing the U.S. economy
by bringing innovative concepts and business models to life.

Economic Importance of
Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
2005

Total Revenue of
Venture Capital Backed Companies:
16.6% of U.S. GDP
Total Employment of
Venture Capital Backed Companies:
9.0% of U.S. Private Sector Employment

 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Boosts America’s Economic Strength by Creating Jobs and Revenue
Employment and sales data conclusively show the importance of venture capital
backed companies to the U.S. economy. Venture capital financed companies are
found in all sectors of the American economy. Innovative venture capital backed
businesses such as Genentech, Medtronic, Microsoft, Home Depot, and Intel are
among the prominent and diverse American companies that received venture
capital early in their development.

The nation’s venture capital Together, the nation’s venture capital backed companies employed just over 10.0
million American workers in high-quality jobs and generated $2.1 trillion in rev-
industry plays a paramount role enue in 2005. The total revenue of venture capital financed companies comprised
16.6 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 9.0 percent of U.S.
in nourishing the U.S. economy by private sector employment in 2005.

bringing innovative concepts and Economic Benefits of


Venture Capital Backed Companies on the U.S. Economy
business models to life. 2000, 2003, and 2005

2000 2003 2005

Jobs 8.7 million 9.2 million 10.0 million


Revenue $1.5 trillion $1.7 trillion $2.1 trillion

The payoffs for venture capital investments are enormous. Similar to recent
years, $23 billion was invested in 2005. This represented just 0.2 percent of U.S.
GDP. Revenue generated by the universe of venture backed companies in 2005
corresponded to 16.6 percent of GDP.

Outperforms Other Companies


Venture capital backed companies outperformed their non-ventured counterparts
in job creation and revenue growth. Employment in venture backed companies
jumped by 4.1 percent, while national employment grew by just 1.3 percent,
between 2003 and 2005. At the same time, venture capital backed company sales
grew by more than 11.0 percent, compared to an overall rise in U.S. company
sales of 8.5 percent during the same period.

Employment and Sales Growth at Venture Capital


Backed Companies Outperform Total Employment and Sales Growth
CAGR* 2003-2005
12% +11.3%

10%
+8.5%
8%

6%
+4.1%
4%

2% +1.3%

0%
Employment Sales
Venture Capital Backed Companies’ Growth Total Growth

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 
Sustains Employment and Revenue Across Major U.S. Industry Sectors
The nation’s innovative and cutting-edge venture capital backed companies
sustain jobs and revenue across diverse industry sectors from computers and
peripherals, media/entertainment/retail, semiconductors, software, and
telecommunications to biotechnology, financial services, healthcare services, and
medical devices.

Venture Capital Backed Companies by Top Five Industry Sectors


Employment and Revenue
2005
(ranked by employment)

Employment at Revenue at
Industry Venture Capital Backed Venture Capital Backed
Companies Companies

Media/Entertainment/Retail 2,005,700 $299.0 billion

Computers and Peripherals 1,866,400 $466.0 billion

Industrial/Energy 1,180,100 $268.0 billion

Financial Services 896,900 $134.0 billion

Software 857,700 $211.0 billion

In 2005, venture capital financed companies in the media/entertainment/retail


sector employed more than 2.0 million Americans, followed by the computers
and peripherals industry with 1.9 million American jobs. The computers and The nation’s innovative and
peripherals industry was the leading industry in 2005 with revenue at $466.0
billion, followed by the media/entertainment/retail sector with $299.0 billion in cutting-edge venture capital backed
2005 revenue.
companies sustain jobs and revenue
Additionally, the revolutionary products generated by the nation’s venture capi-
tal backed biotechnology and medical devices and equipment sectors supported across diverse industry sectors from
nearly 425,000 high-skilled, high-wage jobs in 2005.
computers and peripherals, media/

Contributes to Economic Health of State Economies entertainment/retail, semiconductors,


California, Texas, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Georgia were the top software, and telecommunications
national job creators measured by venture capital backed companies headquar-
tered in their state. In California alone, nearly 2.3 million jobs were supported by to biotechnology, financial services,
venture capital backed companies headquartered in the state.
healthcare services, and medical

devices.

