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Berichte aus dem

Institut fur Umformtechnik


der Universitiit Stuttgart
Herausgeber: Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Lange
85
Simulation
of Metal Forming Processes
by the Finite Element Method
(SIMOP-I)
Proceedings of the I. International Workshop
Stuttgart, June 3, 1985
Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo 1986
Dr.-Ing. Kurt Lange
o. Professor an der Universitiit Stuttgart
Institut fOr Umformtech nik
ISBN-13:978-3-540-16592-7
001: 10.1007/978-3-642-82810-2
e-ISBN-13:978-3-642-8281 0-2
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PREFACE
The production-costs of formed workpieces are in an increasing extent fixed
through the costs for designing and manufacturing the tools. Nowadays, it is
possi b 1 e to reduce these redundant tool-costs by app lyi ng modern numeri ca 1
simulation techniques such as the finite element type procedures.
In thi s context, the basic ojecti ve of the workshop SUtoP ation of
!:!etal by the Finite Element Method) was to determine
and - especially - to discuss the level of finite-element-simulations of
metal-forming processes with regard to technological utilization.
On this purpose, eight presentations have been selected to focus the
discussions onto the prime aspects such as:
- technological aspects (bulk metal forming versus sheet metal forming),
- constitutive laws (rigid-plastic versus elastic-plastic versus visko-plas-
tic material laws),
- coupled analysis (thermo-mechanical coupling),
- kinematical description (Eulerian versus Lagrangian formulations, co-rota-
tional formulations etc.),
- numerical problems (incompressibility, integration of constitutive equa-
tions, iterative and incremental schemas, etc.),
as well as
- contact problems (friction, heat-transfer, etc.).
In order to promote discussions, the audience of the workshop was limited to
50 participants. Due to this fact, we had to refuse unfortunately many
app 1 i cat ions. However, we hope that these proceedi ngs - whi ch also inc 1 ude
the discussions in an almost complete extent - will be a compensation for
those who could not attend the workshop SIMOP-I.
The proceedings contain the eight written manuscripts, the discussions after
each sub-session as well as the closing discussions, the "FORUM", at the end
of the workshop.
Finally, as the organizers we wish to thank very deeply the Stiftung
Volkswagenwerk, Hannover, for the financial support of this workshop.
August 1985 Kurt Lange, A.Erman Tekkaya
THE SIMOP-PARTICIPANTS
(Numbers in the figure correspond to the names in the list of participants)
- 7 -
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
(Names of the authors who presented the papers are underlined)
1. Altan, T., Dr.
2. Argyris, J.H., em.Prof .Dr.Dr.h.c.mult.
3. Braun-Angott, P., Dr.-lng.
4. Dannenmann, E., Dipl.-lng.
5. Doege, E., Prof. Dr.-lng.
6. Dohmann, F., Prof. Dr.-lng.
7. Doltsinis, J.St., Dr.-lng.
S. Du, G., SSe. (Eng.)
9. Dung, N.L., Dr.-lng.
Battelle Columbus Laboratories
Engineering and Manufact. Techn.
Department
505 King Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43201 / USA
lnstitut f. Computer-Anwendungen
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 27
7000 Stuttgart 80
Betriebsforschungsinstitut des VDEh
Sohnstr. 65
4000 DUsseldorf
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik und
Umformmaschinen (lfUM)
Universitat Hannover
Welfengarten lA
3000 Hannover 1
Univ.-Gesamthochschule-Paderborn
Fachbereich 10 -Maschinentechnik l-
Umformende Fertigungsverfahren
Pohlweg 47-49, Postfach 1621
4790 Paderborn
Institut fUr Computer-Anwendungen
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 27
7000 Stuttgart SO
Shanghai Tiao Tang University
Shanghai / PR China
Presently at:
lnstitut fUr Umformteehnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Arbeitsbereich Meeresteehnik
- Strukturmeehanik -
Teehn.Univ. Hamburg-Harburg
EiBendorfer Str. 38, Postfaeh 901403
2100 Hamburg 90
- 8 -
10.EL-Magd, E., Prof. Dr.-Ing.
11.Forschner, A., Dr.
12. Fugger, B., Dr. - Ing.
13.Gerhardt, J., Dipl.-Ing.
14.Grieger, I., Dr.-Ing.
15. Hansen, R., Dipl.-Ing.
16. Hart 1 ey, P., Dr.
17. Herrmann, M., Dipl.-Ing.
18. Hirt, G., Dipl.-Ing.
19.Hopf, S., Dipl.-Ing.
20.Horlacher, U., Dipl.-Ing.
Lehrgebiet fUr Werkstoffkunde
RWTH Aachen
Augustinerbach 4
5100 Aachen
Stiftung Volkswagenwerk
Postfach 81 05 09
3000 Hannover 81
Daimler-Benz AG
Werk Sindelfingen, Abt. WZE
Postfach 226
7032 Sindelfingen
Institut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Institut f. Statik und Dynamik (ISD)
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 27
7000 Stuttgart 80
AUDI AG, PKP
Postfach 220
8070 Ingolstadt
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Birmingham
South West Campus, P.O. Box 363
Birmingham B15 2TT / GREAT BRITAIN
Institut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Institut f. Bildsame Formgebung
RWTH Aachen
Intzestr. 10
5100 Aachen
Daimler-Benz AG
Werk Sindelfingen,CAD/CAM-Entwicklung
Postfach 226
7032 Sindelfingen
Institut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
- 9 -
21.Jucker, J., Dr.-lng.
22.Jung, G., Dipl.-lng.
23.Kanetake, N., Dr.
24.Keck, P. (Student)
25.Konig, W., Dipl.-lng.
26.Lange, K., Prof. Dr.-lng.
27.L ipowsky, H.-J., Dipl.-lng.
28.Luginsland, J., Dipl.-lng.
29.Mahrenholtz, 0., Prof.Dr.-Ing.
30.Mareczek, G., Dr.-lng.
31.Marten, J., Dipl.-lng.
Daimler-Benz AG
Werk Sindelfingen
Postfach 226
7032 Sindelfingen
Daimler-Benz AG
Abt. Verfahrensentwicklung
Mercedesstr. 136
7000 Stgt. 60 - UntertUrkheim
Nagoya University
Nagoya / JAPAN
Presently at:
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Universitat Stuttgart
Lehrstuhl f. Fertigungstechnologie
Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat
Erlangen-NUrnberg
Egerlandstr. 11, Postfach 3429
8520 Erlangen
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
AUDl AG, EGA
Postfach 220
8070 lngolstadt
lnstitut fUr Computer-Anwendungen
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 27
7000 Stuttgart 80
Arbeitsbereich Meerestechnik
- Strukturmechanik -
TU Hamburg-Harburg
EiBendorfer Str. 38, Postfach 901403
2100 Hamburg gO
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik und
Umformverfahren (lfUM)
Universitat Hannover
Welfengarten lA
3000 Hannover 1
Institut fUr Mechanik
Universitat Hannover
Appe 1 str. 11
3000 Hannover 1
32.Mattiasson, K., Dr.
33.Matzenmiller, A., MSc.(Eng.)
34 .Mayer, P., Di P 1. - I ng .
35.Meier, M., Dipl.-lng.
36.Dberlander, Th., Dipl.-lng.
37 .Dnate, E., Prof. Dr.
38.Pillinger, I., Dr.
39.pohlandt, K., Dr.-lng. habil.
40.Ramm, E., Prof. Dr.-Ing.
41 . Ro 11, K., Dr. - I ng.
42.Rowe, G.W., Prof. Dr.
- 10 -
Dept. of Structural Mechanics
Chalmers University of Technology
Sven Hultins Gata 8
S-41296 Goteborg / SCHWEDEN
Institut fUr Baustatik
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
7000 Stuttgart 80
Inst.f.Kernenergetik u.Energiesysteme
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 31
7000 Stuttgart 80
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik
ETH ZUrich
Sonneggstr. 3
CH-8092 ZUrich / SCHWEIZ
lnstitut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Escola Tecnica Superior D'enginyers
de Camins, Canals I Ports
Universitat Politecnica De Barcelona
Jordi Girona Salgado, 31
Barcelona - 34 / SPANlEN
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Birmingham
South West Campus, P.O. Box 363
Birmingham B15 2TT / GREAT BRITAIN
Institut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Institut fUr Baustatik
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
7000 Stuttgart 80
Control Data GmbH.
Marienstr. 11-13
7000 Stuttgart 1
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Birmingham
South West Campus
P.O. Box 363
Birmingham B15 2TT / GREAT BRITAIN
- 1 1 -
43.Sailer, C., Dipl.-Ing.
44.Schoch, F.-W., Dr.-Ing.
45.Schweizerhof, K., Dr.-Ing.
46.Stalmann, A.P., Dr.-Ing.
47.Steck, E., Prof. Dr.-Ing.
48.Sturgess, C.E.N., Dr.
49.Tang, S.C., Dr.
50.Tekkaya, A.E., MSc. (Eng.)
51.Traudt, Dr.-Ing.
52.Vu, T.C., Dipl.-Ing.
Lehrstuhl A fUr Mechanik
TU MUnchen
Arcisstr. 21, Postfach 202420
8000 MUnchen 2
Staatliche MaterialprUfungsanstalt
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 32
7000 Stuttgart 80
Institut fUr Baustatik
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
7000 Stuttgart 80
Institut fUr Umformtechnik und
Umformmaschinen (IfUM)
Universitat Hannover
We lfengarten 1 A
3000 Hannover 1
Institut f. Allgemeine Mechanik
und Festigkeitslehre (Mechanik B)
TU Braunschweig
GauBstr. 14
3300 Braunschweig
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Birmingham
South West Campus
P.O. Box 363
Birmingham B15 2TT / GREAT BRITAIN
Ford Motor Company
Metallurgy Dept., S-2065
Scientific Research Labs.
2000 Rotunda Drive
Dearborn, Mich. 48121-2053/USA
Institut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
Univ.-Gesamthochschule-Paderborn
Fachbereich 10 -Maschinentechnik I-
Umformende Fertigungsverfahren
Pohlweg 47-49, Postfach 1621
4790 Paderborn
Institut fUr Umformtechnik
Universitat Stuttgart
Holzgartenstr. 17
7000 Stuttgart 1
- l2 -
53.Wang, N.-M., Dr.
54.Weimar, K., Dipl.-Ing.
55.Wilhelm, M. (Student)
56.WUstenberg, H., Dipl.-Ing.
Ford Motor Company
Metallurgy Dept., S-2047
Scientific Research Labs.
2000 Rotunda Drive
Dearborn, Mich. 48121-2053 I USA
Institut fUr Baustatik
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 7
7000 Stuttgart 80
Universitat Stuttgart
Institut fUr Computer-Anwendungen
Universitat Stuttgart
Pfaffenwaldring 27
7000 Stuttgart 80
CON TEN T S
Opening Address
K. Lange
SESSION 1: BULK METAL FORMING
Session lao Chairman: E. Steck
Thermomechanical Analysis of Metal Forming Processes
Through the Combined Approach FEM/FDM
O. Mahrenholtz, C. Westerling, N.L. Dung
Finite-Element-Simulation of Metal Forming Processes
Using Two Different Material-Laws
A.E. Tekkaya, K. Roll, J. Gerhardt, M. Herrmann, G. Du
Discussions (Session la)
Session lb. Chairman: O. Mahrenholtz
Elastic-Plastic Three-Dimensional Finite-Element
Analysis of Bulk Metal Forming Processes
I. Pillinger, P. Hartley, C.E.N. Sturgess, G.W. Rowe
Three-Dimensional Thermomechanical Analysis
of Metal Forming Processes
J.H. Argyris, J.St. Doltsinis, J. Luginsland
Discussions (Session lb)
SESSION 2: SHEET METAL FORMING
Session 2a. Chairman: E. Ramm
Numerical Simulation of Stretch Forming Processes
K. Mattiasson, A. Melander
Page
15
19
50
86
91
125
161
170
- 14 -
Possibilities of the Finite Element Viscous Shell
Approach for Analysis of Thin Sheet Metal Forming
Problems
E. Onate, R. Perez Lama
Discussions (Session 2a)
Session 2b. Chairman: J.H. Argyris
Numerical Simulation of the Axisymmetric
Deep-Drawing Process by the FEM
A.P. Stalmann
Applications of the Finite-Element-Method to
Sheet Metal Flanging Operations
N.-M. Wang, S.C. Tang
Discussions (Session 2b)
FOR U M
Page
214
254
261
279
307
309
- 15 -
OPENING ADDRESS
K. Lange
It is my very pleasure to welcome you in Stuttgart and to open this workshop
on "Simulation of Metal Forming Processes by the Finite-E1ement-Method", or
briefly, "SIMOP" - SIMOP-I, hoping that others may follow.
Let me at first try to explain the basic motivation for this workshop:
When I started to deal with meta1forming - this was about 35 years ago - my
colleagues and I were really proud to predict the forming load for a simple
axi symmetri c extrusion process withi n 20% 10% accuracy just in order to
select the correct press. Although the fundamentals of the theory of
plasticity were given through in the meantime well-known - at that time
newly pub 1 i shed - book by Rodney Hi 11, the uti 1 i zati on of thi s theory was
diminishing1y small, because by applying this theory, we ended up with
impressive hyperbolic differential equations which we could not solve,
however, except for very crude assumptions. Therefore, the theoretical
analysis of metal forming - even in the simplified version - was a job for
highly skilled bright mathematicians but not for the engineer in any
production division of the industry, or even of a university. Hence, during
these years nobody could imagine that it could be possible to compute
strains and stresses, or even flow patterns in a workpiece during the course
of deformat ion, although e1 ementary theori es such as the slab method had
already lifted metal forming technology from the blacksmith shop to the
drawing office level and hence contributed remarkably to its development.
Yet, this situation started to change in the mid-1960's with the industrial
ut il i zati on of e 1 ectri ca 1 comput i n9 machi nes, the soca 11 ed computers. Now,
the equi pment was gi ven to solve the di fferenti a 1 equati ons without bei ng
necessarily mathematically skilled or bright. The keyword was "numerical
methods". With these numerical methods, which could be easily handled by the
computer, any differential equation could be solved regardless of its
toughness. From this moment on the developments became drastic, in fact, I
would like to call it a revolution. This revolution started with the first
attempts to computerize the slip-line-field solutions, went over to the
- 16 -
finite difference solutions and the weighted residual methods, and continued
with the fi ni te element methods. Pushed forward by a non-stoppi ng des ire,
many successfull fi nite-e 1 ement-codes have been developed in the past 15
years at universities and research centers which could serve as an analysis
tool for metal forming processes. Now, it is not exceptional anymore that
people using these codes speak of Almansi or Green-Lagrange strains, of
different sorts of Piola-Kirchhoff-stresses, of Jaumann rates etc. Even our
faithful true stress changed its name and became the "Cauchy" stress.
The euphoria slowed down, however. There are three reasons for this:
Fi rst 1 y, the basi c theory of p 1 ast i city of the 1950' s remai ned the same
although many numerical procedures were developed. Being able to implement
all details of this theory, people started to see the limitations and
shortcomi ngs of thi s theory. Besi des, the uncertai nti es in the boundary
conditions started to become the more delicate weakpoint of the analysis.
Secondly, there was no diffi cul ty to grasp that nature has so many degrees
of freedom, in fact too many for a conventional computer to handle
economically.
Thirdly, to use a ready-finite-element code in industry, specially trained
engineers were still required.
Hence, the application of finite-element-simulation in metalforming just
remained an academic exercise, and industrial engineers - still utilizing
empirical heuristic design procedures - were happy to know that there exist
some guys at the universities who can predict a priori stresses, strains and
flow patterns in forming processes.
In the past couple of years trends and feeling changed again, this time
stimulated through the introduction of the new computer generation. Having a
new archi tecture, such as for the array process i ng, and showi ng computa-
tional speeds around one giga-flops (instead of 10 to 100 mega-flops for the
conventi ona 1 computers), the handi cap of not bei ng economi c seems starting
to disappear. The speculations about intelligent computers which are claimed
to be in development in Japan and the States with 10 giga-flops or even
more, as well as the attempts to develop hardware ori ented numeri cal
- 17 -
procedures - as for instance, the element by element procedures - are just
strengthening these beliefs to be at the end economic. However, there will
be another aspect coming up, once the accuracy of computing strains,
stresses, forces will be improved to errors of 5% or even less: the lack of
reliable, broadscale material data. As long as we will not know flow stress
as prec i se as we can compute, our results wi 11 mai ntai n a 1 arger scatter.
What we need in my opi ni on is another round of determi nati on of p 1 ast i c
properties of materials - metals - taking into account influences of
microstructure and microstructural phase transformations as well as of
process parameters such as strai ns, strai n rates, time, temperature. The
goal wi 11 be materi al data banks wi th comprehensi ve "constituti ve equations"
for a large variety of metals. This will, however, become a time and money
consuming business but it must be done.
Finally, this new situation has been the basic motivation for us to organize
thi s workshop. The aims herefore are to di scuss, to determi ne and, even
maybe, to evaluate the present level and the trends of finite-element-simu-
lations of metal forming processes with a special emphasis onto the
technological utilization. This emphasis onto the technology is also the
reason for holding this meeting in a technological oriented research center
for metal forming as this is the case for our institute.
Now, for thi s purpose, we wi 11 have ei ght presentations today whi ch wi 11
focus the discussions onto the relevant aspects of the matter. I'm
especially very glad that all of the scientists we invited as chairmen and
presenters have accepted our request - although some of them are under heavy
time pressure - so that I want to thank them here again very deeply. Also, I
want to thank all the participants, from whom I expect that they will give
valuable contributions through the discussions.
In this context I want to inform you that we will record all the discussions
in order to pub 1 i sh them together with the written manuscri pts of the
presentations. The proceedings will be available within 3 to 4 months and
every participant will receive a copy. I hope that recording the questions
and answers wi 11 not prevent you or damp your enthusi asm to participate in
the discussions. I believe that the discussions - especially for our
workshop today are at 1 east as important and
presentations which have to serve in fact - as
interesting as the
said before - for
stimulating the discussions. Furthermore, it is one of our goals to bring
the contents of the discussions to those who are not oresent here.
- 18 -
The multidisciplinar character of the simulation of metal forming processes
is also exhibited in the fields of interest of the participants. For
examp 1 e, there are bes ides academi c and i ndustri a 1 metal formi ng techno 10-
gists, representatives of computer-manufacturers, of pure and applied
mechanics, of material science and of civil engineering present. I expect
that this heterogeneous group will be able to discuss the rather complex
matter in nearly every aspect. Futhermore, I hope that the metal formi ng
practicers will give the pure theoreticians some inspirations but also that
the theoreti ci ans and the academi c staff can show the practi cers the merits
of the numerical analysis.
also want to express my special gratitude to Frau Dr. Forschner
representing the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk, Hannover, who, with their generous
financial support made this workshop possible.
That is all that I have to say. I wish for all of us a successful meeting.
Thank you very much.
- 19 -
Thermomechanical Analysis of Metal Forming Processes Through
the Combined Approach FEM/FDM
Oskar Mahrenholtz*, Claus Westerling+ and Nguyen L. Dung*
* structural Mechanics Division, Technical University of Hamburg-
Harburg, Hamburg-Harburg, FR Germany
+ Institute of Mechanics, University of Hanover, Hanover,
FR Germany
Summary
During a forming process, the temperature of the formed part
increases due to the conversion of the forming energy and the
friction losses into heat. This causes the thermomechanical
behaviour of the material, if the material is temperature-
sensitive. The plastic deformation and the temperature change
are coupled with each other, hence it is necessary to develop
an effective and economic method to achieve the coupled analysis.
In this paper, the method, based on the finite element method
(FEM) for the plastic deformation and the finite difference
method (FDM) for the heat transfer, is found to be satisfactory
for the coupled analysis. This method includes many simplified
numerical procedures of the FEM and the FDM to save computa-
tional time. Both cold and hot forming processes could be cal-
culated step by step in this way to obtain the relevant data
for the design of dies and manufacturing techniques.
I Introduction
Most of the forming process solutions are developed, for numeri-
cal simplicity, with an assumption of quasi-static and iso-
thermal conditions. Such a method is generally satisfactory
for the analysis of situations in which the material is not
temperature-sensitive and the cold forming processes are per-
formed slowly. But, in many cases, the conversion of forming
energy into heat causes a high temperature gradient during the
process. Then, the temperature balancing in the workpiece and
the heat transfer to the surrounding, due to the temperature
- 20 -
gradient between the workpiece and the surrounding, occur un-
avoidably. The temperature change influences the plastic flow
of the material. The temperature effects must be taken into
account in form of the thermomechanical behaviour of the mate-
rial.
The approach to large plastic deformation at elevated tempera-
ture consists generally of solutions for plastic deformation
and for heat transfer in the coupled manner. There have been
many finite element methods which were employed for calculation
of the forming processes under consideration of the temperature
influence. Zienkiewicz et al /1/ have developed a coupled
analysis of thermomechanical problems in extrusion. Rebelo and
Kobayashi /4/ incorporated temperature and strain-rate effects
into a viscoplastic treatment of an axisymmetric problem, while
Pillinger et al /2/ made the first stage in the development of
a thermomechanical finite element analysis for three-dimensional
forming processes.
The previous works treated the large plastic deformation at
elevated temperature using the finite element technique ex-
clusively. But, if the plastic deformation and the heat transfer
are calculated separately using the finite difference method
for the heat transfer instead of FEM, the computational efforts
are less. Also, less computer core storage is necessary. Altan
and Kobayashi /3/ have modelled the heat transfer problem with
central difference method to predict the temperature distri-
bution in extrusion. A combined approach FEM + FDM has been
developed by the present authors /7,8/ to study temperature
effects in wire drawing and ring compression. In
the present work, this combined approach is extended to the
thermomechanical analysis of hot forming processes with heated
dies. Such a metal forming technique allows a lowering of the
production costs. Thus, the workpiece is not cooled during the
process, the flow behaviour of material and the complicated
gap filling are promoted. A preliminary comparison between the
coupled analysis only with the FEM and the coupled analysis
with the FEM + FDM is also attempted.
- 21 -
2 Finite Element Method for Plastic Deformation
The unsteady forming processes are calculated by means of the
finite element method using the rigid-plastic technique. The
FEM is based on the modified variational principle
1T =
D
J y dV + J .. dv+ J '"[ I vtl dS -
V V II SA
F
(1)
The incompressibility condition 0) is maintained by
II
means of the Lagrangian multiplier am which identifies the
mean stress. The friction stress '"[ acts antiparallel to the
tangential velocity v
t
on the interfacial area between the
die and the workpiece, while the surface traction po acts on
with velocity v
k
. The friction losses are
L=j TlvtldS
Sa
F
(2 )
The solutions of the variational problem (1) are the admissible
velocity field and the field of mean stress. The variational
problem is then transformed into the finite element equations:
(3 )
o
where R is the vector of the nodal friction forces; po the
vector of the nodal forces. The vector and Qm include the
nodal velocities and mean stresses. The matrix 0 has only zero
elements.
The FEM has two types of linear elements: triangular and quadri-
lateral. In the triangular element, linear function for velo-
cities is used; the mean stress, yield stress Y and strain rates
E are constant. The quadrilateral element is a combination of
two triangular elements, where the mean stress and strain rates
are also assumed to have the same value in each pair of triangu-
lar elements.
The hypermatrices and fa are obtained from the compatibility
and incompressibility conditions. Because the matrix K
O
is a
- 22 -
function of the velocity field, the nonlinear set of equations
(3) should be computed in an iterative way.
The unsteady forming processes are simulated by means of an
incremental solution. The method analyses the large plastic
deformation by dividing it into many quasi-stationary small
deformation steps. Therefore, the velocity and stress field
could be determined step by step. The material flow is displayed
by the velocity field and the displacement of the FE mesh which
is updated after each deformation step.
The technical details of the FEM are published in the previous
works /6,8/ and documented in the user's manual of the programme
FARM /5/.
3 Finite Difference Method for Heat Transfer
3.1 Coupled Analysis
In addition to the calculation of the plastic deformation, the
heat generation and heat transfer are analysed in each time
increment to obtain the temperature distribution. During the
forming processes, the temperature increases within the work-
piece due to the heat generation from the forming energy
E = Iv Y dV ( 4 )
In the inhomogeneous cases, the friction losses (2) cause a
temperature gradient on the interfacial area additionally. The
heat generation in the workpiece and the heat transfer in work-
piece and between the workpiece and surrounding occur simul-
taneously.
The temperature changes in each deformation step of the incre-
mental solution influence the mechanical behaviour of the
material. Then, the material behaviour is updated due to the
just predicted field of temperature. The heat calculation
method is based on the FDM which is modified so
that it is able to run comparatively in the programme FARM.
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- 24 -
Firstly, after a time step the mechanical quantities like
stresses, forces, displacements, etc. are predicted on the
fixed points (nodes, elements) by the FEM. Subsequently, the
resulting heat generation is computed from the dissipative
forming and frictional force for the concerning time step. The
results of this computation show an inhomogeneous temperature
field with a time dependent temperature compensation. The tem-
perature compensation is analysed for the same time step by
the FDM. With the help of the yield stress Y = Y (E, I, T), the
coupling on the mechanical behaviour is ensued. The procedures
of the calculation of plastic deformation and heat transfer
and the coupled analysis are shown in Fig. 1.
For the heat calculation,it is necessary to assign the element
temperatures to discrete reference points. These reference
points are the middle points of the finite elements. To calcu-
late the temperature at the boundary of the workpiece,
more additional temperature points are needed at the bound-
ary: All boundary elements have two and the corner elements
have three reference points.
The boundary reference points are placed on the center
of the boundary sides of the finite elements. For calculation
of heat generation and heat transfer, imaginary volumes are
assigned to the temperature points at the boundary. All other
temperature points lying in the center of the elements are
allotted to the real element volumes. Fig. 2 shows the meshes
of FEM and FDM in case of cylinder upsetting.
3.2 The Basic Equations of the Heat Calculation
The total temperature increase each element or reference
point is obtained from the heat balance:
-
G


with


+

and 6Q
6T
(5 )

z
i
L
T i
T
r
T
- 25 -

J}
=

I

Die
t---Workpiece
FE - mesh
FO- mesh to
calculate the
temperatu re fiel
r
Fig. 2: FE mesh and mesh of the FDM
on workpiece and die
llTu(81
IH
u
(12)
+ll TR(1
+ll T
R
(<1))

(j)
d
0
8 0
12
llTu(121
+llTR!1
llTu(81
II Tu (12)
Workpiece
0
7
0
11
llTum
I1Tu(111
Temperature increasE due to forming energy
fiT
R
: Temperature increase due to friction losses
Surrounding
Fig. 3: Heat generation in the workpiece
- 26 -
lIQ
R
and lIOu are heat flows due to the dissipated friction and
forming energy; lIOo the heat transfered over the element; c
the specific heat capacity; pthe density and V the volume of
the examined element.
The solution for heat conduction problems shown in the litera-
ture is, in contrast to the here represented method, formulated
for locally fixed finite difference mesh. The FD mesh of the
developed method is changed with the finite element mesh.
3.3 Calculation of Heat Generation
The friction losses and the forming energy are transformed into
heat. The temperature increase during a time increment is cal-
culated as following:
The temperature increase llTR due to friction between workpiece
and tool can be given with
and T
as
FR lis = T llA lit
lit
my/!3 lis/lit = v
2 m Y llA v lit
(6 )
for an area llA. V means the volume of the friction element
divided into two equal halves on the workpiece and the tool
side; c
w
' c
t
and Pw' P
t
are the specific heat capacities and
densities of the workpiece and tool material respectively. The
value v is the sliding velocity of the node at the interface.
The temperature increase llTU due to the dissipated forming
energy is calculated with
lIQ
U
= lIWU = n Y I lIV
liT = Y lit
U n C
w
P
w
as
(7 )
The factor n (0.85 :;; n :;;0.95) is the thermal efficiency; I is the
equivalent strain rate.
- 27 -
The determined temperature increase is assigned to the reference
point of the element, Fig. 3. At the interfacial area, it is
the sum of 6T
R
and
3.4 Equations of Heat Transfer
As it has been mentioned earlier, the developed equations of
heat transfer are based on the temporarily changing finite ele-
ments. The derivation of the equation of heat transfer was
done not as usual by compensating the corresponding differences
in the differential equation of the heat conduction, but by
establishing heat balances to the finite elements.
The heat balance is established for each element. At the addi-
tional reference points on the boundary, the heat balances
established consider the heat conduction and heat convection
as shown in Fig. 4.
The starting point of the following consideration is the heat
balance equation:
By the use of the forward differences = Tgt - TO ' the
explicit equation of heat balance yields from equation (8):
(8 )
(9 )
The temperature after the time increment 6t is calculated
o
due to the heat transfer to the neighbouring elements j. KOj
is the factor of heat transfer and is given as
AOJ
k
LOj
in case of heat conduction between inner elements;
(10 )
(11 )
in case of heat transfer at
flow QOj' it becomes
boundary. With a prescribed heat
- 28 -
interior element
boundary element
Die l

I-t-+----i! Air

Free Surface
corner element
-
heat conduction
heat convection
Fig. 4: Scheme of a coupled analysis through
combined approach FEM+FDM
Fluid/Air
Fig. 5: Contact surface with the temperature
path due to the heat transfer
- 29 -
(12)
Here, k is heat conductivity coefficient; a the average heat
transfer coefficient on the surface AOj ; AOj the average sur-
face perpendicular to the direction of heat flow; and LOj the
distance between two temperature levels at 0 and j.
The Eq. (9) can be written as

o
(13 )
Due to the stability and convergence condition, the time step
of the solution method has to fulfill the following equation
(14)
3.5 Boundary Conditions
The heat transfer due to the convection appears mainly on the
free boundaries of the workpiece and tool. The heat flow through
these boundary surfaces is given by
(15 )
The heat flow q depends on the difference between the surround-
ing temperature Ta and the temperature TR of the boundary sur-
face and on the average heat transfer coefficient na of the
surrounding medium (air).
Some problems are appearing on fixing the boundary condition
for the heat transfer into the die, Fig. 5. At the interfacial
area, the lubrication, the contact pressure and the oxidation
layer affect the heat transfer in addition to the influences
of temperature and the surface finish. The heat flow across the
area A at the interface between workpiece and die is
- 30 -
(16 )
whereby T
t
and Tw are the surface temperatures of the die and
workpiece; the contact conductance data /10/. The contact
conductance data is chosen under the assumption of an ideal
material contact.
The heat transfer at the contact surface is treated like the
heat convection at the free surface. Heat radiation is neglected
in the solution method. The contact conductance data a
K
is a
function of the contact pressure, temperature and surface
roughness, but, for simplification, the values a
K
and aa are
assumed to be constant in the calculation.
During an unsteady forming process, the change of the boundary
conditions due to the contact problem is also checked. Since
there are some nodes on the free surface of the workpiece touch
the die as this surface is bulging so much. This causes an
increase of the interface between die and workpiece. such a
contact problem (normal and frictional contact problem) is
considered in the solution methods for plastic deformation
and heat transfer. The increase of the interfacial area also
means the increase of the friction losses and of the heat
transfer between dice and workpiece.
3.6 Model of FDM for Heat Transfer (Supplement)
The element for heat calculation with the FDM is developed as
following:
For elements in the interior of the workpiece and the tool, the
equation (9) for heat conduction changes with
KOj
k
AOj
AOj SOj
"TSOj" Vo AO
11 TAO 11
LOj
to
TLlt
LIt
(
SOj
ITT ,11
(T
j
- TO +
TO
(17 ) = a
AO
LOj
0
J J
The value a is the thermal conductivity
(
k/cp ) .
- 31 -
The stability and convergence condition becomes
lit
:;;
1
AO
a
l: SOi
liT .11
i
LOi
J
(18)
In these equations, AO and Vo indicate the surface and volume
of the element; SOj is the side where the heat flow goes
through; LOj means the distance between two temperature levels
at 0 and j; "TSOj" and "TAO" are the "depths" of the center of
the edge side and of the surface of an element.
"T "
SOj
{
"1"
2nr SOj
____ _
axisymmetric
as:
itT ,II
J
"T "
SOj
"TAO"
The geometrical dimensions of the preceeding equations are
shown in Fig. 6.
(19 )
(20 )
( 21)
For boundary elements, one has in addition the heat convection:
with the temperature T of surrounding medium and the associated
depths, the equation (9 ) can be written as:
TLlt
lit
4
SRj
(k l:
"TRj"
(T
j
- T
R
)
R
PRCRA
IR
j=2
L
Rj
(22 )
for the temperature at boundary point no. 1.
- 32 -
FDM-
Point
YIzI =-ro
c-rsnO.j.-----1
x/r
FEM: Four-Node
Element
Fig. 6: Geometrical dimensions for the heat
conduction between two neighboring points
4
2
Air/Die
3
'''L
x/r
<r-----{J.," 'lR
Fig. 7: Geometrical dimensions for the calculation of
the heat transfer at a boundary point
1------
Fig. B: Geometrical dimensions of a corner element
with two sides belonging to the friction. surfaces
- 33 -
The associated criterion of convergence is given by
1
(k
4
E
j=2
"T "
Rj
In the above given equations, one has
"T "
Rj
{
- - - ---
axisymmetric
(23)
(24)
The geometrical dimensions used are illustrated in Fig. 7. The
developed element of the FDM is related to the quadrilateral
linear element of the FEM /6/. The imaginary surface AIR is
selected to be a half of the surface Ao of the observed bound-
ary element. The surrounding medium (c, p, a, T) is either air
(c
a
' P
a
' aa' Ta) or tool (c
t
' P
t
, at' T
t
) if the boundary
point 1 of the workpiece is concerned.
The corner element, with sides no. 1 and 2 belonging to the
friction interfacial area, is shown in Fig. 8. In this case,
the surface and volume of the element are given as:
(25 )
wl
"th { ___ ___ _
"TSR"= 2nr
SR
axisymmetric
to insert in Eq.(6).
3.7 Convergence Condition
The considerable influence of the convergence criteria, given
in Eqs. (9) & (14), could be explained in Fig. 9 for a test
calculation. In a simple configuration of a volume element,
the temperature of the central element is determined with
u
o
90
70
E
'" iJj
- 34 -
E
r-""*,.,ml----,--...}i

j:7900 kg/rJ
c :0.477 kJ/kg
\ k:36.0 W/moC

"U
"U

'0 30

:l

'" 10
a.
Convergence Criterion

\
\
\
\
\

f- 0,05 0.10 0.15 ,0.20
-10 t [s] \
Fig. 9: Convergence condition of a test calculation
using the developed FDM
1-----90---1
Thermoelement
-j :.,..,.: l
o

1--+----._------- -----1
1--------200--------1
Geometry:
Material:
60 x 60 x 200 rnm
C22 Steel
o
w
;J\
1---+--+-'-
60
Fig. 10: Geometry of the test piece and the positions
of the thermoelements at the cross-section
- 35 -
various time increment A worse result is obtained for a
larger time increment. And, there isan oscillatory temperature
path predicted, as the maximal allowable time increment is
exceeded.
The maximal allowable time increment is related with the
ness of the FO mesh and the FE mesh respectively. It is propor-
tional to the size of the element, i.e. a fine mesh renders
small time increment. The increasing distortion of the mesh
could lead to a convergence problem. With regard to the greatest
possible time increment, we prefer to use the equilateral tri-
angles and quadrangles. By calculating the temperature distri-
bution, the maximal allowable time increment 6t is estimated
by the Eq. (23) for the smallest interior element.
The time increment 6t of the heat calculation could be different
to the time step of the plastic deformation. To increase the
accuracy of the heat calculation, a smaller time step is chosen
for this calculation. That means the time step of plastic
deformation is normally divided into many time steps in order
to predict the temperature field.
4 Numerical Results
4.1 Test Calculation
As test example for the developed FD method, the process of
convective cooling of a quasi-infinitely long rod is analysed.
The initial temperature of the rod is at 102S
o
C. The experimen-
tal results of this test are obtained at the RWTH Aachen /11/.
The geometry of the cross-section and the positions of the
thermoelements are given in Fig. 10. For the purpose of com-
paring, the temperatures at the survey points 1 and 5 are
determined theoretically with both FEM and FOM. Therefore, the
top right quarter of the cross-sectional area is divided into
36 linear four-node elements (49 nodes) in the FEM. Accordingly,
the FO mesh is composed of 60 representative nodes (36 middle
nodes of the finite elements and 24 additional nodes at the
boundaries).
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J
)

- 37 -
The calculation of heat transfer with the FDM yields a stabil
and nonoscillatory temperature path if the time increment is
selected to be 0.5 sec. The FEM requires a time increment
tlt = 0.467 sec. The experimentally predicted and with FDM de-
termined temperature paths are plotted in Fig. 11 (at point
no. 1) and Fig. 12 (at point no. 5) for a short time behaviour.
They show an excellent agreement between the experiments and
the FD solutions. But, if the time period observed is longer,
there will be a considerable departure between both results,
Fig. 12. From 800
0
e, the theoretically predicted temperatures
could not be compared with the experimental data, since the
physical constants of the material are assumed to be the same
as those at 1025
0
e during the cooling process. Whereas the FD
solution is smooth and always less than the exact solution for
all nodes at all times.
In Fig. 13 it can be shown that the FEM yields the upper bound
for the temperature path. Although the eigenvalues of the FEM
obtained from the resulting difference equations are usually
somewhat closer to the true values than those of the FDM, the
FEM is prone to the problem of temperature overshoots for a
short time behaviour /14,15/. The error of the FEM is always
maximum at the nodal point nearest to the boundary, such as at
the survey point no. 5. But then, a good agreement between the
experimental results and the FEM/FDM solutions is ensured at
the survey points near the centre of the cross-section (points
I, 2,7) .
4.2 Forging an Engine Disk
The metal flow in forging a Titanium alloy engine disk, Fig. 14,
is simulated with the combined approach FEM + FDM. Such a pro-
cess has been analysed before by Oh et al /12/ using the rigid
viscoplastic finite element technique. In the observed unsteady
process, the preform at the initial temperature Tow = gOOOe is
forged between curved symmetric dies with a constant die velo-
city 1.27 mm/s.
- 38 -
Upper Die V!
I" 152.4
rLtLtCLLL1.CLLL1.""'"lrr.---r 12 .7 mm (0.5) fl.l..WUJ.=UI.J
1/
"'---132mm(5.2 in.) --=-=-----I
zt
Preform - "I r
f----158.8mm(6.25)----ol
Air 20C
Fig. 14: Schematic drawing of disk forging die
and preform /12/
------ Equation
-- Experimental
150
0
n..
::E
"'
100
"'
III
"-
if)
'" :::I
40
..
t-
20
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6
True Plastic Strain
Fig. 15: Flow stresses of Titanium alloy /13/
- 39 -
Two cases of forging processes are analysed: isothermal forging
and hot-die forging. In the isothermal analysis, the initial
temperature of the preform and of the dies are the same and,
during the process, the temperature dependence of the flow
stress is accounted for. The hot-die forging process is per-
formed with the initial temperature Tot = 371
0
C and the air
temperature at 20
o
C. The FE mesh consists 60 linear quadrila-
teral elements. The friction factor m = 0.3 is chosen, friction
stress T = my/l3. The values of the physical constants for heat
calculation are taken from the papers /7,12/. But the flow
stress data of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.lSi are given by Dadras and
Thomas /13/, Fig. 15.
In Fig. 16, the temperature distribution within the workpiece
during the isothermal forging process is shown vis-a-vis those
of the hot-die forging process. The reduction in height is 70%
at this intermediate stage. A severe temperature gradient can
be seen in the workpiece in the hot-die forging. The heat
transfer, due to the temperature gradient between the workpiece
and the dies, is also intensive and it cools the workpiece
partially. Logically, the forging load in the hot-die forging
should be higher than the forging load required in the isother-
mal forging process in which the temperature gradient within
the workpiece is obviously unimportant. Similar temperature
distributions can be found in the paper of Oh et al /12/. But
direct comparison is not attempted for lack of exact information
on material properties.
The material flows at some intermediate steps are plotted in
Fig. 17 for the hot-die forging process. The bulge of the outer
surface can be observed step by step. It indicates the contact
problem since the surface folding is limited to the top and
bottom dies. The particularly complicated die profile dictates
the large number of the deformation steps to be chosen. The
computer simulations will enable the process designer to modify
the die and manufacturing technique for the purpose of yielding
the desired material flow.
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- 41 -
4.3 Closed-Die Forging
In the last numerical example, the technical and economical as-
pects of the different manufacturing techniques are discussed
by means of the forging process in Fig. 21. The isothermal for-
gings of axis ymmetrica 1 disk are analysed for purpose of com-
paring with the oft-used cold forgings. The conditions of four
forging processes concerned are:
l. Cold forging process with T
ow
T
ot
20
0
C
and friction factor m = 1. 0,
2. Cold forging process with T T
ot
20
0
C
ow
and m = 0.3,
3. Isothermal forging process with T =T =900
o
C=const
ow ot .
and m = 1. 0,
4. Isothermal forging process with T
ow
Tot
900
0
C
and m = 1. 0,
S. Isothermal forging process with T T
ow ot
900
0
C
and m = 0.3.
In all processes the formed part (Tow) and the dies (Tot) have
the same temperature at the beginning. The temperature effects
are considered through the combined approach FEM + FDM, except
the case no. 3 (constant temperature assumed during the process).
The temperature-sensitive material of the formed part is CIS
steel with its flow stress curves shown in Fig. 18 for cold
forgings and in Fig. 19 for isothermal forgings /17/. The heat
transfer properties are illustrated in Fig. 20.
Fig. 22 shows the temperature distributions predicted at 40%
reduction in height in four forging processes. For the friction
factor m = 1.0 (Figs. 22a,d) the temperature gradient in the
formed part and dies are slightly higher than those with m = 0.3
(Figs. 22b,c) due to the intensive deformation of the material
in the formed part and the high dissipated friction energy. In
both cases of the friction conditions, the material, in the zone
near the round corner of the bottom die,is shearing to flow
toward the two openings and press strongly on the bottom die
(Fig. 22f). Temperature peak can also be seen in this zone. It
means that the die corner is a part subject to wear. At the
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- 44 -
/ ):/ /
280= B
v
"I Top Oil'
/ /
/// //
/ /
/
//////////
m
"+r
a
I
co
1 1
1
m
/ / / /
///////
-15
t / / /
. . H-h
Air 20C I
65 J Bottom Oil'
Height Reduction = -H-
i, f (v.t<>citY',O)
/
Fig. 21: Schematic drawing of closed-die forgings
b)
Tow
= 20 C m = 0.3 @
25
40
SO
50
40
50
25
Fig. 22: Temperature distributions rOc] at 40% reduction
in height during various forging processes
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- 46 -
outer opening, the relative movement of the material particles
and high temperature increase are also the cause of wear and
tear.
"0