 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Top Five States by Employment at
Venture Capital Backed Companies Headquartered in the State
2005

Employment at
Rank State
Venture Capital Backed Companies

1 California 2,285,200

2 Texas 1,089,100

3 Pennsylvania 697,600

4 Massachusetts 639,900

5 Georgia 604,300

California, Texas, Washington, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts were the top


five states by revenue at venture capital backed companies headquartered in
their state. California was the nation’s leader by this metric, with more than
$500.0 billion in revenue tied to venture capital backed companies headquartered
in the state.

Top Five States by Revenue at


Venture Capital Backed Companies Headquartered in the State
2005

Revenue at
Rank State
Venture Capital Backed Companies

1 California $507.0 billion

2 Texas $274.0 billion

3 Washington $127.0 billion

4 Pennsylvania $113.0 billion

5 Massachusetts $112.0 billion

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 
VENTURE CAPITAL 101:
What is Venture Capital?

V
enture capital has enabled the United States to support its entrepreneur-
ial talent and appetite by turning ideas and basic science into products
and services that are the envy of the world. Venture capital funds and
builds companies from the simplest form – perhaps just the entrepreneur and
an idea expressed as a business plan – to freestanding, mature organizations.

Risk Capital for Business


Venture capital firms are professional, institutional managers of risk capital that
enables and supports the most innovative and promising companies. This money
funds new ideas that could not be financed with traditional bank financing, that
threaten established products and services in a corporation, and that typically
require five to eight years to be launched.

Venture Capital Backed Companies


Known for Innovative Technology and Products
2000 and 2005 Employment

Company 2000 2005 # Change

Intel Corporation 86,100 99,900 13,800

Microsoft 39,100 61,000 21,900

Medtronic, Inc. 21,490 33,000 11,510

Apple Inc. 8,568 16,820 8,252

Genentech 4,459 9,500 5,041

Google -- 5,680 n/a

Source: Hoover’s

Venture capital is quite unique as an institutional investor asset class. When an


investment is made in a company, it is an equity investment in a company whose
stock is essentially illiquid and worthless until a company matures five to eight

 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
years down the road. Follow-on investment provides additional funding as the
company grows. These “rounds,” typically occurring every year or two, are also
equity investment, with the shares allocated among the investors and manage-
ment team based on an agreed “valuation.” But, unless a company is acquired or
goes public, there is little actual value. Venture capital is a long-term investment.

Venture Capital Backed Companies


Known for Innovative Business Models
2000 and 2005 Employment

Company 2000 2005 # Change

The Home Depot 201,000 325,000 124,000

Starbucks Corporation 47,000 115,000 68,000

Staples 49,993 65,078 15,085

Whole Foods Market, Inc. 18,500 38,000 19,500

PetSmart, Inc. 19,825 30,300 10,475

eBay 1,927 12,600 10,673

Source: Hoover’s

Venture capital firms are More Than Money


professional, institutional The U.S. venture industry provides the capital to create some of the most innova-
tive and successful companies. But venture capital is more than money. Venture
managers of risk capital that capital partners become actively engaged with a company, typically taking a
board seat. With a startup, daily interaction with the management team is com-
enables and supports the most mon. This limits the number of startups in which any one fund can invest. Few
entrepreneurs approaching venture capital firms for money are aware that they
innovative and promising essentially are asking for 1/6 of a person!
companies. Yet that active engagement is critical to the success of the fledgling company.
Many one- and two-person companies have received funding but no one- or two-
person company has ever gone public! Along the way, talent must be recruited

What Entrepreneurs Are Really Asking For!

An early stage venture capitalist


sitting on six company boards has
a huge workload.

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 
and the company scaled up. Ask any venture capitalist who has had an ultra-
successful investment and he or she will tell you that the company that broke
through the gravity evolved from the original business plan concept with the
careful input of an experienced hand.

Deal Flows — Where The Buys Are


For every 100 business plans that come to a
venture capital firm for funding, usually only 10
The Business Plan Funnel
or so get a serious look, and only one ends up
being funded. The venture capital firm looks at
the management team, the concept, the market-
place, fit to the fund’s objectives, the value-added
potential for the firm, and the capital needed 100 business plans come in
to build a successful business. A busy venture 100
capital professional’s most precious asset is time.
These days, a business concept needs to address
world markets, have superb scalability, be made
successful in a reasonable timeframe, and be
truly innovative. A concept that promises a 10
or 20 percent improvement on something that
already exists is not likely to get a close look.

Many technologies currently under development 10 are a good fit and promising —
by venture capital firms are truly disruptive they get a close look
technologies that do not lend themselves to being 10
embraced by larger companies whose current
products could be cannibalized by this. Also,
with the increased emphasis on public company Extensive due diligence
quarterly results, many larger organizations tend
to reduce spending on research and development
and product development when things get tight.
Many talented teams have come to the venture 1
capital process when their projects were turned
1 gets funded
down by their companies.

Common Structure — Unique Results


While the legal and economic structures used to create a venture capital fund
are similar to those used by other alternative investment asset classes, venture
capital itself is unique. Typically, a venture capital firm will create a Limited
Partnership with the investors as LPs and the firm itself as the General Partner.
Each “fund,” or portfolio, is a separate partnership. A new fund is established
when the venture capital firm obtains necessary commitments from its investors,
say $100 million. The money is taken from investors as the investments are made.
Typically, an initial funding of a company will cause the venture fund to reserve
three or four times that first investment for follow-on financing. Over the next
three to eight or so years, the venture firm works with the founding entrepreneur
to grow the company. The payoff comes after the company is acquired or goes
public. Although the investor has high hopes for any company getting funded,
only one in six ever goes public and one in three is acquired.

10 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Investors in Venture Capital Funds

Finance & Insurance 25%


Private &
Public Pension Funds
42%

Endowments
& Foundations
21%
Corporations Operating
Individuals & Families Funds (not pension)
10% 2%

Source: 2004 NVCA Yearbook prepared by Thomson Financial using 2003 data

Economic Alignment of all Stakeholders —


An American Success Story
Venture capital is rare among asset classes in that success is truly shared. It is
The Exit Funnel — not driven by quick returns or transaction fees. Economic success occurs when
Outcomes of the 11,686 Companies the stock price increases above the purchase price. When a company is success-
First Funded 1991 to 2000 ful and has a strong public stock offering, or is acquired, the stock price of the
company reflects its success. The entrepreneur benefits from appreciated stock
and stock options. The rank and file employees throughout the organization
historically also do well with their stock options. The venture capital fund and its
Went/Going Public 14%
Acquired 33% investors split the capital gains per a pre-agreed formula. Many college endow-
ments, pension funds, charities, individuals, and corporations have benefited far
beyond the risk-adjusted returns of the public markets.

What’s Ahead
Much of venture capital’s success has come from the entrepreneurial spirit
pervasive in the American culture, financial recognition of success, access to
good science, and fair and open capital markets. It is dependent upon a good
*Still Private or flow of science, motivated entrepreneurs, protection of intellectual property, and
Unknown 35% Known Failed 18% a skilled workforce.

The nascent deployment of venture capital in other countries is gated by a


country’s or region’s cultural fit, tolerance for failure, services infrastructure that
* Of these, most have quietly failed supports developing companies, intellectual property protection, efficient capital
markets, and the willingness of big business to purchase from small companies.

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 11
Venture Capital Backed Companies
Boost America’s Economic Strength

The Venture Capital Sector Has Grown To Become a Major Force


in the U.S. Economy

V
enture capital funded companies are an integral part of the American
economy. Venture capitalists have provided the U.S. economy a reward
far beyond their investment of money and time in these companies.
Venture capital investment continually reinforces America’s entrepreneurial
spirit by producing innovative and cutting-edge technology and products. In
doing so, the venture capital industry becomes a catalyst for change. Venture
capitalists, many of whom are former successful entrepreneurs themselves,
shepherd new business men and women to reach their full potential.

Venture capital funded companies


were directly responsible for just
over 10.0 million jobs and
$2.1 trillion in sales in 2005.
This corresponds to 9.0% of total
private sector employment and
7.8% of total sales.

12 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Venture Capital Backed Companies Create Jobs and Revenue
Venture capital backed companies known for their innovative technology and
business models, such as Microsoft, Intel, Genentech, and Starbucks, added more
than 1.3 million jobs to the U.S. economy between 2000 and 2005, resulting in
annual growth of approximately 2.9 percent. Total venture capital backed company
employment exceeded 10.0 million jobs in 2005. The data show that venture capital
backed companies added 765,700 jobs to the U.S. economy in the last two years
alone, posting a 4.1 percent annual growth rate.

Sales by venture capital financed companies jumped from $1.5 trillion in 2000
to $2.1 trillion in 2005. Venture capital backed companies posted a 6.8 percent
annual growth rate over the last five years.