120
CD Taw = 20(; m=1.0
CD Taw = 20
0
(j m = OJ
TOw = 900
0
(=const.; m=1.0
@TOw = 900
0
(;m=1.0
Taw =900(; m=O.3
.. 80
0>
C


10 20
Reduction ["!oj 40
50
Fig. 23: Predicted forging loads as function of height
reduction in various forging processes
The predicted forging loads as function of the top die travel
are plotted in Fig. 23. Logically, the forging load increases
with the increasing friction factor. It emphasizes the necessity
of the lubrication. The isothermal forgings require in general
lower forging loads so that the production costs could be re-
duced. The modern production techniques are performed in these
conditions. The heated die prevents the thermal loss which
occurs due to the heat transfer into die if there is a tempera-
ture gradient between formed part/die. The heated formed part
is deformed easily with lower ram-speed. The die cavity filling
is also promoted.
The execution time of the above calculation raises about 4 %
in comparison with the CPU time on CYBER 76 of a same calcula-
- 47 -
tion without regard to the temperature effects (case no. 3).
5 Conclusions
A thermomechanical analysis of unsteady forming processes is
developed through the combined approach FEM + FDM. In compari-
son with the coupled analysis with FEM only, the combined
approach yields some numerical advantages in computational
efforts:
In the combined approach, the use of the modified
element (Figs. 6,7 & 8) allows a calculation of the
element temperatures in spite of the distorted mesh.
The element temperature is predicted after a time
increment just only at the discrete nodal point
(middle point of the element) and by means of one
equation (9). The calculator operation is therefore
fewer than those of the FEM in which the temperature
is allotted to each node of the element.
The FDM is accommodated the special heat transfer pro-
perties. The nonlinearity of the heat transfer proper-
ties is easily to be treated in equations (8) and (9).
After each time increment the actual values of physical
constants are calculated from special-purpose routines.
On the contrary, in the FEM an additional incremental
solution is necessary in each time increment to consider
the variable properties and time-dependent boundary
conditions. The FE equations should be altered and
solved repeatedly.
The equations of FDM are well-known so that no new
development is attempted. The thermal conductance and
capacitance matrices need to be found for each type
of the element of the FEM.
The FDM for heat transfer is an effective method of computing
short-time solutions. The accurate determination of temperatures
with large transients by use of the FEM requires either a large
number of elements or large time steps to avoid the problem of
temperature overshoots /15/. The FEM usually forms the thermal
conductance and capacitance matrices explicitly, it may generally
- 48 -
require more execution time and computer memory capability /16/.
However, the use of FEM for heat transfer has also some advan-
tages, such as a comfortable output post-processing, efficient
treatment of irregular regions. And extensions to three- dimen-
sional treatment can be made without difficulties.
The numerical results show that the combined approach FEM +
FDM is satisfactory for the thermomechanical treatment. The
effects of the temperature inhomogeneity on the forming load,
material flow and material property could be taken into account
easily in the analysis of precise hot forming processes.
6 References
/1/ Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Onate, E.; Heinrichs, J.C.: A General
Formulation for Coupled Thermal Flow of Metals Using
Finite Elements. Int. J. Num. Meth. Engg. 17 (1981),
pp. 1497-1514.
/2/ Pillinger, I.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.W.:
Thermo-Mechanical Finite-Element Analysis of Metalforming.
Proc. of 4th Int. Conf. Numerical Methods in Thermal
Problems, Swansea (1985).
/3/ Altan, T.; Kobayashi, S.: A Numerical Method for Estima-
ting the Temperature Distributions in Extrusion through
Conical Dies. J. Engg. Ind. 90 (1968), pp. 107-118.
/4/ Rebelo, N.; Kobayashi, S.: A Coupled Analysis of Visco-
plastic Deformation and Heat Transfer, Parts I & II.
Int. J. Mech. Sci. 22 (1980), pp. 699-705 & pp. 707-718.
/5/ Dung, N.L.; Newerla, A.; Marten, J.: FARM rinite Element
Analysis of Rigid-Plastic Metal-Forming, User's Manual.
University of Hanover, Institute of Mechanics (1982).
/6/ Marten, J.: Numerische Untersuchung des Temperaturein-
flusses auf technische Umformprozesse. Diplomarbeit,
Universitat Hannover (1983).
/7/ Mahrenholtz, 0.; Westerling, C.: Untersuchung der Form-
genauigkeit und der Werkzeugbeanspruchung bei Umformvor-
gangen - Wechselwirkung Werkstuck/Werkzeug. Zwischenbe-
richt zum DFG-Forschungsvorhaben Ma 358/28-3, Universitat
Hannover (1984).
/8/ Mahrenholtz, 0.; Westerling, C.; Klie, W.; Dung, N.L.:
Finite Element Approach to Large Plastic Deformation at
Elevated Temperatures. In 'Constitutive Equations: Macro
and Computational Aspects', Ed. by K.J. Willam, ASME
(1984), pp. 165-178.
- 49 -
/9/ Schroder, G.; Rebelo, N.: Umformverhalten 1nduktiv er-
warmter Rohteile beim Schmieden. Wt-Z. indo Fertig. 73
(1983), pp. 565-568.
/10/ Rohsenow, W.H.; Hartnett, J.P.: Handbook of Heat Transfer.
McGraw Hill (1973).
/11/ Lu, S.: Ubertragung von Modellergebnissen beim Kalt- und
Warmwalzen auf Betriebsverhaltnisse. Dissertation, RWTH
Aachen (1984).
/12/ Oh, S.I.; Park, J.J.; Kobayashi, S.; Altan, T.: Applica-
tion of FEM Modeling to Simulate Metal Flow in Forging
a Titanium Alloy Engine Disk. J. Engg. Ind. 105 (1983),
pp. 251-258.
/13/ Dadras, P.; Thomas, J.F.: Characterization and Modelling
for Forging Deformation of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.lSi.
Metallurgical Transactions A, 12a (1981), pp. 1867.
/14/ Altenbach, J.; Sacharov, A.S.: Die Methode der finiten
Elemente in der Festkorpermechanik. Carl Hanser Verlag
(1982).
/15/ Emery, A.F.; Sugihara, K.; Jones, A.T.: A Comparison of
Some of the Thermal Characteristics of Finite-Element
and Finite-Difference Calculations of Transient Problems.
Numerical Heat Transfer 2 (1979), pp. 97-113.
/16/ Gray, W.H.; Schnurr, N.W.: A Comparison of the Finite
Element and Finite-Difference Methods for the Analysis
of Steady Two-Dimensional Heat Conduction Problems.
Compo Meth. Appl. Engg. 6 (1975), pp. 243-245.
/17/ Meyer-Nolkemper, H.: FlieBkurven metallischer Werkstoffe.
HFF-Bericht Nr. 4, Universitat Hannover (1978).
Acknowledgements
This work is carried out under financial support of the German
Research Society (grant no. DFG-Ma 358/28). Thanks is due to
Dr. W. Klie and Mr. J. Marten for their valuable suggestions
and assistance. The authors wish to thank Prof.Dr.-Ing. R. Kopp
for the experimental data obtained at his Institute in Aachen.
The authors also thank Mrs. U. Schmeller, Mr. J. Kohlmaier and
Mr. W. Pietsch for their care in preparing the manuscript.
- 50 -
Finite-Element-Simulation of Metal Forming Processes Using Two Different
Material-Laws
A.Erman Tekkaya*, Karl Roll**, JUrgen Gerhardt*, Martin Herrmann* and
Guohi Du*
* Institut fUr Umformtechnik, Universitat Stuttgart, Stuttgart
** Control Data GmbH, Stuttgart
Different kinds of finite-element approaches are available to simulate
metal-forming processes. For bulk metal forming, the basic differences
between these approaches arise from the constitutive equations modeling
the material behaviour. The appropriate choice of the material law de-
pends onto the aims of the analysis (such as the kind of results sought
for) and the physical nature of the problem.
In this paper, firstly, the theoretical backgrounds for the implementation
of two finite-element methods based on rigid- and elastic-plastic consti-
tutive laws are described. Although both of the methods build up on the
v. Mises yield criterion, the former is based on the Levy-Mises flow rule,
whereas the latter one on a generalized Prandtl-Reuss flow rule. Further-
more, for the elastic-plastic material law, the non-linear kinematics are
of prime importance. Secondly, the paper presents comparative numerical
studies with the two approaches for selected metal-forming problems such
as upsetting, rod-extrusion and cup-extrusion. Finally, some examples of
industrial applications of finite-element simulations are given as the
determination of residual stresses in workpieces formed through container-
less extrusion, rod-extrusion, tube-extrusion. upsetting and drawing, and
the analysis of combined forming processes. Special emphasis is given to
to industrial utilization of the simulation methods.
- 51 -
Introduction
Metal forming processes being in competition with machining and casting
have reached today a significant place in the production industry. This
place has to be respected especially in the light of the handicap that
successful production by forming requires still highly skilled and exper-
ienced experts compared with the other manufacturing alternatives.
The current trend in metal forming is to produce geometrically complex
workpieces which are almost net-shaped. This leads necessarily to more
costly tools and pressing machines. so that the profit basically depends
on the process development time and the costs of the experimental trial-
and-error analysis. Therefore. numerical simulation procedures. through
which the tremendous costs for experimental tools can be reduced. gain
industrial importance.
The most effective numerical simulation procedures are of the finite-
element type. The formulation of these methods is usually based on the
solid continuum-mechanics utilizing the theory of plasticity for the des-
cription of the material behaviour. For the analysis of metal forming pro-
cesses there are two fundamental - competitive - finite-element aproaches
which differ in the material description: the so-called "rigid-plastic"
and "elastic-plastic" formulations. These two approaches not only differ
in the theoretical sense. but also by the limitations of application. The
latter - not thoroughly discussed in literature - is of prime importance
for industrial applications. and it is therefore one of the aims of this
paper to give some insight to this question.
Besides summarizing the theoretical foundations of the finite-element codes
used (section 2) and giving comparative examples (section 3). practical
examples of application are discussed in section 4. In this final section
special emphasis is given to the basic problems of practical applications
and furthermore an attempt is made to display the reasons of computing from
the technological point of view of metal forming.
- 52 -
2 Review of Basic Formulation
2.1 Rigid-Plastic Material Model
In practical metal forming processes the plastic strains in the deformation
zone are larger for 3 orders that the elastic ones. Hence, it seems to be
plausible to neglect these elastic strains and consider the material to
behave rigid-plastic. In that case, the constitutive relations can be ex-
pressed by the Levy-Mises material law:
i; = oj
= (1)
with and
I
E=. (2)
Here, E is the rate .of deformation tensor, Q'the deviatoric Cauchy stress
tensor and k
f
the uniaxial flow stress. It must be emphasized that the
material response in eqns. (1) and (2) does not possess a "geometrical
memory", so that the formulation gets automatically free of any non-linear
kinematic relations.
For such a material, there exists an extremal statement known as the upper
bound principle which reads as /1/
7[ =!g ; : d V - J !2' a . '!.. d 5 = mInimUm
y- - S-
(3)
if a body of current volume V and surface S unit normal vector on S)
is considered with boundary conditions which ensure a plastic deformation
throughout that body. Eqn. (3) states that from all admissible velocity
fields - i.e., satisfying the conditions of compatibility and incompres-
sibility, as well as the boundary conditions - the exact one makes the
functional 7[ minimum.
During the finite-element discretization of eq. (3) it can be easily veri-
fied /2/ that there exists no velocity shape function which is rotationally
invariant, respectively complete and at the same time fulfills the basic
requirement of the material law, namely the volume constancy (eq. (2.
Therefore, the incompressibility has to be added as a secondary condition
to the functional of eq. (3), e.g. by means of the Lagrange multiplier CY
H
resulting
- 53 -
'j['=/kftfdV+fUHl:f:.dV-fn 'O"'V dS=.stationory (4)
V V 5
with
. V2 ' ,
LO::. - E : E
T 3 = =
the equivalent plastic strain rate, O"H the hydrostatic Cauchy stress and
the identity tensor. Besides introducing the secondary condition, the
work-hardening assumption together with the v. Mises equivalent stress
definition, i.e.
(5)
has been used to convert the first integrand in eq. (3) .
.
By expressing the deformation rates in the variational principle given
by eq. (4) in terms of the velocitis then discretizing the whole ex-
pression on an elemental level by introducing the unknown nodal velocities
{a} and elemental hydrostatic stresses {crH] , finally, differentiating
with respect to {a} and{crH1 ' a coupled system of equations non-linear in
{a] (linear in crH) can be obtained. Including just the first term of a
series expansion around an assumed velocity field, the system of equations
can be linearized and hence solved with a relevant equation solving scheme.
It must be noted however, that the statement of eq. (4) is only applicable
in material regions which are plastic. Therefore, during the analysis the
rigid zones h?ve to be identified. On this purpose an average equivalent
strain rate yp, defined through
, 1 f .
-9= -
V V
(6)
is computed. Now, for the rigid-zones the condition
. -3 .:..
'P < 10 yJ (7)
applies. Within the zones for which eq. (7) holds, a pseudo-elastic material
law is used to approximate the stress state.
- 54 -
2.2 Elastic-Plastic Material Model
The usage of the rigid-plastic material model leads to a powerful and,
moreover, to an economic analysis method for many metal forming problems.
However, there are restrictions onto the application of this sort of FE-
formulations, as:
i) In problems where spring-back or residual stresses or very accurate
dimensional changes are of interest.
ii) For processes, in which between the elastic portion of the workpiece
and the tools the interfacial friction is not negligible.
iii) For processes where the deformation zone of the workpiece, is imbedded
in elastic regions. Experiences have shown that stress-peaks are just lo-
cated at the transition zones between the elastic-plastic and elastic re-
gions of the workpiece.
In such cases, it is unavoidable to model the material with an elastic-
plastic constitutive relationship. The formulation consists of three basic
steps: a variational statement covering the equilibrium conditions, the
material law and the numerical discretization of the differential equations.
In the following three subsections these basic steps will be handled:
2.2.1 The Variational Statement: Rate Form of the Principle of
Virtual Velocities
For the derivation of a convenient variational statement two points have
to be considered:
i) In order to handle large strains and rotations all aspects of non-linear
kinematics must be included properly (material possesses a geometrical
memory!). This means, all kinds of rotational and convective terms that
may arise have to be kept.
ii) The only known proper theory of plasticity is of rate-type. For exten-
sion to elastic-plastic material laws, such as the Prandtl-Reuss one,
these result constitutive equations relating the rate of stress to the
rate of deformation. Hence, the final variational statement must be of
rate type.
So, starting with the equilibrium equations, which can be written through
- 55 -
purely mathematical considerations as
J cr : 6 9 d V = J 1 . 6 u d 5 *)
(8)
V - = S
it is possible to obtain the statement which fulfills the requirements i)
and ii). Eq. (8) is known as the principle of virtual displacements. Here,
(J is the Cauchy-stress tensor, [) g the gradient of the displacements u
= = -
and i the traction. The configuration is the current one.
In order to obtain the rate form of eq. (8) it is advisable to transform it
to the constant initial configuration with volume VO and surface So; using
the relevant kinematic relations it is easy to obtain
j
g
O;6E
T
dV
O
=i
vo - SO -
(9)
with er
o
the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress, E the deformation gradient,
= -
the current position vector and superscript 0 denoting the constant
initial configuration. The rate form of equation (9) leads to the statement
given by Hill /4/.
In terms of a workconjugate stress and strain pair, eqn. (9) gets the fami-
liar form of
J TO: 6 d V 0 = J i 0, 5 d 5
VO = - So
(10)
Here, the symmetric second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and the
finite Green-Lagrange strain tensor. This equation is the basis for the geo-
metrical nonlinear elastic formulations (see e.g. Ramm /5/ and Bathe /6/.
Taking the material time derivative of eq. (10) results
J (fa: 6 I. -1" '[ 0; B g,> d V 0 = IS 0 i o. 6 d 5 o.
yo
( 11)
On the other hand, following identities hold
2 0 E = 0 F T,!:: '!. + !T 'I:. ' 6
= = -- - - -
(12 )
(13)
*) Body forces are neglected.
- 56 -
A
where the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress [ is given by
(14)
==-- - -- -- ----
Here, k is the gradient of velocities, J the Jacobian determinant of so
that
dV po
J= IFI= dV0=' P
(15)
with p the dens ity, and the spi n tensor.
Inserting eqs. (12) and (13) into (11) for getting current variables on the
left-hand side and dividing by a virtual time 6t results
0-::' dSo. (16)
V
This is the basi s for the formulations by Nagtegaal et al. /7/ and Wert-
heimer /8/. Equation (16) is the exact form of the principle of virtual
velocities, i.e. no convective and no rotational terms are neglected. The
equation results, however, a nonsymmetric stiffness matrix during the dis-
cretization procedure. For an updated Lagrangian formulation with
( 17)
eq. (16) can be reformulated as
J[f;6:'- 2
V - - .
+Q';(6{,=)1dV=j iO fJ y"d5
- - - S
(18)
Here, is the Jaumann rate of Kirchhoff stress defined by (for instana-
neously coincidence initial and current configurations,J = 1)
and
or
j,S.' 1ft
L-==-Jcr+cr
= = =
Together with a material law like
if>' -1'
y=:. :e
= - =
(19)
(20)
(21)
- 57 -
equation (18) yields a symmetric stiffness matrix during discretization.
Eqs. (18) to (21) correspond to the formulation of McMeeking
and Rice /9/. which was improved later on by Lee and Mallett /10/. and
which serves as the fundament of the present finite element method. Two
aspects should be emphasized:
i) The constitutive equation (eqn. (21 is an approximation since the
Ki rchhoff stress r is used instead of the Cauchy stress ?{ . However.
for practical metals this is a justified approximation. since the elastic
volume change is negligible anyhow.
ii) Equations (18) to (20) can be written also as
(22)
with the rotational terms
ll=(0"W-wa-):6
==- =-
(23)
and the convective terms
z =[0-(1 ; e) -E .0'- a E:] : [; E -I- 0-; (6 t!. L )
2.======= == ==
(24)
The so-called "small strain" principle reads. Zienkiewicz et al. /11/.
J (y; 6EodV=! i Q;{ dS
V=-= 5-
(25)
comparing eqs. (25) with (22) it is apparent that Zl and Z2are absent
in (25) and the small strain tensor EO is used instead of the rate of
deformation t as well as the curren;- rate of traction f instead of fo.
2.2.2 Material Law: Generalized Prandtl-Reuss Equations
The elastic-plastic law applied is the linear combination of the well-known
Hooke's law for purely elastic deformations and the Prandtl-Reuss relation-
ship for plastic deformations. The bases for the combination are the rates
of deformation, such that
(26)
- 58 -
with the elastic part of the total deformation rate and i:.
P
the plas-
tic one. As implied already by the approximation sign in eq. (26), the tri-
vial addition is kinematically not exact as it is schown by Lubarda /12/.
However, for small elastic deformations eq. (26) holds with a quite reason-
able accuracy. For all sorts of metals used in the metal forming practice,
the elastic strains are for some orders less than the plastic ones, so that
the above linear decomposition can be applied without a significant error.
Now, for the elastic part of the strain the generalized Hooke's law states
(27)
Here, U is the elastic shear modulus and K the bulk modulus.
The plastic part is covered by the Prandtl-Reuss equations through
(28)
(29)
Eqs. (28) and (29) preassume isotropic materials, isotropic work-hardening
and volume constancy.
Hence, the complete stress-strain relationships are defined through eqs. (26)
to (29). For the basic formulation this relationships have to be inverted.
By Yamada et al. /13/, this results
In the light of the axiom of objectivity (Eringen, /14/), eq. (30) can be

generalized through the replacement of r by or by the approximation
{-Y !I' g' ]. (31)
r ..
2Ci
+ 1-lV
l1
-
f3
i kr' :
Hence, the required material law. eq. (21). is given through eqs. (31) and
(29)
- 59 -
2.2.3 Numerical Discretization
Through the well-known procedures within the generalized Ritz-Method, the
differential equations of the problem (eqs. (18), (29), and (31)can be dis-
cretized to yield
(32)
Here, Kif< is the tangential stiffness matrix, Q the unknown Godal velo-
cities and the nominal external force rate at the nodals. For a given
force rate, eq. (32) is a system of equations linear in a. .
For the practice of analysing the deformation history, eq. (26) must be
transformed (integrated) into
(33)
with b the nodal displacements. Now, eq. (33) represents a system of
equations non-l inear in !J b
The critical points which have to be kept in mind during the derivation of
eq. (33) are:
- satisfying static equilibrium at the end of the increment Llb .
- satisfying the constitutive equations at the end of the increment fJb
- modelling the non-steady boundary conditions exactly.
- fulfilling incompressibility.
- being economic.
The basic concept of the elastic-plastic code is to use a small increment
size. This agrees with the following natural facts:
- the constitutive equations hold for infinitesimal time steps.
- the non-steady boundary conditions vary nonlinearly in such an extent
(in metal-forming operations), that these can be handled only with small
time steps accurately.
the error due to the discretization in time increases somewhat stronger
than linearly with the step-size (for an Eulerian forward integration
- 60 -
scheme) and exponentially with the accumulated strain as will be shown in
section 3.
Every attempt to increase the time step may reduce the computational time,
however will deduce necessarily - significant - errors in the response of the
continuum. This errors will playa significant role, if an elastic-plastic
response is analysed, since the only justification of dragging the elastic
part of the response is the desired "high accuracy".
In the light of the above idea, following numerical features of the code can
be summarized:
For ensuring static equilibrium, the so-called midpoint stiffness method
(see e.!4. Ramm /5/) in combination with the self correcting approach of
Yamada et al. /15/ is applied. This iterative procedure converges - especial-
ly for small time steps - very rapidly.
To integrate the constitutive equation - which is necessary for obtaining
the incremental stiffness equation (33) - the elastic-predictor, secant-
corrector procedure, firstly developed by rlallett/16/, is used.
Incompressibility is enforced through reduced integration of the hydrostatic
stiffness contribution.
Feasibility of the computations are satisfied through explicit boundary des-
criptions and similar tricks. Through this explicit handling of the boundary
conditions and implementing some engineering "common sense", the contact
problem is solved in an economical way.
3 Comparative Examples
3.1 Axisymmetric Upsetting
For the analysis, a cylindrical billet of the initial height ho = 30 mm and
initial diameter do = 20 mm has been considered. The work-hardening charac-
teristics of the material has been approximated by the Hollomon-equation
("Ludwik"-equation), i.e.,
- 61 -
(34)
Here, k
f
is the flow stress, the geometrical strain (equivalent strain),
C and n are material constants. In the example considered, a commercial steel
with C = 700 N/mm2, n = 0,25, E = 200 kN/mm2, = 0,3 and initial yield
stress of k
fo
= 270 N/mm2 has been analyzed.
The initial height of the billet has been reduced by 60 % down to 12 mm
( e h = 60 %). Fig. 1 shows a comparison between the meshes computed by the
two FE-codes for e h = 60 %. Due to symmetry only a quarter of an axial
cross-section is given. 150 isoparametric quadrilateral finite elements have
been used, resulting 352 degrees of freedom for the elastic-plastic-code
(EPC) and 502 degrees of freedom (352 velocities + 150 hydrostatic stesses)
for the rigid-plastic-code (RPC).
At the interface between workpiece and compression plate, sticking has been
set. Sticking is a purely kinematic constrain, so that the uncertainties in
the frictional laws can be eliminated.
N
QJ
u
c
E
III
'0
__ elastic-plastic material model; ----rigid-plast. material model
2
6 8
10
mm
radial distance r
Fig. 1: Deformed FE-meshes for upsetting after 60 % height reduction
(sticking friction).
- 62 -
The agreement of both meshes is satisfactory, except the slight radial de-
viation. These deviations correspond to a volume difference of about 4 %.
An analysis of the fulfillment of volume constancy has shown, that during
the computations with the RPC a volume lost of about 4.2 % occured (the vo-
lume lost of the EPC was 0.4 %). This high value of inaccuracy can be ex-
plained to some extent by the errors procuced due to a time-discretization:
For frictionless (homogeneous) compression the error due to a time-discreti-
zation for a Eulerian forward integration scheme can be analytically com-
puted as
with
rn-1 . fJh
rn :::. rn-1 t -'--'-----
2 hn-
t
(35)
(36)
Here, the subscript n is the number of increments, V the volume, r the
outer radius of the billet, h the height and Ll h the constant step size.*)
These relationships are plotted in Fig. 2. Here, the abscissa is the equiva-
lent strain , and the ordinate the volume lost, i.e. the error in time
discretization. Furthermore, is used as parameter and is recomputed to
yield a mean equivalent strain increment according to the equation given
in the Figure.
As a first approximation, the chart of Fig. 2 can be generalized in that way,
that - for Eulerian forward integration schemes - the time discretization
error can be read for the current equivalent strain 'f' as a function of the
increment in 'f' for any metal forming process. For this sort of interpreta-
tion, the following facts can be derived:
For constant increments in equivalent strain, the discretization error
( Ll V/V) increases exponentially with the total equivalent strain f . That
means, for inhomogeneous metal flow - for which strains up to 3.0 or even
3.5 are possible - this error-source will be very significant.
*)A different version of eq. (35) was firstly given by Dung and Erlmann /17/.
However, their version does not include the history of deformation, as the
recursive eqs. (35) and (36), and is therefore somewhat confusing.
-
63
-
10
%
-5'
8
:::::.
>
-5'
c:
ho =30 mm
0
do = 20 mm

6

t:,.- t:,.h
Q)

ho-h
w
VI
D
ho
.E
ljl=ln-
ClJ 4
Ih
::::J
1:l
Q)
E
:::J
-0
>
....
0
2

til
.3
__ __
o 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6 2,0
equivalent strain ljl
Fig. 2: Lost of volume due to discretization as a function of the
equivalent strain and the increment size for frictionless
upsetting.
Secondly, for a constant total equivalent strain , the error Ll VjV in-
creases about linearly with the magnitude of equivalent strain increment
Hence, e.g., if the aim of an analysis isto determine the final dimensions of
an extruded rod after 70 % area reduction within the accuracy of elastic de-
formations, it would be a nonsense to use, e.g. an increment size of
LlgJ = 0.06, since the discretization error is about 10 % anyhow (see Fig. 2
In this context, it is worth to mention that a very first check of the elas-
tic-plastic code was performed through the frictionless compression test. For
the same data as given in Fig. 1, the analytical solution yields for the
stress state and geometry after 40 % height reduction = 0.51)
- 64 -
cr
z
=- - 591.8 N/mm.l, O'r = O't = (Jrz = a
and (37)
= 99.882 % (e{asf,'c compressibility)
with an increment size of L1 h = -0,02 mm 0.0017) the numerical
results read
o-z = - 591.5 N/mm 2
I (Jr I I at I I a r z I < 10-
1
99,816 % (elastic compressibility + discretization
error)
(38)
On the other hand, using the chart of Fig. 2, the discretization error is
found to be
= 99,933 %
o
Hence, multiplication of eq. (39) with eq. (37) results
= 99,815 %
o
(39)
(40)
Now comparing eq. (40) and eq. (38) shows that the reduced integration
scheme in order to fulfill incompressibility works quite reliably. The
error in the axial stress value is a result of the error in the volume.
Returning to Fig. 1, the discrepancy can be partly explained by the 5
times larger time step used with the rigid-plastic-code as with the elastic-
plastic one.
Figs. 3 and 4 ,show the computed axial and flow stresses. If the regions are
considered where the isolines are dense, i.e., where large stress gradients
are present, a good agreement between the results of both finite-element-
codes can be recorded. However, appreciable deviations are noticed at the
upper right corner of the workpiece, i.e., where folding has occured. The
EPC supplies large stress peaks in the region where the first element fol-
-
65 -
6.
4
2
N
QJ
u
0
c
Cl
6
-+-
VI
:0
0
'x
4
Cl
2
2 4 6 B 10 12
radial distance r
elastic - plastic
material model
kfO= 210 N Imm
2
kf=(.p"
(
= 100 N/mm
2
n = 0.25
E = 200 kN/mm
2
Y =
0.3
do/h
o
= 0.61
ho/2 =15 mm
( sticking
rigid - plastic
material model
)
Fig. 3: Normalized axial stress CTz/k
fo
for upsetting after 60 %
height reduction (sticking friction).
ded. This is basically due to the poor integration character of a 4-point-
Gaussian integration scheme applied to a quadrilateral element which de-
formed itself into a triangle. In such cases, is is advisable to use a
single-point integration scheme, if only very few such elements exist.
This problem is less critical for the RPC, since in this code a smoothening
of the results could be performed without any difficulty after each incre-
ment. This is done by interpolating the quadrature values (for a rigid-
plastic material model only the equivalent strains!) to the nodals at the
end of an increment and, then, during the integration of the successive
increment, back to the quadrature points. Hence, in that way the overshoots
of stresses in the critical elements are carried away.
For the computations up to C h = 60 %, the RPC required 5227 CPU-seconds
(90 increments and about 2 iterations/increment), whereas the EPC needed
6807 CPU-seconds (450 increments and 4 iterations/increment). Both compu-
tations were carried out on a conventional scalar-computer.
- 66 -
3.2 Axisymmetric Rod-Extrusion
In the present example, an extrusion problem with 50 % area reduction and
cone angle 2 = 60 has been considered. The analysis by the RPC has been
performed with an Eulerian mesh (spatially fixed mesh) considering a control
volume around the forming zone and, hence, making use of the steady-state
character of the process. Such an approach with the EPC is not possible due
to the difficulties in defining the boundary conditions at the entry and
exit of the control volume. Therefore. the EPC-analysis has been conducted
using a deforming mesh (updated after each increment), so that the compu-
tations for the unsteady-state phase of the extrusion process were unavoid-
able.
The distribution of the normalized axial stress crz/k
fo
in the
zone is given in Fig. 5. "It must be emphasized that for the elastic-plastic
analysis che sharp corners at the transition between the cylindrical and
conical portions of the die have been rounded by using a radius of curva-
ture of 3 mm. This is necessary in order to overcome singularities during
computations. Furthermore, a somewhat larger "calibration-zone" at the exit
6
1.2
mm
4
2
N
QJ
u
0
C
0
6 +-
VI
"0
mm
d
4
x
d
2
00
2 4 6 8 10 12 mm 16
radial distance r
elastic - plastic
material model
kl o= 270 N / mm
2
kf= (.pn
( = 700 N/mm
2
n::: 0.25
E = 200 kN/mm
2
y = 0.3
do/h
o
= 0.67
hol2 = 15 mm
( sticking)
rigid - plastic
material model
Fig. 4: Normalized flow stress kf/k
fo
for upsetting after 60 % height
reduction (sticking friction).
- 67 -
I d
o
- Z1.3mm I d,=15.0mm I I kf=704.p24Nlmm21 kfO=Z40Nlmm
2
I /-L=O.061
updated
4 2 0 2 4 6 B mm 12
radial distance r
Fig. 5: Normalized axial stresses c1
z
/k
fo
for rod-extrusion with 50 %
area reduction.
of the die has been utilized in comparison with the RPC-analysis. The
stresses below the conical portion of the die show a good agreement. The
material in this region deforms elastic-plastically. However, at the entry
and especially at the exit regions, a very poor agreement between the EPC-
and RPC-solutions can be recognized. This is an expected observation, since
these regions are elastic and, hence, the axial stresses computed by the
rigid-plastic analysis in these regions are unreliable.
On the ohter hand, a comparison of the normalized yield stress kf/k
fo
' as
given in Fig. 6, is uneffected from the elastic regions. The agreement be-
tween EPC- and RPC-solutions is for the yield stress not very good, even in
the deformation zone where the axial stresses agreed well. This is basically
due to the deviating shear stress distributions. Several computations with
the RPC have shown that the mesh-layout at the die entry (especially around
the sharp corner) has a rather large effect on the shear stress distribu-
tions.
The unsteady state computations with the EPC required 6890 CPU-seconds,
whereas the RPC-computations required only 407 CPU-seconds (Computer:
- 68 -
CDC 6600). The total numbers of degrees of freedom are 268 for the EPC and
502 for the RPC in the considered control volume.
3.3 Axisymmetric Cup-Extrusion
In the last example of comparison axisymmetric cup-extrusion is ana-
lyzed. The reduction of the cross-sectional area is chosen in the example
as 33 %, so that no remeshing has been necessary. Hence, for the initial
dimensions of the workpiece with a height of hwo = 15 mm and a diameter of
d
W
= 28 mm, the punch-diameter is taken as d
p
= 16 mm. The same material is
chosen as in the rod-extrusion case.
Fig. 7 shows the deformed meshes as computed by the EPC and RPC. For the
analysis, 210 and 483 elements have been used in the EPC and RPC, respec-
tively. The punch has travelled for 5 mm. In order to get rid of the diffi-
culties in defining the boundary conditions at the punch-interface, the
trick has been utilized in both codes to move the workpiece and to hold
the punch fixed. A comparison of both meshes in Fig. 7 yields the result,
that the deformation patterns away from the punch show a good agreement in
12 mm B 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 B mm 12
radial distance r
Fig. 6: Normalized flow stresses kf/k
fo
for rod-extrusion with 50 %
area reduction.
- 69 -
I hwo-15mm I dw-28mm I dp=16mm I kt =704<jl2
4
N/mm
z
l kfO=240 N/mmzl fl=O,Q6
Fig. 7: Deformed FE-meshes for cup-extrusion after 5 mm punch travel.
spite of the unbalanced fineness of the meshes. However, in the regions
around the punch, the RPC-solutions deviates appreciately from the EPC-
solution. The elements being in contact with the punch are squeezed down
at the center and at the radius of the punch in the RPC-solution. This is
due to the fact, that in the RPC the current location of the nodal points
are compared with the location of the punch profile and then forced back
onto this profile. This procedure leads to volume losts in the relevant
elements. In a sense, such an approach has its roots in the solution
scheme of the RPC: the solution for a specific increment is obtained for a
fixed tool geometry, i.e., without considering the new geometry which is
going to be reached at the end of the increment. Hence, it is unavoidable
that the "computed" new geometry does not fit the real boundary conditions
(e.g., given by the punch profile) at this new stage. In addition to this
fact, the usage of large incremental steps - which is always claimed to be
the "big advantage" of RPC's - leads to intolerable overshoots in the sol-
ution, if highly nonlinear geometries are attacked. At the end, a "nodal-
coordinate-correction" as mentioned above, results the apparent errors in
Fig. 7. On the other hand, in the EPC, the new boundary conditions are
taken into account during the computation of the solution for an increment.
During the iterations within an increment, estimates are made for the new
- 70 -
geometry, and, hence, all boundary conditions are chosen such that the
"computed" new geometry fits the "real"new geometry practically exact at
the end of the iteration process.
The distribution of the normalized flow stress kf/k
fo
for the geometry
reached after a punch travel of 5 mm is given in Fig. 8. In the front por-
tions of the material which are rising through the throat between die and
punch, regions of elastic, respectively, rigid states have started to de-
velop. Therefore, the discrepancy between the two solutions in this part
of the workpiece is explainable (in fact for the EPC-solution at the left
upper portion, the plotted isolines present the equivalent stresses and not
the flow stresses). Anyhow, in the remaining regions of the workpiece a
good agreement between both solutions can be observed. The smoother iso-
lines in the RPC-solution are definitely the result of the higher number
of degrees of freedom used.
Since the computations are carried on distinct computers (scalar and array
computers: CDC 6600 and CYBER 205, respectively), no objective time compa-
rison can be given.
I h
wo
=15 rnm I d
w
=28 mm I d
p
= 16mm ! kf=704 .p1\2
4
N/mml! kfO=240 N/mml ! fl =0.D6 I
Fig. 8: Normalized flow stresses kf/k
fo
for cup-extrusion after 5 mm
punch travel.
- 71 -
4 Practical Applications
From the industrial application point of view, the numerical simulation of
metal-forming processes has four basic goals:
i) To identify the critical deformation regions in order to predict pos-
sible shortcomings of a production concept.
ii) To analyse the effect of various boundary conditions - such as friction,
die geometry, material properties, temperature, etc. - onto the flow
behaviour for optimizing the process parameters.
iii) To determine the product properties - such as final workpiece geometry,
hardness distribution and residual stresses - in order to evaluate the
product quality.
iv) To determine contact pressures in the interface between tools and
workpiece in order to design the tools and to select the appropriate
forming press.
In this section, several examples of application are given in which at least
one of the above goals has been the basic motivation for the computations.
4.1 Flow-Pattern Analysis
Radial Forging
Radial forging as the basis of flexible manufacturing by metal forming is
gaining an increased attention in the industry. The idea is to produce
workpieces with various geometries by just using the same tools. Starting
with a cylindrical billet, the workpiece is formed through four radially
acting punches. For a detailed description of the process see e.g. /18/.
One of the basic problems in radial forging is to determine the process
parameters, such as the depth of indentation of the punches per stroke and
the geometry of the punch-heads, so that a uniform hardening across the
cross-section of the workpiece can be achieved. On this purpose, computa-
tions have been carried out with the RPC, /18/.
- 72 -
Fig. 9 gives a comparison between the by FEM computed and measured strains.
Due to symmetry, only one quarter of the workpiece is shown. The three
dimensional problem has been analysed through two dimensional computations
for a plane strain forming mode in the symmetry plane. This simplification
was justified through experimental observations. As depicted in the Figure,
the agreement between computations and measurements is quite good, so that
th costly measurements were replaced through computations in order to de-
termine the optimal process parameters of the process.
Combined Radial Extrusion
The combined radial-tube extrusion is a newly developed forming process, for
which almost no experience based knowledge is available. Fig. 10 shows the
basic principles as well as the computed deformation patterns (by the RPC)
during the course of deformation.
The aims of the computation in this case are to determine the contact-
pressure in order to design the tools properly and to analyse the deforma-
tion pattern for getting some hints to modify the tool geometry. The billet
has been idealized with 352 axisymmetric four-node elements, /19/. Friction
between tool and workpiece has been included through a Coulomb friction co-
efficient of 0.1.
Visi oplasticity
Finite-Element-Method
Fig. 9: Comparison between computed and measured equivalent strain in
radial forging, /18/.
- 73 -
initial state
24 Trrrrrrn-;-r;-orrrl" /).-\ die
mm
20 / .. )\
18 //'\
. ///'>1
16 I+H++H-!+V /) height reduction 46%
14
121+f+HCfttHHI
10 / ///0
B
6 / ///
1
//. ///
4 . / /,
2
height reduction 63 %
o
mm 16
Fig. 10: Computed distortions in the combined radial-tube extrusion, /19/.
Besides giving the required contact pressures, the computations allowed
also to analyse the characteristic behaviour of deformation, i.e. the lif-
ting of the material from the mandrel before reaching the deflection and a
non-adapting of the material at the deflection-radius after deflection
(see Fig. 10). This observations have been justified also through experi-
ments. Hence, by varying the exit-height and deflection radius of the die,
optimal process parameters could be determined through the computational
procedure.
After a stroke of 15 mm, which corresponds to an axial upsetting ratio of
63 %, the elements - especially very near to the mandrel - are distorted
that much, that the solution does not converge any more within the supposed
error limits. At the latest at this time, a remeshing is necessary.
For the above two examples of application the usage of a rigid-plastic
material model is completely acceptable within the aims of the analysis.
However, to judge the product properties, as it is the case in the follow-
ing examples, it is necessary to conduct an elastic-plastic analysis of
the complete forming process.
- 74 -
4.2 Determination of Product Properties
In this section some examples are given related to the residual stress
state left in plastically formed workpieces. The importance of residual
stresses is obvious: they lower the nominal yield strength, accelerate or
decelerate stress-corrosion cracking, and may (depending on the ductility
of the material) have an influence on the static and dynamic fracture of
the product. Therefore, the knowledge of the magnitudes of these stresses
in metal forming products is necessary in order to evaluate their in-
fluences and particularly to optimize the manufacturing process with regard
to a convenient residual stress state.
Extrusion
For computing the residual stresses, it is necessary to simulate the com-
plete extrusion process, since even minute plastic deformations may
change the residual stress state drastically. Therefore, in the case of ex-
trusion, not only the so-called "pressing" stage should be considered but
also the "ejection"-stage. During this stage, there is a negligible amount
of plastic flow in the surface near regions of the extrudate, since the
inner hole diameter of the die is now smaller as during pressing due to the
elastic spring-back effect.
Fig. 11 shows the scheme of the procedure for computing the residual stress-
es in extruded workpieces with the elastic-plastic code EPDAN (Ilastic
flastic Qeformation Analysis), /20/. The basic idea behind simulation is
the uncoupling of the elastic behaviour of the die from the elastic-
plastic behaviour of the workpiece. In module 1 the pressing-stage of the
extrusion process is computed. Here, the die is assumed to be rigid. This
is a justified simplification, since the elastic expansion of the die is
negligibly small compared with the overall area reduction. After reaching
a predefined position of the punch, computations
are stopped and all the necessary data and results are saved in the storage
unit I. Physically, the next step is to draw back the punch. Now, it is
not possible anymore, to consider the die as rigid, since as the punch
loses contact with the billet, the pressure exerted from the workpiece
onto the die diminishes and so the die springs back and squeezes the extru-
date at the cal ibration zone (at the die exit). In order to find the amount
of this spring-back of the die some iterations are required, because of the
- 75 -
Fig. 11: Configuration of program-modul es for the determination of residual
stresses in industrial extrusion.
uncoupled analysis. For a first approximation, it can be assumed that the
die recovers its original geometry completely. In this case, the spring-
back can be computed using the internal pressure distribution Pi during
pressing and assuming that it will be equal to the amount of elastic expan-
sion of the die. This is done in module 2. Here, the linear elastic FE-
code ASKA /21/ or the boundary element code BETSY /22/ is used to compute
the elastic expansion of the die corresponding to the internal pressure
distribution Pi in the pressing-stage. Knowing the spring-back of the die -
which is taken for a first approximation equal to the elastic expansion -,
the punch can be drawn back numerically in module 3. Finally, the extrudate
is ejected with a push-out punch in module 4 through the calibration zone
(the short cylindrical portion at the die exit) having now an inner hole
diameter which is smaller than the one during the pressing-stage by the
amount of the spring-back of the die.
- 76 -
Of course, it is now possible, to perform a second or even more iterations,
such that the spring-back amount of the die is corrected by making use of
the pressure exerted from the workpiece onto the die during ejection.
Fig. 12 shows a illustrative idealization and data-set for the analysis of
tube extrusion. The material used is a typical extrusion steel Ck 15 (0.15 %
carbon). For this example the mandrel was attached rigidly to the punch.
Fig. 13 shows the distribution of residual and applied stresses in the work-
piece during the pressing stage. Just after the die exit the inner surface
of the extrudate loses contact with the mandrel due to elastic unloading and
spring-back. Hence, the extrudate is in a completely external-load free
situation, so that the axial and tangential stresses after the die-exit
(see Fig. 13) are "residual" stresses. It must be mentioned, however, that
the extrudate does .not lose contact with the mandrel for all kind of geome-
tries of the workpiece. For large. ratios of outer to inner diameter of the
tube, the extrudate still keeps contact with the mandrel even after the die-
exit. In such cases, of course, the stresses in the extrudate are also in-
fluenced by the friction between the mandrel and the inner surface of the
tube.
//
/ die
// /
LJ
Zlb
workpiece
mandrel (fixed l
_--1--1 ----J-.-------.--
Workpiece - Data
land
I
E = 210.000 N/mm2; y =0,3
I, ---------
Die -Data FEM-Data
d
o
=35,8; d,=32mm; d
2
=25mm 225 isoparametric
10= 45mm
i
10/do=1,26 1,= 53mm;ra=6mm,re=6mm
quadrilateral elements
klo =
240 N/mm2 ZIB= 2.5 mm; 2Q1,=30
276 nodes
kl =
704 '\lQ24 N/mm
2
(Ck15l ==? ..p =0,5; CA = 39,3 % Iterations 3
Increments: 35 steps
Jl. = 0,06 (constant l per element
Fig. 12: Idealization and data for the analysis of tube-extrusion.
- 77 -
I <II =0,51 t A = 39,3 % 1 k,o= 240 N/mm21 k f = 704 N/l1Vll l 1 punch travel : 36 mm I
24
mm
16
12
residual stresses
8
cr,
N
4
mandrel (fixed)
......
."
tIo
u
0
VI
I
c
'"
I I I I I I
.E
tIo
10 20 30 40 50
(
...,
4
axial dis lance :c
-0
8
:c
e
12
16
20
24
Fig. 13: Applied and residual stresses in tube extrusion (pressing stage).
A critical point in the analysis of tube-extrusion with a mandrel is the
handling of the "neutral point" at which frictional shear stresses in the
interface between the mandrel and the inner surface of the tube change
their sign. The neutral point is located somewhere between the die-entry
and die-exit. The basic problem here is the oscillation of the numerical
response about the exact solution through which also the shear-stresses
switch their sign back and forth. These oscillations are observed most
clearly in the force-displacement curve of the problem and are the results
of discretizing the boundary conditions.
Another consequence of the oscillating numerical response is the apparent
loss of contact between the billet and the die at the entry. Depending on
whether the total external force is increasing or decreasing, contact or
no-contact can be observed at the die-entry between the billet and the tool.
In fact, the only way to reduce such oscillations is to increase the number
of elements in the axial direction.
In order to demonstrate the effect of the ejection-stage onto the residual
stresses, the axial stress distributions during the container1ess extrusion
- 78 -
of a workpiece are given in Fig. 14 for both the pressing- and ejection-
stages. After pressing, relatively high residual stresses are present in
the extrudate. They are compressive in the core of the shaft and tensile
in the surface-near regions. For the ejection, a radial spring-back of
about 0.01 mm has been assumed for the die at its land. During ejection
only the surface-near layers get significantly plastic. The lower figure
in Fig. 14 shows that, after ejection, the residual stresses have been re-
duced drastically, however, without a sign change in the core and at the
surface. Extensive computations have shown that a sign change of residual
stresses can only be expected at relatively high area reductions as it is
the case in rod-extrusion.
To examine the validity of the computed residual stresses some experiments
have been conducted. Fig. 15 shows a comparison between experimental and
computed axial residual stresses in a rod-extrusion product before ejection.
16
mm
12
10
w
c
c
'"
-0 4
"
-0
c
0
ejection-
stage
workpIece
16
mm
12
10
W 8

6
u
40
pressing -
stage
1 'i' =Q00331 CA =0,33 % 1 fL =0,06 1
workpIece
Fig. 14: Axial stresses during the pressing- and ejection-stages of
containerless extrusion.

- 79 -
600r--,-----,----.----.---.----r--.--,.....,...,--.....
N/mmzl----+---+--I---+---I-
2001------j1----l----f---+--:
o I---l----I------l----:
-200
.f-
'"
g -400
"C
-600
C
'x
c
material: Ck 15 (steel)
I-/---I-----+-- '1'=0.5, eA=40%;2OG=90 --j---fj
without ejection

o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 mm z 180
core cross-sectional area A surface
Fig. 15: Comparison of experimental and numerical residual stresses for
a rod-extrusion product.
Here. a billet has been extruded with an area reduction of 40 % through a
die with a cone-angle 2 CG = 90
0
The material is again steel Ck 15 with
an initial yield strength of 250 N/mm2. The diameter of the workpiece has
been reduced from 19.3 mm to 15.0 mm.
The experimental measurements have been performed by two methods: To
measure the residual stresses in the core of the extrudate. the Sachs
boring-out method has been utilized. On the other hand. the X-ray method
has been employed to determine the residual stresses in the surface near
regions of the workpiece. To measure sublayer stresses, the surface-layers
have been removed successively by electropolishing. Hence. two branches of
residual stresses were measured. one starting from the core and the other
from the surface of the workpiece. Inbetween these branches. an indetermi-
nante region remains, in which the stress distributions have been interpo-
lated. Fig. 15 reveals an acceptable agreement between measurements and
computations.
As a result of the extensive numerical analysis it was possible to indicate
ways for manipulating the residual stresses in extrusion products. For this
- 80 -
purpose, two process parameters can be varied: the cone angle and the stiff-
ness of the die.
Drawing
The basic difference between drawing and extrusion - with regard to the
determination of residual stresses - is the absence of an ejection-like
process in drawing. Besides, the drawing stresses are superposed onto the
residual stresses during forming. Fig. 16 gives the computed stress dis-
tribution in a drawn wire after an area-reduction of 18 % (single pass). The
upper curve in Fig. 16 corresponds to the distribution of the sum of resi-
dual and applied stresses, i.e. the relevant cross-section is considered
during drawing. The second curve in Fig. 16 stands for the residual stresses,
which are obtained after unloading. Two observations can be made: Firstly,
the residual stress distributions are qualitatively and quantitatively
similar to the ones obtained for extrusion products (before ejection) with
the same area-reduction. Secondly, the residual stresses (in fact only the
axial ones) are obtained through a downward parallel shift of the stress
N/mm2
400
o

V1
V1
'"
.!:: -200
V1
d
::J
-400
In
1':
cross - sectional area A
Fig. 16: Axial stresses during and after drawing of a wire.
- 81 -
distribution (i.e. applied + residual stresses) during drawing by the
amount of the applied stresses. This corresponds to nothing else but the
well-known superposition principle in linear elasticity in combination
with the Saint Venant principle. The tangential and radial components are
the same for the loaded and unloaded states.
BUhler and Schulz /23/ suggested 40 years ago to use a second (or even
third) drawing die causing an additional very slight area reduction in
order to reduce the residual stresses. This would approximately result in
the natural effect of the ejection stage in extrusion. In Fig. 16 a third
curve is drawn showing the residual axial stresses if a second die with
an area-reduction of 0.06 % is used in addition to the first die. Similar
to the extrusion case, the usage of the additional die reduces the residual
stresses in the wire. However, in drawing the slight area-reduction causes
a much larger plastic flow in the surface layer than an identical area-
reduction in extrusion. This is due to the fact that for drawing the
applied stresses are tensile whereas for extrusion compressive, and since
the residual stresses are tensile in the surface layers, plastic flow be-
gins much earlier at the surface and to a larger extent in the drawing case.
mm
2 f---+-=-+---,
N

-0,5
t mm
-0
4
d - 0,5
'x
d I
2
oL-
4 6 o 2
12 8 10 mm
radial distance r
normalized axial
residual stress az/kfO
kfo= 270 N/mm2
kf=C..pn
C = 700 N/mm2
n = 0,25
E = 200 kN/mm2
y = 0,3
do/h; = 0,67
ho/2 =15 mm
(sticking)
normalized tan-
gential residual
stress as 1 k
fo
F
" 17 Residual stresses in billets after upsetting (height reduction
19. :
60 %).
- 82 -
Upsetting
In section 3 the applied axial stresses have been discussed through Fig. 3
for a billet which has been upset by a height reduction of 60 %. Fig. 17
gives the residual stress distributions for the same billet after unloading.
Comparing Fig. 3 with Fig. 17 shows that the residual axial stresses are
less in magnitude than the applied stresses. Furthermore, considering the
largest cross-section of the specimen, it is seen that the residual stresses
change sign for two times.
4 Conclusions
Theoretical fundamentals of two finite element codes based on rigid- and
elastic-plastic material models, as well as, examples of academic and
practical applications have been discussed in this paper.
In the common range of applicability, i.e. in the direct analysis of plas-
tic deformations which are much larger than elastic ones, both codes show
a satisfactory agreement. For steady-state problems, application of the
rigid-plastic code is much more economic than the elastic-plastic code
which has the disadvantage of not being able to make use of the steady-
state character of the problems. Furthermore, the rigid-plastic formula-
tion is free from any nonlinear kinematics and the only variables which
have to be carried in time are the equiva'ient strains, so that the method
is rather stable, economic and also suitable for simple remeshing proce-
dures. On the other hand, for problems exhibiting highly non-linear boun-
dary conditions, the advantage of using large increments diminishes for
the rigid-plastic formulation.
The usage of the elastic-plastic code is without any alternative in cases
where residual stresses, elastic spring-back and accurate dimensional
changes have to be analysed. Besides, if the forming process embraces fric-
tional contact between elastic material zones and dies, and/or, if the
boundary conditions are highly non-linear in time, it is advisable to
apply an elastic-plastic analysis.
The practical examples of application demonstrate the industrial merits
of finite-element simulations. But, they demonstrate also that a technolo-
gical knowledge is an absolute prerequisite for a numerical simulation in
order to achieve the desired information.
- 83 -
Acknowledgements
This work has been sponsored by the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk, Hannover
and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn.
The authors are grateful to Ms. Collins and Ms. Erat for typing the
manuscript.
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- 84 -
/8/ Wertheimer, T.B.: Problems in Large Deformation Elasto-Plastic
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/9/ McMeeking, R.M.; Rice, J.R.: Finite-Element Formulations for Problems
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11 (1975), pp. 601-616.
/10/ Lee, E.H.; Mallett, R.L.; Yang, W.H.: Stress and Deformation
Ana lys is of the Metal Extrus i on Process. Comp .Appl .Mech. Engg.
10 (1977), pp. 339-353.
/11/ Zienkiewicz, D.C.; Valliappan, S.; King, I.P.: Elasto-Plastic
Solutions of Engineering Problems 'Initial Stress', Finite-
Element Approach. Int.J.Num.Meth.Engg., 1 (1969), pp. 75-100.
/12/ Lubarda, V.A.: Elastic-Plastic Deformation at Finite Strain.
Ph.D.-Thtsis, Stanford University, 1980.
/13/ Yamada, Y.; Yoshimura, N.; Sakurai, T.: Plastic Stress-Strain
Matrix and its Application for the Solution of Elastic-Plastic
Problems by the Finite-Element-Method. Int.J.t4ech.Sci., 10 (1968),
pp. 343-354.
/14/ Eringen, A.C.: Mechanics of Continua. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1967.
/15/ Yamada, Y.; Wifi, A.S.; Hirakawa, T.: Analysis of Large Deformation
and Stress in Metal Forming Processes by the Finite-Element Method.
In: Metal Forming Plasticity. Proceedings of Symposium held at
Tutzing, August 28-September 3, 1978, pp. 158-176.
/16/ Mallett, R.L.: Personal Communication, 1982.
/17/ Dung, N.L.; Erlmann, K,: Die Berechnung der Metallumformung bei
groBen plastischen Formanderungen mit der Methode der Finiten
Elemente. Final Report of Research Project 1/34 210 sponsored by
Stiftung Volkswagenwerk, December 1980.
- 85 -
/18/ Paukert, R.: Rechnerische Ermittlung von ZustandsgroBen beim
Radialumformen. Berichte aus dem Institut fUr Umformtechnik,
Universitat Stuttgart, Nr. 78, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York/Tokyo:
Springer-Verlag, 1983.
/19/ Lange, K.; Osen, W.: Cold Extrusion Processes Combined with Radial
Extrusion. To be published in: Proceedings of the NAMRC XIII, 1985.
/20/ Tekkaya, A.E.; Gerhardt, J.: Residual Stresses in Cold-Formed Work-
pieces. To be published in Annals of the CIRP, 1985.
/21/ Argyris, J.H. et al.: ASKA User's Reference Manual, ISO-Report,
Nr. 73, Stuttgart, 1971.
/22/ Drexler, W. et al.: EDV-Programmsystem BETSY, Final Report of the
research project 209/245 sponsored by the Forschungsvereinigung Ver-
brennungskraftmaschinen e.V., Erlangen, 1982.
/23/ BUhler, H.; Schulz, E.H.: Die Verminderung der beim Kaltziehen in
Stangen entstehenden Eigenspannungen. Stahl u. Eisen, 70 (1950) 25,
pp. 1147-1152.
- 86 -
Discussions (Session lal
Steck (Chairman): Are there questions? I think we don't have to take any
order we can ask to the first and second presenter. Yes, are there que-
stions to the papers presented by Professor Mahrenholtz and Mr. Tekkaya.
Perhaps I can start. Professor Mahrenholtz, I am always wondering why this
thermal analysis is done by finite difference if you do the stress analysis
by finite elements. Because it is a very good method to do the thermal
analysis by the finite-element-method. What is the real advantage other
than the shortness of time?
Mahrenholtz: It depends on the scheme of the problem, and in our case we
started with the finite-element-procedure and due to the stability condi-
tions we have to go through the whole loop essentially needing more compu-
ting time. Second point is the central differences. You need only the cen-
tral point of one element, otherwise you have to use the other four nodes
and it is really simple to reorganize the program.
Steck: For the computations with the finite difference procedure you need
a rectangular mesh. You cannot use an arbitrary mesh. And if there are some
unnormal conditions onto your mesh ... ?
Mahrenholtz: Yes, you are right, we have tu rearrange the surfaces.
Steck: Thank you.
Altan: I've got a question for you, Professor Mahrenholtz. I understand
you correctly, that the temperature in your scheme also influences the flow
of the material? That is to say after each step the variation of tempera-
ture is calculated and then the flow stress is accordingly determined and
then, therefore, you will see differences in flow. So, it is a real cou-
pled effect.
Mahrenholtz: Yes, that's correct. So, the influence is only through the
yield stress, that is, through the yield curve depending only on the equi-
valent strain, equivalent strain rate and temperature. No face-transition
is present as lange mentioned in the opening speech. There might be a need
for a more sophisticated approach in the future, of course.
- 87 -
Altan: May [ask another question. We are doing similar studies and the
most difficult aspect in the whole temperature simulation that we found is,
that there are no values of heat transfer coefficients between the forming
material and the die under the different lubrication conditions, the diffe-
rent pressures, the different temperatures. Do you have any comment on
that or are there any published results about these values?
Mahrenholtz: [was pointing out that this conduction coefficient CtK is a
weak point not in the analysis itself but in the data available.
Altan: Do you know anybody doing a lot of research in this area? We are
doing a lot of work in the determination of the flow stresses but see
very little being done in the determination of the heat transfer coeffi-
cients which are absolutely necessary to model the system.
Mahrenholtz: There is, at least published, very few research on this sub-
ject. Therefore, we checked these results from Aachen about the cooling of
the bar, of course there is no contact problem involved in that particular
cooling case. But at least we could see how close we get to the experi-
ments.
Altan: Thank you.
Rowe: Professor Mahrenholtz, in your last picture [ think you show a quite
small effect of the heat flow on forces. Is this typical or is that a spe-
cial example?
Mahrenholtz: It depends of course on the temperature range you have and on
the sensitivity of the system parameters on the temperature. You see, in
the range of 900
0
C there is no large effect for steel.
Rowe: Do you have some examples where there is a large effect?
Mahrenholtz: No, we don't solve such examples. But if you are in the range
of 700
0
to 800
0
C there must be a tremendous effect, of course. But, as a
matter of fact, the flow itself - which could not be seen so nicely in our
results - is affected much more sensitively, so that if you are forging in
a closed die the flow into the corners is influenced very very nicely, even
- 88 -
if the overall energy or force effect is small. The flow field is more
sensitive.
Rowe: Just ask me a supplementary question to that, whether you have loo-
ked at the isothermal forging with heat transfer. What's the result given
for cold tools? If the tools are heated or cooled, does that make a diffe-
rence?
Mahrenholtz: No, the tools were heated at 900 C.
Dung: We have considered two cases of forging process. One is cold for-
ging. In cold forging we have the same initial temperature of 20 C in die
and workpiece. By hot forging we had also the same temperature for the
workpiece and the die but at an evaluated temperature of 900 C.
Mahrenholtz: For the cold forging case the temperature of 20 C was just a
starting point for the computations which were not carried on isothermally.
Onate: Mr. Tekkaya, could you make any comment on the computer time of the
elasto-plastic and rigid-plastic solution. You know, this is of course an
important criterion to choose one or the other method.
Tekkaya: Of course, that's true. The only thing I can say is that the
rigid-plastic one is faster - overall - than the elastic-plastic solution.
You know, you cannot do any time comparison objectively because the codes
are developed by different people, we do not use the same processors in
both of the codes and furthermore, there are differences in the efficiency
of coding, also. The question is, how should you compare it? If you just
compare it related to the accuracy what is the measure of accuracy, so you
can change the total time by just changing the time steps. However, if we
compare the times per iteration, I can say, they are about the same for
both methods and this may be due to the different efficiencies of program-
ming for the two codes.
Ramm: In plasticity you are using a lot of computer time in coming back to
the yield surface. What kind of return method are you using?
Tekkaya: We are using the elastic-predictor-secant-corrector method deve-
loped by Rus Mallett at RPI.
- 89 -
Steck: But what is the reasoning behind this method?
Tekkaya: As I told you, you stopped with the continuum-mechanics at these
equations which are in rate form and everything else you do is just in the
scope of numerical methods. I don't know any person who gave a physical
reasoning for this procedure. The only reason for doing this is to say:
okay, between two points on the yield locus the material has to use an
average yield normal!
Steck: Thank you.
Mattiasson: In one of the examples you show you said that you used 5 times
larger time steps in the rigid-plastic solution as in the elastic-plastic
one. I wonder after what criteria you choose the step size. Did you do any
convergence checks?
Tekkaya: The convergence checks related to the step size are just done. In
the present case, the chosen step size was based on extensive experiences.
Doltsinis: I wish to make a comment on the comparison between rigid-pla-
stic and elasto-plastic computations because we use the same code for these
computations. So the gain in the computer time is about a factor of 4 in
the rigid-plastic case. have a question to Professor Mahrenholtz. Does
thermal expansion play an important role in your computations?
Mahrenholtz: No, it did not. Because we did not have a closed-forming-die
sensitive to change of volume. In that case it would. It could not be
neglected.
Marten: Mr. Tekkaya, I have a question concerning the transformation of
Prandt1-Reuss constitutive equations to the reference configuration. You
know the discussion during the workshop in Hannover and Professor Besdo has
a special formulation of elastic deformations. Would you say something
about your transformation.... You know, the Prandtl-Reuss equations are
equations of the actual configuration. Now, you transform the equations to
the initial state without changing the coefficient matrix and just using it
to relate the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress to the Green strain. Do you
think this is correct?
- 90 -
Tekkaya: It is not the Green strain, it is the rate of deformation. You
have the rate of deformation on the right side and on the left side some
Jaumann rate of stress measure which are both rotationally invariant. Hen-
ce, there is no problem.
- 91
Elastic-Plastic Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Analysis of
Bulk Metalforming Processes
I. Pillinger, P. Hartley, C.E.N. Sturgess and G.W. Rowe,
Department of Hechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK.
Summary
An elastic-plastic three-dimensional finite-element formulation is presented
for the study of bulk metalforming problems. The incremental technique is
based upon the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule and von Mises' yield criterion, and
incorporates a finite-deformation formulation using correct definitions of
stress and strain increment for accurate and efficient solution of
large-strain analyses.
The finite-element technique has been used to model a number of metal forming
processes: the forging of rectangular blocks and a connecting rod, the
rolling of thick steel billets and the plane-strain side pressing of
circular and shaped sections. These results illustrate the ability of the
technique to predict not only flO\; patterns and forming loads, but also
of stress and the location of ductile fractures.
1. Introduction
Knowledge of flow and stress in metal forming operations is of great
importance in determining the optimum forming conditions and in predicting
the final properties of the workpiece. The finite-element method (FEB) is
now accepted as the most useful and versatile technique for the detailed
study of industrial forming operations [1]. The majority of applications so
far have been confined to plane-strain and ax i-symmetric geometries where
only the flow of the material in two dimensions need be considered. Although
such examples constitute some 60% of forming processes, it is those
belonging to the remainder which pose the most difficult and costly design
problems and for which the finite-element (FE) technique may prove to be of
the greatest value.
- 92 -
The major obstacle to the three-dimensional (3-D) analysis of metal forming
is that such analyses involve matrix equations which are considerably larger
than their two-dimensional counterparts. 3-D solutions therefore require
lengthy computational times. Several attempts have been made to overcome
this problem by assuming a simplified flow pattern [2,3]. by using few
elements [4,5]. or by considering only small amounts of deformation [6].
Recently however, Park and Kobayashi have presented a full 3-D analysis of
the upsetting of rectangular blocks and wedges using the rigid-viscoplastic
method [7]. In this type of FE treatment. the elastic response of the
plastically-deforming elements is neglected and the deviatoric stress in
unyielded elements is assumed to be proportional to the strain rate. Good
agreement is obtained between the FE predicted profiles of the billets and
experimental observations, but no experimental comparison has been made with
the FE values of strain or die-interface pressure.
There are two main limitations of the rigid-visco plastic treatment. Firstly,
since elastic deformation is not included. all unyielded elements are
assumed to be rigid. Thus the method cannot accurately model the early
stages of a deformation when the workpiece is in the process of yielding and
elastic regions predominate. Secondly, since the unloading of a
previously-deformed workpiece is a purely elastic phenomenon, accurate
prediction of the residual stress distribution is only possible if the whole
analysis takes the elastic behaviour of the body into account.
For these reasons, a full elastic-plastic approach is necessary to model
flow and stress correctly in forging operations. Providing the
elastic-plastic analysis is designed to be performed in finite-sized steps.
the time of computation need not be any greater than that of a comparable
rigid-viscoplastic treatment.
This paper introduces an elastic-plastic FE treatment, based on the
Prandtl-Reuss equations of flow, that has been developed for the analysis of
3-D forming processes using finite increments of deformation. The technique
has been used to examine a wide range of metal forming operations, such as
the forging of rectangular blocks (with and without holes), the forging of a
- 93 -
connecting rod, slab rolling and plane-strain side pressing. The results of
these analyses are presented
predict not only the pattern of
stress components, the site
degree of deformation at which
2. Finite-element theory
2.1 Fundamental principles
here and they show that the FE technique can
metal flow in the workpiece, but also the
at which ductile fracture initiates, and the
this is probable.
A FE analysis of a deformation problem obtains an approximate solution by
considering the displacement of only a finite number of points, or nodes, of
the workpiece. The workpiece is partitioned into a finite number of regions,
or elements, inter-connected at the nodes. In the present analysis, 3-D
"brick-type" elements are used, each of contains eight nodes. The
value of any quantity which is a function of position, such as the
displacement of a particle, may be found at an arbitrary point of an element
by interpolation between the nodal values of the function. This allm;s the
principles of stress continuity and force equilibrium to be used to
construct a set of equations for the element, relating nodal force and nodal
displacement. These are called the element-stiffness equations. The element
relationships are then combined :into a set of equations describing the
behaviour of all the nodes of the body.
In metalforming processes, the geometry of the body, the material properties
and the boundary conditions change during the deformation, so the stiffness
relat:ionship is non-linear. The analysis is therefore performed
incrementally. With the updated Lagrangian approach, which is adopted here,
the incremental stiffness equations are based on reference geometries and
states of stress and strain. These are assumed to be constant throughout an
increment and are only re-evaluated at the end of each step.
Netalforming operations may often involve total natural strains of 1 or
more. Therefore, to reduce the time of computation to a minimum, it is
desirable to be able to use increment sizes at least of the order of 1 or 2%
- 94 -
in the FE analysis. The present treatment employs a finite-deformation
formulation for accurate solutions under these circumstances.
2.2 Finite-deformation model
Consider a particle P within a given element and let be an orthonormal
basis for vectors in 3-D space. This will be called the reference basis.
During an increment, the element will deform. Denote the instantaneous
co-ordinates of P with respect to the reference basis by xi. Suppose that at
some stage during the increment, there is a force i acting upon an
infinitesimal plane situated at P. If at the start of the increment this
plane had area da
o
and its normal had covariant components with respect
to the reference basis, then consideration of the contravariant reference
components of leads to the definition of the
unsymmetric or nominal stress sij [8]:
(1)
Since the nominal stress does not obey the co-ordinate transformation rules,
it is not strictly a tensor quantity [9]:
It is possible to define other types of stress. Consider a set of
curvilinear axes which deform with the material so that the co-ordinates of
P with respect to this system are always the same. These are called the
convected axes. The lines of constant convected co-ordinates passing through
P at the instant considered above may be used to obtain a new basis for
3-D vector space. If the infinitesimal plane upon which the force facts
has area da, and a normal with covariant components of n
i
with respect to
this new basis, then the contravariant components of the
Cauchy or true stress in the convected system are defined by:
(2)
Without loss of generality, it is possible to choose the convected
co-ordinate system so that it coincides with the reference (Cartesian) frame
at the start of the increment, at which time the two stresses defined by
- 95 -
equations (1) and (2) are identical. However. their time derivatives at this
instant are not the same and in fact can be shown to be related by the
expression [9]:
o ..

+
(3)
where, as in the rest of this paper, a dot over a symbol indicates time
differentiation. Since from now on the only bases which will be considered
will be orthonormal (or at least instantaneously so) there is no difference
between the covariant and the contravariant components of vectors and
tensors, and these quantities will be denoted by subscripts only. The strain
rate .. in equation (3) is defined by the expression:

!(v .. + v. k)
J,
where the deformation rate v .. is:

v ..

(4)
(5)
The rate of change (or more strictly the Jaumann rate of change) of Cauchy
stress is measured in the convected co-ordinate system and so can only
depend upon the rate of distortion of the material and not upon any
rigid-body motion. If the linear constitutive relationship between this rate
of stress and the strain rate takes the form:
then equation (3) may be as:
s ..
l.J
2.3 Variational principle
(6)
+
(7)
The total power supplied to a region of the deforming material is the rate
of increase in the deformation energy of the material, less the rate of
- 96 -
decrease of the potential energy due to the movement of external applied
forces. By minimising this total power, a variational expression can be
derived describing the equilibrium conditions relating to the region under
consideration. Hill [8] has shown that in a correct form of this expression,
the deformation power is the dyadic product of the nominal stress rate and
the deformation rate. The assumes the forces acting on the body are
concentrated at the nodes of an element, so the variational expression is:
(8)
where fIm denotes the mth component of force, and dIm denotes the mth
component of displacement, at node I of the element. The delta symbols in
equation (8) indicate arbitrary variations in the quantities enclosed in
parentheses and the integration is carried out over the volume of the
element. The summation convention has been extended to include summation
over all the nodes of an element when an upper-case subscript is repeated in
a term of an expression.
Substitution of equation (7) into equation (8), using the symmetric
properties of the stress-rate and strain-rate the basic rate
expression:
2.4 Incremental expression
In the present formulation, the fundamental variables are the changes in the
various parameters during each increment of the deformation. Providing these
increments are not too large, the rates of change of nodal displacement,
nodal force and particle displacement are all proportional to their
incremental values, to a good approximation. However, if the change in
strain is defined by the incremental form of equation (4), the infinitesimal
definition, a non-zero value is calculated when the material is undergoing
rigid-body rotation, a situation for which the strain increment should, by
definition, be zero. Hore generally, whenever there is a rotational
component to the deformation, the infinitesimal definition of incremental
- 97 -
strain predicts an anomalous change in volume. Since in metal deformation
the volume can only change elastically, the erroneous volume strain will
either generate very large elastic hydrostatic stress or, if constancy of
volume is enforced, lead to over-stiffness of the deformation model in
response to material rotation.
2.5 LCR definition of strain increment
To avoid these problems, a modified form of strain increment is used, called
the linearised co-rotational (LCR) increment. This is defined by [10]:
n., ,
1J
1CR
k
,U
k
' + Rk,u
k
'
1 ,J J ,1
- -SI(CR'k-Rk')(u, I-Uk ,) +
1 1 J, ( ,J
where the deformation gradient u, ,is:
1,]
u, ,
1,]
(R'k-Rk')(U' k-uk ,))
J J 1, ,1
(10)
C ll)
and Rik is the rotational component of the unique decomposition of the
linear transformation of particle co-ordinates into orthogonal and symmetric
mappings. Thus:
RikQkj
u,
+
0, ,
l,j
1J
(12)
where:
RikRjk
0, ,
and 0, ,
Q
ji
1J 'lJ
(13)
The quantity 0, ,in equations (12) and (13) is the Kronecker delta. In
1J
practice, the values of the rotational matrices are estimated during the
previous step of the analysis, so the right-hand side of equation (10) is a
linear function of displacement gradients. It can be seen from equation (10)
that the LeI( increment of strain is the same as the infinitesimal value when
the material is not rotating. Furthermore, the tensor Rij - 0ij is
approximately skel>-symmetric providing the incremental angles of rotation of
the material do not exceed about ten degrees. Thus for pure rotations up to
"
E
o
e
500
0
-500
-1000
500
.200( -
2500-
IVI.
01-
-1001-
-2001-
-3001-
-400 -
-SOOI-
-600
0
0
0
0
10
- 98 -
I I
0
0
0
0
0
theoreti ca I
-
0 0 finite-element -
no >-rotational stroin
I
0 fini te -element -

I
with c<H"Otati anal strain
l- ..,...
-s-

0
0
0
0
0
0
I I .J
20 30 40 SO 60 70 eo 90
angle of rotation a Idegreesl
Fig. 1: Comparison of FE and theoretical predictions of force and stress
during combined extension and rotation of a single element.
this magnitude, equation (10) leads to approximately zero values of strain
increment [10 J.
The importance of using the correct definition of strain increment is
clearly demonstrated in fig. 1 11hich compares FE predictions (one ,;ith LCR
strain, the other using the infinitesimal definition) of the force and
stress 11ith a direct analytical approach for the combined extension and
rotation of a body.
- 99 -
With the LCR definition of strain increment, and the deformation gradient
defined in equation (11), equation (9) may be re-written in its incremental
form:
J(
OCll" J(D" "kl - 26 "lo"k)lIll + OCu" ")o"k
u
" k)dVOl (14)
1J 1J J 1 < J ,1 1 J,
2.6 Elastic-plastic constitutive relationship
Most common metals appear to obey von Hises' yield criterion. This states
that a region will deform plastically when its generalised stress a reaches
a critical value determined (in the simplest approach) by the accumulated
plastic strain (p, that is when:
o (15)
in which a prime denotes a deviatoric component of stress.
A basic assumption of an elastic-plastic formulation is that an increment of
strain may divided into its elastic (recoverable) and plastic
(irrecoverable) parts. This assumption appears to be valid providing the
increments are not too large [11]. Normality of the plastic strain increment
to the yield locus in stress/strain space [12], and the use of the
generalised form of Hooke's lal-l for the elastic component leads to the
Prandtl-Reuss flOli rule [13]:
+
1J
(16)
In these equations, lIA is a proportionality factor depending upon material
properties and the strain history, E is Young's modulus and v is Poisson's
ratio.
The Prandtl-Reuss equations may be re-arranged [14] to obtain the
incremental form of equation (6). This defines
constitutive matrix D
ijkl
to be:
the elastic-plastic
- 100 -
(17)
in which Y' denotes the derivative of yield stress with respect to plastic
strain.
In practice, the last term of equation (17) is omitted if an element is
deforming elastically, and for a plastically-deforming element, Poisson's
ratio is given a value close to 0.5 (0.4999 is frequently used) in order to
enforce plastic incompressibility.
2.7 Constant-dilatation correction
Using a value of Poisson's ratio close to 0.5 in the stiffness formulation
for a plastically-deforming element tends to enforce volume constancy at
every point of that element. Since each element has only a limited number of
degrees of freedom, the effect is to over-constrain the deformation [15].
From equation (17) it can be shown that:
O(lIE: .. )D. 'J I!:lE
J
I
J.] J.];: {
.)D. '11!:lEk'l + KO(1:l )I:l
J.] J.] { pp qq
(18)
in which the deviatoric strain increment is defined by:
!:lE .
J.]
!:lE ..
J.]
(19)
and K is the elastic bulk modulus. It can be seen that the last term of
equation (18) represents the contribution of the bulk strain to the. element
stiffness. In the constant-dilatation technique, first proposed by
Nagtegaal, Parks and Rice [16], this term is replaced by one \,hich involves,
not the bulk strain increnent at a point, but the change in volume strain or
dilatation of the whole element ,,,here:
(20)
and V is the volume of the element.
- 101 -
Thus the insistence upon incompressibility at every point of an element is
relaxed, and only the total volume of the element is required to be
constant. This technique leads, in the limit, to the same number of volume
constraints per degree of freedom as occur in a continuum.
Since the dilatation is the same for the whole element, its use in equation
(14) produces:
- )nE )dVOI
pp qq
2.8 Interpolation procedure
+ -vKfo(nE )dVOI.f6E dvol
pp qq
(21)
In order to evaluate the volume integrals in equation (21) it is necessary
to express the strain increment and the deformation gradient at each point
in terms of the nodal displacements. The incremental displacement of a
particle of the element with initial co-ordinates Xj may be written in the
form:
6x.
1
(22)
\,here NI is the interpolation function of the Ith node of the element. If:
then from equation (11):
and from equation (10):
where:
{': ..
1J
u. .
1,]
.M
I

,J 1
(23)
(24)
(25)
"B"I
1J m
- 102 -
(26)
The form of the interpolation functions depends upon the number and
arrangement of the nodes of the element. Usually, they may be expressed most
simply as functions of a local co-ordinate system defined for each element.
In this case, the Cartesian spatial derivatives of the shape functions in
equations (24) and (26) must be evaluated from the local spatial derivatives
using the chain rule.
2.9 Incremental-stiffness eguations
Substitution of equations (24) and (25) into equation (21) produces:
fOCMIm)(Bijrm(Dijkl - 20jl(\k)BklJn + Nr,iOmnaikNJ,k
- KB"
r
B "J ]M
J
dvol
11 m JJ n n
+ 0(6d
I
) (-vKfB" I dVOl.fB "J dVOI]lld
J
m 11 m JJ n n
(27)
from which the arbitrary variations in nodal incremental displacement may be
cancelled to give the element stiffness equations:
+ K(o) + K($) ]6d
ImJn ImJn In
(28)
where:
JBijlmDijklBJnkldVOl
(29)
is the deformation-stiffness matrix, i.e. the usual infinitesimal strain
stiffness matrix,
K(a)
ImJn
J(
N
1
.0 a'
1
N
J
k
,1 mn 1.< ,
is the stress-increment correction matrix and:
is the constant-dilatation correction matrix.
(30)
(31)
- 103 -
2.10 Solution of stiffness eguations
The volume integrals in equations (29), (30) and (31) are evaluated by
numerical quadrature, and the element matrices are assembled to form the
global stiffness matrix. This matrix may then be inverted by means of
Gaussian elimination and back-substitution to solve for the nodal
incremental displacements [17].
2.11 Non-linearity
Since the incremental stiffness equations are linear, they can give only an
approximate description of the non-linear behaviour of the workpiece during
an increment. To improve the accuracy of the FE solution, a second-order
Runge-Kutta technique is adopted [17]. Hith this approach, the stiffness
matrix is evaluated using the material stress and strain at the start of the
increment, and the equations are then solved in order to determine an
estimate of the stress and strain halfway through the step. A new stiffness
matrix is then constructed, based upon these mid-increment values, and
solved to give a better estimate of the incremental nodal displacements.
Accurate predictions during the early stages of deformation are obtained by
means of a procedure which reduces the size of yield-transition increments,
in l;hich elements start to deform plastically [14].
2.12 Boundary conditions
Any F:O: analysis ",hich is used to study metal forming processes must be
capable of modelling complex and changing boundary conditions, and of
applying a frictional restraint to any surface of the Horkpiece. In the
present analYSiS, complicated die shapes may be defined by combining simple
geometric prir:1itive surfaces. The analysis automatically detects contact
betl1een the lwrkpiece and the defined surfaces and re-sets the nodal
boundary conditions accordingly [17]. Frictional restraints are applied to
the surfaces of the lwrkpiece using the beta-factor technique introduced by
Hartley et al [18]. In this technique, the stiffness of a supplementary
layer of elements at the surface is modified by a factor proportional to
m
where is the ratio of shear stress at the surface to the shear
I-m'
m
yield stress.
.....
.....
"-
.....
2.13 Calculation of stress
- 104 -
,
,
\
\
\
Fig. 2: Representation on
synoptic plane of strain-
hardening mean-normal method
of calculating a finite stress
change.
Nategaal and de Jong [15] have shown that use of the elastic-plastic
constitutive expression to calculate the changes in stress from
previously-calculated strain increments can lead to inaccurate and unstable
FE solutions unless the increment size is very small. In the present
finite-deformation formulation therefore, the mean-normal method of
calculating the increments of stress is used. This technique was first
suggested by Rice and Tracey [19] and extended to include strain-hardening
properties by Tracey [20].
The technique is illustrated in fig. 2 with reference to stresses plotted in
the synoptic plane. Point A represents the stress state at the start of the
increment on the initial yield locus, and B represents the final stress
state after some degree of strain hardening. The form of the Prandtl-Reuss
flow rule given in equation (16) assumes the increment of plastic strain is
parallel to the deviatoric stress at the start of the increment. The
mean-normal method makes the more realistic assumption that the plastic
strain increment is parallel to the deviatoric stress half-way through the
step. It can be seen from fig. 2 that the latter stress (OC) is parallel to
8I
j
(aD) "here:
and:
b.rf .

a
ij
- 105 -
0.. +

The quantity G in equation (33) is the elastic rigidity modulus.
The modified Prandtl-Reuss equations are therefore:
I.hich may be re-arranged to give:
b.o ..