Employment at Venture Capital Backed Companies


as a Percent of Private Sector Employment
2005

Sales by venture capital financed


9.0% 10.0 Million Jobs
companies jumped from $1.5

trillion in 2000 to $2.1 trillion in

2005. Venture capital backed

companies posted a 6.8 percent

annual growth rate over the last

five years.
Total U.S. Employment

Revenue at Venture Capital Backed Companies


as a Percent of Total Revenue
2005

7.8% $2.1 Trillion in Revenue

Total Revenue

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 13
Venture Capital Backed Companies Create Jobs and Add Workers at a
Faster Rate than Non-Ventured Companies
Companies financed by venture capital added jobs at a faster pace than their
non-ventured counterparts. The most recent statistics show that the 4.1 percent
annual growth rate of jobs among venture capital backed companies was more
than three times faster than the 1.3 percent total private sector employment
growth rate between 2003 and 2005.

Venture Capital Backed Employment Growth vs. Employment by


Total Employment Growth Venture Capital Backed Companies
CAGR* 2003-2005 2000-2005
+ 1.3 million jobs
+ 2.9% Compound Annual Growth
5%
4.1% 10.0
9.2 million
4% 10
8.7 million
million
3%
8

2%
1.3% 6

1%
4
0%

Venture Capital Employment Growth 2


Total Employment Growth

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate 0


2000 2003 2005

Similarly, venture capital backed companies outperformed total U.S. sales growth
at a compound annual rate of 11.3 percent for venture capital backed companies,
compared to 8.5 percent for total U.S. sales between 2003 and 2005.

Revenue by
Venture Capital Backed Sales Growth vs. Total Sales Growth Venture Capital Backed Companies
CAGR* 2003-2005 2000-2005

11.3% + $584 Billion in Sales


12% + 6.8% Compound
Annual Growth
10%
8.5% $2.1
8% trillion
$2 $1.7
6% $1.5 trillion
trillion
4%

2%
$1

0%

Venture Capital Sales Growth


Total Sales Growth
$0
*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate 2000 2003 2005

14 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Venture Capital Backed Companies
Create Jobs

T
he most recent statistics from Global Insight reveal that the venture capi-
tal job creating engine is not limited to one segment of the economy. It
permeates the entire American economy from computers, software, and
telecommunications to biotechnology, financial services, and medical devices.

Venture capital financed companies Venture capital financed companies in the media/entertainment/retail sector
produced the largest number of jobs, employing more than 2.0 million workers
in the media/entertainment/retail in 2005, and comprising over half of the industry’s nearly 4.0 million jobs. Other
large industries in employment by venture capital backed companies were the
sector produced the largest number nearly 1.9 million jobs in computers and peripherals, accounting for 9 of every 10
jobs, and the 1.2 million jobs in the industrial and energy sector.
of jobs, employing more than
The employment statistics also show a heavy concentration of venture capital
2.0 million workers in 2005, and supported employment in the software industry, with nearly 860,000 jobs,
representing almost 90 percent of the 960,000 total jobs in software, in 2005. The
comprising over half of the
revolutionary products generated by the nation’s venture capital backed
industry’s nearly 4.0 million jobs. biotechnology and medical devices and equipment sectors supported nearly
425,000 high-skilled, high-wage jobs in 2005.

Top Five Industry Sectors by Venture Capital Backed


Employment and Share of Total Employment
2005

Employment at Venture Capital


Total
Venture Capital Backed Companies’
Industry Sector
Backed Share of Total
Employment
Companies Employment

Media/Entertainment/Retail 2,005,700 3,991,300 50.3%

Computers and Peripherals 1,866,400 2,099,000 88.9%

Industrial/Energy 1,180,100 22,484,400 5.2%

Financial Services 896,900 10,464,900 8.6%

Software 857,700 959,600 89.4%

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 15
Global Insight also found that venture capital backed companies’ employment
growth outpaced total industry employment growth across all sectors between
2003 and 2005. The financial services sector recorded double digit compound
annual gains of 10.7 percent, compared with an industry average of only 1.2
percent between 2003 and 2005. The biotechnology sector closely followed, with
9.4 percent annual growth in employment from 2003 to 2005. By contrast, the
annual employment gain for the total biotechnology industry was only 3.2
percent during this same period. Venture capital backed companies in the elec-
tronics, healthcare, and computers and peripherals industries all expanded their
employment at a significantly higher annual rate than the industry average.

Leading Industry Sectors by Employment Growth at


Venture Capital Backed Companies vs. Total Employment Growth
CAGR* 2003-2005
12% 10.7%

10% 9.4% 9.0%

8%

6%

4% 3.2%

2% 1.2% 1.5%

0%
Financial Services Biotechnology Electronics/
Instrumentation
Employment at Venture Capital Backed Companies
Total Employment

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Semiconductors, networking and equipment, and information technology


services were the only three venture capital backed sectors that experienced net
job losses between 2003 and 2005. However, declines in the overall industry were Global Insight also found that
more severe than the aggregate downturn in venture capital supported companies.
venture capital backed companies’

employment growth outpaced

total industry employment growth

across all sectors between 2003

and 2005.

16 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Venture Capital Backed Companies
Drive Sales

T
he almost 23,500 venture capital backed companies generated $2.1
trillion in sales for the American economy in 2005. Like employment,
sales by venture capital financed companies are not limited to one seg-
ment of the economy. Computers and peripherals, media/entertainment/retail,
industrial and energy, software, and telecommunications were the five leading
industries by revenue. Computers and peripherals industry sales were $466.0
billion in 2005, followed by the nearly $300.0 billion in sales posted by the
media/entertainment/retail sector. Sales by venture capital backed companies
in the industrial and energy industry totaled nearly $270.0 billion, software
services sales exceeded $210.0 billion, and telecommunications sales were
$161.0 billion in 2005.

Venture Capital Backed Revenue


by Industry Sector and Share of Total Revenue
2005

Revenue at Venture Capital


Total
Venture Capital Backed
Industry Sector
Backed Companies’ Share
Revenue
Companies of Total Revenue

Computers and Peripherals $466.0 billion $670.0 billion 69.5%

Media/Entertainment/Retail $299.0 billion $822.0 billion 36.4%

Industrial/Energy $268.0 billion $6.0 trillion 4.5%

Software $211.0 billion $584.0 billion 36.1%

Telecommunications $161.0 billion $426.0 billion 37.7%

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 17
Sales by venture capital backed companies outpaced their non-ventured counter-
parts. The most recent statistics show that the 11.3 percent annual growth rate in Venture Capital Revenue Growth vs.
sales among venture capital backed businesses exceeded the 8.5 percent annual Total Revenue Growth
growth rate in total sales between 2003 and 2005.
CAGR* 2003-2005

11.3%
Venture Capital Backed Companies Outperform Their National 12%
Counterparts by Revenue 10%
8.5%
As with employment, venture capital backed companies outperformed their
8%
national counterparts in every industry sector when measured by revenue. The
industry posting the greatest differential in revenue growth was biotechnology. 6%
Revenue at venture capital backed biotechnology companies totaled nearly $67.0
billion in 2005, posting a compound annual growth rate of 16.4 percent, com- 4%
pared to a 9.7 percent growth rate for the entire biotechnology industry between
2003 and 2005. 2%

0%
The electronics and instrumentation industry recorded the second largest annual
growth rate at 15.9 percent between 2003 and 2005, reaching $70.0 billion in Venture Capital Revenue Growth
revenue. Software services revenue jumped by 14.7 percent on an annual basis Total Revenue Growth
between 2003 and 2005, compared to 13.1 percent for the total software industry
*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate
for the same time period.

Revenue Growth at Venture Capital Backed Companies vs.


Total Revenue Growth by Leading Industry Sector
CAGR* 2003-2005
20%
16.4% 15.9%
14.6% 14.7%
15%
13.1% The industry posting the greatest
9.7% differential in revenue growth was
10%
biotechnology. Revenue at venture

5% capital backed biotechnology


companies totaled nearly $67.0
0%
Biotechnology Electronics/ Software billion in 2005, posting a compound
Instrumentation
Venture Capital Revenue Growth Total Revenue Growth annual growth rate of 16.4 percent,
*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate
compared to a 9.7 percent growth

rate for the entire biotechnology

industry between 2003 and 2005.

18 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Venture Capital Supports
Employment Across the Country

V
enture capital backed companies create jobs in every state. California,
Texas, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Georgia led the nation by ven-
ture capital backed employment in 2005. Even small states by popula-
tion like Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming benefit from jobs generated by
venture capital investments in local companies headquartered in these states.