(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
Equation (35) a11ol;s the stress increment to be calculated once the
proportionali ty factor b.m is knOlm. Application of von I'lises' s yield
criterion to the state of stress at the end of the increment shows that this
factor may be evaluated by solving the equation:
ailm'
+
bilm
+
c
y' [E
P
+
(36)
where: a

(37)
b .+LIa
e
,,) (38)
1J 1J 1J
C
- .+ilo
e
'.)( a' ',)
1J 1J 1J 1J
(39)
The solution is carried out iteratively, and is found to be rapidly
convergent. The procedure is particularly efficient since the coefficients
of the quadratic function need only be evaluated once at the start of the
iteration.
Although the formulation used attempts to enforce the incompressibility of
- 106 -
the workpiece, small changes in volume are unavoidable due to the finite
number of degrees of freedom available to model the deformation. Since such
volume changes must be interpreted elastically by any elastic-plastic
technique, they can give rise to very large errors in the hydrostatic
component of stress. For this reason, the mean-normal method is used only to
calculate the deviatoric components of incremental stress, and the
hydrostatic stress is calculated by the indirect method proposed by
Alexander and Price [21].
Since the present technique assumes zero body forces, principles of force
equilibrium lead to the expression:
.
-3,,-ll
ax.
J
(40)
The deviatoric stress may be calculated at arbitrary points within the mesh
using the mean-normal method, so the distribution, and hence the spatial
gradients, of deviatoric stress may, in principle, be evaluated throughout
the body. Integration of equation (40) along a given line therefore a11O\;s
the change in hydrostatic stress to be calculated bett;een its t",o
end-points. Since the hydrostatic stress at any free surface is known to be
equal to the negative of the deviatoric stress normal to that surface, a
starting point is easily found for the integration, so that the hydrostatic
stress may be determined anYI'lhere within the I;orkpiece.
3. Applications of the three-dimensional finite-element method
T,m examples of the application of 3-D elastic-plastic FE analysis to
industrial forming processes are given. Those selected are the forging of a
connecting rod and the rolling of steel slab. In addition, the problem of
forging a rectangular block t;ith a central hole is considered, to compare
detailed predictions I,ith controlled experimental lubrication
conditions. The use of the analysis for prediction of fracture during
forging is also illustrated.
- 107 -
3.1 Forging of rectangular blocks
Experimental observations of the deformation in the compression of solid
aluminium blocks between flat, parallel
platens with no lubricant, reveals a complex mode of flow[22]. All faces of
the blocks exhibit reflex curvature with central convex bulges. The bulges
on the longer vertical faces are more pronounced and depressions caused by
more slowly moving material are formed at each end of the face. Significant
roll-round of this initially free surface into contact with the platens is
also observed.
Predictions of the deformation using the 3-D FEH are shown in fig.3.
Comparisons of the predictions of the distortion of the external profile
with that found experimentally are shOl'lll in fig.4. The coarseness of the FE
mesh prevents exact agreement but the important features are clearly
predicted.
0.1%
11\111
I
II \ \ \ \
. I \ j \ r \
\ \ \ \ 1 \ I \
. _ I \ I \ \ t \ 1 1
I : I 1111 I JI
Fig. 3: Distortion of FE grids in the simulation of the upsetting of a
rectangular aluminium block with no lubrication.
- 108 -
----- exptl.
profile
---
-

1-
r--
---1- I :
1-- U: -
T
I \
I'.
\ L
Fig. 4: Upsetting of a rectangular aluminium block: FE grid distortions and
experimental profiles.
Verification of the FE results through comparison with experiment in bulk
forming is always difficult as exact solutions to real problems cannot be
determined. A reasonable assessment of FE simulations can be made through
the use of hardness distributions. Though some experimental scatter is
inevitable, hardness can be related directly to generalised plastic strain
and therefore provide one of the fel'l means of checking the theoretical
results. Such a comparison is presented in fig.5, for selected vertical and
horizontal planes through the compressed block, and good agreement is found.
The compression of a block I;ith a central hole can be used to assess the
comparative performance of forging lubricants and to check theoretical
techniques for incorporating friction effects in 3-D simulations in the same
way that the "ring-test" has been used for axisymmetric forging[18].
- 109 -
60
I VPN
60
SO
SO
SO
40 40
40
30
30
30
(Q)
bO
SO
SO
SO
40
40
40
30
30
30
60
SO
SO
40
40
Fig. 5: Predicted and
30
30
experimental VPN hardness
distributions on (a,b) two
vertical planes and (c) a
horizontal plane through a
rectangular block upset by
60
approximately 40Z.
SO
SO
40
40
30
30
- 11 0 -
In the ring-test the central hole will either expand or contract during the
axial compression of the ring, depending on whether low or high friction is
present at the interface, but will always retain its approximately circular
shape.In contrast,the hole in the rectangular block changes both size and
shape during the compression process.\<}hen the lubrication is good, the
central hole becomes elliptical with the major axis parallel to the shorter
side. \,hen lanolin lubrication was used on an aluminium block, the major
axis was found to increase in size throughout compression. Hhen no lubricant
was used the hole became elliptical as before but the major axis decreased
throughout. In both experiments the minor axis was always found to decrease.
The FE simulations for both levels of friction are shmm in fig.6.
Fig. 6: FE simulation of the upsetting of an aluminium block with a central
hole.
- 111
The changes in the major axis are compared ,.ith experiment in fig. 7, a
similar pattern is found up to 35 per cent reduction in height, after which
the low friction analysis tends to overestimate the frictional restraint.
The forging of a rectangular block with a central hole is particularly
useful in assessing FE methods incorporating a realistic friction technique
as the existence of changing flow divides and neutral zones within the
workpiece provides a complex and demanding test for any FE model.
50
]
40

go 10
.!!!
.!O
o expll results
lunlubricated)
o expll results
(lea:! lubrication)
-x-x- finite-element
results
3.2 Forging of a connecting-rod
Fig. 7: Experimental and FE
predictions of the change in
the major axis of the ellipse
formed ,,,hen compressing a
rectangular block ",ith a
central hole.
Automobile components form a large part of UK production of forged products,
of "hich a cor.unon exnf.lple is a connecting-rod. These may appear in a Hide
rnnge of sizes and in a number of different materials, but all have their
major geometric features in common. The model aluminium component chosen for
analysis here is typical of connecting-rod design. These components are
usually formed in a sequence of about six operations. Although complete
sequences can be analysed using FE techniques incorporating frequent
re-meshing[23], only one stage of the connecting-rod sequence has been
selected to demonstrate the capability of the 3-D model in simulating a
complex industrial forging operation[24].
- 11 2 -
The preform shape and initial FE mesh are shown in Fig.8. In-this model 600
eight-node brick elements were used, representing one quarter of the
,wrkpiece. The material properties of commercially-pure
aluminium ,.,ere used in the analyses which were performed in steps of 0.5 per
cent reduction in height per increment. Each increment required about 120
seconds of CDC7600 CPU time.
Laboratory forging trials were performed using an aluminium billet
lubricated graphite and deformed at room temperature. The t,w limiting
frictional conditions for FE analyses were conducted assuming (i) zero
friction and (ii) sticking friction on all boundary surfaces that came into
contact with the workpiece. These show the external extremes of deformation
pattern that are possible. Sixteen boundary surfaces were required to
represent the die-cavities for this forging.
Fig. 8: Preform shape and
initial FE mesh used for the
modelling of the forGing of a
connecting rod.
During the stage selected for simulation the big-end and small-end cavities
are formed together 'vith the 'H' shaped connecting piece. Some flash
formation is inevitable as the material spreads out to fill the
die-cavities. Fig.9 illustrates the FE grid distortions for the two limiting
boundary conditions. The grid distortions and incremental displacemental
vectors from various vertical and horizontal planes through the model shown
in fig.IO illustrate more clearly the differences that occur in the
metal-flow for the tHO levels of friction. Hith no frictional restraint the
flm1 is predicted to be more homogeneous compared to the sticking friction
results. This is clear from fig. lOa, but more striking is the different
pattern of metal floH indicated on the horizontal plane in fig. lOb. In the
big-end, flow ,,'ith sticking friction is of a radial nature, away from the
centre. Flml in the connecting piece is away from, and almost perpendicular
to, the centre line of the Horkpiece. Uhen zero friction is assumed, more
- 11 3 -
flow in the axial direction of the workpiece is evident in both the big-end
and the connecting piece.
Fig. 9: FE grid distortion at
sticking friction and (b) zero
connecting rod forging operation.
various levels of
friction during
deformation for
the simulation
(a)
of a
An interesting feature of the simulations is that very little flash
formation is predicted in both analyses at one location, ",here the
connecting piece joins the small-end. This unusual feature is also observed
in the laboratory experiments. As in the previous examples, general
agreement with experiment is obtained but again the necessary coarseness of
the FE mesh prevents exact correlation, particularly around the sharp
corners of the die-cavities ",here material is extruded out to form the
flash. Re-meshing at various stages in the analysis together "'ith a finer
mesh "ill reduce the differences but obviously increase the computing time.
(0)
- 114 -
stic.king friction
AEP
zero friction
"3 _

F S ==..--. \ \ \ __
I
,
I
- I
zero --1
3

zero friction
@L

-'\ //,'
__ __
Fig. 10: Hodelling a connecting rod forging: FE predictions of deformation
on (a) vertical planes and (b) a horizontal plane through the >lOrkpiece at
approximately 64% deformation.
- 11 5 -
3.3 Rolling of steel slab
During the rolling of thin plate where the width of the plate is much
greater than its height, very little lateral spread of the workpiece occurs.
This allows the process to be considered as one of plane-strain and means
that a number of analytical methods such as slip-line fields or even the
theory of homogeneous deformation, as well as FEH[25], may be used to
analyse the process. When the height of the plate or slab is of the same
order as its width, this is no longer true; lateral spread becomes important
and the process requires a full 3-D model for a proper analysis. The example
given here shows the use of the elastic-plastic 3-D FEN to simulate the
rolling of steel slab[26]. Fig.11 illustrates slab rolling and the quarter
of the workpiece modelled in the FE simulation.
WORKPIECE (SLAB)
H
QUARTER OF SLA B
USED FOR FE MODEL
/t-n.----.J
W I
INITIAL GEOMETRY OF SLAB
Fig. 11: Slab rolling and section used in FE model.
Three ratios of initial \V/E and various reductions of slab thickness are
considered to shO\, their influence on spread. Fig.12 shows the FE results
compared to experimental measurements[27]. The correlation is clearly very
good. Since there are no severe geometric changes such as occurred in the
forging examples, the coarse FE mesh used is adequate for rolling. An
example of a distorted FE grid is shown in fig.13.
- 11 6 -
10
Experiment
8
0
W/H= 1
;0-
Il.
W/H= 2
v W/H= 3

FEM-- w
a:
0..
III
<14
a:
w
.....
<{
--'
2
0
0 5 10 15 20
REDUCTION IN SLAB THICKNESS "I.
Fig. 13: Typical distorted
FE mesh used in slab rolling
simulation.
25
Fig. 12: Experimental
observations [27] and FE
predictions of spread in
slab rolling.
The pressure distribution on the roll/workpiece interface is also of
importance in rolling. This can be used to assess rolling force and torque
and the elastic flattening of the rolls.
- 117 -
A typical distribution obtained using the FEN is given in fig.14. The
determination of accurate pressure distributions and of residual stresses in
the rolled slab requires an elastic-plastic solution since the slab will
deform elastically after leaving the rolls. The point of separation of the
roll and workpiece must be carefully determined as this occurs at some point
after the minimum roll gap. The elastic/plastic transition on entry cannot
be assumed to occur at the initial contact point, as in some simpler
theories, because this occurs at a short distance upstream of the initial
contact point. The elastic-plastic FEfI therefore provides a means of
obtaining a complete analysis of all the important features of slab rolling.
,,500
a..
;;:"00
Fig. 14: Typical pressure distribution in slab rolling predicted by the 3-D
FEll.
3.4 Fracture initiation in for3ing
The location and level of deformation at \"hich fractures initiate needs to
be identified to avoid failure either during the forging process or more
- 118 -
seriously, during the use of the forged product.
Several criteria to predict the initiation of a ductile fracture associated
lYith the large plastic flolY involved in metalforming have been proposed.
Nost of these appear to be satisfactory for specific cases but fel< are of
general applicability in forming. Some of these may be described as
continuum models lYhere the criterion'is a function of the stress components,
usually integrated over the strain path to fracture, while others rely on
models of void growth and coalescence. A fracture mechanics approach may
also be considered in "hich the energy required to propagate a crack is
analysed.
As the FEN allows a detailed analysiS of the stress and strain states
throughout the deforming lYorkpiece
forming process it is an ideal tool
and of their variation throughout the
for assessing the various fracture
criteria. As a preliminary study several of the fracture criteria lYhich lYere
compatible ,;ith the FE model lYere selected for further consideration. A
number of materials and processes, such as extrusion, upsetting and
side-pressing, lYere simulated using the 3-D FEH. The results lYere then used
to assess the predictions given by the various criteria[28J.
Typical of the results obtained in this assessment are those produced from
an analysis of plane-strain side-pressing of a 7075 aluninium alloy[29]. In
this operation a cylindrical rod is constrained longitudinally, to prevent
axial movement while being deformed perpendicular to the central axis. Rods
,;ith two opposing machined flats were also deformed in this '-lay. The
cross-sections and initial FE meshes are shown in fig. IS. During the
deformation process fractures were observed to occur at the centre of the
l<orkpiece with an initially circular cross-section. l!OIvever, when the rods
with machined flats "ere deformed, fractures were found to initiate near to
the original corner on the outer surface, Fig.16.
Each of the fracture criteria were considered in turn in a post-processing
program. After the FE simulations "ere complete the results '-Iere analysed
and the nodal point at which the fracture criterion reached a pre-determined
critical value was located. The variation throughout the deformation process
- 119 -
of the value of the criterion at the relevant nodal point was then plotted.
Fig. 15: Initial geometries and FE meshes for plane-strain side-pressing.
INlTIATIlN SITE fOR
INITIAlLY CACUlAR SECTION
Fig. 16: Fracture initiation sites in plane-strain side-pressing.
Fig.17 Sho\-lS a typical presentation of the results. This diagram shOl-lS the
variation of the generalised plastic \-lOrk criterion[30j "hich "as the only
one of those tested that accurately predicted the fracture initiation site
for all the geometries considered. Other criteria such as one based on
maximum principal tensile stress[31j or one that included an explicit
influence of hydrostatic stress[32j failed to predict the correct initiation
site for the non-circular rods. The level of deformation at "hich fracture
occurred was also correctly predicted using the generalised plastic "ork
criterion.
- 120 -

E CRITICAL VAlUE OF jlJ dl.
Z
: FR().I


II
i'
b-H
C II

FRACTURE FOR TI I . I
CIRCU.AR sa:TJON ANO
Ill. AND FOR H/W.2OJ
5 10 IS
DEFORMATION ."
XI
191


7


Fig. 17: Variation of the plastic "ork fracture criterion for specific
nodes in the modelling of plane-strain side-pressing.
This demonstrated t",o points, firstly that many of the established fracture
criteria have only a restricted range of application, and secondly, assuning
that a general criterion of fracture can be found, that the FEN can be used
to identify ;,1here and ",hen fractures are likely to occur during the forming
process. Information of this nature is vital to establishing optimum forming
routes and improving the quality and reliability of products manufactured by
bulk forming.
- 1 21
4. Related developments
The development of FE methods has now reached a stage where they can be
applied to industrial problems with some confidence, although some expertise
in choosing the correct mesh, increment size, type of formulation etc. for
each problem is still required.
FE simulation programs are now being linked to CAD die-design programs to
produce an integrated system for forging design[33]. The use of 'learning'
data-bases also allows the overall program to be constructed in the form of
expert or intelligent knOl"ledge based systems.
Several other areas still require further investigation. The inclusion of
temperature effects for example[ 34] requires detailed knOldedge of the
variation of the material properties with temperature and of the
conductivity of various surface coatings normally used with forgings. !>iuch
of this data is not readily available. The anisotropic behaviour of some
materials may also need to be considered.
The use of re-meshing has been referred to earlier. This is essential for
modelling multi-stage operations but in 3-D this is at present particularly
difficult and laborious. This needs to be improved for future applications.
The need to use large computers is at present restricting the industrial use
of non-linear FE techniques. Although recent developments have been r.lade in
developing programs for microcomputers[35] much work remains to be done,
especially for 3-D simulations.
5. Conclusions
An elastic-plastic 3-dimensional finite-element method suitable for the
simulation of large deformation processes such as occur in bulk metal forming
has been described. The importance of including in the formulation precise
definitions of incremental stress and strain has been demonstrated.
Several examples of the application of the 3-D FE model have been presented
and demonstrate the capability of such a technique for simulating real
- 122 -
industrial processes.
Techniques of this type should be of particular value in the introduction of
new forged products complex geometries or new materials are used and
should contribute to a significant reduction in development lead times.
Acknowledgements
The work on fracture was conducted by Ns. S. E. Clift and on rolling by Hr.
C. Liu. Huch of the work reported here has been supported by the Science
and Engineering Research Council.
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Inst. Hetals (1968) 96, pp.33-39.
[32] Brozzo, P.; Deluca, B.; Rendina, R.: A new method for the prediction of
the formability limits of metal sheets. Proc. 7th. Congress of the Int.
Deep Dra\dng Research Group (1972).
[33] Eames, A.: A computer system for forging die design and flow
simulation. ;lSc. thesis, University of Birmingham, UK (1985).
[34] Pillinger, 1.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.:'l.; Rowe, G.H.:
Thermo-mechanical finite-element analysis of metal forming. Proc. 4th.
Int. Conf. on Thermal Problems (1985).
[35] Hussin, A.A.M.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.IV.:
Finite-element plasticity on microcomputers. Stress analysis and the
Hiero Conf. City Uni versi t y, London (1985).
- 125 -
Three-Dimensional Thermomechanical Analysis of
Metal forming Processes
J.H. Argyris, J.St. Doltsinis, J. Luginsland
Institute for Computer Applications,
University of Stuttgart
Summary
The analysis of metal forming processes requires consideration
of the three-dimensional nature of the process involving a
material undergoing substantial deformations under the action
of the die. Significant thermal phenomena may be activated
by both pronounced temperature differences and internal
dissipation during the forming process. Furthermore, unsteady
contact between material and die plays a significant role and
involves frictional effects and heat transfer phenomena.
The present survey summarises the theoretical fundamentals of
thermomechanically coupled deformation processes together with
methodologies for the computational treatment in the context of
the finite element technique. In addition, frictional effects
are investigated and an attempt to describe these analytically
via a numerical interpretation of experimental data_is made.
As a selected application, the three-dimensional computation
of the forging of an aircraft turbine blade in titanium alloy
is demonstrated.
- 126 -
1. Introduction
Numerical investigations of industrial metal forming processes
become increasingly important in conjunction with the
requirement of an optimal employment of materials and tools.
Such investigations are of a complicated nature as they
ultimately involve a three-dimensional consideration of large
deformations coupled with thermal effects as well as unsteady
contact conditions between tool and material.
On the basis of the natural approach to the mechanics of
continuous media, a computational methodology is being
developed for the finite element solution of coupled
thermomechanical problems and has been applied to the solution
of various metal forming processes [1,2,3,41. A recent
account of the natural approach to the mechanics and
thermomechanics of continuous media may be found in reference
[5] . Here, we will restrict ourselves to the presentation of
the infinitesimal tetrahedron element in fig. 1 which, in the
natural description, replaces the parallelepiped of the
classical cartesian point of view. Furthermore, natural
(supernumerary) co-ordinate axes are defined along the
directions of the edges of the tetrehedron element. For a set
up of finite expressions on this basis, the reader should
refer to [4,6,7].
Our present survey begins with the mechanical equations
governing the deformation of the material under an of
external loads. The principle of virtual work provides the
adequate weak statement which may serve as a starting pOint for
the development of finite element expressions. In the next
step, stresses are related to strains via constitutive
equations, which are of relevance in the present context. Thus,
constitutive equations of the rate type are first presented
describing hypoelastic-plastic behaviour in the presence of
large strains. Alternatively, a mixed total/rate formulation
combines a hyperelastic material constituent withfue flow
- 127 -
characteristics of the inelastic constituent. The latter may
be specified in accordance with time independent plasticity,
but may also account for time and rate inelastic
effects. Under certain conditions materials exhibit a
pronounced viscous behaviour whilst elastic contributions to
the overall strains are negligible. In such cases elastic
effects can often be entirely disregarded and an exclusively
inelastic viscous material can be dealt with.
Thermal effects may occur during the course of forming
processes as a result of temperature differences between the
die and the material and may also be due to local dissipation
of mechanical work. An account of thermal action requires non-
isothermal stress-strain relations where the temperature enters
as an additional variable affecting the equations of motion.
The balance of energy provides the equation governing the
temperature field which is coupled with the deformation. For
this purpose, the specific internal energy of the body has to
be described in terms of the temperature and the strains.
Besides which, the classical Fourier's law is applied to relate
the temperature gradient and the heat flow in the material.
Once the discretised equations governing the coupled thermo-
mechanical problem are established, numerical methods may be
applied to their solution. If we consider the purely
mechanical inelastic problem first, a non-linear solution
methodology based on the classical Newton iterative scheme is
indicated. Different variants are intended to simplify the
iteration procedure and are frequently applied in actual
computations. The solution of the thermomechanically coupled
problem requires the treatment of the equations of motion
concurrently with the energy equation. The numerical treatment
can, in principle, be based on a coupled solution of the two
equation system. A simplified technique treating the mechanical
and the thermal problem sequentially within each iteration
loop, however, proves to be satisfactory for our present
purpose.
- 128 -
Contact between material and tool and the phenomenon of
friction between the contact surfaces are of great importance
in metal forming processes. Some preliminary investigations on
frictional effects have been performed as part of a joint
research programme at the "Institut fUr Bildsame Formgebung" in
Aachen and the Institute for Computer Applications, which may
be of interest to the scientific community. In this context,
an attempt is made to specify a frictional law by interpreting
experimental test results numerically and applying them
subsequently to the computation of a second test configuration.
A three-dimensional computation of the unsteady forging
process of a turbine blade in titanium alloy concludes the
paper and involves substantial thermomechanical coupling due
to the action of the cold die on the hot material as well as
internal dissipation of mechanical energy and temperature
dependent thermomechanical material characteristics.
2. Motion and Deformation of the Material
We begin with a consideration of the deformation process of
the solid, which for the present purpose is assumed to occur
quasistatically so that inertia terms may be omitted in the
equations of motion. Bearing in mind our prospective
application of the finite element technique to the deformation
of the solid material, we will consider the condition of
equilibrium in the weak form, assuming within the deformed
configuration a finite volume V bounded by the surface S
The principle of the virtual work may then be expressed in the
natural form
j d V = J tic d V r j t ( d 5
V V S
(2.1)
The symbols of the kinematic and static variables in (2.1)
refer to column matrices comprising natural entries in
- 129 -
accordance with the the natural approach to the mechanics of
continua and must be seen in antithesis to the traditional
cartesian approach [81. Thus, V
t
comprises the total natural
entries of a virtual velocity vector field (cf. fig. 2) and
denotes the associated rate of deformation, based on the
symmetric part of the velocity gradient [7}. It is interesting
to observe that the total velocity corresponds - in the sense
of virtual work - to the component volume forces and
surface tractions tG (cf. fig. 2). In addition, the total
natural rate of deformation corresponds to the natural
component definition of Cauchy stress and vice versa, fig. 3.
This correspondence is expressed via the invariance relation
(2.2)
In order to relate the left-hand side on (2.1) to the kinematic
and thermal variables involved in the deformation process, the
constitutive equations for the particular material must be
specified. Below, we list a representative selection of
constitutive laws applicable to the range of our prospective
problems. We will begin with the description of elastoplastic
materials given by R. HillI9]. In this formulation, use is made
of the Kirchhoff-Trefftz stress O>K which refers to the
current deformed configuration of the material and cOincides,
therefore, with the Cauchy stress. Differences between the two
definitions of stress are recognised merely in their
respective time rates. Thus, the current density remains
constant in the former definition of Kirchhoff-Trefftz stress
while density varies in the latter Cauchy definition. The
constitutive relations ultimately connect the Jaumann rate of
the so defined Kirchhoff-Trefftz stress with the rate of
deformation f . The cartesian formulation of reference [9}
can be converted into the natural one and reads (cf.
(2.3)
- 130 -
v
where ()KC denotes the Jaumann rate of the natural component
Kirchhoff-Trefftz stress and ){ct the respective natural
material stiffness.
Here, the material stiffness in (2.3) is assumed to be
symmetr ic. In the case of elastic unloading, the stress-strain
relations of (2.3) reflect hypoelastic (rate) behaviour. In
the elastoplastic case, on the other hand, the symmetric
relation between G-
KC
and St cannot be established from a
yield condition unless the density of the material, its volume,
respectively, remains constant in the course of the deformation
process. This remark is independent of the particular
presentation of (2.3) whether it is natural or cartesian.
Furthermore, the transition to a relation between stress and
kinematic variables in (2.1) requires a careful integration of
the rate relation (2.3) which can generally only be performed
in an approximate progressive manner.
Alternative methodologies [10,111 establish a hyperelastic
(total) constituent of the material characterised by an elastic
relation between stress and the elastic part of strain. The
inelastic component of the material is specified by a rate
type constitutive assumption modelling either plastic flow,
viscoplasticity or creep. In particular, the material
description going back to E.H. Lee [10] takes advantage of the
fact that the elastic characteristics of the material may be
considered independent of preceding inelastic deformations to
a certain extent. This, however, applies to strain and stresses
referring to the so-called stress-free configuration fC of
the material. The stress-free configuration reflects the
result of inelastic deformation and is based on an imaginary
elastic local unloading of the deformed material, and is
generally discontinuous.
Elastic and inelastic strains are defined in accordance with
the aforementioned partitioning of the deformation process.
Thus, the total natural strain
- 131 -
== (2.4)
is a Green-type strain referring to the unloaded configuration.
This reference configuration is common to the elastic part of
strain Ct which then proves to be a Green strain, and the
inelastic part which is in accordance with an Almansi
definition. The stress is assumed to be that of the symmetric
Piola-Kirchhoff definition with reference to the stress-free
configuration. It satisfies the virtual work expression in the
form
=
(2.5)
o
where ! is the density of the material and d't denotes the
time rate of the strain d't in (2.4) taken at a fixed stress-
free configuration. Expression (2.5) provides a transition to
the Cauchy stress on the right-hand side and can be used
directly to replace the integral on the left-hand side in
(2.1)
The elastic response of the material may be given via Hooke's
law as
G'
Pc
(2.6)
and connects the stress directly with the elastic part of
strain. Nevertheless, an integration in time of the particular
inelastic evolution law is still necessary in order to arrive
at the inelastic strain entering into the final expression in
(2.6). We should also note that the oombination of a total
elastic and a rate inelastic material constituent leads, in
principle, to non-symmetric relations between stress rates and
strain rates.
- 132 -
In certain situations relevant to metal forming processes the
material can be modelled adequately as a purely viscous medium.
The constitutive relation for an isotopic material can then be
stated in natural terms as [6,7]
(2.7)
between the deviatoric parts of the Cauchy stress and the rate
of deformation, and as
between the hydrostatic stress and the volumetric rate of
deformation. In (2.7), f1 stands for the viscosity
(2.8)
coefficient of the material. Usually, the inelastic flow occurs
under isochoric conditions, so that the coefficient k in
(2.8) serves merely as a penalty parameter; in which case
X 00 The penalty approach is often used in order to
facilitate the treatment of the incompressibility constraint
by standard procedures. From (2.7) and (2.8), the natural form
of the viscous constitutive equations are derived in the form
[71
(2.9)
where the viscosity coefficient is the decisive material
characteristic and may be a non-linear function of the rate of
deformation, and of the accumulated strain, if strain
hardening effects are to be considered in addition to the
viscous behaviour [4]. As a matter of fact, the constitutive
relation (2.9) may be substituted directly into the integral
on the left-hand side of (2.1).
- 133 -
For typographical brevity, the application of the natural
finite element technique to the discretisation of (2.1) will
be omitted here and the interested reader should refer to
(6,71 in connection with this. For the present purpose, quoting
the final equation governing quasistatic deformation of the
body discretised by finite elements in the form
(2.10)
is sufficient. Equation (2.10) expresses the equivalence
between the forces applied to the modes of the discretised
body as collected in the column matrix , and the nodal
stress resultants in the column matrix 5 . The dependence of
the external forces on the time t and possibly on the
current position of the nodal points as specified by the
column matrix )( is noticeable. The stress resultants 5 may
also depend on both the deforming geometry )( and, in the
case of a viscous material, on the velocity )(
3. An Account of Thermal Effects
Thermal effects can arise in the deforming solid by externally
applied thermal action and irreversible, as well as reversible,
deformations in the material. The interaction between the
transient fields of deformation and temperature in the body
necessitates the consideration of a coupled thermomechanical
problem.
For an account of thermal effects during the course of the
deformation process, the mechanical constitutive relations
must be modified for non-isothermal situations. For this
purpose, the rate equation in (2.3) may be stated in the form
=
(3.1)
- 134 -
where -r denotes the absolute temperature and specifies
the rate thermal expansion of the material. That the material
characteristics depend on the temperature is not indicated
explicitly in (3.1), this also applies to the subsequent
considerations. The total formulation of the material
constitution as given in (2.6) may be modified for non-
isothermal situations as follows
(3.2)
where T is the temperature of the actual stress-free state
and 0( accounts for the thermal expansion of the material in
a total sense. Finally, the non-isothermal form of the
constitutive equation for the viscous material (2.9) may be
stated as
(3.3)
The presence of the temperature as an additional variable
requires an appropriate governing equation. The latter is
provided by the energy balance. Considering the local form, we
have as usual
where
.f
is the
U the specific
material. The heat
by
9
and W is
of the rate of the
(3.4)
density of the reference configuration, and
internal energy (per unit mass) of the
supply per unit reference volume is denoted
the mechanical work. An adequate expression
specific internal energy and of the rate of
mechanical work in (3.4) furnishes (cf. [11)
JC T - =
(3.5)
- 135 -
In (3.5) C denotes the specific of the material
at constant strain. The stresses indicated and additive rates
o 0
of elastic and inelastic strain E-
t
J 'It are not restricted
to a particular definition and may be adjusted to conform to
the particular stress-strain relations used for the
description of the material response. In (3.5) the entire
inelastic work represented by the second term on the right-
hand side is assumed to be dissipated in the material.
A weak form of (3.5) is given for a finite volume V at the
reference configuration of the material as
J Tyc t dV - j T it dv = jT rdV + J1 u
G
t
1.t dV
V V V V
(3.6)
and establishes the starting point for a finite element
formulation of the temperature problem. Here, T denotes a
virtual temperature field. A complete specification of (3.6)
requires the expression of the rate of heat supply 9 in
terms of the temperature field. For this purpose, we introduce
the heat flow vector 9 first of all, which may be
represented in natural component or natural total terms
according to fig. 2. In particular, using the column matrix
.;
0(, . ", S
(3.7)
comprising the derivatives of the natural component heat flux
along the natural co-ordinates , the rate of heat
supply per unit volume of the material may be expressed as
(cf. [5,6J, fig.4)
(3.8)
where eo acts as a summation matrix for the six entries of
1:, . A natural form of Fourier's law may also be obtained
- 136 -
in the form
(3.9)
and this connects the total representation of the heat flux
9
t
with the temperature gradient along the natural
directions Alternative natural expressions of (3.9)
can be obtained via standard transformations [5,6]. Finally,
using (3.8), applying Gauss's theorem and considering Fourier's
law, the rate of heat supply integral in (3.6) may be
transformed into the convenient natural form [1,6]
1Tf dv =-- dv - J Tot (T- T.",) cis
y V 0
(3.10)
where
[
dT ] t
tl[ =- d Xc
(3. 11 )
denotes the total gradient of the virtual temperature field
and
=- [dT ]t
dX
t
(3.12 )
denotes the component gradient of the actual temperature
distribution in the material. The heat transfer coefficient
in (3.10) controls the heat exchange with
temperature through the surface S
temperature /.
the surroundings at
with the local
With (3.10) all prerequisites are given for a natural finite
element formulation emanating from the weak expression of the
energy balance in (3.6). For an application of the
discretisation technique the reader should refer to L4,6].
The ultimate expression governing the energy balance in the
- 137 -
material discretised by finite elements assumes the form
CT + L(i)T
(3.13 )
and indicates the explicit coupling with the mechanical
variables. In (3.13)
c
denotes the heat capacity matrix,
L a generalised heat conductivity matrix comprising
reversible mechanical effects and Q is the generalised
heat flux comprising irreversible mechanical contributions.
The column matrix l' comprises the nodal point
temperatures which also influence the equations governing the
mechanical response of the discretised material via the non-
isothermal stress-strain relations (3.1), (3.2), (3.3).
Consequently, (2.10) reads
o
(3.14 )
in the thermomechanically coupled case.
4. Computational Techniques
As an introduction, we will consider first of all the solution
of the purely mechanical problem governed by equation (2.10).
A fully algebraical equation can be obtained by linking
geometry and velocity in (2.10) via an approximate integration
within a time increment
b a
T : t - t
(4.1)
Thus, the geometry at the end of the time increment may be
given as
- 138 -
a a I.
X +- (/-$) r X -t S 7: X
(4.2)
with
L
=
(4.3)
representing the collocation parameter. With the aid of (4.2)
either the deforming geometry )( =- "X or the velocity
X= 1.;( may be considered to constitute the unknown variables
in (2.10). We may therefore state the problem of quasistatic
deformation at time instant I -= 'I in the form
f (Y) = R.. (t, Y) - 5 (y) =- 0
(4.4)
.
where Y stands for )( or )( at the end of the current
time increment.
A solution of the non-linear system (4.4) is given
subsequently on the basis of the iterative Newton technique.
The relevant recurrent formula reads
f
l
, + 6. [y, - y,] = 0
I If! I
(4.5)
and furnishes the result of iteration i f-/ using the data
obtained in the i-th iteration cycle.
It should be noted that an evaluation of the residual forces
f according to (4.4) is required in (4.5). This implies the
computation of the resultants of the internal stresses at the
nodal pOints of the discretised material. We then have
(4.6)
- 139 -
and the local stresses (f obey the constitutive law of the
particular material. The rate relation in (2.3) then requires
the application of an integration procedure while the latter
may be restricted to the inelastic constituent of the material
as stated by (2.6). The viscous material described by (2.9)
immediately specifies the stresses as a function of the actual
velocity gradient and here, the integration in time concerns
merely the global level and is given in (4.2).
The system gradient in (4.5) is defined by
6- =: dF ;::. 'JR. dX _ 85 dX uS di
d"l ()X d Y c;X dy -,()X c/Y (4.7)
where expression (4.4) has been used for the function F . We
must remember that the relation between )( I it and Y is
provided by the choice of the unknown variables in (4.4) and
the integration scheme in (4.2). Inviscid problems are
formulated preferably in terms of the deforming geometry )(
while;( might be convenient in the case of viscous motion.
The basic constituents of the gradient matrix in (4.7) may be
given as follows. The matrix
(4.8)
is known as the load correction matrix which accounts for the
dependence of the applied loads on the geometry [121. The
derivatives of the stress resultants are easily interpreted by
means of the presentation in (4.6). In a symbolic notation
(4.9)
The geometric stiffness K. IT reflects the effect of changes
in geometry at constant stress and results from changes of
stress associated with changes in geometry. This also presumes
- 140 -
dependence of the stress on the strain in the material which is
to be deduced from the particular constitutive relation.
Also
'JS(x, X) = fa) 'd (f ::
D
(4.10)
reflects the viscous properties of the material in the
behaviour of the discretised body. It should be noticed that
use of the complete expression for the system gradient is not
always possible. Nevertheless, a consideration of (4.8), (4.9)
and (4.10) is useful in order to select suitable approximations
to the gradient in the iterative scheme of (4.5).
Next, we proceed to the numerical solution of the thermo-
mechanically coupled problem, the thermal part of which is
governed by (3.13). A fully algebraic expression of this
equation is obtained by
rate via an approximate
leading from time
linking the temperature and its time
integration within each time step T
to time 6e . In analogy to (4.2)
(4.11)
and hence (3.13) may be written at the end of the incremental
step at time t = of in the form
(4.12)
(3.14) is also symbolised by
(4.13)
and together with (4.12) constitutes the system of equations
governing the coupled thermomechanical problem. Obviously an
- 141 -
alternative choice of the set of variables is equally possible.
A solution of (4.12), (4.13) via the Newton technique is given
by means of the recurrent formula
(4.14)
where the particular gradients can be derived from the
governing equations but are conveniently replaced by
approximate expressions. Assuming off-diagonal terms to be
zero, reduces the problem to the uncoupled treatment of the
individual problems in (4.14). Alternatively, equations (4.12)
and (4.13) may be solved sequentially in conformity with the
scheme
fA ( X'fl ) )
=
0 for X.
1+/
and
(4.15 )
f7 (1. ) X. ) =- 0
I +/ 111
for

The technique applied to the solution of each equation in
(4.15) can be adjusted to the individual character of the two
expressions. Within the range of our applications, the scheme
provided by (4.15) proves the most suitable [3,13].
5. Contact and
This section gives a brief report on some preliminary
investigations of friction phenomena which result at the
contact surface between tool and material in the course of the
deformation process. These investigations are based on a
- 142 -
numerical simulation of experimental tests performed at the
"Institut fur Bildsame Formgebung" in Aachen.
In order to study friction phenomena between tool and material,
friction coefficients are first obtained by means of the
numerical simulation of an upsetting test. Subsequently, an
attempt is made to explore the results in the light of
frictional laws reported in the literature (cf. [14,15] for
example). Furthermore, these results are applied to the
numerical simulation of a second upsetting test and
comparisons with experimental data are given.
The upsetting test used for a determination of friction
coefficients is described in fig. 5. The geometry of the
axisymmetric, cylindrical specimen is specified in the figure
together with the uniaxial stress-strain diagram of the steel
material. In addition, the 12 x 12 finite element mesh is
indicated in fig. 5 as used in conjunction with 4-node
axisymmetric elements. A reduced (one-point) integration rule
is applied to the volumetric response of the element in order
to avoid an over-integration of the incompressibility
constraint governing the inelastic response of the material.
A primary investigation is based on a prescribed motion of the
surface of the specimen which is in contact with the die. In
this case, the motion of the respective nodes is steered in the
axial and the radial direction in accordance with the data
provided by the experimental investigation. Thus, the radial
velocity of the material must vary with the radius at the
contact surface as indicated by the experimental line in fig.8.
This variation is independent of the reduction in height of the
specimen. The latter is followed numerically up to a final
value of 16 mm using 100 increments. Both the elasto-plastic
and the rigid plastic material model yield the same results
at the global and the local level. The stage of deformation
which is finally obtained is shown in fig. 6 together with the
intermediate one. The load required for the upsetting of the
- 143 -
specimen is depicted in fig. 7. The results of the computation
are shown in comparison with experimental data. In addition to
the described procedure, alternative investigations concern
application of Coulomb friction at the contact surface between
tool and material. The results obtained with a friction
coefficient c::: 0./5 are also plotted in fig. 7 and indicate a
certain insensitivity of global behaviour with respect to the
variations employed. Local behaviour, on the other hand, seems
to be more sensitive to the assumption of friction. As an
example, fig. 8 shows the effect of the friction coefficient
employed on the radial velocity at the contact surface.
The experimentally driven computation of the upsetting test is
subsequently considered to simulate the relevant mechanical
phenomena adequately. On the basis of the numerical results a
friction coefficient
c
(5.1)
is obtained locally as the quotient of the stress r tangential
to the contact surface and the contact pressure u
Figure 9 indicates the variation of the calculated stress
ratio over the radius of the contact surface at different
stages of the upsetting process. In accordance with the
pertinent literature on the subject (cf. [14,15], for example),
our next step is to seek an interpretation of the friction
coefficient as a function of the local contact pressure
and of the local sliding displacement u . Thus, we assume
that a dependence
C ::: C ( u, u)
(5.2)
exists. The respective variations obtained from the numerical
data are depicted in figs. 10 and 11. In particular, fig. 10
shows the dependence of C on the sliding displacement at
- 144 -
different intensities of contact pressure while fig. 11
illustrates the variations of C with contact pressure at
different stages of sliding. Both diagrams achieve the
expected frictional behaviour in their tendencies. Motivated by
the work described in reference [16], the diagrams in figs. 10,
11 may be approximated by a function of the type
where Co and /'/0 are considered to depend on the contact
pressure and are specified in accordance with the
available data.
(5.3)
The above results are applied next to the numerical solution
of a second upsetting test described in fig. 12. The 14 x 10
finite element discretisation employed is analogous to that of
the previous case. The computation is performed up to a
reduction in height of 4 rom using 80 increments. Fig. 13 shows
the final deformed stage compared with an intermediate stage.
The load required for upsetting the test specimen is depicted
in fig. 14 and shows the results of two computations against
the experimental data. The two distinct computations differ by
the boundary condition applied on the contact surface with the
tool. In one version, the radial velocity is prescribed
according to the experimental data given in fig. 15. In the
other, the friction law of (5.3) is implemented as an
approximation to the results of the former investigation in
figs. 10 and 11.
Fig. 15 shows the variation of the radial velocity of the
material along the contact surface. The experimental line is
independent of the reduction in height and indicates the
existence of a neutral point characterised by zero radial
velocity. The numerical results which account for a variation
of the friction coefficient with both the sliding
displacement and the contact pressure, approach the experiment
- 145 -
well at the early stage of the deformation and are shown once
in fig. 15. Results obtained with a dependence of the friction
coefficient on the sliding displacement only, representative of
a mean contact pressure, exhibit a better comparison with the
experiment at higher deformations and are indicated in fig. 15.
As a matter of fact, the degree of reproduction of the
experimental data depends largely on a reasonable approximation
of the friction in figs. 10, 11. The following two facts,
however, might indicate the relevance of the applied approach
to friction. The diagrams in fig. 15 reproduce, to a certain
extent, the invariance with respect to the stage of the
upsetting process, in accordance with the experimental
recognitions. This is not the case when using a constant
friction coefficient in the computation. Furthermore, the
computational treatment of the neutral point requires special
techniques in conjuction with a constant C , while
accounting for its dependence on the sliding displacement,
allows standard procedures to be applied. Nevertheless, a
considerable amount of work is still to be invested in order
to obtain satisfactory answers to this complicated problem.
6. Forging of an Aircraft Turbine Blade
Here, we consider the forging process of an aircraft turbine
blade, shown in fig. 16, as a particular application of the
techniques outlined. The initial geometry of the material and
the geometry of the final product are specified in fig. 17.
One recognises the complex three-dimensional nature of the
forging process involving unsteady contact of material and die.
In addition, the significant coupling of thermal and mechanical
phenomena must be accounted for during the course of the bulk-
forming process.
An illustration of the principle of the forging process is
given in fig. 18. Accordingly, the hot material, actually
Ti - 6Al - 4V at 7 =/203 t is formed through a
- 146 -
relatively cold die subject to T<>o =Jj13i<. In order to prevent
extensive heat loss, the die velocity must be high. Here, it
is taken to be V=- 0./ ...... Heat transfer to the surrounding
air is accounted for as well as heat transfer to the die as
respective surfaces come into contact instantaneously. The
relevant heat transfer coefficients are specified in the
figure. Besides, heat generation due to dissipation within the
material and heat conduction are important. In the present
case, the contact between the material and die is assumed to
be frictionless.
Fig. 19 indicates the thermomechanical properties of the
Ti-6Al-4V alloy, as reported in (4,131. Under the assumed
forging conditions, this alloy can be assumed to act as a
rigid viscous material. For different temperatures covering the
range of interest, the dependence of the stress on the
rate of deformation S under uniaxial test conditions is
shown in the upper diagram of fig. 19. The intermediate diagram
in this figure indicates the dependence of the stress on the
temperature of various prescribed rates of deformation. The
lower diagram specifies the dependence of the material's
thermal conductivity ) and its specific heat capacity C on
the temperature 1
The finite element discretisation of the materia.l given
initially is depicted in fig. 20. The mesh consists of 1356
nodal pOints comprising 1020 hexahedral eight-node elements
(HEXE 8). The volumetric response of the element is obtained
by a reduced integration rule in conjunction with the penalty
approach. The problem specified yields 3676 unknown velocities
and 1356 unknown temperatures which are necessary for the
description of the unsteady thermomechanically coupled process.
The kinematic boundary conditions for the blade material are
automatically updated in the course of the computation in
order to simulate the motion of the die towards the material's
desired ultimate shape. Concerning the foot, out of plane
motion on the front and back vertical surfaces is suppressed,
- 147 -
while the sides are free to move. The motion of the upper and
lower horizontal planes has to follow the die.
The forging process is' numerically traced via a thermo-
mechanically coupled computation using 100 equal time
increments of T=2.5 The results of the computation are
shown in figs. 21 to 24. Fig. 21 illustrates the stages of
deformation during the forging process at 80 %, 90 % and 100 %
of the ultimate die motion. The development of the associated
temperature field for the surface of the material is given in
fig. 22. A temperature decrease of approximately 400 K is
noticeable, this is caused by the contact with the cold die.
Finally, figs. 23 and 24 demonstrate the deformation of a
prescribed cross-section and the associated unsteady
temperature field at significant stages of the numerical
simulation of the forging process.
References
(11 Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.: On the natural
formulation and analysis of large deformation coupled
thermomechanical problems, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech.
Engrg. 25 (1981), pp. 195-253
(2) Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.; Pimenta, P.M. and
Wlistenberg, H.: Thermomechanical response of solids at
high strains - natural approach, Comput. Meths. Appl.
Mech. Engrg. 32 (1982), pp. 3-57
[3J Doltsinis, J.St.: Physical and numerical aspects in
large deformation coupled thermomechanical problems,
The 18th Israel Conference on Mechanical Engineering,
Technion, Haifa, June 27 - 28th, 1984
- 148 -
[4] Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.; Fischer, H. and
Wustenberg, H.: .. III .. , Fenomech '84
Conference, Stuttgart, Sept. 10 - 14th, 1984, Comput.
Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg., to appear 1985.
[5] Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.: The natural concept of
material description, ASME - Symposium on Constitutive
Equations, Winter Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Dec. 10-
14th, 1984.
[6] Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St; Pimenta, P.M. and
Wustenberg H.: Natural finite element techniques for
viscous fluid motion, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg.
45 (1984), pp. 3-55.
[7J Argyris, J.H. and Doltsinis, J.St.: A primer on super-
plasticity in natural formulation, Comput. Meths. Appl.
Mech. Engrg. 46 (1984), pp. 83-131.
[81 Prager, W.: Introduction to Mechanics of Continua, Ginn,
Boston, 1961.
[9] Hill, R.: Some basic principles in the mechanics of
solids without a natural time, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 7
(1959), pp. 209-225.
1101 Lee, E.H.: Elasto-plastic deformation at finite strain,
J. Appl. Mech. 36 (1961) pp. 1-6.
[11) Green, A.E. and Naghdi, P.lL: A general theory of an
elastic-plastic continuum, Arch. Rat. Mech. Ann. 18
( 1 965), pp. 251- 2 81 .
112 ]
Argyris, J.H.; Straub, K. and Symeonidis, Sp.: Static
and dynamic stability of non-linear elastic systems
under nonconservative forces - natural approach, Comput.
Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 32-34 (1982), pp. 59-83.
(14)
- 149 -
Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis J.St.; Kneese, F.; Wustenberg,
H.: Numerik thermomechanischer Vorgange, lCA-Report No.
1, Stuttgart (1984).
Herbertz, R.; Cho, M.L.: Reibungsmechanismen in der
Grenzflache Werkstuck/Werkzeug bei Umformverfahren und
daraus resultierende Probleme fur theoretische
Berechnungen, Arch. Eisenhuttenwes. 54 (1983), pp. 499-
502.
Oden, J.T. and Martins, J.A.C.: Models and
computational methods for dynamic friction phenomena,
Fenomech '84 Conference, Stuttgart, Sept. 10 - 14th,
Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg., to appear 1985.
Taylor, L.M. and Becker, E.B.: Some computational
aspects of large deformation, rate-dependent plasticity
problems, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg 41 (1983),
pp. 251-277.
150 -
fF?l

j-'"
,,X
Parallelepiped Cartesian directions.
(0) Cartesian approach
Tetrahedron Naturel directions
(b) Natura I approach
Fig. Cartesian and natural system of reference
Triangle
Natural directions
Notura I and cartes ion directions
(o) Reference systems
Component definition
Cartesian definitions
Tatar definition
(Non unique composition of 0 vector)
(Unique decomposition of a vector)
Fig. 2
" b) Alternative of veclor
Natural and cartesian specifications of a
vector for the two-dimensional case
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
- 151 -
Corresponding definitions of natural
stresses and rates of deformation
Heat to a natural element due to a
component heat flux vector
(;= PIA
-800 NImm2
-600
h = 29.85mm
r
Fig. 5
-400
-200
a
= lnlh/oh)
"d=4 32mm
a -0.4 -OB -1.2
'tl=19.98mm-----l
Cylindrical specimen under compression.
Geometry and uniaxial material properties
tfI-

500.00 kN
P
400.00
300.00
200.00
100.00
a
a
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Fig. 6
- 152 -
.4h=8mm

.4h=16mm
tfJj
Stages of deformation
o 0 0 0 EXPERIMENT
PRESCRIBED RADIAL VELOCITIES vr
----FRiCTION c=0.15
.1h
4.00 8.00 12.00 mm
16.00
Fig. 7
Load - compression diagram
- 153 -
.400 mm/s
.300
.200
.100
o
--EXPERIMENT
------ COMPUTATION, c =0.15
___ ---=,r--____ -.--__ O..:.r __ ..,
2.00 4.00 6.00 B.OO I .00 mm 12.00
Fig. 8
Radial velocity Vr at contact surface
for a friction coefficient C;: 0.15
.75
T
G
.50
Lfh= 16mm
.25
1.6
B.O
-.25
r
-.50+-----,.-----r------,.------.-------.
2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 1000 mm 12.00
Fig. 9
Ratio of tangential stress r to normal stress (j'
along contact surface
- 154 -
.400
c
.lOO
.100

.400
c
.300
.200
.100
o .050 .100 .150 200 mm
Fig. 10 Variation of friction coefficient C with
sliding displacement U for different normal
pressures (J'
U = O.Olmm
.250

300.00 350.00 400.00 450.00 50000 550.00 600.00
N/mm2
Fig. 11 Variation of friction coefficient C with
normal pressure rr for different displacements U
- 155 -
a = PIA
-800 N/mm'
z
r
-200
>-----"D=28.SS6mm

a -0.4 -0.8 -1.2
Fig. 12 Short cylindrical specimen under
compression. Geometry and uniaxial
material properties
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Fig. 13 Stages of deformation
.dh:2mm
.dh:4mm
700.00 kN
p
600.00
500.00
400.00
300.00
200.00
100.00
- 156 -
e e e a EXPERIMENT
---PRESCRIBED RAD IAL VELOCITIES v,
----FRiCTION, c= c (u,.)
O+-______________
o 1.00 2.00 3.00 mm 4.00
Fig. 14 Load - compression diagram
1.00 mm/s
.75
.50
.25
--- EXPERIMENT
---- FRICTION, c=clu)
------ FRICTION, PC lu,u}
'r

7.00 11.00 13.00 mm 15.00
Fig. 15 Radial velocity U
r
along contact surface
- 157 -
Fig. 16 Turbine blade
O.1mls
Fig. 17 Forging of a turbine blade
/
OIIIGINAL PF!OOUCT
8 K 61.74 mm
H . 65. 2' mm
L 192. 00 mm
D = 2l. 30mm
t 20,00 Mrn
d. 12 .S0mm
DIE VELOCITY
If_ O.lm/s

Fig. 18 Description of forging process
Fig.
19
- 158 -
10'
tI MN/m
2
10'
1100 1200
20
A
15
liDO 1200
K
K
T. 1100 K
T.1200K
T. 1300K
1.10
.-,
'c10-
1
r'
,.10
a3
.-
1
1300
liDO
c
1000
900
Thermomechanical properties of
Ti-6Al-4V material
1356 NODAL POINTS
1020 HEXE 8 - ELEMENTS
3676 UNKNOWN VELOCITIES
1356 UNKNOWN TEMPERATURES
Fig. 20 Finite element mesh
F
i
g
.

2
1

S
t
a
g
e
s

o
f

d
e
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

t

=
0
.
2
0
0
$

t

=
0
.
2
2
5

s

t

.
.

0
.
2
5
O
s

F
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g
.

2
2

D
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v
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f
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U
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1

1
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F
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2
3

t
=
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t
=
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s

t
=

0
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0
5

S
t
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o
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T

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4
2
3
K


_
i

F
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g
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2
4

D
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v
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p
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e
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a
-
D

- 161 -
Discussions (Session Ib)
Mahrenholtz (Chairman): Before we start to discuss I want to thank Profes-
sor Argyris for his excellent presentation through the concluding film.
Again, a very broad approach of both of our speakers to the subject. There
are, am sure, a lot of questions. We have a little overdone the time of
presentation and I have to ask the organizer how we could proceed, because
I wouldn't interrupt the program.
Tekkaya (organizer): I think we can have 20 minutes of discussion.
Mahrenholtz: About 20 minutes discussion, okay. So we then should imme-
diately start to do so and I'm asking for the first question. Professor
Steck.
Steck: I have a question t2 Dr. Sturgess concerning his generalized pla-
stic work criterium for fracture. Is it possible to give a number for how
much plastic work can be accumulated depending on the material before frac-
ture, or is it just a magnitude criterium, so that you check the element
which has the most plastic work accumulated?
Sturgess: Now, we go only through all of the elements, we pick out the one
which got most of plastic work, that is, the one most likely to fail and we
use that to indicate the size of the fracture. Once we identify the size
of the fracture, then there is commonly identified the level of deforma-
tion. To date, any fracture criteria is a criteria equal to a magic number
which you've got to get from some test data and we've chosen to use the
tensile test, because it is today the most simple one. We do the tensile
test, work out this magic number from the tensile test, and say in the pro-
gram, when accumulating plastic work equal to the number as derived from
the tensile test then it will fracture. And we get with 70 75 Al and Cup-
per about 1 % - 1.15 % error ...
Steck: This number is material depending?
Sturgess: Yes, it is material depending.
Steck: It is strongly material-dependent, not process-dependent.
- 162 -
Rowe: The number I'd like to take from the tensile test on aluminium alloy
on various processes or other materials - it doesn't matter where you are -
it's like an ultimate tensile strength.
Steck: After you determine the element in which the crack will set on, you
will probably find that you have elements with the second most, the third
most plastic work accumulated. Will the crack propagate in this direction?
Sturgess: We haven't considered that point yet. Because, once a crack
occured, the continuing analysis seemed to be irrelevant. We are not mode-
ling a crack; we have a continuum and are just trying to isolate the number
for which the crack will initiate. What we have to do then is to simulate
the crack.
Altan: have two questions to Professor Argyris. In the turbine blade
simulation, although it was three-dimensional, the same results could be
obtained by a two-dimensional simulation. The problem in turbine blade is,
the transition from the root to the blade. Have you studied, investigated
the deformation mode in that area? That is very critical, very difficult,
in three-dimensions to simulate. The rest of the section, although it is
quasi three-dimensional, the same information can be very accurately obtai-
ned by a two-dimensional analysis.
Argyris: You are right, concerning the axial turbine blade away from the
root itself. Nevertheless, we have even there flow of material in either
direction, because also contact is changing all the time, you see. So, you
don't have an uniform contact. One of the greatest difficulties is the
change of contact. I would like to say, that to my great disknowledgement,
at the NUMETA conference in January 85 at Swansea, organized by Professor
Zienkiewicz, there was a participant, I forgot his name, from Livermore
Laboratories ...
Rowe: Benson.
Argyris: Benson, Dr. Benson, Livermore Laboratories, they were so intri-
gued by the results of our FENOMECH-paper, that they attempted to repeat
also the calculations at Livermore.
Altan: They did. I have seen it.
- 163 -
Argyris: You have seen it. But, from the results I saw at NUMETA they
were not as smooth as our results, but it was remarkable that they did it
in such a short time. Now, as far as the root, we had difficulties there,
mainly due the flow of the material in/out and the sharp 'change of the bil-
let there, producing difficulties. But thanks to the trying efforts of Dr.
Doltsinis and Luginsland, there are some results. But I would say, that we
would have not much, if we had done a second two-dimensional analysis of
the main turbine blade, because we would have difficulties anyhow, going
towards the roots. So that is my impression. I have to repeat, I haven't
done any actual die-process in my life, so, I speak as a theoretician.
Altan: Second question, if I may.
Mahrenholtz: If I can just add a quick question, Professor Argyris. It
looked like a plane-strain deformation. This was obviously due to the
fact, that the original shape was such that it filled the die shape in any
cross-section. That is correct? I mean the original conical shape of the
rod was such that it prevented more or less axial deformation, displJce-
ment.
Argyris: But we had axial displacement. Not very pronounced, but we had.
Mahrenholtz: But this was obviously due to the original shape of the spe-
cimen. That's right?
Argyris: Yes. More or less. Yes.
Altan: May I ask my second question?
Mahrenho1tz: Yes.
Altan: The short cylinder you simulated - you had two cylinders at the
beginning of the presentation -, the short cylinder, could you please tell
me on which processor did you simulate it and how much time did it take,
the second one.
Argyris: The short specimen?
Altan: Yes.
- 164 -
Argyris: think , on which computer did we do that, Herr Luginsland?
Doltsinis: CRAY.
Agyris: It was done also on the CRAY.
Altan (after whistle): How long did it take?
Luginsland: Five, six minutes.
Altan: Five, six minutes on the CRAY? And that is elastic-plastic?
Doltsinis: Rigid-plastic.
Altan: That is too much.
Argyris: I'd probably say, the difference between rigid-plastic and ela-
sto-plastic cannot be shown in .
Altan: In that case?
Argyris: In that case. I forgot to mention that there is hardly any noti-
ceable difference between the diagrams.
Mahrenholtz: Mr. Tekkaya, you had a question.
Tekkaya: Yes, I have a question to Clive Sturgess. You know, you define a
co-rotational strain component and you do that with the argument, that we
have some Jaumann rate, some sort of Jaumann rate, for the stress and
should have the same for the deformation. However, the objectivity for the
deformation is given, since the rate of deformation tensor is objective
anyhow. So, why do we need another co-rotational measure for the strain?
Sturgess: It is not a right formulation but ...
Pillinger: The rate is objective but not the increment.
Tekkaya: So for the stress.
- 165 -
Pillinger: Yes, okay. You think about the Jaumann rate in this case. But
the same has to be true for the strain. If you work it out, you will find
that any superimposed rotation gives you an enormous value.
Tekkaya: Okay, that is for numerical discretisation, for the time discre-
tisation. But, if you use it in the material law, you have to be consi-
stent and have to use a similar incremental objective stress rate measure
on the left-hand side. That is, you have to transfer both of the objective
rates stress and strain - into an incremental objective form, not only
the strain. Have you done such transformations also for the stress-rate?
Pillinger: If you use the incremental objective stress rate, your strain
has to be also incremental objective.
Tekkaya: That means, you have used an incremental objective stress-rate.
Pillinger: Yes.
Tekkaya: Thank you.
Stalmann: I have a question to Professor Argyris regarding your last cal-
culation of the turbine blade. How did you solve the contact problem? What
is your method of describing the surface traction and can you tell us how
many percent, roughly, takes the contact calculation related to the overall
time?
Ooltsinis: There is no problem with contact. We have to test against the
geometry of the die and the material is not allowed to move into the die.
It was without friction.
Argyris: The turbine blade computation was without friction. Every time.
Stalmann: And you have only nodal points or you have a surface function?
Ooltsinis: We have only nodal points.
Stalmann: And how many nodal points do you have, as much as on the surface
of your finite element mesh?
- 166 -
Doltsinis: We have an analytical description of the die surface and the
nodal points of the mesh are not allowed to go into the die.
Stalmann: And you need a penalty function?
Doltsinis: Yes.
Altan: I have one more question to turbine blade. Actually. two more que-
stion. One: does your program have a preprocessor built into it. second.
did you have a remeshing to be able to continue deformation after a certain
amount of deformation?
Doltsinis: We don't have remeshing in this case.
Argyris: We didn't do any remeshing.
Altan:
blems?
You can take that tremendous amount of deformation without pro-
Doltsinis: Without remeshing.
Altan: How much time did it take you to prepare the initial mesh. enginee-
ring time? So. let's say on the CRAY two hours. but how much would be your
estimate, if you have to do a similar problem. in terms of preparing the
mesh and preparing the data. and inputting the data ...
Doltsinis: would say two weeks. Also. in order to take the geometry
from the blade. from the actual blade, you know.
Marten: You have presented a thermo-mechanical coupled analysis. Could you
say something about the finite element transformation. Especially. time
integration and materials with large temperature gradients.
Argyris: The time integration was the same as I showed you there on the
motion scheme. It was on time a linear scheme between the velocity at the
beginning and the velocity of the gradient of the temperature at the begin-
ning and at the end. It was a linear interpolation between the stage A and
stage B.
- 167 -
Marten: Then you show us a scheme for explicit and implicit time integra-
tion. There was a factor you can change to go over from explicit to have
implicit integration. What have you used for this factor?
Argyris: One half.
Marten: And have you had difficulties with the large temperature gradient?
Argyris: But you have large temperature gradients, you have enormous tem-
perature gradients on the specimen. You have large temperature differences.
Marten: And there are no problems?
Argyris: I didn't say there were no problems, but in four weeks we have
solved the problems. (Laughing)
Sturgess: A question to Professor Argyris on the friction work on the
rings. You used a friction coefficient. Did you tryout a shear factor
approach?
Argyris: No. Our friction coefficient shows a complicated dependence from
velocity, stresses and all that. I forgot to mention, Coulomb friction is
an abstraction that doesn't apply to this problem. So, we just force it
more or less into this calculation and put all our difficulties into this
friction coefficient. I wouldn't say that this is an ideal state, it is a
means to solve the problem. I don't say you should put it into a textbook.
(Laughing)
Mahrenholtz: A question to Dr. Sturgess from myself. Your three-dimensio-
nal approach to the block compression, with the rectangular cross-section.
So, the main flow direction came up from the Mises flow rule, that is cor-
rect?
Sturgess: Yes.
Mahrenholtz: The components of the stress deviator?
Sturgess: Of course.
- 168 -
Mahrenholtz: No additional assumption? Nothing?
Sturgess: No. It is straightforward, isotropic. Again, the difficulties
we may have there, could be not only anisotropic friction, but anisotropic
material properties. In bulk-forming processes, anisotropic material pro-
perties are probably second order.
Tekkaya: I have a question to Clive. You showed that example of rolling
and there is a problem of neutral-point. You know, you get that oscilla-
tion in rolling force or rolling torque due to the discretization of boun-
dary conditions. Now, do you have problems caused by this oscillations in
the determination of the neutral-point?
Sturgess: No. There were no oscillations at all.
Tekkaya: You do not have any oscillating rolling torque?
Sturgess: No. We haven't noticed it. We always plot normal pressure dis-
tribution to shear stress distribution. From the shear stress distribu-
tion, we then integrate it and calculate the torque. So, we are not calcu-
lating the torque incrementally. If we did it, we would probably get os-
cillations.
Dung: I have a question on your fracture criterion. So, you use a plastic
work criterion for your fracture. Do you use the yield stress in order to
calculate this plastic work?
Sturgess: Yes.
Dung: That means, you don't need the hydrostatic stress for the plastic
work computation. Oh, I see. Because, this may be only good for your pro-
blem, mean side-pressing of a circular rod, but not for other problems,
let's say forging of cylinders, because you have a large hydrostatic stress
in these problems.
Sturgess: In the presentation, I show the example of plane-strain side-
pressing. We have also done upsetting, simple upsetting, strip-tension and
compression, by that we mean, a strip with a machined groove pulled to
fracture, and then a strip with a forged groove pulled to fracture. And we
- 169 -
analysed the combined forging subsequent tensile process using the finite
element to get various strain trajectories. We have also done forward-ex-
trusion as yet, it seems the generalized plastic work - shear work - is a
reasonable indicator for fracture. I believe, all fractures are shear
fractures, I don't believe there is something like a tensile fracture.
Because of shear fracture, because generalized plastic work is shear work,
it seems a very sensible parameter to me. But, I accept there is also a
hydrostatic component, which has got to be co-operated.
- 170 -
Numerical Simulation of Stretch Forming Processes
Kjell Mattiasson, Department of Structural Mechanics, Chalmers
University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden
Arne Melander, The Swedish Institute for Metals Research,
Stockholm, Sweden
Summary
Constitutive relations and finite element formulations for
elastic-plastic and rigid-plastic materials in sheet metal
forming analysis are reviewed. In the present study an elastic-
plastic material model and a Total Lagrangian finite element
formulation is used. Arbitrarily shaped punches and dies can
be treated. The interface contact forces between the tools
and the metal sheet are assumed to be either of Coulomb fric-
tion type or simply a constant shear stress. The effects of
various material parameters and friction in the strain distribu-
tion in hemispherical punch stretching have been investigated
numerically and are shown in diagrams. A few experimentally
determined strain distributions are shown and are compared
with results from finite element calculations.
Introduction
Finite element procedures for sheet metal forming analysis
can be classified into two main groups depending on if they
are based on an elstic-plastic or a rigid-plastic material
model. Large strain formulations may be based on either an Eu-
lerian or a Lagrangian description of motion, leading to two
basically different .finite element procedures with nodal velo-
cities and nodal incremental displacements, respectively, as
primary unknowns.
In Ch. 2 the constitutive equations for the two material models
above are derived. A number of finite element procedures for
large strain analvsis of sheet metal problems are reviewed.
The elastic-plastic material model leads natural Iv to a Laq-
- 171 -
rangian finite element formulation, while both Lagrangian and
Eulerian formulations have been used in connection with the
rigid-plastic model. In Ch. 2 all formulas are given for the
case of plane stress, thus forming the basis of a membrane or
shell theory. The assumption of plane stress is justified if
the sheet thickness is much smaller than the radius of curva-
ture of the tools, in which case the variations of stress and
strain across the thickness are negligable.
In Ch. 3 the finite element procedure developed in the present
study is described. It is based on an elastic-plastic material
law and a total Lagrangian formulation. The membrane theory is
adopted, thus limiting the application of the procedure to
problems where bending effects are negligable. Three-dimensi-
onal, triangular eilements are employed, permitting fairly ge-
neral shaped punches and dies to be treated.
The tangential nodal forces, arising from sliding contact be-
tween the sheet and the tools, may in the present procedure
be of Coulomb friction type, or result from a constant inter-
face shear stress. The contact forces at a node act as a non-
conservative load and yield a non-symmetric contribution to
the tangent stiffness matrix. The contact equations are con-
sidered by so-called 'contact elements', defined for each con-
tact node. In these nodes the normal force will act as an ex-
tra unknown.
The strain-rate may have a significant influence on the strain
distribution in sheet metal forming processes. In the present
study this effect is considered simply by letting the effec-
tive stress be a function also of the effective strain-rate.
The program has been used to simulate hemispherical punch
stretching in order to study the effects on the strain distri-
bution of various material parameters. The results from this
study are discussed in Ch. 4.
Strain distributions from nine different materials, obtained
by the finite element program, have been compared with the
corresponding strain distributions, experimentally determined
at the Swedish Institute for Metals Researh. Four of these
are dispayed in Ch. 5.
- 172 -
2 A review of constitutive relations and finite element
procedures for sheet metal forming analysis
2.1
Numerical analyses of metal forming processes reported in the
literature are based on constitutive models such as elastic-
plastic and rigid-plastic (or viscoplastic). The finite ele-
ment formulations described are in each case closely associated
with the particular material model used.
The object of the present chapter is to give a review of the
most common constitutive models used in sheet metal forming
analysis. Finite element formulations associated with the
various material models will be briefly described. Formulas
presented are given for the case of plane stress. Further-
more the various material models are all assumed to obey
Hill's modification of von Mises' yield criterion to states
of initital normal anisotropy and its associated flow rule.
2.2
The constitutive law presented here is the generalization to
large strains of the J
2
-flow theory for elastic-plastic ma-
terials proposed by Hutchinson [1]. The effects of normal ani-
sotropy are considered through the generalization of von Mises'
yield criterion to states of initial anisotropy as suggested
by Hill [2]. These constitutive relations were first presented
by Wang and Budiansky [3]. Detailed derivations are found in
Mattiasson [4,5].
For a material which is (or in the case of
plane stress - isotropic in the plane of stress) and
the can be expressed as
This relation implies that yielding occurs when the
G
e
, which is a scalar function of the three-dimensional
state of stress, reaches a critical value H, which in turn is
a function of the The function
- 173 -
H(E{P is obtained from a uniaxial stress - plastic strain
e
curve.
The condition states that the plastic rate of defor-
mation vector (P) is outward normal to the yield surface
f = O. This is expressed as
(2 )
where is a scalar function that depends on the current state
of stress and strain. The relationship (2) is called an a660-
ciated blow
During loading in the plastic range the stress point remains
on the yield surface. This implies that f = 0, which is known
as the con6i6tency condition. In the present case we find
af : 6 - H' (p)
"ji(J e
o (3)
where H' = dH/dE(P) is the slope of the uniaxial stress-
e *
plastic strain curve, and is the or the
Jaumann defined by
* .
o = 0 + 0 - W 0 (4)
and W is the spin tensor.
The eboective pla6tic is defined by the rela-
tion
(5)
where 0' is the deviatoric stress tensor.
Combining Eqs. (2), (3), and (5), and solving for A, we get
From Eqs. (1) and (3) the following relations are obtained
H' . (p)
Ee
o
e
(6)
(7)
- 174 -
Combining Egs. (2), (6), and (7), we can express the plastic
rate of deformation as
0
e
e/
H
' 3f
(3f/3) :' aa
(8)
The effective stress according to Hill's yield condition for
normal anisotropy is in a convected coordinate system given by
(9)
where Greek indices are ranging from 1 to 2 and R is the ani-
sotropy parameter, defined as the ratio of plastic width strain
rate to plastic thickness strain rate in a uniaxial test of a
sheet specimen. For R = 1 Eg. (8) reduces to the well-known
von Mises effective stress.
The gradient 3f/30
aS
is now found to be
3f
30
aS
3o
e
30
aS
1 1 +2R[ as
a 1+R
e
Furthermore, the effective stress rate 0e is obtained as
The Jaumann stress rate component is given by
(10)
( 11 )
(12 )
The following equality can be shown to hold (see Mattiasson
[4,5]) :
(If
3a :'
( 13)
The plastic rate of deformation component .can now finally,
in view of Egs. (8), (10), and (13), be written as
- 175 -
(14 )
The large strain elastic-plastic constitutive law being derived
here is based on the assumption that the rate of deformation
tensor 2 can be additively decomposed into an elastic and a
plastic part, i.e.
2
2 (e)
+
n2(P)
(15 )
ex = if 0

0 and 0
(0 e) max
e e
.
(0 e) max
ex = 0 if 0 < 0 or 0 <
e e
The elastic part, 2(e), is simply provided by Hooke's law in
the case of plane stress. In order to make the constitutive
law obey the 06 it is written in terms
of the objective Jaumann stress rate.
The stress-strain relation in stiffness form may be consider-
ably simplified by making two additional assumptions:
1. The material is assumed to be elastically incompressible,
. (e) 0
l..fl. 0ii = .
2. The elastic width and thickness strain rates are assumed
to be related like the corresponding plastic ones, i.e.
Dee) /o(e) = R
22 33
As a consequence of these assumptions the following relation
is obtained:
R
v = 1+R
( 16)
The components of the rate of deformation tensor can now be
written
1+2R[1 ( R ) 6YP +
nS 1+R E gexygSp - 1+2R gexSgyp
+ ex (gexygsP - 1!2R
g
exS
g
yP)OYP]
e
(17a)
( 17b)
- 176 -
where a is defined in Eg. (15), and the 3-direction is the
thickness direction.
Noting the relation
(18 )
where (e) is the elastic fourth order constitutive tensor, we
can derive the elastic-plastic stress-strain relation in the
form
(19 )
The components of the elastic-plastic constitutive tensor C
are found to be
caSYp = +gaPgSy) + RgaSgYPj _
E2(JaS(JYp
- a
(J2(E+H' )
e
2.3
In rigid-plasticity the elastic deformations are assumed neg-
ligible compared to the plastic ones. Eg. (14) represents thus
the constitutive relation for a rigid-plastic material obeying
Hill's anisotropic yield criterion and its associated flow
rule, if the plastic rate of deformation E(P) is interpreted
as the total rate of deformation E. It is obvious, in view of
Eg. (18), that this relation eannot be inverted to a stress-
strain relation of the form 2 = C:D.
Noting that cr = H'E we can rewrite Eg. (14) in matrix form
e e'
as
'"['
1+2R 2 R
2gxxgxy
(Jxx
(21a)
l :XX
(Je gxx
1+R (gXY - 1+2R
g
xx
g
yyl
2
2g
yy
gxy j
(JYY
yy
gyy
2D SYM
21 +2R + 1 2 (Jxy
xy
1+R (gxxgyy 1+2R
g
xy)
- 177 -
{D} [Gl{cr} (21b)
In case of a coordinate system the metric tensor
components gaS become equal to the Kronecker delta components
0as. Then the constitutive relation gets the following simple
appearance:
r:=
'er 1
R
0
- 1+R
cr
'e _
xx
0 cr
yy
yy
2Dxy
0
2 1+2R
xy 1+R
(22)
The inverse form of Eq. (21b) is

[G-
1
]{D} {a}
e
(23)
E
e
where the matrix [G-
1
] generally is obtained by a numerical
inversion of the matrix [Gj. However, in case of a Cartesian
coordinate system, we can write explicitly

e
Ee

R
o
R (24)
1+R
o
Noting that the rate of plastic work can be expressed as
0eEe : = {o}T{D}, we can write the effective strain rate
Ee as
(25)
Some writers, Refs. [61 - [8], have derived the constitutive
relations for a rigid-plastic material starting from the
general form of a material as suggested by
Perzyna [9]. If the time dependent effects in the viscoplastic
material model are neglected, the equations of the rigid-
plastic model are recovered.
- 178 -
It is interesting to note the analogy between the equations of
rigid-plastic or viscoplastic flow, and those of small strain,
linear elasticity. It is easily shown that completely analo-
gous stress-strain relations are obtained, if the variables of
velocity and rate of deformation of the flow equations are
interchanged by displacement and strain of the elasticity
equations.
Take for instance Hooke's generalized law in the case of plane
stress and replace Poisson's ratio v by R/(1 +R) according to
Eq. (16). Then we get
R
- 1 +R
(26)
R
1 +R
o o
The analogy between these equations and the corresponding
plastic flow equations in Eq. (22) is immediately seen. It is
noted that the modulus of elasticity E in the elasticity re-
lations plays the role of the 'viscosity' 0e/Ee in the flow
relations.
2.4
The equilibrium conditions of a body are readily expressed by
means of the principle of virtual velocities. In terms of
variables referred to the current configuration the principle
is stated
(27)
where is the CauQhy is the 06
t{on is the veloQ{ty i is the
t{on, and i is the body load. Integration is performed over
current volume V and surface area S.
In a Lagrangian formulation equilibrium must be expressed in
terms of variables referred to a fixed, known reference con-
figuration. A suitable pair of energy conjugate stress and
strain measures are the 2
and the Transformation of Eq. (27)
- 179 -
to the reference state can be shown to give
J S : dV
R
V
R
In Eq. (28) and !R are pseudo forces per unit area and
volume, respectively, in the reference state, defined by
The tensors and are defined by
S
PR -1
T
- F cr
P

!!;
2(F
T
OF -I)
2
E
"-
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
where r is the deformation gradient tensor, f is the
unit tensor. and p and P
R
are the mass densities in the current
and reference configuration, respectively.
In the following we will assume that the convected coordinate
system is coinciding with a Cartesian system in the. reference
configuration. The components of the tensors and and
of the displacement vector E are referred to the Cartesian base
vectors in the reference state, while the components of and
are referred to the convected base vectors in the current
state. This implies that the components of become equal to
the Kronecker delta components 0ij' which in turn implies that
and in the case of incompressibility (PR/p
s.. = Sij = cr
ij

1 )
(33 )
(34 )
Specializing to the case of plane stress, we can express the
components EaS and EaS in terms of displacement and velocity
gradients as
- 180 -
(35)
and
(36)
where comma denotes differentiation with respect to coordinates
in the reference state.
In order to solve the set of nonlinear equations in Eq. (28),
the Newton-Raphson iterative solution procedure or related
techniques commonly are used. This requires a linearization of
Eq. (28) around the last obtained solution The linearized.
form of this equation can be shown to be (in component form,
assuming plane stress, incompressibility and conservative
loads)
R R
= f tiouidS
R
+ f f.ou.dV
R
SR V
R
1. 1.
(37)
where c
aSYp
is the constitutive tensor relating stress rate
oaS and strain rate E (or D ).
YP YP
2.5

In the Lagrangian (or material) description of motion the in-
dependent variables are the particle P and time t. It is common
to write the equation of motion in terms of the position X of
the particle P in a chosen reference configuration, i.e.