Employment at Companies Headquartered in the State


2003-2005
Employment Employment at Growth Rate of
at Venture Venture Capital Venture Capital Backed
Rank State Capital Backed Backed Companies’
Companies Companies Employment
2003 2005 CAGR* 2003 - 2005
1 California 2,173,800 2,285,200 2.5%
2 Texas 949,700 1,089,100 7.1%
3 Pennsylvania 530,600 697,600 14.7%
4 Massachusetts 616,800 639,900 1.9%
5 Georgia 525,200 604,300 7.3%
6 Tennessee 523,400 540,800 1.7%
7 Washington 377,700 444,500 8.5%
8 New York 398,200 415,700 2.2%
9 Virginia 345,200 348,900 0.5%
10 Minnesota 268,700 302,000 6.0%
11 Florida 292,700 301,900 1.6%
12 New Jersey 263,200 279,900 3.1%
13 Illinois 200,200 211,600 2.8%
14 Ohio 173,200 184,100 3.1%
15 Connecticut 168,900 173,400 1.3%

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 19
Venture backed companies headquartered in California provided the greatest
number of jobs, totaling nearly 2.3 million in 2005. Texas was the second larg-
est state by venture capital backed companies headquartered in the state, with
almost 1.1 million jobs nationwide in 2005, and nearly 700,000 jobs were sup-
ported by venture capital backed companies headquartered in Pennsylvania.
Massachusetts and Georgia completed the top five states for national job creation
by venture capital backed companies headquartered there.

Although Pennsylvania ranked third in the nation by total venture capital backed
employment, it posted an annual employment growth rate of 14.7 percent, the
strongest in the nation. As a result, venture capital backed companies with head-
quarters in Pennsylvania generated more than 167,000 jobs between 2003 and
2005. During the same period, venture capital backed companies headquartered
in Texas added nearly 140,000 jobs. While California was the nation’s leading
state by employment at venture backed companies, it ranked third nationwide
in jobs added between 2003 and 2005 at 111,400 and posted a 2.5 percent annual
growth rate in employment. Georgia and Washington also posted substantial job
gains between 2003 and 2005, adding 79,000 jobs and 66,800 jobs, respectively,
as a result of investments made by venture capital backed companies headquar-
tered there.

Employment at Venture Capital Backed Companies


Headquartered in the State
Net Change 2003-2005

200,000
167,000

150,000 139,400

111,400

100,000
79,000
66,800

50,000

0
Pennsylvania Texas California Georgia Washington

Data are rounded.

20 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Venture Capital Supports Sales
Across the Country

V
enture capital backed companies generate sales nationwide. California,
Texas, Washington, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts topped the list
of states by revenue generated by venture capital backed companies
headquartered in the state.

Revenue by Venture Capital Backed Companies Headquartered in the State


2003-2005

Growth Rate of
Revenue at Revenue at
Venture Capital
Venture Capital Venture Capital
Rank State Backed Companies’
Backed Companies Backed Companies
Revenue
2003 2005
CAGR* 2003-2005
1 California $397.3 billion $506.8 billion 12.9%
2 Texas $219.6 billion $274.0 billion 11.7%
3 Washington $100.4 billion $127.4 billion 12.6%
4 Pennsylvania $92.3 billion $112.8 billion 10.6%
5 Massachusetts $91.4 billion $111.7 billion 10.6%
6 Georgia $87.7 billion $109.2 billion 11.6%
7 New York $72.5 billion $87.4 billion 9.8%
8 Virginia $69.5 billion $82.9 billion 9.2%
9 Tennessee $59.4 billion $71.6 billion 9.8%
10 Florida $57.9 billion $68.9 billion 9.1%
11 Minnesota $52.6 billion $65.0 billion 11.2%
12 Connecticut $41.1 billion $53.9 billion 14.5%
13 New Jersey $39.2 billion $48.1 billion 10.7%
14 Illinois $29.2 billion $36.8 billion 12.3%
15 Maryland $28.0 billion $30.6 billion 4.6%

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 21
Venture capital backed companies headquartered in California led the nation by
sales from venture capital supported companies at $506.8 billion in 2005. Second
ranked Texas posted venture backed sales of $274.0 billion, while Washington
ranked third with $127.4 billion in sales in 2005. Pennsylvania and Massachusetts
rounded out the list of the top five states by revenue at venture capital backed
companies with totals of $112.8 billion and $111.7 billion, respectively, in 2005.