A number of different finite element approaches, based on the
Lagrangian description of motion, can be constructed depending
on the choice of reference configuration. The most commonly
used Lagrangian formulations are the Total (TL) and Updated
(UL) formulations. In the TL-formulation the initial,
unstressed configuration is taken as reference configuration,
while in the UL-formulation the last calculated configuration
- 181 -
is used as a reference state. These two formulations will be
described below.
The Lagrangian description of motion is sometimes referred to
as the '.6 oLLd applLoac.'h I, since this description is natural to
use in solid and structural mechanics problems. In this type
of finite element formulations are always primary
unknowns.
Lagrangian finite element procedures are naturally connected
to elastic-plastic material models. Among the elastic-plastic,
finite element sheet metal analyses reported in the literature,
the following should be mentioned: Wifi [10] and Andersen [11]
used UL-procedures and various two-dimensional, axi-symmetric
elements, Honnor and Wood [12] used a UL-formulation and axi-
symmetric shell elements of Mindlin type, Tang [13] used a
TL-formulation and axi-symmetric membrane elements, and, finally,
Wang and Budiansky [3], and Wennerstrom et.al. [14,15] used a
TL-procedure and triangular, three-dimensional membrane ele-
ments. Both TL- and UL-procedures are also reported in the
joint paper [16].
Total 60lL memblLane
element.6
The FEM-discretization follows the standard procedure. The
metal sheet is assumed to be decomposed into an assemblage of
finite elements, interconnected at a number of nodal points.
For each element the displacement assumptions are written
{u} = [q,]{u} (38)
where {u} is a vector with the three displacement components,
[q,] is a matrix with interpolation functions, which in a TL-
formulation are functions of and {u} is
a vector with element nodal displacements. The vectors with
velocities and virtual velocities are accordingly given by
{u} = and {au} =
Introducing the displacement assumptions, Eg. (38), into the
strain and strain rate expressions, Egs. (35) and (36), we get
- 182 -
{E} ([B
L
] +
1
Z[B
NL
]) {u} (39)
and
= ([B
L
] + [B
NL
]) {u} [B]{u} (40)
where {E} = [E , E , 2E ]T and the nonlinear strain matrix
xx yy xy
[B
NL
] is a function of nodal displacements.
Furthermore, the equilibrium relations, Eq. (28), take the form
(41)
where the stress vector {cr} is defined by {cr} = [cr
xx
, cr
YY
, crxy]T
and integration is carried out over volume Vo and sur-
face area SO.
When solving the set of nonlinear equilibrium equations in
Eq. (41) by a step-by-step procedure involving Newton-Raphson
iterations, we rewrite the equations in incremental form as
(42)
In Eq. (42) is a vector with incremental, consistent nodal
forces, and [K] is the tangent originating
from the left hand side of Eq. (37). The matrix [K] can form-
ally be written as a sum of three matrices:
where
f [BL]T[C] [BL]dV
O
Vo
f ([ BL ] T [ C 1 [B
NL
] + [B
NL
1 T [ C 1 [B
L
] +
Vo
+ [BNL1T[Cl[BNL1)dVO
(43)
(44a)
(44b)
(44c)
- 183 -
The matrices [K
L
], [K
LD
], and [KS] are respectively termed
and
stiffness matrices. The matrix [C] is the (3 x 3) constitutive
matrix, [0] is the (2'x 2) stress matrix with contravariant
stress components aa
s
, and the matrices [k] (k = 1, 2, 3) contain
derivatives of interpolation functions. In case of a noncon-
servative load a (usually unsymmetric) contribution
called toad stiffness matrix, is added to the total
stiffness matrix.
Having solved for incremental nodal displacements in Eq. (42),
we can calculate increments of Lagrangian strain as
(45 )
Denoting with a super-scribed bar that a variable is evaluated
at time t + lit, the total Lagrangian strain at t + is obtained
as
(46)
The primary object of the calculations is to determine the
strain distribution in the blank in terms of or
principal strains. Principal logarithmic strains
in the plane of the sheet are given by
lnll.(1)'
(47)
where 11.(1) and 11.(2) are principal ratios. Stretch is a
measure of extensional strain of a differential line element,
defined by A = ds/dS. The principal stretch values can be shown
to be related to the in-plane principal values of Lagrangian
strain, E(1) and E(2)' by
A ( 1) = 12E ( 1) + 1 , /2E (2) + 1
(48)
where
(49)
- 184 -
The convected metric tensor components gij can, in case of an
initial Cartesian coordinate system, be shown to be related to
the Lagrangian strain components Eij by
(50)
Furthermore, the volume ratio dV/dV
O
can in the case of plane
stress be expressed as
(51)
where A
z
is the stretch ratio in the thickness direction. For
volume constancy, dV/dV
O
= 1, the transverse logarithmic strain
E
Z
is thus found to be
In'; 1/det gaS
(52)
Increment of stress is obtained by a numerical evaluation of
the integral
(53)
and the total stress at time t + lit is obtained as
(54)
Updated non membnane

The UL finite element formulation follows largely the same
pattern as outlined for the TL-approach. The main differences
are as follow. All entering the formulas should be
interpreted as eunnent ones. Since the displacements are
measured from the reference (current) configuration, all terms
involving displacements in the general formulation will vanish.
This implies that the matrices [B
NL
] and [K
LD
] of the TL-for-
mulation do not enter the UL-formulation. Furthermore, inte-
grals are carried out over eunnent voLume and anea.
If the convected coordinate system is assumed to be Cartesian
in the current state, the metric tensor components gaS of the
constitutive matrix [C] will be equal to the Kronecker delta
- 185 -
components This simplifies the constitutive relation con-
siderably. The stress components entering the stress matrix [0]
will, furthermore, be Cartesian ones.
Increments of stress are calculated according to Eq. (53), and

total stress is obtained as 0 = 0aS + , where 0aS are
Cartesian stress components at time t. At every step of the
calculations a transformation of convected stress components
to Cartesian ones has to be performed. At time t + the Car-
tesian components a
as
are given by
ai* ai*
a
a
YP
S
(55 ) 0
as 3X* ax*
Y
p
The calculation of total strain is much more complicated in the
UL formulation than in the TL-formulation, since the Lagrangian
strain increments in all steps are referred to different con-
figurations and usually to different base vectors. This implies
that they cannot be added to total strain without complicated
transformations.
A way to overcome these problems is to calculate strains just
as in the TL-formulation, i.e. to add increments of displace-
ments in each step to total displacements, referred to a common
set of base vectors, and to use interpolation functions express-
ed in terms of initial coordin"ates. Under all circumstances a
lot of information about the initial state must be stored, which
normally is unnecessary in a UL-formulation. The procedure de-
scribed above is thus a mixture of the UL and TL-approaches.
For three-dimensional membrane elements it is usually necessary
to use local coordinate systems for each element, which are re-
defined (updated) in each step. This implies that a new trans-
formation matrix has to be established in each step, and that
a number of transformations of displacement and load vectors
between local and global systems have to be performed.
- 186 -
2.6

In the Eulerian (or spatial) description of motion attention is
fixed on a given region in space (a point) instead of a certain
particle of a continuum. Independent variables are the present
position and time t. The Eulerian description is best suited
for fluid mechanics problems, as it enables us to observe the
flow in a point in for instance a channel or a wind tunnel. In
finite element procedures based on the Eulerian approach, or,
as it also is known as, the 'ntow primary unknowns
are the at the nodal points.
The rigid-plastic constitutive relations in Sect. 2.3 have the
form of the constitutive relations for a
In metal forming problems, such as extru-
sion and rolling, the velocities at a given point in space re-
main constant in time. The material behaviour in this type of
problems is similar to that of a fluid, and an Eulerian finite
element approach is a natural choice. The finite element mesh
in such problems is fixed in space (Eulerian).
The Eulerian formulation has, however, also been used for the
solution of rigid-plastic, problems, such as stretch
forming and deep drawing of sheet metal, although the material
behaviour in such problems bears small resemblance with a fluid
flow. In transient problems the element mesh has to be 'updated'
in each step (Lagrangian).
The use of the flow approach in sheet metal forming problems
has been advocated particularly by o.c. Zienkiewicz and co-
workers in Swansea, Refs. [7], [8], [16], [17]. It should also
be noticed that a thorough treatise on this subject is given in
the chapter by E. Onate and R. Perez Lama in these proceedings.
A review of the flow approach in application to various steady-
state and transient forming problems is given in Zienkiewicz
[18 ].
The analogy between the constitutive relations of viscoplastic
flow and small strain elasticity, discussed in Sect. 2.3, should
once again be pOinted out. This analogy makes it possible to use
a standard finite element program for linear elastic analysis
- 187 -
in large strain viscoplastic analysis with only minor changes
of the program.
The finite element equations are thus established in a standard
fashion. We assume that a local Cartesian coordinate system is
defined for each element and is updated in each step. Components
referred to these local axes will in the following be marked by
a star. Briefly, the major steps of the discretization process
are as follow:
Velocity assumptions:
(56)
Rate of deformation - nodal velocity relations:
1 .
DuS = Z(uu,S +uS,u) (57a)
{D*} = [B*]{u*} (57b)
Local equilibrium equations (Eq. (27:
[K*] = f[B*]T[C] [B*]dV
V
Trnasformations from local to global system:
Global equilibrium equations:
(58b)
(58c)
[I] (59a)
(59b)
(60 )
In the solution process a steady-state flow situation is assumed
at every deformation level. Due to the nonlinear 'viscosity',
cr IE , an iterative solution scheme has to be employed at every
e e
deformation level to ensure equilibrium. When convergence is
achieved, the geometry is updated by The effective strain
at time t + is obtained as Ee
E + Strain hardening
e e
- 188 -
effects are considered by calculating a new value of the effec-
tive stress. From the uniaxial stress-plastic strain curve we
get G
e
= H{E
e
).
In rigid or nearly rigid zones of the material the value of Ee
tends to zero and, thus, the 'viscosity' 0e/Ee tends to in-
finity. To avoid numerical difficulties due to this fact, the
use of a large but finite cut off value of the 'viscosity' is
recommended in the references above. Such a cut off value makes
it possible to compute stresses even in zones where the stress
state is below the yield stress.
Osakada et. al. [19] have pointed out the importance of satis-
fying the equilibrium conditions at the end of the increment,
at time t + in certain large strain transient problems,
such as sheet metal forming problems. Such a procedure incorpo-
rates the effects of shape change and work hardening during the
incremental step, and yields for certain problems more accurate
results than the simple extrapolation scheme previously de-
scribed. In the method proposed in Ref. [19] the nodal velo-
are assumed during the time increment In
the equilibrium relations in Eq. (58) the matrix [B*] and the
integration domains are functions of the unknown nodal coordi-
nates at the end of the increment. Furthermore, the effective
stress is a function of the unknown effective strain E .
e e
Concerning the strain calculation in the flow approach, the
same comments can be made as for the UL-formulation in Sect.
2.5.
2.7

As shown in Sect. 2.6 the rigid-plastic material model leads
naturally to a set of discretized, nonlinear equilibrium equa-
tions expressed in terms of nodal Some writers,
Refs. [20] ,- [22], have, however, preferred to reformulate
these relations to forms involving nodal
as primary unknowns. Thus, these formulations are of
Lagrangian type. However, in the process of reformulation a
number of more or less rude approximations have to be intro-
- 189 -
duced. Below, the two most recent papers on this subject, Refs.
[21] - [22], will be briefly reviewed.
Toh and Kobayashi [21] use a UL-formulation and triangular
membrane elements. The yleld is expressed in terms
of heeand Plaia Kl4ehhan6 ht4ehh as
(61)
where
[S2 + S2 _ 2R S S + 2 (1+2R) s2 ] 1/2
xx yy 1+R xx yy 1+R xy
(62)
is the effective Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and Ee is the effec-
tive Lagrangian strain. It should be noted that thlh yleld
lh app4axlmatlan to the one defined by Eqs. (1)
and (9). The function S(E
e
) is determined from the cr
e
- Ee
curve, by noting that S = cr at current time t and that
1 e e
flEe = '2 ln (1 + flEe). Furthermore, by all te4mh
flEe 06 a4de4 two 04 hlghe4, the following approximate
relation is obtained:
where H'
The flow rule is assumed to be given by
af
A--
aS
ij
(63)
(64)
From the consistency condition, f = 0, the flow rule, Eq. (64),
and the yield condition, Eqs. (61) - (62), the following con-
stitutive relation is obtained
{S}
where the matrix [G-
1
] contains constant elements and is
defined in Eq. (24).
(65)
The rate of plastic work can be expressed as SijE
ij
= SeEe.
Integrating this relation from time t to t + fit, and
that the 6t4e66 lh and equal to its value at the end
- 190 -
of the time increment, one gets s .. .. The vectors

with Lagrangian strain increments, strain rates, and virtual
strains are written = + 1/2 [B
NL
]) = [H]
{E} = ([B
L
] + [B
NL
] ){u} = [B]{u}, and {eEl = [B]{eu}, respec-
tively. Furthermore, a nadIa! path during the
time increment one finds
(66)
In view of the above relations, the virtual effective strain
is given by

e
Noting that the internal virtual work can be written
(67)
(68)
we finally arrive at the following set of discretized, non-
linear equilibrium equations
f
S T -1
Time t + [B] [G ]
V e
(69)
where the matrices [B] and [H] are functions of the unknown dis-
placement increments
As noticed, a number of approximations have been introduced
during the derivation of these relations. It is therefore very
difficult to form an opinion of the accuracy of the results
obtained from the current procedure.
Wang [22] also uses constant-strain triangular membrane ele-
ments, but a TL-formulation. His basic assumption is that the
path nadla! during the incremental step from time t
to t + This results in a formulation which essentially is
a deformation theory of plasticity during each incremental
step. Due to this assumption the Lagrangian strain rate can be
expressed as

f k(t)dt
t
(70)
- 191 -
where is a scalar constant, k(t) is a scalar velocity which
is a function of time, and EaS - EaS is the Lagrangian
strain increment from time t to t +
Wang has made his derivations in a rather general fashion, and
then specialized to the 50-called Hill's 'new' yield theory.
However, keeping to Hill's 'old' theory and using a convected
coordinate system, we can, in view of Eq. (23), write the
constitutive relation as
Time t + !.It: {cr}
where the effective strain rate is given by
.
Time t + E
e
({E}T[G-
1
(gaS) HE}) 1/2
(71 )
(gaS) 1/2 (72)
Making the additional assumption that the Ee and
ane conhtant duning the time htep LIt, we get
(73)
The constitutive relation can now, in view of Eqs. (71) - (73),
be rewritten as
cr
e
-1
Time t + LIt: {cr} = -;;;:--[G (g 13)] {LIE} (74)
Ee a
Using the relations {eEl = [B]{eu} and {LIE} = [H]{Llu}, the virt-
ual work done by the internal stresses can be expressed as
Time t + LIt: f {eE}T{cr}dV
o
=
Va
where the matrices [B] and [H] are functions of total nodal
displacements. The equilibrium equations can thus be written
- 192 -
In Ref. [22] a way to solve this system of equations by the
Newton-Raphson solution procedure is described. The incremental
displacement vector is then represented as a sum of a trial
vector and a correction vector.
To cite from the references above, the main advantage of using
the rigid-plastic material model combined with a Lagrangian
formulation is that much larger step-sizes are allowable than
in an elastic-plastic formulation (difference of the order ten) .
On the other hand, manymore iterations are needed per step in
the rigid-plastic formulation (10-15 iterations/step) than in
the elastic-plastic formulation. A drawback of the rigid-plastic
method seems to be the sensitivity of the solution procedure
to the trial solution. According to Wang [22] 'a generally
valid trial strategy has yet to be developed for modelling
forming processes involving complex shapes'.
3 An elastic-plastic, Total Lagrangian, membrane finite ele-
ment formulation for sheet metal forming analysis
In this chapter a finite element procedure, developed in the
course of the present study, will be described. The primary
purpose of this numerical procedure was to simulate, mainly,
axi-symmetric punch forming tests, in order to evaluate the
effects of various material parameters and friction on the
formability of sheet metals. Thus, an axi-symmetric formula-
tion would have satisfied these requirements. However, a sec-
ondary purpose was also to predict strain distributions in in-
dustrial manufactured sheet metal parts. To fulfil this second
purpose, the numerical procedure had to be able to handle arbi-
trarily shaped tools.
The present finite element procedure therefore employs ;(:tc..i.aYlg-
u.latc., C.O Yl.6;(:aYl;(:-.6;(:tc.aiYl, me.mbtc.aYle. e.le.me.Yl;(:.6. The use of membrane
theory excludes the study of forming processes in which ben-
ding plays a significant role, such as in draw-forming over
small radius. It also excludes the study of effects such as
springback and wrinkling.
- 193 -
The present procedure is based on an
taw and a 06 motion. This choice is mo-
tivated by that accuracy and reliability have been considered
to be more important than computational efficiency in the pre-
sent study. Hill's yield theory, described in Section 2.2, has,
furthermore, been adopted.
I
-z
__ ..................
-=-:---1 ________ ...
Initial configuration at time t
(coinciding with the xy-plane) 0

V
2
V W
2
fi
<..,,3
_ V3
W3
Current configuration at time t
Fig. 1: Triangular membrane element in 3D space
Because of its relative simplicity the UL-formulation is known
to be more effective than the TL-formulation in cases when the
constitutive relations are formulated in rate form. For instan-
ce, in a UL-formulation there is no need for an 'initial dis-
placement stiffness matrix', and the constitutive relations
get a much simpler appearance than in a TL-formulation.
However, in the sheet forming case there are some factors in
favour of a TL-formulation. Since the sheet is initially coin-
ciding with the xy-plane, the interpolation functions can be
directly expressed in global x- and y-coordinates, thus avoi-
ding time consuming transformations between local and global
coordinate systems. Furthermore, as discussed in Section 2.5,
the strain calculation is much more straightforward in a TL-
than in a UL-formulation.
Both a TL- and a UL-formulation have been programmed and tes-
ted. The two procedures were found to be approximately equally
effective. The was, however, considered to be a
- 194 -
more 'natural' choice in the present application, and was
therefore implemented in the final version of the program.
The derivation of the finite element equations follows the out-
line of the general theory in Section 2.5. Explicit forms of
the finite element matrices of the TL-formulation are found in
Refs. [3] and [14], while those of the UL-formulation are found
in Ref. [5].
3.2
From the view-point of contact condition, every node of the
blank has five possible 'status':
( 1) Free node (no contact)
(2) Contact with the die and slip
(3) Contact with the die and stick
(4) Contact with the punch and slip
(5) Contact with the punch and stick
Assume that the blank at initial time t=t
o
coincides with the
xy-plane of the global Cartesian coordinate system, and that
the punch just touches the sheet. The punch is assumed to move
in positive z-direction. The punch surface at current time t
can than be expressed by the equation
F(x, y, z) = z - f(x, y) - wp = 0
(77)
where wp is the punch travel distance at time t.
Consider now a node in slipping contact with the punch. The
relative velocity, u , between the node and the punch is given

by
u

{Ii }
r

(78a)

w;. - w ]T
u, v, P
(78b)
A unit normal vector to the punch surface at the point x,y is
defined by
n

grad F / I grad F I
(79a)
- 195 -
c} [_df af 1]T/lgradFI
nn = ax' -ay'
(79b)
The condition that the node is constrained to move tangential
to the punch surface can be expressed as
(80)
This geometn{Q is in explicit form given
by
a f a f;" ;..
-ax u - ay v + w
(81)
A tangent unit vector in the direction of slip, may be ex-
pressed in horisontal velocity components, if Eg. (81) is used
to express w, as
(82a)
(82b)
In the present study two different models have been used to si-
mulate the interface forces at sliding contact. In the first
model, which is of Coulomb type, the frictional force is ex-
pressed as
-lJ P
(83)
where lJ is the coefficient of friction, and P is the (scalar)
normal force. In the second model the shear stress between the
punch and the blank is assumed to be constant, i.e. independent
of the normal force. The tangential nodal force is then approx-
imated by
(84 )
where Tp is the constant shear stress, Ai is the area of ele-
ment i, and the sum is taken over all adjoining elements at
the node.
The total applied load on a slipping node is thus U P n + F

For the Coulomb friction model this force can be written in
symbolic matrix notation as
- 196 -
(85)
and for the constant shear stress model as
A 1 A
{U} = p{nn} - )Tp IAi{n
t
}
(86)
The form of Eqs. (81), (85), and (86) are
- df LI u - 3 f LI v + Llw = L1wp + W
R
ax 3y
(87)
It should be noted that Eqs. (88)-(89) introduce the increment
in normal force, LIP, as u.nknown in each slipping con-
tact node. However, Eq. (87) yields
aint at the same nodes. The highly nonlinear nature of the pro-
blem should be emphasized. The vectors and
are all functions of the unknown nodal displacement increments.
It should also be pointed out that, since the load is displace-
ment dependent, it is a
The vector {R} in Eqs. (88)-(89) is a residual vector that com-
pensates for the lack of equilibrium at the start of the step.
It is defined as {R} = {U} - {U }, where {U } is the sum of in-
a a
tegrated stresses from the adjoining elements. The quantity w
R
in Eq. (87) compensat.es for tha:t a node, that has been assign-
ed to a contact node, is not exactly situated on the punch sur-
face. It is defined as w
R
- (f(x, y) + wpl .- w .
In Refs. [3), [14), and [15] a simple step-by-step solution
procedure without equilibrium iterations was employed. In such
a procedure it is very important that the correct tangent sti-
ffness matrix is used, and consequently in these studies all
terms in Eq. (88) (excluding {R}) were retained. In the pres-
ent solution procedure, where lack of equilibrium is corrected
for in each step, it is not equally important to use the corr-
ect tangent stiffness matrix. As a matter of fact, in the pre-
sent study two procedures were tried, one where all terms in
- 197 -
Eqs. (88)-(89) were retained, and one where the terms contai-
ning and were neglected. However, no differences
in results or rate of convergence were observed for the two
procedures, so in the final version of program these terms
were neglected.
Con.tac.;t
The contact equations are in the present computer program trea-
ted as 'contact elements', defined for each contact node. The
contributions from one single node in slipping contact with
the punch to the tangent stiffness matrix and the load vector
become (Coulomb friction model)
x X X -(n -
nx
\ln
tx
) 0 + R (90)
x
X X X -(n - \ln
ty
) 0 R
ny y
X X X -(n - \ln
tz
) fJw 0 R
z
nz
-af/ax -df/ay 0
fJp
fJwp
w
R
The elements
' X'
in the matrix above denote contributions to
the tangent stiffness matrix from adjoining membrane elements
to the node. It is noted that the contribution from the 'con-
tact element' is For the constant shear stress in-
terface model the terms \l n
ti
will vanish, and the stiffness ma-
trix will remain symmetric if the last equation is divided by
-[grad F [. In the present procedure the punch travel increment
serves as a prescribed 'load'.
For a node in non-slipping contact, the conditions 0
are imposed in the usual way. The last equation in Eq. (90)
than yields fJw = fJwp. Similar 'contact elements' also apply
for nodes in contact with the die. In that case the prescribed
displacement is equal to zero.
60n and c.on;tac..t
Let IT denote the nodal force vector arising from internal str-

esses in the adjoining elements. The maximum tangential force,
if, in the node is then given by iT = u - p;:; The condition
.-
- 198 -
for a node that previously has been assigned to 'stick' to be-
come 'slip' is straightforward:
'slip' if
lEI> 11 P
(Coulomb friction)
lEI > -3
l
,P l: A. (constant shear stress)
i 1.
(9l)
The criterion for a node that previously has been assigned to
'slip' to become 'stick' is, on the other hand, not at all ob-
vious. Checking of the balancing forces is meaningless, since
the equality lEI = 11 P always holds at equilibrium.
In the present procedure a sudden change of slip direction at
a node has been interpreted as an indication of that this node
should be assigned to 'stick'. The criterion is: If the angle
between the slip directions in the two previous steps is grea-
ter than 90
0
, then the node is assigned to 'stick'.
It is a well-known fact that the behaviour of some metals in
the plastic range is strongly influenced by the strain-rate.
In sheet metal forming processes the strain-rates can vary with
several orders of magnitude in different regions of the sheet,
and, thus, have a significant influence on the strain distri-
bution. A simple way to extend the inviscid flow theory to in-
clude the effect of strain-rate is to let the effective stress
be a function of, not only effective strain, but also effective
strain rate. In the present study the following expression for
the effective stress has been used:
K E
nl
. m
d
(5
(Ee/EO) ,
Ee
< E
e e
e
K' E
n2
. m
Ed
(5e
(EeIE
O
) ,
Ee
> (92)
e
e
K'
(nl-n2)
d
where K, n
l
, n
2
, m, Ee' and EO are material parameters. The in-
fluence of strain-rate in sheet metal forming has been studied
by, for instance, Wang and Wenner [23], and Neale and Chater
- 199 -
[24,25].
Solution
Two different solution procedures have been tested in the pre-
sent study. These are the Newton-Raphson iterative method and
the so-called first order self correcting method [26]. Both
these methods presume that the unbalance in nodal forces is
corrected for in each step.
The Newton-Raphson method was difficult to implement since
convergence problems were encountered. It proved necessary to
keep as many variables as possible constant during the itera-
tions. For instance, the contributions to the tangent stiff-
ness matrix from the 'node elements' discussed above must not
be updated during the iterations, while the contributions from
the membrane elements are updated in each iterative step. Fur-
thermore, the 'status' of the nodes has to be kept unaltered
during the iterations, i.e. a free node remains a free node, a
slipping node remains a slipping node, and so on. In the final
version of the program the method performed excellently.
The first order self correcting method is a step-by-step me-
thod without equilibrium iteration. However, the unbalance in
nodal forces is corrected for in each step by adding to the
new incremental load vector the residual vector from the pre-
vious step.
Convengenee 6tudies
Convergence studies with respect to punch travel increment 6Wp
were performed for a hemispherical punch stretching problem
wi th punch radius rp=50. 8 mm and coefficients of friction Jl
p
=
Jl
D
=0.17. The maximum punch depth was 33.5mm. The axi-symmetri
of the problem was used, and only a narrow sector (angle 10
0
)
of the sheet was modelled with 61 elements. Convergence was
assumed attained when two successive punch travel increments
gave indistinguishable strain plots.
The Newton-Raphson procedure converged for Mlp=O.lO mm with a
total number of iterations equal to 1023. The self correcting
method converged for 6W
p
=0.05mm. The computing time was in
the latter case 640 CPU-secs on an IBM 3081 computer.
- 200 -
4 Influence of material parameters on the strain distribution
in stretch forming
In the present section it is studied how different material
parameters influence the strain distribution in hemispherical
stretch forming.
The tool geometry, which is also used in the experiments of
the next section, is illustrated in Fig. 2. The punch radius
is 50 rom and the blank is firmly clamped at a distance of
70 rom from the punch axis.
Fig. 2: The stretch forming geo-
matry used in experiments and FEM
calculations
The friction conditions at the interface between sheet and die
are described with the Coulomb model. In the present calcula-
tions only one coefficient of friction = 0.4 is studied
corresponding to no lubrication.
Friction at the punch-sheet interface is considered both with
the Coulomb friction model and the model of constant shear
stress. A range of friction parameters will be studied below.
The influence of the flow parameters of the sheet material is
taken into account by varying the work hardening exponent n,
the strain rate sensitivity m, and the normal anisotropy R.
The calculations are based on a state of reference which is
given in Table 1. One parameter at a time was varied from
the reference value.
- 201 -
K
R I "p
"p
T E
"0
Parameter n m
p
(MFa) die punch (MFa) (MPa) (sec-
1
)
Value 0.2 0.01 577
1.0i 0.04
0.2
- 2.07'10
5
1.4'10
3
Table 1: State of reference
0.3,..-------------,
H=30
0.2
'-
w 0.1
"" w
o
I 0.2
0.3 L-IN-IT-IA-L-RA-O-I-A-L
Fig. 3: Influence of work harde-
ning exponent n on the strain
distribution
Wp
sheet
thickness
(m/sec) (m)
8.3'10
5
7.7.10
4
Fig. 3 shows how the work hardening exponent n influences the
strain distribution. The diagram presents the radial and cir-
cumferential logarithmic strains at a punch depth of 30 mm.
It should be noticed that the radial strain is plotted in the
positive sence upwards while the circumferential strain is
plotted positive downwards. The results are given as a function
of the original radial coordinate of each material point. The
radial strain becomes more smoothly distributed over the sheet
cup as the n-value increases. This implies a lower pole strain,
a lower peak strain, and a drift of the peak away from the
pole. The circumferential strain decreases as the n-value
- 202 -
increases.
Fig. 4 illustrates how the strain rate sensitivity m influences
the strain distribution. The studied range of m-values is
typical to commercial sheet materials at ambient temperature.
The influence of the m-value is small in Fig. 4. An increasing
m-value reduces the radial strain peak and distributes the
strain away from the pole.
0.3,--------------.
1 0.2
'-
w

w
o
0.1
0.2
H=30
10
INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 4: Influence of strain
rate sensitivity m on the
strain distribution.
'-
w
'" w
03.---------------.,
0.2
10
o
- .:.:.:::..:,,::.:.:.::::.:;.,,-;;-;;..-;:;.;&.
0.1

H=30
l 0.2
0.3 INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 5: Influence of normal
anisotropy R on the strain
distribution (the anisotropy
parameter is denoted r in the
figure) .
The influence of the normal anisotropy R on the strain distri-
bution is illustrated in Fig. 5. An increasing R-value reduces
the radial pole strain, increases the peak strains and moves
the peak away from the pole. The circumferential strain is de-
creased by an increase in the R-value.
In Fig. 6 it is illustrated how the friction conditions between
punch and sheet influence the strain distribution. The results
- 203 -
are based on the Coulomb friction model. An increasing coeffi-
cient of friction leads to a drop in the radial pole strain
and an almost constant or increasing peak strain. The peak moves
away from the pole. The circumferential strain decreases with
increasing
t..
W
0.3,---------------,
0.1
....
.. '
H=30
10
o

_._._.-7
.... /
-_ .....
0.3 '-------::---:-::-:-----=:----'
INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 6: Influence of the
Coulomb friction coeffi-
cient at the punch on
p
the strain distribution
0.3,---------------,
H=30
t
0.2
T=1.3 MPa
'-
w
0.1
0
10

0.1
----
.... /.
q..
w
I
0.2
0.3 '----__ .....
INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 7: Influence of the
stress Tp at the punch on
the strain distribution when
the constant interface shear
stress model is used.
Fig. 7 illustrates the effect of the interface contact condi-
tions at the punch in terms of the constant shear stress model.
The results are similar to those of Fig. 6.
It can be concluded from Figs. 3 to 7 that a high n-value and
a m-value have positive effects on the strain distribu-
tion in hemispherical stretch forming. High values of these
parameters reduce both the radial and circumferential strain
levels. In the case of R, and Tp the situation is more
complicated. Low values of these parameters often reduce the
radial strain peaks, but at the same time increase the
- 204 -
circumerential strains.
A stretch forming operation is usually terminated by sharp
necking and failure. The strains at which sharp necking occur
are characterized by the forming limit diagram. The forming
limit often has a maximum close to equibiaxial stretching
(r = p) and a minimum close to plane strain deformation
(p = 0). It is thus unfavourable if the most critical strains
of a strain distribution shift from equibiaxial stretching
towards plane strain deformation. This is however the case
when the R, and Tp-values increase. The radial peak
strains increase at the same time as the corresponding circum-
ferential strains decrease. In this respect high R, and
Tp-values are detrimental to the formability in stretch for-
ming. This is however not the case for high nand m-values,
since they are associated with falling radial peak strains
and circumerential strains. In that case the strain levels
decrease and the state of strain is not drastically changed
when nand m increase.
5 Comparison between experimental and theoretical strain
distributions in stretch forming
In the present section a few examples will be given of experi-
mental strain distributions in stretch forming and the corre-
sponding FEM calculations.
The stretch forming experiments were performed with the geo-
metry of Fig. 2. Nine different materials were studied inclu-
ding deep drawing quality steels, high strength carbon steels,
austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, and brass. The flo\>l
properties of these were determined in uniaxial
tension in the plane of the sheet and compression in the normal
direction of the sheet, Refs. [27] and [28].
The stretch forming experiments were in all cases performed
\>lith teflon film lubrication on the punch.
It is believed that the constant shear stress model describes
the behaviour of the teflon film better than the Coulomb fric-
tion model. The former model has thus been used in the
- 205 -
FEM calculations.
The strain distributions of four materials are presented below.
They were obtained for a deep quality steel (OOQ), a
high strength carbon steel (HSS) , a ferritic stainless steel
(FSS) and brass. The parameters used in the FEM calculations
are given in Table 2.