While every state benefited from expanding revenue, growth was not equal
across all states. Although the District of Columbia posted venture capital backed
revenue of only $2.2 billion in 2005, it posted the fastest growth rate in the nation,
with a compound annual growth rate of 24.7 percent between 2003 and 2005.
Based on the compound annual growth rate between 2003 and 2005, Montana
was the second fastest growing state in the country at 20.2 percent, followed by
Connecticut at 14.5 percent. New Hampshire and Idaho completed the list of the
top five states by venture capital backed company revenue growth.

Revenue Growth at Venture Capital Backed Companies


Headquartered in the State
CAGR* 2003-2005

24.7%
25%
20.2%
20%

14.5% 14.2%
15% 13.3%

10%

5%

0% District Montana Connecticut New Idaho


of Columbia Hampshire

*CAGR = Compound Annual Grow Rate

22 Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy
Methodology for the
Global Insight Study

Global Insight constructed a database of 23,476 venture capital backed compa-


nies. This database measures venture backed employment and sales revenue
across states and industries for the 2003 and 2005 periods. The Global Insight
database is created from four unique databases.

The first database was the 2003 Venture Capital Database. Using this database,
the top 200 companies in terms of 2003 revenue were identified. Current 2005
employment and revenue estimates were entered into the database as available
for the top 200 companies. For the remainder of the companies in the database,
2005 employment and revenue figures were projected using industry growth
rates. The industry data are based on the Venture Economics Industry Code
(VEIC), which Global Insight maps to a specific North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS) code. Note that the venture capital share of the
media/entertainment/retail sector is only a rough approximation because some
retail industry employment is included in the distribution industry. 

The Global Insight Business Demographics Navigator was used to estimate sales
and employment growth figures for the 2003 and 2005 periods. These growth
rates were applied to the 2003 revenue and employment observations to obtain
estimated 2005 employment and revenue.

The second database consisted of 181 venture capital backed companies that
offered IPOs during the January 1, 2003 to June 20, 2006 period. Sales and
employment figures for all 181 companies were obtained and added to the
database.

The third database was comprised of 306 companies that received venture capital
backed investment funds over the March 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003 period. Employ-
ment and sales data for 2005 were obtained for 143 of the 306 firms.

The final database consists of mergers and acquisitions occurring over the January
1, 2003 to June 30, 2006 timeframe. This database was cross-checked with the
other three databases. The database is adjusted when one venture capital backed
company acquires another.

The list of venture backed companies used to establish, and subsequently


update, the database used for this study comes from the MoneyTree™ Report by
PricewaterhouseCoopers and the National Venture Capital Association based on
data from Thomson Financial. Thomson Financial is the leading commercial pro-
vider of data on the venture capital industry. Thomson's VentureXpert database
is the official database of the NVCA.

 Global Insight’s Business Demographics Navigator provides historical and forecast


data projections for nominal sales, real sales, employment, and establishments at the
national, state, and metro geographies for 6-digit NAICS codes.

Venture Impact—The Economic Importance of Venture Capital Backed Companies to the U.S. Economy 23
Content First, LLC

This publication was prepared from the Global Insight study by Content First, LLC, a
full-service public policy research services firm in Washington, DC that utilizes a unique
process of melding solid research and analysis with presentation and communication.
Content First brings advocacy data, industry statistics, and policy research to life for trade
associations, businesses, law firms, consulting firms, and the public affairs community.

Content First produces economic and policy reports for prominent trade associations,
including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Organization for International Investment,
the Representative of German Industry and Trade, and the Transatlantic Business Dialogue.
In addition, Content First co-authored the NVCA report American Made: The Impact of Im-
migrant Entrepreneurs and Professionals on U.S. Competitiveness. For more information about
Content First, visit www.contentfirst.com.

National Venture Capital Association

The National Venture Capital Association represents approximately 480 venture capital and
private equity firms. NVCA’s mission is to foster greater understanding of the importance
of venture capital to the U.S. economy and support entrepreneurial activity and innovation.
NVCA represents the public policy interests of the venture capital community, strives to
maintain high professional standards, provides reliable industry data, sponsors profes-
sional development, and facilitates interaction among its members.

National Venture Capital Association


1655 Fort Myer Drive, Suite 850
Arlington, Virginia 22209-3114

Phone: 703-524-2549
Fax: 703-524-3940

www.nvca.org
research@nvca.org