K
Tp
E
EO Wp
sheet
n
1
n
2
m R thickness
(MPa) die (MPa) (MPa)
(sec-I)
(m/sec) (m)
DDQ 0.25 0.21 0.21 0.0105 571 1.73 0.4 1.3 2.07"0
5
1.4'10
3
8.3'10
5
7.7.10
4
HSS 0.15
- - 0.007 874 1.04 0.4 1.3 2.07'10
5
1.3'10
3
6.9'10
4
FSS 0.26 0.12 0.27 0.008 978 1.80 0.4 1.3 2.07'10
5
1.3'10
3
8.3'10
5
7.2'10
4
Brass 0.53 0.37 0.38 0 804 1.04 0.4 1.7 1.14'10
5
1.4'10
3
8.3.10
5
7.0'10
4
Table 2. Parameters of FEM-calculations.
All the parameters of Table 2 were determined by mechanical
testing or other independent measurements except the friction
parameters. The strain distributions are not sensitive to the
value of the friction parameter at the die so was set to a
value which is believed to be typical to no lubrication. The
sheet-punch interface shear stress, Tp' was used as a fitting
parameter. The fitting was originally performed for the deep
drawing quality steel. The best fit was obtained for
Tp = 1.3 MPa. The same parameter was subsequently used for all
other materials.
Fig. 8 shows the strain distributions of the deep drawing qua-
lity steel (OOQ) for five pressing depths. The strains are
plotted as a function of position along the original blank
diameter. The experimental results plotted as points were
obtained by evaluating the strains from circles of 2 rom diameter
etched to the blank surface. Five different blanks were used
to obtain the results of Fig. 8. The agreement between the
experimental results and the FEM calculation plotted with solid
lines is very good.
- 206 -
000
T=13MPa
0.5 E,
-50 o 50
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 8: Experimental
(points) and FEM (lines)
strain distributions for a
deep drawing quality steel.
HSS
T=1.3 MPa
o.s t
H=43.9
-50 o 50
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 9: Experimental and FEM
strain distributions for a high
strength carbon steel.
Fig. 9 illustrates the experimental and theoretical strain
distributions for the high strength carbon steel (RSS). This
steel has a tensile strength which is almost a factor of two
larger (580 MFa) than for the deep drawing quality steel
(315 MPa). In spite of the large difference in flow proper-
ties a very good agreement between experiments and FEM-
calculation was obtained with the same friction parameter
T = 1.3 MPa for RSS as for DDQ.
p
Fig. 10 presents the experimental and theoretical strain distri-
butions for the ferritic stainless steel (FSS). The same inter-
face shear-stress parameter was used as for the two carbon
steels. The tensile strength of FSS is slightly lower (530 MPa)
- 207 -
than for HSS. The agreement between the experimental points
and the theoretical lines is very satisfactory.
FSS
'T=1.3MPa
-so o so
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 10: Experimental and FEM
strain distributions for a
ferritic stainless steel.
0.3 IE
p
-so
o so
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 11: EXperimental and FEM
strain distributions for brass.
The results for brass are presented in Fig. 11. For that mate-
rial the fit between theory and experiments was improved by
increasing the interface shear stress from Tp = 1.3 to 1.7 MPa.
The tensile strength is 320 MPa. The overall agreement between
experiments and the FEM calculation is not as good for brass
as for the three previous materials.
Detailed comparison was made between experimental strain
distribution and FEM calculations for nine materials. In six
of these cases a very good agreement between theory and experi-
ments was obtained with Tp = 1.3 MPa. For two types of brass
a Tp-value of 1.7 MPa was used. In the last material, an
- 208 -
austenitic stainless steel with very high ultimate pressing
depth, a value of 'p = 2.4 MPa gave the best fit.
It can thus be concluded that the constant interface shear
stress model gives a good agreement between FEM and experimen-
tal strain distributions for all studied materials. For the
three materials with the highest ultimate pressing depths a
higher value of 'p had to be used than for the other materials.
It is presently not quite clear why the interface conditions
are different in those cases.
6 Conclusions
The Eulerian and Lagrangian finite element formulations based
on the rigid-plastic material model, reviewed herein, are all
based on simplifying assumptions such as constant nodal velo-
cities or radial strain path during a finite time increment
6t. The rigid-plastic model is, of course, in itself a ruder
approximation of the real material behaviour than, for
instance, the elastic-plastic model, since elastic deforma-
tions are ignored, and elastic unloading cannot be handled.
The main advantage of the rigid-plastic formulations is that
relatively large incremental steps are allowed for.
The elastic-plastic, Lagrangian finite element formulations
are based on a more firm theoretical basis. The only approxi-
mation inherent in the numerical model (excluding discretiza-
tion errors) is the evaluation of the time integral of the
rate constitutive equations. The elastic-plastic formulations
are known to be less efficient than the rigid-plastic ones,
due to its greater complexity, and since relatively small step
sizes are required.
Although a few comparisons between elastic-plastic and rigid-
plastic formulations have been reported in the literature,
there still is a great demand for an objective comparative
study of the accuracy and efficiency of the various formula-
tions.
In the present numerical study an elastic-plastic material
model was used. Although the UL-formulation generally is known
- 209 -
to be more effective than the TL-formulation in problems with
constitutive relations in rate form, there were some factors
in the present punch forming case that favoured a TL-formula-
tion. Severe convergence problems were encountered in connec-
tion with the implementation of the Newton-Raphson solution
procedure. These problems could, however, be solved, and the
method is now performing excellently. Also the first order
self correcting method was tested, and was found to be slight-
ly more effective than the Newton-Raphson procedure.
The computer program was used to simulate hemispherical punch
forming tests. The effects of varying certain material prame-
ters were studied. An increasing work hardening exponent n or
strain rate sensitivity m was found to reduce both the radial
and circumferential strain peaks. An increasing value of the
normal anisotropy parameter R or the coefficient of friction
at the punch increases the height of the radial strain peak
but decreases the circumferential strain -level.
A good agreement was obtained between experimental strain dis-
tributions in hemispherical stretch forming and finite element
calculations for nine different sheet materials, including
carbon steels, stainless steels, and brass.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Dr. R. Glemberg for preparing a spe-
cial version of the GENFEM program for the present application,.
and for continous support in the course of the program develop-
ment. They also wish to thank E. Schedin, M. Hedman, and A.
Thuvander for determining the strain distributions.
The present research was financed by the Department of Struct-
ural Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology, the Gene-
ral Research Program of the Swedish Institute for Metals Re-
search, and the National Swedish Board for Technical Develop-
ment.
- 210 -
References
[1] Hutchinson, J.W.: Finite strain analysis of elastic-
plastic solids and structures. Numerical solution of non-
linear structural problems (ed. Hartung), AMD-Vol. 6,
ASME, New York, 1973.
[2] Hill, R.: The mathematical theory of plasticity. Claren-
don Press, Oxford, 1950.
[3] Wang, N.-M.; Budiansky, B.: Analysis of sheet metal stam-
ping by a finite element method. ASME J. of Appl. Mech.
45 (1978), pp. 73-82.
[4] Mattiasson, K.: Continuum mechanics principles for large
deformation problems in solid and structural mechanics.
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Struc-
tural Mechanics, Publ. 81:6, Goteborg, 1981.
[5] Mattiasson, K.: On the co-rotational finite element formu-
lation for large deformation problems, (doctoral thesis).
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Struc-
tural Mechanics, PUbl. 83:1, Goteborg, 1983.
[6] Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Godbole, P.N.: Flow of plastic and
viscoplastic solids with special reference to extrusion
and forming processes. Int. J. Num. Meth. in Eng. 8 (1974),
pp. 3-16.
[7] Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Jain, P.C.; Onate, E.: Flow of solids
during forming and extrusion: Some aspects of numerical
solutions. Int. J. Sol. Struct. 14 (1978), pp. 15-38.
[8] Onate, E.; Zienkiewicz, O.C.: A viscous shell formulation
for the analysis of thin sheet metal forming. Int. J.
Mech. Sci. 25(5) (1983), pp. 305-335.
[9] Perzyna, P.: Fundamental problems in viscoplasticity.
Recent Advances in Applied Mechanics, Academic Press,
New York, 1966, pp. 243-377.
- 211 -
[10] Wifi, A.S.: An incremental complete solution of the
stretch forming and deep drawing of a circular blank
using a hemi-spherical punch. Int. J. of Mech. Sci. 18
(1976), pp. 23-31.
[11] Andersen, B.S.: A numerical study of the deep drawing
processes. Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Pro-
cesses (ed. Pittman et al.), Pineridge Press, Swansea,
U.K., 1982, pp. 709-721.
[12] Honnor, M.E.; Wood, R.D.: Finite element analysis of
axi-syrnrnetric deep drawing using a simple two-noded Mind-
lin shell element. Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Prob-
lems (ed. Taylor et al.), Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K.,
1984, pp. 440-449.
[13] Tang, S.C.: Large elasto-plastic strain analysis of
flanged hole forming. Compt. Struct. 13 (1981), pp. 363-
370.
[14] Wennerstrom, H.: Numerical and computer techniques in
finite element analysis, (doctoral thesis). Chalmers Uni-
versity of Technology, Department of Structural Mechanics,
Publ. 81:7, Goteborg, 1981.
[15] Wennerstrom, H.; Samuelsson, A.; Mattiasson, K.: Finite
element method for sheet metal stretching. Numerical Ana-
lysis of Forming Processes (ed. Pittman et al.), Wiley-
Interscience, 1984, pp. 387-404 and in Numerical Methods
in Industrial Forming Processes (ed. Pittman et al.),
Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K., 1982, pp. 51-65.
[16] Zienkiewicz, D.C.; Wood, R.D.; Mattiasson, K.; Honnor,
M.E.: Viscous flow and solid mechanics approaches to the
analysis of thin sheet forming, Computer Modelling of the
Sheet Forming Process - Theory, Verification and Applica-
tions (will be published by AlME, 1985).
[17] Baynham, J.M.W.; Zienkiewicz, D.C.: Developments in the
finite element analysis of thin sheet drawing and direct
redrawing processes, using a rigid/plastic approach. Nume-
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rical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes (ed. Pittman
et all, Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K., 1982, pp. 697-707.
[18] Zienkiewicz, O.C.: Flow formulation for the numerical
solution of forming processes. Numerical Analysis of Form-
ing Processes (ed. Pittman et al.), Wiley-Interscience,
1 984, pp. 1-4 4.
[19] Osakada, K.; Nakano, J.; Mori, K.: Finite element method
for rigid-plastic analysis of metal forming - formulation
for finite deformation. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 24, No.
8 (1982), pp. 459-468.
[20] Kobayashi, S.; Kim, J.H.: Deformation analysis of ax i-
symmetric sheet metal forming processes by the rigid-
plastic finite element method. Mechanics of Sheet Metal
Forming (eds. Koistinen, D.P. and Wang, N.-M.), Plenum
Press, New York, 1978.
[21] Toh, C.H.; Kobayashi, S.: Finite element process modeling
of sheet metal forming of general shapes. Proc. of the
Int. Conf. on Fundamentals of Metal Forming Technique -
States and Trend, Stuttgart, October 1983, pp. 39-56.
[22] Wang, N.-M.: A rigid-plastic rate-sensitive finite ele-
ment method for modelling sheet metal forming processes.
Numerical Analysis of Forming Processes (ed. Pittman et al.),
Wiley-Interscience, 1984.
[23] Wang, N.-M.; Wenner, M.L.: Elastic-viscoplastic analysis
of simple stretch forming problems. Mechanics of Sheet
Metal Forming (eds. Koistinen, D.P. and Wang, N.-M.) Ple-
Plenum Press, New York, 1978.
[24] Neale, K.W.; Chater, E.: Limit strain predictions for
strain-rate sensitive anisotropic sheets. Int. J. Mech.
Sci., Vol. 22 (1980), pp. 563-574.
[25] Chater, E.; Neale, K.W.: Finite plastic deformation of a
circular membrane under hydrostatic pressure - II, strain-
rate effects. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 25 (1983), pp.
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235-244.
[26] Tillerson, J.R.; Stricklin, J.A.; Haisler, w.e.: Numeri-
cal methods for solution of nonlinear problems in struc-
tural analysis. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Structu-
ral Problems (ed. Hartung), AMD-Vol. 6, ASME, New York,
1973.
[27] Melander, A.; Schedin, E.; Karlsson, S.; Steninger, J.:
A theoretical and experimental study of the forming limit
diagram of deep drawing steels, dual phase steels, auste-
nitic and ferritic stainless steels, and titanium. Scand.
J. Met., (1985), to be published.
[28] Melander, A.; Thuvander, A.: Influence of surface rough-
ness and void growth at inclusions on the forming limit
diagram of brass. Scand. J. Met., Vol. 12 (1983), PP.
217-226.
- 214 -
Possibilities of the finite element viscous shell approach for
analysis of sheet metal forming problems.
E. Onate, R. Prez Lama, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Universi
dad Politcnica de Cataluna, Barcelona, Spain
Summary
The viscous shell approach combines the use of visco-plastic
flow and classical shell theories. The paper presents the general
aspects of the viscous shell formulation for axisymmetric and
general 3-D shell problems using finite elements. Details of
treatment of coordenate updating, friction effects, strain
hardening and extensions to include the elastic deformations
are also given together with some examples of application to
the forming of axis ymmetrica I thin sheets of metal under hemi-
spherical punches.
1. Introduction
The finite element [lJ formulations developed for the analysis
of metal forming problems can be basicaly classified into two
categories. In the first, the main variables are the displacements
of the deformed body (solid approach). Here, different finite
element non linear formulations for elastoplastic structural
analysis (in Lagrangian or Eulerian forms) have been successily
used for the solution of sheet metal forming problems [2J-[8J
The main difference with respect to conventional structural
analysis lays in the fact that in most metal forming processes
the displacements and deformations are very large. This makes
the displacement formulation not only much more complex but also
computationaly more demanding. On the other hand, for problems
in which continuous deformation and flow of the material occurs
(as is the case with most metal forming problems) is a more
natural approach to use velocities as the main variables (flow
approach). This procedure has been extensively used in past years
for the analysis of various kinds of metal forming problems [9J-
[17J. Recent applications of the "displacement" and "flow" ap-
proaches can be found in references [25J and [26J.
- 215 -
It has also been shown that if elastic and acceleration effects
are neglected in the analysis, the flow formulation is analogous
to classical non linear incompressive elasticity theory. This
allows the use of standard finite elements elasticity programs
for the solution of metal forming problems [9], [10] In parti-
cular, the extension of the flow approach to deal with sheet
metal deformation problems, leads to the "viscous shell"
tion which can be easily derived combining the basis of the flow
formulation with classical shell theory [16] , [17].
In this paper, the basis of the finite element viscous shell
formulation for axisymmetric and general thin shell metal forming
problems is presented. The first part of the paper is focussed
in the axisymmetric formulation for which explicit forms of the
finite element matrices are given together with details of the
coordinate updating procedure, treatment of friction effects and
some examples of application. The second part of the paper deals
with the general viscous shell formulation and here the funda-
mental finite element forms are given. Finally, the possibility
of including elastic effects in the viscous shell formulation
are discussed in the last part of the paper.
The basic introductory concepts of the flow approach are pre-
sented in next section.
2. Flow formulation. Basic concepts.
In a general elastoviscoplastic model the total strains can be
obtained as sum of the elastic and viscoplastic parts of the
deformation, i.e.
(1)
If the elastic strains, are neglected in the analysis eq.
(1) leads, after deriving with respect to time, to
. .vp
ij = Eij = f(oij)
(2)
Eq. (2) can be re-arranged to give
a = D E:
(3)
where is the current, real (Cauchy) stress vector, the rate
of the deformation vector and Q a constitutive matrix which may
be dependent on total strain invariants temperature T and
- 216 -
indeed the rate of straining itself.
If the above assumptions are accepted, then the material behaviour
is essentially that characterizing a fluid (Note that in eq. (2)
any change in stress will result in a change in the deformation
rate, i.e. in motion of the body), and the resulting numerical
approach is known as the "flow formulation".
It can be found [101 that for isotropic associated flow of me-
tals, eq. (2) can be written in the form
1
ij = 2]l Sij
where Sij is the deviatoric stress and ]l the flow viscosity
which can be obtained as [91, [101
:. 1
()/n
cry + y
3 E
(4)
(5)
In eq. (5), cry is the uniaxial yield stress;y and n are the
fluidity parameter and the power exponent of the appropriate
viscoplastic constitutive law [10), respectively/and is the
effective strain rate defined by
(6)
Note that eq. (4) implies = 0, Le. the material flows without
change of volume.
Ideally plastic materials are a special case of viscoplasticity
where viscous effects cease to operate. This simply implies y=oo
in eq. ( 5) and
(J
]l = -+
3"E
(7)
The value of viscosity tends to infinity as tends to zero so
in numerical computation a large but finite cut off value must
be assumed to allow for zones of rigid or nearly rigid behaviour.
It is also worth noting that a purely creeping material is
characterized by cry = 0 in eq. ( 5 ). Fig. 1 shows the relationship
between the stress and strain rate invariants thus providing a
physical insight into the meaning of the viscosity coefficient ]l.
We have to note here that the effect of normal anisotropy can
also be taken into account to evaluate an orthotropic stress-
strain rate relation,Eij = l/]lij sij,in which the viscosity
- 217 -
coefficients Vij can be calculated similarly as above using
Hill's definition of the yield surface and strain rate invariants
for normal anisotropic bodys
.
a = Uy+ rfJ'ln
..
Ideal plasticity
Fig. 1 :-E,ffective, stress (if=3/2 Sij Sij ), viscosity (p) and strain rate irNariant
(1: 2/3 G,j Gij) rplationships for viscoplastic materials.
3. Flow elasticity-analogy
We have already introduced the constitutive equation (3) defining
the real (Cauchy) stresses in terms of the strain rates Eij' This
strain rates can in turn be defined by the spatial derivatives
of the velocities in the usual manner
(dVJ + dVi)
Eij =
2 dXl oXj
(8)
where vi is the velocity in the ith directions.
The equilibrium equation can be written in a standard form
(9)
where a
i
is the acceleration,b
i
the body forces and p the density.
If the forming velocity is assumed to be relatively slow, ac-
celeration effects can be neglected in (9). In such case there
is a one to one analogy between eqs. ( 4 ), (8) and ( 9) and
those of incompressible elasticity. Thus, velocities, strain
rates and viscosity are identified with displacements, strains
and the shear modulus, respectively in the corresponding elastic
problem, which, due to the strain dependance of the viscosity
from eq. ( 5 ), is of non linear nature.
- 218 -
4. The viscous shell formulation
The analogy between the pure viscoplastic flow equations and
those of elasticity, presented in last section, allows the ana-
lysis of large plastic deformation of thin sheets of metals by
using shell theory. The procedure is as simple as taking a
standard finite element shell program in which incompressibility
conditions are imposed, and just replacing displacements by
velocities, strain by their rates and the shear modulus by the
viscosity. Moreover, since plane stress assumptions are implicit
in shell theory, the incompressible behaviour can be simply
achieved by simply making the Poisson's ratio equal to 0.5 and
adjusting the shell thickness along the deformation process to
ensure constant volume.
Sheet metal deformation are problems for which continuous up-
dating of coordinates is obviously necessary to follow the
sheet shape changes (sect.ion 5-4). However, this updating can be
accomplished in an easily manner by a straightforward integra-
tion in time of velocities. With the new geometry and boundary
conditions, new flow conditions are established and the general
process can then be restated. As each flow solution implies
determining the velocity components in the current configura-
tions, very large deformations can be readily followed by a
simple process of repetition of the solution in updated (La-
grangian) material coordinates
The solution scheme thus typically follows:
a) Identify an incompressible elastic shell finite element
formulation. The discretized system equations for the flow
approach can thus be directly written, using the analogy
previously mentioned, in the standard form [1]
K a = f (10)
where K is the viscous shell stiffness matrix, and a and f
are the nodal velocities and nodal forces vectors, respecti-
vely. Eq. (10) is a system of non linear equations due to
the strain-dependance of viscosity and it must be solved
iteratively.
b) For each current (or updated) configuration assume some ini-
tial value of velocities or extrapolate these from previous
configurations. USing the appropiate strain rate expressions,
- 219 -
is found from eg.(5) and = is computed.
c) Solve for al. If direct iteration is used we have
a
l
= !S:;l !
d) Check for convergence. This implies satisfaction of an error
norm. We have chosen
_ ) 2
_______________ < 2
(af.') 2
i
In the examples shown in the paper the value of = 0.01 has
been taken. If desired convergence is not achieved go back
to b) and repeat the process with the new velocity field
obtained.
e) Once convergence has been achieved update geometry by nt
where nt is an appropiate time step size. Check if new points
of the sheet have come into contact with the tool or punch
surface and change the boundary conditions accordingly. Fina!
ly, update the sheet thickness to satisfy incompressibility,
and start the process again from step b)
We have to note that direct iteration usually yields convergence
after a small number of iterations. This is due to the boundary
value nature of the problem in which prescribed nodal velocities
are known at the tool-blank contact points, and forces (reactions)
are obtained "a posteriori" from the converged velocity field.
Thus, for each solution the initial velocities can be guessed
to be not too far from their correct values and convergence be
rapidly achieved. Special care, however must be taken with the
cut-off value of the viscosity in the blank regions where almost
rigid deformations are expected in order to prevent matrix K
from ill conditioning.
In the next sections we present details of the finite element
formulation for axisymmetric and general viscous shell ap-
proaches.
5. Axisymmetric viscous shell formulation
5.1. Basic theory
The formulation is based directly in the analogous elastic shell
formulation [18] with the following assumptions:
- 220 -
1) Normals to the midsurface of the shell before deformation
remain straight but not necessarily orthogonal to the mid-
surface after deformation.
2) The normal stress 0
z
is negligible.
3) The curvature of the shell is moderate, i.e. the terms
(l+
t
/ R) 1 where t and R are the shell thickness and radius
of curvature, respectively.
4) The loading is also assumed to be axisymmetric.
with the above assumptions the velocity, strain rate and stress
fields are obtained as follows.
Ve loci ty fie ld
From Fig. 2, it can be deduced that the two local velocities of
a shell point P can be expressed as
u'
w'
- z' e
w'
o
(11)
where z' is the coordinate in the thickness direction, index 0
indicates mid-surface velocities and e is the normal rotation
velocity. The relationship between global and local velocities
can be written in matrix form as
! u' with
where and angle are shown in Fig. 2.
Strain rate field
-cos
sin
o
(12)
The local strain rate vector in an aXisymmetric viscous shell
under axisymmetric loading can be written as
I 1
1
r ax'
E:
.' u
.,
r= r-
I I

Y I dW'
I r8 - +
....., .....ax I
3z'/
Axes x' and z' are defined in Fig. 2 , and u is the velocity in
the global r direction.
Using eqs. (1) and (12) and assumption 4, vector can be written,
after some transformation, as
- 221 -
Z,W;W
o
Z',W'
.... --(Jr
r,u,uo
Fig. 2 :-Axisyf'TlfTJetric shell. G#!ometry,W!Iocity end field.
r
1
r
I
I': }
1
00
e
I
-:

tg+."k
e
=
s
r
s
Y:ce
ke
Yre ...
(13)
where
0
3u
o
3wo
r
sin 4> -- +
cos 4>--
3s
3s
r-

'1 0 z' 0
U
o 3e
I
0
kr
:0 1 0 z'
e
r
as


0 0 0
ke
e sin e
r
- cos 4>
auo . awo
Yre
-- + 4> --- e
as 3s
In above is the generalized strain rate vector and Eel,
(k
r
, ke) and Yre correspond to membrane, flexural and shear
generalized strain rates respectively.
The incompressibility condition at each point is simply satisfy
by updating the shell thickness at each stage of the deformation
- 222 -
according to the actual thickness strain, which is calculated as
where r and e are evaluated from their corresponding rates.
Stress field
Stresses are related with strain rates by the standard expression
(deduced from incompressible isotropic shell theory [181, making
Poisson's ratio equal to 0.5)
a = D E
(14)
with (see Fig. 2)
and D
Virtual work expression
The equation of the rate of virtual work is written as
ST a r ds dz I (15)
where t and correspond to surface and point load vectors,
respectively, The left hand side of eq. (15) can be rewritten
using eqs. (13) and (14) as
where
j
+ t/2 <
u Tar ds dz I =
_ t/2
(16)
Eqs. (15) and (16) are the basis for the finite element discretisa
tion which is shown in next section.
5.2. Finite element discretization.
With the above formulation we note that a finite element inter-
-olation involving only continuity of the velocity field is
requires (Co continuity) as only first derivatives of velocities
- 223 -
occur [1] . Obviously/any of the isoparametric one dimensional
finite element interpolations are possible. Thus for an straight
or curved element of k nodes (see Fig. 3 ) the velocity field
can be interpolated in an standard manner as
k
:E N !e)
u
i=1-1.
where
N
_1.
1.
and
(e)

(s)
['
(e)
wei I
(17 )
1
,]
(18)
(19)
are the shape function matrix and global velocity vector of
node i of element e. In (18) (s) is the shape function of
1.
node i and s the normalized natural coordinate [1].
r
Fig.3 .- Straight and curved one dImensional elements for
axisymmetric shell analYSIs.
The generalized strain rate vector of eq. (13) can be expressed
in terms of the element nodal velocities as
where
(e)
a.
_1.
(20 )
- 224 -
r
o
o
a N ,(e)
-cos __ l._
as
aN
COS ct> __ l._
o
as
o
o
o
d
sin ct> __ 1 __
3s
as
(e) sin ct>
-N
i
---
r
Equations (17) and (20) can be used directly to obtain the
standard discretized system of equilibrium equations, upon
substitution in the virtual work equations (15), as
K a = f
(21 )
(22)
where a is the nodal velocity vector and K and f are the global
stiffness matrix and nodal force vector. These can be assembled
from their corresponding element forms which are obtained as
2 TT j t B e) 1 T D B e) r ds
-1 --]
(23 )
o
(24 )
Note that due to the strain dependance of viscosity, the compu-
tation of matrix of eq. (23) implies a double integral
(along the element length and thickness, respectively). This,
in practice, is performed numericaly using a Gaussian
We have to note here that use of "reduced integration" techniques
is needed to relax the constraint imposed by the shear terms in
(23) when the thickness of the shell is small. We will not enter
here in details about this well known technique which can be
found lenghtly explained in many references [lJ, [19].
- 225 -
Linear element
It has been shown by Zienkiewicz et al. [18] and Onate and Zien-
kiewicz [171 that the simple two noded linear element is ex-
tremely accurate for the analysis of both elastic and viscous
(sheet forming) shell problems. A geometric description of the
element is shown in Fig. 3.
A clear advantage of the linear element is that only one point
reduced integration rule along the element length is needed for
the evaluation of the stiffness matrix [18J This allows to
obtain a direct explicit form of the stiffness matrix of eg. (23)
as
nrn _
211 [-(e)]TC A) -(e) -(e) lie)
r
(25 )
where l(e) is the element lenght and the bar indicates values
at the element mid-point. It is easy to obtain from the shape
functions of Fig. 3 and eg. (21) that
i
(-1) i
(-1) . <p (e)
cos <p (e)
0
0eJ Sl.n
0eJ
1 0 0
2r(e)
- (e)
0 0
(-1) i
(26 )
12
i
- J:Tel
0 0
sin <p (e)
2r (e)
(-1) i
cos <p (e)
(-1) i
sin <p (e)
1


2
5.3. Treatment of friction.
The algorithm used to simulate friction effects between the con-
tact interfaces is more complex than for continuum problems
where non directional friction laws can be introduced [101. Here
we have used a treatment of friction based in the iterative ad-
justment of nodal reactions corresponding to contact blank -
punch/tool nodes until they satisfy a Coulomb type of friction
law. Thus, at the end of each iteration the reactions at each
contact node in a "friction coordinate system" are checked. If
the value of the force along the slippage direction (ui direction
- 226 -
in Fig.4 ) exceeds the value of the normal force times a fric-
tion coefficient, the node is allowed to slip in the appropiate
direction and a prescribed friction force is applied at the
node. The normal velocity of the node is then constrained to
the value of the normal velocity of the punch, or to zero if
the node is in contact with a fixed point of the tool/punch.
Friction boundary conditions impose that a transformation of
the equilibrium equations at the friction coordinate system,
defined the direction of velocities ui and wi in Fig.4, (where
direction u
i
is the average of the directions of two elements
meeting at the contact node i) must be performed,so that the
friction boundary conditions in velocities and forces can be
appropiately imposed or checked. The new stiffness matrix of
the element in the friction coordinate system is obtained
by the standard transformation.
R(e
l
= [L:elF
-1 -1)-)
where is given by eq. (25).
-1)
Fig 4 Treatment of friction.
Free node in
Ui direction
Apply Ti
(27 )
- 227 -
Eq. (27) allows to obtain velocities and forces at the contact
node in the friction coordinate system, thus allowing for an
easy checking of the friction forces and a direct prescription
of the adequate boundary conditions. On the other hand, once
the convergence of the solution has been achieved, velocities
and forces are transformed into their cartesian nodal components
using matrix (see Fig. 4).
5.4. Increment computation and geometry updating.
As already mentioned in sheet forming problems a continuous up-
dating of coordinates is obviously necessary to the sheet
geometry changes. This implies that the sheet geometry has to
be updated every time convergence of the velocity field is
achieved and the limit of the blank/tools contact surface sub-
sequently adjusted.
Time step computation
We will be concerned here with the calculation of the time
increment for which the first node of the non-contacting region
comes into contact with an indenting hemispherical punch; how-
ever the same procedure could be applied to study the contact
with the fixed tooling region.
The equation of the punch in the coordinate axes of Fig. 5 is
(28)
where R is the punch radius. If (r4,z4) and (u
4
,v
4
) are
respectively the coordinates and velocities of the next node to
come into contact (see Fig.5 ) at time t, the new coordinates
(r
4
,z4) at time will be
r'
4
z'
4
r
4
+
z + (v
4
-v
4 P
where vp is the punch velocity. From Fig. 5 we see that node 4
will come into contact when
Z'
4
= zl
The value of zl at time is obtained from eq. (28). Therefore
node 4 will come into contact if
(29 )
- 228 -
Which is a non linear equation in If direct iteration is
used, we have
The process stops when
v' 2 - z4
v
4
-v
f
-
-'----=-- .;;; O. 01
llt
rn
r,u
Fig. 5 :- Coordinate axes for time step
computation .
(30 )
Convergence of the above computations has proved to be very fast
and unexpensive.
The simplest updating procedure is to use the time step cal-
culated in eq. (30) to increment the blank coordinates by to
its new deformed position so that we can be sure that the
deformed blank does not cross the punch surface. However, the
use of large time steps leads to instability and usually a small
fraction of the time step calculated in eq. (30) must be used.
Fixed time step. Computation of contact point
An alternative procedure which has proved to be more efficient
is to use a fixed time step, throughout the analysis and
calculate the position of the next contact point, which, obviously,
in general it will not coincide with the next free node (see
Fig.6 ).
- 229 -
The coordinates and velocities of the unknown contact pOint, m,
can be interpolated in terms of their values of the two nodes
of the element in which it lays (3 and 4 in Fig.6 ). Thus
Zm
rm
and
u
m
v
m
Step 1
N1 z3
N1 ()r
3

N1
mesh at time
t
+
+
N
2
()r.i
+
+N
2
(t;)v
4
Step 2
Fig. 6 :- Updating procedure using a fixed time step.
new mesh at
t+tJ t
(31)
where s is the natural coordinate defining the position of the
unknown point and theprjmesindicate velocities and coordinates
of point 3 and 4 at time The contact equation for point
m can be written similarly as eg. (29) by
(32 )
substitution of eqs. (31) in (32) yields a non linear equation
-
for the unknown coordinate s which can be easily obtained in an
iterative manner.
Once the position of the contact point m has been obtained the
finite element mesh can be slightly modified so that the closest
node is displaced to coincide with point m. The choice of the
node (3 or 4 in Fig.6 ) depends on the vecinity of the contact
point with one or other end of the element under consideration.
- 230 -
This method has the advantage that for each time step the contact
region is modified in a simple manner, thus avoiding the numerical
oscillations which occur when the contact points are limited to
the nodes and the distance between these is not sufficiently that
small. Obviously, the time step chosen should not be so large
the next contact point lays outside the next free element of the
non contacting region.
Use of constant spatial velocity field
It can be easily checked that in most sheet forming problems
the "spatial" velocity field does not change much between two
consecutive solutions once the forming process reaches a well
developed stage. Consider, for example, the case recently shown
by Baynham and Zienkiewicz [20] of the deep drawing of a circular
sheet with a flat bottom punch. Fig 7a shows the shape of the
blank at two positions of the punch (6 apart) for a well developed
process (that is one where punch displacement is greater than
the sum of the punch and die profile radii). If the radial and
axial components of instantaneous velocity for the two blank
geometries are plotted against the radial coordinate (see Fig.7a)
it is found that the shape of the curve is very similar for the
two punch positions.
If, however, the of a particular point of the blank is
compared at two punch travel positions (for example, by plotting
the velocity against the radius of the blank in the first position)
it is found that some parts of the blank undergo a severe change
of velocity. Such comparison is made in Fig.7b and, clearly, the
points which undergo the greatest change of velocity are those
near the die profile radius.
Thus, if a Lagrangian approach in which the velocity of the
material points are used to update the blank geometry, the time
steps must be small. On the other hand, if an Eulerian ap-
proach is used in which the constant spatial velocity field is
used to update the geometry, then the same velocity field can
be used for a greater length of time and so the number of re-
solutions is reduced significantly.
In this paper this latter method is used in combination with
the constant time step algorithm, shown in last section, as
follows
- 231 -
a) Once the velocity field has been obtained for a blank position,
a record is kept of the spatial velocity field in that
particular Dosition which is taken as "initial" in the
following updatings of the blank.
b) The blank geometry is updated using the spatial velocity
field with a constant time step. After each updating the
geometry of the blank is checked and modified so that it
follows the tooling and punch profiles.
c) Step b) is repeated a few times using the same spatial velocity
field. However, after a number the time steps the new con-
verged velocity field must be computed for a more precise
evaluation of punch force and blank strains.
a)
J
-to
rodius (mm)
Punch trovei
-- 25mm
- - - 30mm
b) radius of point in configuration
at 25 rrm trmel
_to
Punch travel
-- 25mm
--- :7Jmm
Fig. 7 :- Radial velocity of material of blank. a) velocity field
b) Material velocity field for pcnch POSitionS 5 apart.
5.5. Strain hardening effects.
The change of yield strenght with the deformation process is
easily included in the calculation. In most cases the yield
stress is a function of the total effective strain invariant.
For Lagrangian (material) coordinates computation of can be
- 232 -
found by direct integration of the corresponding rate E defined
by
Thus, at each stage of the deformation the value of E can be
simply evaluated as
I
t +lIt
Et + t lit
and the yield stress appropiately updated.
6. Membrane axisymmetric viscous shell formulation.
The membrane formulation can be easily derived from the general
e presented in sections 5.1 and 5.2 simply neglecting in all
expressions the bending and shear terms. Thus, the relevant
matrices are now defined as

generalized strain rate vector: E C
o. 01 T
E
r
, Ee
stress vector:
[Or' oeJ
T
constitutive matrix:
p = \l
The element stiffness matrix can be obtained as
1
1 (e)
= 2n

o
(33)
where B is a 2 x 2 matrix which terms correspond with terms

1-1, 1-2, 2-1 and 2-2 of matrix of eq.(21).
Note that in eq. (33) numerical integration across the thickness
is avoided due to the constant value of the viscosity in the
thickness direction. Finally, if linear elements are used,one
Gauss point sufficess for the correct evaluation of (33) and
we obtain
K
7) = 2 n [- ( e) ] T - (e) - - (e) - (e) (e)
t P r I
where the bar indicates values at the element mid point. Note
that B(7) can be directly deduced from eq.(26).

- 233 -
7. Examples.
The efficiency of the formulation presented in previous sections
is checked with two well known examples of hemispherical stret-
ching and deep drawing of circular isotropic sheets for which
experimental results provided by Woo are available [21], [22].
Hemispherical punch stretching
The geometrical configuration of the problem is shown in Fig. 8.
The uniaxial stress-effective strain curve of the material is
given by
5.4+27.8 (E)O.504 tons/in
2
, E"<0.36
5.4+24.4 ('E)O.375 tons/in
2
, E">0.36
The operative coefficient of friction assumed by Woo was V=0.04.
In Fig. 8 the punch/displacement curves for various friction
coefficients are shown. A mesh of 24 linear elements was used
for this analysis. It can be seen that coincidence between ex-
perimental and numerical results obtained for V = 0.04 is good.
It is worth also noting, that the peak load obtained numerically
increases with friction. This also coincides with experimental
and numerical work reported for this type of problem [3].
To test the efficiency of the linear viscous shell element, an
analysis of the same problem was performed using a mesh of only
10 elements. Numerical results obtained for the punch -
ment curve for the full friction case (V = ro) are shown in Fig. 9.
Results obtained are quite good disregarding the small oscilla-
tions due to the coarseness of the mesh which, obviously, implies
a less graduate contact between blank and tooling regions. It
can also be seen in Ficr. 9a that the peak load has a faster
decrease. This is due to the high stretching of the relatively
large elements in the free region at high deformation stages.
This causes the rapid thinning of the elements with the cor-
responding reduction in rigidity and decrease of the punch force.
This phenomenon can be clearly seen in Fig. 9b where the thick-
ness strain for this case has been plotted. Note the strain peak
at high punch travels which causes a rapid thinning in a small
localized area. A plot of the blank geometry at various
tion stages is shown in Fig. 9c where the different thinning
areas are clearly differentiated. Also, the thickness strain
2.5
2.0
-..

.e
'-
Q
1.5
-g
oS?
..c::
0

Q.
1.0
0.5
o
- 234 -

........ .
.. .".. '.

JII
1
'-- Experimental lp=QOO""
l -0- jj=o.O ]
f -x- jj=o.04 .
lit _ _ - -0.20 Present analysIs

0 JI-. (24 elements)


,/ -.- jj=o.50
/ -
t' --v-- JI=m
o 0.1 0.2 03 0.1, 05 0.5 07 08 09 1.0
Punch travel (in.)
Fig. 8 ;- Hemispherical punch stretching of circular blank. Punch load I
displacement curves for various friction coefficients.
a)
b)
c)
;;
c:;
In
"-

if)
Co
0';

In


<-
Do

0
..c:
Uin
c";
=>0
0-
0
C
0
o
to

--'
"'m
<..."
,
",C
"'to
'" "'
'" .
C C
-""'
'-' "
..> N

" I
c !
- 235 -
Present analysis _____
(jJ = oo)

0.00 0.12 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.60 0.72 0.84 0.96 1.08
punch dLspLacement (enD)
o Values at the element
mid point.
l
l
0.00 0.12 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.60 0.72 0.84 0.96 1.08 1.20
RadlaL d1-stance (lno)
Fig. 9 Hemispherical punch stretching with rigid contact. 10 linear elements.
- 236 -
distributions for the case ii = 0.04 are shown in Fig. 10. Numerical
results compare well with experimentals [21].
Finally, the total bending, shear, membrane and coupling bending/
membrane energy rates versus the punch travel are shown in Fig. 11.
The oscillations in the results are again due to the coarseness
of the mesh of ten elements used for this analysis. Nevertheless,
the results show clearly the importance of membrane effects once
the forming process is well developed. However, it is worth
noting, that in the early stages of the deformation the membrane
energy rate is of a magnitude comparable with the other energy
rates, thus indicating that neglection of bending and shear ef-
fects should be carefully studied in those situations. Clearly,
a combined approach can be easily implemented, i.e., the full
formulation of section 5.1 could be used for the analysis in the
early stages of the and a simpler membrane approach
would be adopted once the membrane energy rate reaches a relative
(prescribed) value with respect to the values of the other
energies. Obviously, this can be checked in a global sense, or
else, localy,to allow for local zones where bending effects
should be taken into account (i.e. in the vecinity of the die
radius zone, etc.).
-70.
-60.
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10.
0.
0.
o Results extrapolated
to the nodes Punch travel fin.J
I 0..15
II 0.30
III 0..50
IV 0..70
V 0..74
VI 0.95
x Woo[211
0..1 0..2 0..3 0..4 0..5 0..6 0..7 0..8 0.9 1.0. 1.1 1.2
1.3
Original radial distance (in.)
Fig .10 ,. Hemispherical punch Ji :: ao/'. Thickness strain distribution obtained with
11 linear elements.
- 237 -
,
0
.---i;:;l
*0
'"
to
Ol":
"'
Olo
-'.J0
-'.J",
(1J"
'"
(1J'!
L'
0
LO
0

>-'!
0)0
0)0 L
L",


Co
CO Ol",
Ol"
LO
'"
0
0)
(1J",

Ole:;;

..co
--0
(f)"
cg;
0
Olo
0
m
0
g
0
0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 008 100
000 002 004 006
0,8 100
Punch dlspl.
Punch displ.
g;
0
'"

Ole:;;
-'.J'"
..w
0
(1J
(1J"
L
'"
c
'"
L
0
>-"'
>-."
c
0) 0
0)0
N
L
L
OlD
m'g
Col
Co
m
m
CD
"
\
c
m"':
0)0

C
C'"
(UN
,-.l co
L"':

..D
o...N
E";

m
o
0
0
2:
U_
"
c
co
0
0
0
0
0
000 00 Z 004 0,6 008 1,0 1,2
0.0
0,2 004 006
0,8
1" 0
Punch disp[
Punch disp[.
Fig.tt:- Hem/soherical punch stretching. Rigid contact. to linear elements mesh.
Different total energy rate versus punch displacement.
- 238 -
HemisphericaL deep drawing
The geometry of the problem is shown in Fig. 12. The stress -
strain rate curve coincides with that of previous example.
Results for the punch load/displacement curves for different
friction coefficients are shown in Fig. 12. Numerical results
for an uniform coefficient of friction in the die and punch
regions of 0.04 coincide well with experimental ones reported
by Woo for the same problem [22}. Note that the maximum load
also increases slightly with higher friction.
The thickness strain distribution for the uniform friction case
is also shown in Fig. 1 and comparison of results with experi-
mental ones [22] is again good.
3.6
2.7
1.8
0.9
0.4 0.8 12 1.6
Punch travel (in.)
Fig 12.-Hemlspherical deep drawing. Punch load displacement results. 40 linear elements
10
a
-TO
-20
-30
-so
- 239 -
Original radial distance (In.)
Ql 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.8 Q9 to 1.1 l2 1.3
l4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 20 2.1 2.2
Punch travel (in.)
Woo [22J
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
---- Strain path 'Of a nodal point
---- Contact boundary on punch
0.25
0.51
0.77
1.05
1.27
1.52
'411R
Q999
Q997
0.990
Q955
Q926
0900
Fig. 13 .- Hemispherical deep drawing. Thickness strain distribution. 1,0 linear
elements ,jil = ji2 =001, .
B. General viscous shell formulation.
Most numerical solutions reported for non symmetric sheet metal
forming problems have been based in membrane shell theory [5]
[6] . In this section we will shm'l how the viscous shell formula
tion can be formulated in a general form to deal with the de-
formation of this sheets of metal of arbitrary shape. Details
of the obtention of the more simplified membrane viscous shell
theory are also shown.
B.1. Basic shell formulation.
The general viscous shell formulation will be obtained, as for
the axisymmetric case, by analogy with the incompressible elastic
3-D shell theory. The finite element shell theory chosen here is
based in "degenerated" three dimensional ela.sticity and is
identical to that presented by Ahmad et al. [23] . Degenerated
shell elements need the use of reduced integration techniques
[19] , and they have been extensively used for the analysis of
many thick and thin shell problems.
In Fig. 14 a degenerated viscous shell element is shown, together
with the definition of global axes x, y, z, the curvilinear
normalized coordinate system n, T and the local coordinate
- 240 -
system v
1
' V
2
and v
3
- Unit vectors corresponding to V
1
, V
2
and

V3 are defined as 1, m and n, respectively_ Global and local
coordinates are related by a transformation matrix defined as
x,u
e (34)
_ +/ top face
'r - _I bot tom face
7
z,w
5
k
"""
J
Vi
3
iii = normal vector
x'
- fAYJ
v/=
Vj=d.) -iV3 if
z'
"Y2=v3'v/
Disp"lacements
I up = uo + tu',
uo =uf+vJ+zk
j}
=-(J/l-(km
y'
x
Fig. 74.- Geometry description, coordinate axes and velocity field for
general isoparametric viscous shell element.
8.2. Geometric description of the element.
In a standard isoparametric formulation the coordinates of a
point within an element are obtained by interpolation of the
nodal coordinates by
- 241 -
{
X }<e.)
E (e) = =
n (e)
e (e) [(e) ti (e)1
I: N. (i;,nl roo + -- T n
i
i=l - 2 -
(35 )
where r(e), t(e) and are the position vector, the distance
-1
along the shell thickness, and the unit normal vector of node i,
(i;,n) is the two dimensional shape function of node i (iJ ,

T the local curvilinear coordinate defining the position of the
point across the thickness and ne is the number of nodes of the
element.
8.3. Velocity field.
Using assumption 1 of section 5.1, the velocity vector of a point
can be defined by
(36)
For definition of above vectors see Fig. 14. The three global
velocities of a point can be interpolated in the standard finite
element form [1] as
u (e)
(37)
where
(38)
is the velocity vector of a node and
1 0 0
ti

ti x 1
-'[ -T
T mi
2
J.
N (e) N(e)
t.
ti y
0 1 0
J.

-T -T
T mi
-J. J. 2

t.
ti Z
0 0 1
J.

-T -T
T mi
2
J.
(39 )
N(e) M(el
.VJ. -J.
8.4. Strain rate field.
The strain rate vector can be derived from standard 3-D elasticity
theory. Using assumption 2 of section 5.1, we can Ylri te the
relevant strain rates as
I
Yy' Z' i
.)
au'
ax'
av'
ay'
dU'
ay'
au'
az'
av'
3z'
+
+
+
- 242 -
{::}
av'
(40)
ax'
aw'
ax'
aw'
3y'
where and are the "in-plane" and shear strain rate vectors,
respectively.
It is useful to obtain the expression of the local strain rates
in terms of the global nodal velocities. From standard transforma
tions it is found
,
s
( 41)
where
(42 )
is the global strain rate vector and
(lX)2 (mx) 2 (nX}2
1
x
n
x mXnx
(ly)2
(mY) 2 (ny}2
1YmY
1
Y
n
Y mYnY
S 21
x
1
Y 2n
x
nY (nx1Y +nY1 x) (mxnY+nYm
x
) ( 43)
21
x
1
z
2nxnz (lXmz+mz1X) (n
x
1
z
+n
z
1
X
)
(mxnz+nzmx)
21Y1
z
2mYm
z
2nYn
z (lymz+mz1Y)
(nY1
z
+n
z
1Y)
The derivatives of the velocities with respect to coordinates
x, y, z are obtained by
au
ax
au
_
3s
[1;, n, ,]T
(44)
where is the Jacobian matrix of the transformation x y z .... 1; n T.
Using egs. (41)-(44) together with eq. (35) and (37) leads to the
final matrix expression for the local strain rates as
- 243 -
B (e) a (e)
(45)
where

= iB(e)J

(46)
are the strain rate matrix of the ith node of element e and
B (.e) and B (.e) are the "in plane" and shear strain rate ma-
_2..
trices respectively.
8.5. Stress-strain rate relationship.
The relationship between stresses and strain rates is simply
obtained by putting the Poison's ratio equal to 0.5 in the
standard 3-D elasticity matrix, in which the terms related to
0z' and E
z
' have been properly eliminated, and making the
elastic shear modulus equal to the non linear viscosity of
eq. ( 5). Thus, the constitutive equation is written in the
local system as
0'
where
= 21'
1
2
o
and

are the "in plane" and shear viscous constitutive matrices,
respectively.
(41)
(48)
Eqs. (41) and (48) are valid for isotropic materials. Hmvever,
more complex orthotropic or anisotropic situations can be treated
taking into account the effect of normal anisotropy and the ro-
tations of the principal axes of anisotropy.
- 244 -
8.6. Discretised equilibrium equations.
The equilibrium equations are obtained via the standard virtual
work expression which in its rate form can be written as
I
6 I T (J I dv
v
(4.9)
where !, v and S are the body force vector, surface tractions
vector, shell volume and shell surface, respectively.
Substitution of eqs. (45 ), (4'1) and (37) in eq. ( 49) yields the
standard system of equilibrium equations which can be written in
matrix form as
K a = f
(50)
where the shell stiffness matrix and the nodal force vector
!, can be obtained by assembling the contributions from the
individual elements given by
( 51)
fie) =j
v (e)
(52)
Eq. (50) is a non linear system of equations due to the strain-
rate dependance of the viscosity which must be solved for the
global velocity vector a. The solution scheme follows identicaly
the steps explained in section 4 and they will not be repeated
here.
We have to note here that the viscous shell formulation presented
here is valid only for smooth shell deformation problems, i.e.
no kinks are allowed between elements. Thus, however, is the most
cornmon case in sheet metal forming problems. Nevertheless, if
necessary, the formulation can be easily extended to deal with
kinked or folded situations. Details can be found elsewhere [1J,
[16J
- 245 -
8.7. Choice of element. Reduced integration technique.
The success of the viscous shell formulation presented in previous
sections lays, similarly as for the analogous elastic shell pro-
blem in the use of reduced integration techniques to relax the
constrain (locking) imposed by the shear terms in the solution
of eq. ( 50) as the thickness of the shell reduces [1), [19). This
can be simply performed noting that eq. (51) can be rewritten
using eqs. (4.5) and (4'1) as
= K(e) + K(e)
-1ij -2ij
B(e) dv
-2j
( 52
where K(e) and K(e) are the in plane and shear stiffness matrices
-1 -2
for the element. Selection of the integration rules for those ma-
trices must be carefully chosen for each type of element. In Fig.
16 we show some of the most popular elements for elastic shell
analysis together with the adequate Gaussian integration rules
to be used to avoid locking behaviour [1) We have to note here
that in developing successful 1 reduced integration elements for
thin shell analysis,other important aspects like the possible
appearance of spurious internal mechanisms due to the use of
reduced integration should be carefully studied. The subject
falls beyond the length and scope of this paper and we refer
the reader to references [1), [19) for details.
Finally, it is worth pointing out here a family of isoparametric
quadrilateral elements recently developed by Bathe et al [24)
which overcome must of the problems mentioned above. The
elements are based on an internal of local strains in terms of
nodal values, use full integration for all terms of the stiffness
matrix and do not present problems of locking or spurious
mechanisms. In particular, the lowest member of the family, the
simple four noded shell element, seems very promising for the
analysis of complex sheet forming problems in which the economy
of the solution is of paramount importance.
- 246 -
Ir...
quadtrzture rule
Shell element
!S,
!S2
Ref.
a
2 2
(1)
[23]
9noded
0
3 2
0)
[23J
Heterosis
0
3 2
[27]
4noded
(Bathe)
D
2 2
(24)
Recommended integrating for KI and K2.
matrices for various "popular",soparame-
tric shell elements.
9. Membrane formulations.
The general viscous membrane formulation can be derived in a
straight forward manner from the full viscous shell formulation
presented in previous sections as it will briefly shown next.
In the membrane formulation the effect of rotational velocities
is neglected, and for the velocity field of eg. (37) we have
a (el = [u v wOi] (el T and
....... i 0i' 0i
"-
(54)
where ':3 is the 3 x 3 unit matrix.
The strain rate vector is obtained simply taking into account
the in-plane contributions of vector ' in ego (40), thus
On the other hand, from eg. (45) it can be deduced that
E I
ne
l:
i=1
- 247 -
(e)

(e)
a
_1.
where the terms of the "in plane" strain rate matrix are
obtained following eqs. (41.) - (45 ) .
The stress-strain rate equation is now simply obtained from
eq. ( 40) as
a = a' = D
- -1 _1 __
where is given in eq. (48 ) .
Finally the element stiffness matrix can be obtained following
section 8.5 as
K (el = j [B ( e) 1 T D B (e) d v
_ij -1i -1 -1j
v (e)
and the nodal force vector is given by eq. (52) in I"hich the new
expressions of the shape function matrix of eq. (54) must be
taken.
10. Geometry updating and friction effects.
The difficulty of dealing with three dimensional shapes makes
the problem of evaluating the time step increment and the contact
region a difficult task. However, the procedures presented in
section 5.4 can be easily generalized for the non symmetric case.
For the example presented in next section we have used an ex-
tension of the method presented in section 5.4 to calculate the
time increment for which the next node (or nodes) of the free
region will came into contact with the blank. The time step
computed is then divided into five smaller steps for each of
which the same constant spatial velocity field is used to up-
date the sheet geometry as explained in section 5.4. This
procedure allows to save the calculation of many intermediate
solution.
This is essential to make the study of 3-D sheet metal forming
problems practicable from a computational view.
With regard to friction effects, they can be taken into account
by applying nodal forces oposing relative motion between blank-
tool/punch surfaces, similarly as explained in section 5.3 for
- 248 -
the axisymmetric case. The friction coordinate system is now
defined for each node as the average of the local coordinate
directions (x', y', z'} corresponding to the different elements
meeting at the node. The stiffness matrix in the friction system
is computed as
with
-i&.i 2-]
:Ei -
- 2-
where is the transformation matrix given by eq. ( 34} and
f2 is the 2 x 2 unit matrix. Matrix :Ei transforms the
and forces in the friction system into the global coordinate
system x, y, z.
11. Example: Hemispherical punch stretching of a circular blank.
The general viscous shell formulation described in previous
sections has been tested with an example of hemispherical stretch
forming. The geometrical and material data for the problem are
identical to those of the first example of section 7. Due to the
symmetry of the problem only one quarter of the blank has been
analyzed. Fig. 16 shows the finite element mesh of nine noded
elements used for the analysis. Rigid contact between punch and
tooling areas has been assumed. Results for the punch load /
displacement curve and for the thickness strain distributions
at different stages of the deformation have been plotted in
Fig. 16. Good agreement with results obtained with the axisym-
metric formulation is obtained.
12. Inclusion of elastic effects in the viscous shell formula-
tion.
The viscous shell formulations presented in previous sections
exclude the elastic effects by the nature of the constitutive
relations assumed in the flow approach presented in section 2.
This implies that the removal of loads is not accompained by
an elastic springback and, therefore, the resulting residual
stresses can not be calculated.
One simple procedure for recovery of residual stresses is to
assume that the removal of the forces from the final viscous
- 249 -
Firite element mesh
Rigid contact
1.3 in.
0
0
3-D
solution
08'
0.72
Axisymmetric
2.0
solution
O./iO
"tl
s

-5 VI
0.'8


Il.
""
0.36
1.0
'-'

0.21,
0.12
0
0
0 0
aoo
0.0
0.00 0.12 0.21, 0.36 0.1.8 0.60 0.72 0.81, 0.96 1.08 1.20 132
Radial distance I in. J
Fig. 16 Hemispherical punch stretching. 3-D viscous shell
on for pun chID a did i s p I ace men tan d t hie k n e s sst r a i n dis t rib u lions.
configuration is purely elastic and is resolved by a small
deformation elastic (or elastoplastic) program. This procedure,
originaly presented by Zienkiewicz et al [10J, introduces some
approximations since the influence of the elastic deformation
in the final sheet shape is ignored. This, however, is of little
significance in most sheet metal deformation problems.
- 250 -
Nevertheless, inclusion of elastic effects may be of interest
in some situations and below we generalize a procedure for
dealing with elastic effects in the viscous shell formulation.
The method follow the lines introduced by Thompson et al for
steady state forming problems [15] . Here we show that if
elastic effects are small its inclusion simply implies a cor-
rection of the right hand side force vector in the non linear
solution of the standard viscous shell discretised equations.
If elastic effects are included,eq. (1) must be taken in its full
form.
On the other hand if we assume that the elastic deformations are
also incompressible we can write
e 1
E = - s
_l) 2G l)
( 55)
where G is the elastic shear modulus and Sij the co-rotational
(or Jaumann) derivative of the deviatoric stress. For up-
dated Lagrangian problems such derivatives are given by
3Sij
Sij = w
ij
Skj + w
jk
ski +
where
w .. =l(u .. -u .. )
l) 2 L) ).J.
( 5G.)
is the rigid body rotation rate caused by the motion. Eq. (SG)
simply takes into account for stress changes associated with
rotation of the axes of the material.
Substi tuting eqs. (. 4 ) and (S5 ) in 1 ) we obtain
( 51)
From eq. (57 ) we deduce that if the elastic strain rate is as-
sumed to be known from the previous iteration the problem is
similar to the classical initial stress method in which the ad-
ditional stress terms -2VEIj are added to the equilibrium flow
equations as an "unbalanced force" and conected. Thus, the
discretized equilibrium equations have the form
K a f + f
( 58)
-a
where K and f are the standard stiffness matrix and force vector
for the flow approach and
- 251 -
fa = I 2, ,. dv
v
where E8 is given by eq. (55)
The iterative solution of eq. (58) may prove not convergent if
effects of elasticity are large but the exact limits have yet to
be determined.
13. Conclusions.
The finite element viscous shell formulation is an adequate
method for the analysis of sheet metal deformation problems.
The pure viscous formulation allows to follow the deformation
of the sheet up to bery high deformation stages with a correct
prediction of punch loads and strains. Elastic effects can be
also included in the formulation thus allowing the study of
the effect of spring-back residual stresses. Finally, when
bending effects are of little significance in comparison with
membrane ones, the viscous membrane formulation provides a
simpler method of analysis. Use of the full or membrane formula
tions could be automaticaly decided along the process and a
general unified computer program which could take advantage of
all these options can be easily derived.
References
[1] Zienkiewicz, O.C.: The finite eZement method, McGraw Hill,
New York (1977).
[2] Honnor, M.E. and Wood, R.D.: A finite element analysis of
deep drawing, of the Int. Conf. on
Methods in Pineridge Press (1982).
[3] Kim, J.H.; Oh, 5.1. and Kobayashi,S.: Analysis of stretching
of sheet metals with hemispherical punch. Int. J. Mach.
TooZ Des., (1978) 18, pp. 209-226.
[4] Gotoh, H.: A finite element analysis of general deformation
of sheet metal, Int. J. Num. Meth. Engng. (1979), 8,
pp. 731-741.
[5] Wang, N.M. and Budianski, B.: Analysis of sheet metal
stamping by a finite element method. J. Appl. Meth.
ASME (1976), 45, pp. 73-85.
- 252 -
[6J Wennerstrom, H.; Samuelson, A. and Mattiasson, K.: Finite
element method for sheet metal stretching. Numerical
is of Forming Processes. J. Wiley (1984).
[7J Key, S.W.; Krieg, D. and Bathe, K.J.: On the application of
the finite element method to metal forming processes. Part I,
Compo Meth. App. Mech. Eng. (1979) 17/18, pp. 597-608.
[8J Mentha, H.S. and Kobayashi, S.: Finite element analysis and
experimental investigation of sheet metal stretching. ASME
J. Appl. Mech. (1973), 40, pp. 874-880.
[9J Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Godbole, P.N.: Flow of plastic and
viscoplastic solids with special reference to extrusion and
forming processes, Int. J. Num. Meth. Engng. (1979), 8,
pp. 3-16.
[10J Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Jain, P.C. and Onate, E.: Flow of solids
during forming and extrusion: Some aspects of numerical
solution. Int. J. Solids Estruct. (1978), 14, pp. 15-38.
[llJ Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Onate, E. and Heinrich, J.C.: A general
formulation for coupled thermal flow of metals using finite
elements. Int. J. Num. Engng. (1981), 17, pp. 1497-1514.
[12J Kobayashi, K.: Thermoviscop1astic analysis of metal forming
problems by the finite element method. Numerical Analysis
of Forming Processes. J. Wiley (1984).
[13J Argyrus, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St. and WUstenberg, H.: Analysis
of thermoplastic forming processes. Natural approach.
Numerical Analysis of Forming Processes. J. Wiley, (1984).
[14J Wang, N.M.: A rigid plastic rate sensitive finite element
method for modelling sheet metal forming processes. Numericai
Analysis of Forming Processes. J. Wiley (1984).
[15J Thompson, E.G. and Berman, H.M.: Steady state analysis of
elastoviscoplastic flow during rolling. Numerical Analysis
of Forming Processes. J. Wiley (1984).
[16J Onate, E.: Plastic flow of metals, I. Thermal coupling
behaviour. II. Thin sheet forming. Ph.D. Thesis, University
College of Swansea (1978).
[17J Onate, E. and Zienkiewicz, O.C.: A viscous shell formulation
for the analysis of this sheet metal forming. Int. J. Mech.
Sc. (1983), 25, pp. 305'335.
- 253 -
[18] Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Bauer, J.; Morgan, K. and Onate, E.:
A simple and efficient element for axisymmetric shells.
Int. J. Num. Meth. Engng. (1977), 11, pp. 1545-1559.
[19] Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Taylor, R.L. and Too, J.M.: Reduced
integration techniques in general analysis of plates and
shells. Int. J. Num. Meth. Engng. (1971), 3, pp. 275-290.
[20] Baynham, J.M.W. and Zienkiewicz, O.C.: Developments in the
finite element analysis of thin sheet drawing and direct
redrawing processes using the rigid/plastic approach.
Proceedings Int. Conf. Num. Meth; in Industrial Forming
Processes, Pineridge Press (1982).
[21] Woo, D.M.: The stretch forming test. The Engineer (1965),
pp. 876-889.
[22J Woo, D.M.: On the complete solution of the deep drawing
problem. Int. J. Mech. Sc. (1968), 10 I pp. 83-94.
[23] Ahmad, S.; Irons, B.M. and Zienkiewicz, D.C.: Analysis of
thick and thin shell and plate structures. Int. J. Num.
Meth. Engng. (1970), 2, pp. 419-451.
[24J Dvorkin, E.N.
and Bathe, K.J.
A continuum mechanichs base four noded element for
general non linear analysis. Engineering Computa-
tions, (1984), Vol. 1, nQ 1.
[25] Num8,,-[cal Analysis of Forming Processes. J. Wiley (1984).
[26] Proceedings of the Intel'national Conference on Numerical
Methods in Industrial Forming Processes. Pineridge Press
(1982) .
Hughes, T.J.R. and Cohen, M.
The heterosis finite element for plate bending. Com-
puter and Structures, (1978), 9, pp. 445-450.
- 254 -
Discussions (Session 2a)
Rowe: Professor Onate, I didn't understand how you incorporate the radial
in-flow and friction boundary conditions in the clamping part of the deep-
drawing. I'm wondering, what boundary conditions you are setting. Are the
boundary conditions the same over the punch and in the clamp?
Onate: No. Well, in the die region there is a clamping force, which must
be taken into account. So, that creates a sort of initial friction force
and then the nodes are allowed to move radially. Nothing else.
Mahrenholtz: Did you notice any inversion problem, mathematically, due to
the fact that you put the Poisson's ratio equal to one half? No singulari-
ties?
Onate: No, because it is a plane-stress problem. In two-dimensional pro-
blems, plane-strain, - most of the problems we saw this morning were plane-
strain -, then if you put the Poisson's ratio equal to 0.5, you have a sin-
gularity, so you have to use in your formulation the pressure as variable,
for instance. But here, Poisson's ratio equal 0.5 cause no problem, becau-
se in your constitutive matrix, in the elastic matrix, you have
E/[2(1+v)],
plane-stress, so, you may insert v = 0.5 and get E/3.
Ramm (Chairman): You can throw out your hydrostatic pressure by the incom-
pressibility condition. Right?
Onate: Yes. In plain-stress incompressibility is no problem.
Ramm: I wonder, what kind of iteration scheme are you using.
Onate: Direct iteration.
Ramm: I mean that kind of Newton-Raphson ....
Onate: Direct iteration, Euler-approach. Because, we impose velocities,
it is a well-forced problem, we can guess very well, very closely the next
- 255 -
solution. For instance, in the rigid solution most of the points in con-
tact with the punch have velocity of unity ..
Ramm: But you checked the equilibrium, or do you check it?
Onate: Yes, I checked the convergence after some number of iterations.
Ramm: Okay, this was the convergence check in the displacements or veloci-
ties in your case, but not in the unbalanced forces.
Onate: No, but my equation is just the standard stiffness equation:
[KJ{a}={f}.
So, if I solve that equation, I have equilibrium. That is what I am trying
to solve iteratively.
Konig: Can you say something about computation times. Are computation-
times greater than for an elastic-plastic formulation?
Onate: No. There is an example in the paper with only ten elements giving
quite good answers. This took on a VAX 11/750 in real time 5 - 6 minutes
for rigid contact. If you have friction, it takes more. I don't have the
figures. It takes much more if you have friction. Because convergence is
much more difficult.
Mattiasson: I have two questions. One: how do you do your strain calcula-
tion in the three-dimensional case? Question number two: approximately how
many time steps did you use?
Onate: I'm answering your second one first: we used a fixed time step
that we evaluate a priori. We know the deformation we want to reach and
divide it into a certain number of time steps. I think, we have divided
the total displacement, which was approximately 1 inch, within twenty time
steps, using a velocity of 1 inch/second, of course. Now, the first part
of your question: the strain is a big problem. We transform all the
strains to the initial configuration ..
Mattiasson: I mean, what you are interested in is total stretch?
- 256 -
Onate: Total, that's right. So, you have to transform to some fixed coor-
dinate system.
Schweizerhof: How did you mix your membrane elements with shell elements?
Onate: Well, it is not a mixture of elements. It is a full shell element.
We just use the three deformation rate matrices: the membrane, the bending
and the shell. So, when you want to use only membrane, you drop the remai-
ning ones.
Schweizerhof: This means, you are checking the whole membrane forces and
if they dominate then you drop all, any force ...
Onate: I drop flexure and shear.
Schweitzerhof: For all elements? Or just for some?
Onate: We've done it globally. Because it is simpler, otherwise you have
to have membrane-bending elements, elements which have three variables: two
displacements and one rotation. think I mentioned that we haven't done
it, but I think this could be done.
Tekkaya: We had a presentation on Friday by Dr. Tang, we had also a dis-
cussion about the meaning of using a visco-plastic or rigid-plastic mate-
rial law for the simulation of sheet-metal-forming processes. Could you
give a comment on this? Especially, regarding residual stresses, and large
elastic deflections during the analysis of huge panels.
Onate: I don't think I am the right person to make that comment! What we
assume is that the material flows, as soon as it is loaded, this is actual-
ly what is happening in most extrusion problems. And this is also what is
mostly happening in sheet metal problems. As soon as you load it, the de-
flections go beyond the elastic limit. Furthermore, it is a transient pro-
blem, why not to use visco-plastic model. Actually, this is the right mo-
del for modeling transient deformation of materials. Plasticity is an
idealization of the visco-plasticity.
Ramm: We begun this lecture with saying to make complex problems simple.
Maybe that is the answer.
- 257 -
Onate: Yes.
Ramm: Okay, we should now transfer to the first paper. Thank you, Profes-
sor Onate.
Tang: Could you explain the application of the maximum shear model and the
Coulomb friction model to treat the contact problem?
Mattiasson: In case of Coulomb friction, the calculation of the tangential
force is straightforward. It is just equal to the coefficient of friction
times the normal force times the slip direction. When we have constant
shear stress, we have an approximate relation for the tangential force:
F = -1/3 'rt
- i
Here, Ai is the area of an element, and the sum is taken over all the ad-
jOining elements at the node; and 7:t is the constant shear stress.
Ramm: Is that okay?
Tang: In membrane theory, how do you define that constant shear stress?
Mattiasson: How I define it?
Tang: Yes, the constant shear stress in membrane theory.
Mattiasson: This is the shear stress between the punch and the sheet.
Tang:
stress.
You talk about membrane theory in this case, but you have a shear
Mattiasson: Well, this is not a shear in the membrane element. It is a
shear between the sheet and the punch.
Tang: Well, then it is an external force, not stress. In membrane theory
we have in-plane shear.
Mattiasson: Well, I don't understand your question, yet.
- 258 -
Ramm: Isn't that the question of definition, what is stress and what is
force?
Tang: Well, this is truly external force and not stress. Membrane theory
is nothing but a plane-stress problem.
Ramm: I guess you agree.
Mattiasson: Yes, of course.
Tang: $0, this Tj 's are a kind external force.
Mattiasson: Force per unit area.
Tekkaya: Dr. Mattiasson, I didn't understand that point why you cannot add
the Lagrangian strain increment to the Lagrangian strain at the step n.
Mattiasson: In the updated Lagrangian formulation?
Tekkaya: Yes, if you use convected curvilinear coordinate systems ..
Mattiasson: That is because we are using different reference configura-
tions in each step. I mean, it is necessary to have the same reference con-
figuration, if you are going to add two tensors and you don't have this
here.
Tekkaya: That means you are referring your total strain always to the up-
dated geometry.
Mattiasson: Yes, that is right.
Tekkaya: Okay.
Onate: Your method is a total Lagrangian.
Mattiasson: Yes.
Onate: Then, how do you calculate your constitutive equation? Which
stresses did you use in the constitutive equation?
- 259 -
Mattiasson: I calculate the contravarient components of Cauchy stress re-
ferred to convected base vectors.
Onate: Do you make some transformations?
Mattiasson: No, I use these stress measures all the time. I mean, it is
not necessary to calculate any real stresses referred to any Cartesian
coordinate system, because we are primarily interested in strain, and not
stresses.
Ramm: I have a question. I raised this similar question this morning: what
kind of return method are you using?
Mattiasson: Very simple one: radial-return.
Ramm: The second question: you - if I recall that correctly - still use
membrane or only membrane theory. Have you some experience with the ben-
ding part? Did you compare it with the membrane part? We saw this nice
slide by Professor Onate, where the different energies have been plotted.
Mattiasson: No. That depends on what kind of problems you are solving.
mean, Professor Onate has solved primarily deep-drawing problems. con-
centrated on stretch forming, where bending is neglectable.
Onate: think most of these problems are membrane problems. Then, it
costs much to add the bending in my formulation, we have seen.
Mahrenholtz: As you just mentioned, you are mainly interested in the de-
formation. Do you really need the stress state for the solution of the
deformation problem?
Mattiasson: In case of Coulomb friction, I have to know the stresses.
Mahrenholtz: Forget about the friction, let's say we have a smooth inter-
face.
Mattiasson: Yes, if you can neglect the friction effects, that is right.
And there are such procedures too, as a matter of fact.
- 260 -
Ramm: Okay. I like to close this session, or this part of this session,
and I like again to thank the authors or the speakers today and all who
contributed to discussion. Thank you very much.
- 261 -
Albrecht P. Stalmann, Institut fur Umformtechnik und
Umformmaschinen, Universitat Hannover/Germany
Numerical Simulation of Axisymmetric Deep-Drawing Processes by the
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Summary
For the numerical simulation of deep-drawing processes the follo-
wing nonlinear influences have to be considered: geometrical and
material nonlinearity, contact and friction problems. For the
evaluation of spring back effects an elastic-plastic constitution
law is required. In order to show how the contact problem can be
mastered - or in other words - how the penetration of two solid
bodies can be avoided - a method of working with contact elements
by using a penalty function will be introduced. Furthermore a
simple description of various geometrical contact boundary condi-
tions will be employed, combined with an economical procedure to
handle arbitrary number of contact regions. Some typical conver-
gence difficulties and modes to prevent these will be presented.
The accuracy of the numerical simulation of an axisymmetric
deep-drawing process is to be proved by comparing FEM examples
with experiments.
Program Description
In order to numerically calculate deep-drawing processes the
Institut fur Umformtechnik and Umformmaschinen of the University
of Hannover developed a FEM program system based on an already
existing program system called FAN /1/ for static and linear
problems. The program is able to investigate two-dimensional or
axisymmetric problems.
To avoid mechanical idealisations as far as possible, continuum
elements - quadrilateral and triangle elements - from first up to
third order are implemented. For deep-drawing processes generally
- 262 -
several conditions had to be satisfied:
The deformations in those processes usually extends to such large
scales that a linearisation of the nonlinear strain deformation
relation is no longer possible (normaly referred to as geometrical
nonlinearity). For the kinematic description a formulation is used
as presented by J.T. Oden /2/. The geometry of motion shows fig.l.
The Total Lagrange formulatiuon is used, i.e. the values are
referred to the undeformed body Bo.
Fig.l: Geometry of motion.
For solving the nonlinear equation system a Newton-Raphson itera-
tion and a modified Newton-Raphson iteration was implemented.
In order to define the material behavior several idealisations are
possible (see fig.2): The measured stress-strain relation of a
uniaxial tension test with a drawing steel is of a type like shown
in the top diagram of fig.2. A nonlinear plastic relation is
preceeded by a linear elastic relation. For several forming
processes it is sufficiently accurate to neglect the elastic parts
of strain (fig.2, centre diagram). In this case a rigid plastic
theory can be evolved where the constitutive law links the
stresses with the strain rates. This procedure has the advantage
of avoiding the nonlinear geometry, because the relation between
strain rates and velocities can be handled linearly. However for
- 263 -
evaluation of spring back effects only an elastic plastic consti-
tution law is required. The law used here (bottom diagram of
fig.2) works with the yield criterion of v.Mises and the flow rulE
of Prandtl/Reuss in the formulation suggested by McMeeking/Rice
/3/. With respect to the decreasing tangent ratio of the plastic
part of the stress-strain relation different tangent moduli can bE
determined.
C1
a
E
r191d plo"tc: ld.aliSQtlOf'l
- WI"",
'--_______ _ ...". .. v.I!\w'
a
tlll!ihC - ptC1$tl ( - IdtQltsllhoo
- with hardtntn9
- . . . wittlout Mraeo,.ng
- - unloodin;
Fig.2: Stress-strain relation. Fig.3: Illustration of a
contact problem.
One of the typical problems by numerical simulation of forming
processes like deep-drawing is the regard payed to special kinema
tic boundary conditions. Such a simulation can not be realized
with a fixed number of support conditions. Using simple support
conditions at the beginning of the process like shown in the top
diagram of fig.3 the numerical simulation would lead to absurd
results as shown in the centre diagram. To get a correct result
(bottom diagram of fig.3) the large penetrations of sheet and the
blank holder or punch have to be avoided. Thus the iteration
- 264 -
process has to respect the changes of the number and direction of
the support conditions. Furthermore the occuring friction forces
are to be determined.
Because it is too expensive to rewrite the whole freedom families
when the number of support conditions are to be changed, a sen-
sible method of simulating support conditions is required.
Hughes, Taylor and Sackman /4/ had presented a possible method by
adding a large value to the stiffness matrix of the corresponding
degree of freedom (see fig.4). This method is generally known as
penalty function. The resulting penetration is small enough to
have a negligible influence on the accuracy of the calculated
deformation.
with respect to the support direction a local coordinate system is
defined so that the tangent or sliding direction coincides with
the local x-direction.
before penetration
structure A

t

structure B
after penetration
structure A

structure B
Fig.4: 3 point contact element
of Hughes, Taylor and
Sackman.
2 - point - contact - element
CH
-CHSLnI!.
A"

eN ckl.
c 1
.. '
NCCiSot
AU'
APy'
-CHSIna::
c,..c;.s,.t.. .v'
1 - pOint - contact - element
Fig.S: Element stiffness matrices
and symbolic illustration
of contact elements.
- 265 -
To simplify the method of Hughes, Taylor and Sackman for deep-
-drawing processes one is able to idealise punch, blank holder anI
die as rigid bodies so that they do not exist as Finite Element
structures.
For adding the large value to simulate an additional support
condition special contact elements are declared. Given moveable
contact regions, as for example punch or blank holder, a two poin!
contact element is implemented, in case of an unmoveable contact
region a one point contact element is implemented. The stiffness
matrices of both types of contact elements are shown in fig.S
where is the angle between the global and local coordinate
system.
Because a contact element may stay in contact with different
contact regions during the iteration, this contact element needs
the geometrical information of all contact regions which may be
touched. To relate contact elements to contact regions the contac
processor demands the following criterions to be satisfied:
1.) The geometrical contour of contact zones can be described by
straight line sections or sections of a circle circumference,
generally called contact sections.
2.) One or more contact sections constitute a contact area which
is assigned to the contact elements.
3.) A contact area is defined as a region in which the contact
node (contact element) may move.
4.) Contact sections possibly but not necessarily lie adjacent to
one another.
5.) A contact section can be assigned to different contact areas.
6.} The relation of contact elements to contact areas is indepen-
dent of the location of the coordinate origin.
7.} A control zone is allotted to each contact section in which a
contact node (contact element) must be located in order to
determine contact.
To make sure that the program knows on which side of the contour
- 266 -
the rigid contact body lies, a direction of following the contour
is defined. Tracing the contour the observer always has the rigid
contact body to his left and the calculated structure to his
punch
contact area 1
section 1
-
-.. direction of ascending node numbers
points for definition of
contact sections
blank holder
contoct area 2
secticm 4
J//$//MfiW,{f///U/i,
-
Fig.6: Definition of contact areas and
contact zones.
right. Before the program is able to investigate the contact
question the contact processor has to establish, to which control
zone the considered contact point has to be assigned. If no
control zone is assignable, the contact processor assumes that the
contact point does not touch any contact region for that running
iteration step.
Fig.7 demonstrates the control zone of the straight line contact
section defined by the point PI and P2 with the vector
(1)
The control zone is declared by the not overlapped area of the
three semi planes which are bounded by the straight lines 91' g2
and 93' The observed point of the Finite Element structure is the
point 1 described by the vector equation:
1 = AI2: + 8!!
(2)
- 267 -
To check wether the location of 1 is inside or outside the control
zone, A has to be determined. Then eq. (2) reads
(3)
which describes the straight line through vector Q. The scalar8
may reach arbitrary values. By splitting eq.(2) in its components,
A is determined as follows:
(4)
With respect to the straight line 91 the nodal point 1 lies inside
of the control zone, if
A ., 1
as long as (5)
or as long as
(6)
Given the straight line 91 running through the origin, and
. 1: - 0, (7)
1 lies in the control zone.
The method of the control zone check for the straight lines 92 and
g3 works accordingly.
Now the contact test similarly uses vector scalar products as
shown in If
b n=-O (8)
penetration or contact is registred. By the subsequent declaration
of PI and P2 the left turning normal vector Q always points into
the contact body_ Thus the ensuring contact test always takes
- 268 -
check for ).t:co and S!:E.*,O
check
for@ .<1- '>0
[ill
.st- .e,'( a )< 1 yt
for@ .f!. 1"> 0
[ilill
.f!.- i'<o
1
fot@ .2..- E?>O

.f!.- ..'<0
)(1
special case for h = 00
check
for@
1
0
I > -0.00011
for@
I.f!.
I < -0.00011
for@
1
0
Fig.7: Position check of point 1
subjected to the control
zone e.g.of straight
line 91.
place on the correct side.
contact check for straight [tnP section
g = g2_ gl
Q = ! _ Q2
contact condition
.Q !l> Q
contact check for circle sedtan
Q. = gl- 12.1
!.. = L - i
contact condttlon for outer CIrcle
contact condition for Inner CIrcle
Fig.S: Contact check.
If contact has been assumed the gap will be closed and the contact
processor has to define the state of friction, i.e. the gliding or
sticking status, based on Coulombs friction law. If the sticking
force leads to a stress larger than the yield stress, the calcu-
lated stress will be limited to the yield stress and gliding will
be assumed. For the first step after the gap has been closed,
gliding is assumed. Fig. 9 shows the principle of gap operations.
The iteration process within an increment generally has an over-
shooting character, i.e. the first solution of an iteration is too
large and the subsequent displacements of the correcting iteration
- 269 -
steps will have an opposite sign. The contact status decision is
only possible after the last step of an increment. Due to this
fact it seems logical to decide upon normal contact at the end of
iteration too. This however leads to convergence difficulties.
Yes
friction present ?
contact force <O?
stiding 1t friction force?
friction force exceeded ?
gap open sliding sliding sticking
without friction
Fig.9: Simplified flow chart of
contact processor.
If a gap-opening during an iteration is prohibited the program has
to tolerate pulling forces within the contact element. In this
case the tangent force (friction force) will be set to zero.
Fortunately the contact force will be sufficiently small and so
this procedure is uncritical. Unfortunately it would be most
critical to allow gap-closings only at the end of an iteration.
Hence the maximum number of gap operations has to be limited
within one increment. If the program exceeds this maximum number
further gap operations are prohibited. In order to receive a
solution in coincidence with all boundary conditions the program
remembers these prohibited gap operations as "wished" operations.
After the iteration process has converged under the limited number
- 270 -
of gap operations the same increment will be started once more,
where the "wished" gap operations will once again be allowed up to
the maximum number and so on. The priority of allowed gap opera-
tions is due to the sequence of the "wished" operations during the
iteration steps. If more than one gap operation within one incre-
ment occurs, the priority is dependent on the element number of
the contact elements.
illustrates the complex decision strategy of the program.
No
Yes
gap open
gap closed
sliding without friction
sliding
sticking
iteration step i
section
Il= 0
Fig.lO: Decision strategy within contact processor.
- 271 -
Another difficulty is the determination of the contact stiffness
value. Accurate results of displacements require a large, "stiff"
value. But a good convergence behavior requires a small, "soft"
value. To satisfy both requirements a progressive contact stiff-
ness is determined. The stiffness value is due to the penetrationS
and defined as follows:
(11)
2
whereby m is the consecutive iteration step. For m = 1 ,
CN
m
-
l
= Co is true. By variation of C
p
the user has the ability
to adjust the progression to his problem.
Numerical Examples
To demonstrate the programs accuracy an axisymmetric cup was
calculated and the results compared with measurements /5/. Fig.ll
shows the investigated sheet. The structure was idealised with 25
biquadratic quadrilateral axisymmetric continuum elements. The
iterations accuracy was satisfied, if the load- and displacement
vector differs less than 1% from the vector calculated in the step
material 5T 1403
Youngs modulus 206010 N/mm2
?OISSQI'IS raho 03
yield pOint 185 N/mm'
tenSILe strength" : 325 N/rr.m2
percentage elongation after fracture"" 041
n-vollJeo 0.2106
o at maximum of punchforce
.. With respect to undE'formed crosssection
o mean value
Odie lubricated
max punch force Fz 108 kN
blank holder force Ftl 100 kN
spec. blank holder p",o . 7.2 N/mm
1
friction values
I> .012 }
=016 from Wltthuser
.0.3
drawing velOCity Vz 0.02 mIser
lubricant 0 S 5141
Fig.ll: Measures and values of the investigated cup.
- 272 -
before. The compared values were the Euclid norms of the vectors
and the maximum components. If the maximum value has to be
compared with zero, the corresponding value was presented by the
maximal value of the other vector.
One of the characteristic relations of deep-drawing sheets is the
relation between punch force and drawing depth. The comparison of
measurement and FEM calculation is illustrated by fig.12. As one
has to expect the FEM calculated curve is more stiff than the
measured curve. The maximum punch force is quite accurate but as
several variational calculations demonstrate the assumed friction
values have a great influence on the punch force value.
Do =1BOmm
do =100mm
r =12,Smm
R = B mm
So = 1 mm
111 = 0,12
liz = 0,16
1-13 = 0,3

material St 1403
lubricant S 514.1 (blank
holder side lubricated l
FEM-caltulation
experiment (mean wluel
S(atter of measured
values
Fig.12: Deflection curve.
The iterative developement of displacements is shown in fig.13.
The nodal point distribution gives a descriptive impression about
the material flow.
- 273 -
undeformed structure
, , ,
deformed structure after
30 incr.

: :
60 incr.
: :
:::::;a'
90 incr.
I
120 incr.
:

:
>
150 incr.
: :
: 180 incr.
:
:

: :
210 mer
: :
240 incr.
,
246 incr.
Fig.13: Calculation of deformation.
With the gauss point integration the elastic or plastic status can
be calculated. If one assume that the gauss point represents one
ninth of the area of an element, it is possible to follow the
growth of plastic zones as fig.14 shows.
undeformed structure
! i ,
defonned structure ofter
__
20 ..... __ ":=""--======
30 incir.::::::=:. __ ..... ---===o==:=:
__ -::::::::::::::
: ___ -=r:=:=:=::
70 in.;;;,;cr. ______ : : :
80 in;,cr. _______ ---... __ ------
90intr.
100 incr.
Cl elastic zone
... plastic zone
Fig.14: Growth of plastic zones.
An interesting detail is displayed by fig.IS. In earlier investi-
gations e.g. from Witthliser /6/ a cavity of lubricant was recog-
nized in the flange near the die radius. Witthliser presumed that
- 274 -
the cavity is caused by the high hydrostatic pressure of lubri-
cant. However as the FEM calculation shows the cavity is caused by
the bending process of deep-drawing and this causes the lubricant
bubble, not the other way round. Furthermore the FEM solution
shows another lubricant bubble on the top side of the flange. This
phenomina was also confirmed in younger experimental
tions in our institute.
blank holder
contact gap shown 10 - times magnified
Fig.IS Detail of contact zones.
One of the important advantages of FEM calculations is the theore-
tical forecast of material failure. The FEM simulates failures by
exceeding a stress or strain limit. As fig.l6 demonstrates, the
stress concentration between punch and die radius is obvious. The
numerical simulation allows the zooming in on any stress concen-
tration area.
The maximum stress point moves downwards along the punch radius,
if friction is reduced. A FEM calculation leads to the same
demonstration of this fact as in fig.17.
This high level of stress causes high strain and cross sectional
reduction. shows the comparison of calculated and measured
cross sectional reduction. Due to original sheet thickness
variance measured between I.OOSmm and I.OI2mm a value of about
!rt.=

sC.8:1
calculated equivalent
Cauchy stress
distribution
_location of
maximum stress
sc. 20: 1
- 275 -
st. 8:1
calculated equivalent
Cauchy stress
distribution
_location of
maximum stress
Fig.16: Calculated stress plot. Fig.17: Calculated stress plot
with reduced friction.
lOfm needs to be added to the calculated curve in fig.18, so that
both curves in the bottom area approach one another. The curves
illustrate the beginning of cross sectional reduction in the rib
area with good accuracy. The thickness calculation in the flange
area is slightly to high, but one has to recognize a flattening
effect of roughness peeks which in a Witthuser measurement can
amount to on each side.
The following figures illustrate the calculation of unloading. Thl
evaluation of spring back effects is of high interest. Fig.19
shows the spring back displacements magnified lOfold and evaluate(
in global x- and y-direction. A sheet contraction can be seen as
expected. But also a back bending effect is obvious so that the
outer radius extends although the flange itself contracts too. Thl
largest spring back displacement of about O.lSmm was calculated il
o
sheet metal
thickness [mm I
- 276 -
bottom

0,9 r ... ..a....,..o. No.of
o
-initial
thickness
S
elements
10 1S 20 2S
0--0 FEM _-.., experiment
calculation
Fig.18: Sheet thickness calculation.
the bottom area which warps upwards. But the movement upwards only
reduces the preceeding downwards arch. The rigid motion in y-di-
rection is caused by the back bending of the cup along the die
shoulder.
4x(mml
0.2
0.1
"ylmm)
0.2
0.1
spring back
10 x magnified
bottom
spring back
I
x-directionl
punch
corner
region
drawing
rib ed9.e
regIOn
I
I
.
I
I
I
i
I:
spnng back y-dlrectlon
Fig.19: Spring back.
flange
I
Lastly fig.20 shows the principal stresses before and after spring
back. Because the radial spring back is hindered least the corres
- 277 -
ponding principal stress decreases to a near zero tensil stress
level (top diagram of fig.2l). However the low pressure stress in
vertical direction grows (centre diagram). This is caused by the
strong tangential stress level which prevents a further contrac-
tion in the vertical direction. In the bottom area of the cup the
tangential stresses nearly decrease to zero since there is no
strengthening deformation in the bottom centre. In the rib and die
radius area, strengthening due to arching reaches such a scale
that the tensil stress flips over to a pressure stress. In the
flange area the pressure stress decrease slightly analogous to the
spring back in x-direction. Note the same zero crossing of spring
back in x-direction and tangential stress with the x-axis.
IIN/mm']
prinCipal stress in 200
radial direction 100
bottom punchromer drawing flange
region ri b edge
,p-.t:>-t-O' ... I:;'on
'"

""O. ... -n. ... "'O.. ....

o,IN/mm']
principal stress In 100
vertical direction
200
prinCipal stress in
tangential direction '00
___ before -'00
ft
spring back
--a er
.0---0--
" ,
1 0.. ... 0. i
"-,\,
Fig.20: Stress distribution before and after spring
back
Conclusion remarks
As can be seen from the preceeding numerical examples the FEM
calculation allows to numerically simulate a deep-drawing process
with a precision which has not previously been reached in this
manner. Deformations, forces, stresses and principal stresses are
available from one general calculation. A further advantage is the
now immediate acces to spring back displacements and eigenstresses
through an annexed calculation.
- 278 -
References
/1/ Mareczek, G.
FAN - Finite Element Analyser for Field Problems.
Internal Documentation at the Institut fUr Umformtechnik
und Umformmaschinen, University of Hannover (1975).
/2/ eden, J.T.
Finite Elements of Nonlinear Continua.
McGraw-Hill, New York (1972).
/3/ McMeeking, R.M., J.R. Rice
Finite Element Formulation for Problems of Large
Elastic-Plastic Deformation.
Int. J. of Solids and Stuctures (1975) Vol.ll, pp 601-
616.
/4/ Hughes, T.J., R.I. Taylor, J.L. Sackman
Finite Element Formulation and Solution of Contact-
Impact Problems in Continuum Mechanics III IV.
Report No. UC SESM 1975-7/1976-4,
Departement of Civil Engineering, University of Cali-
fornia, Berkely, California.
/5/ Stalmann, A.P.
Numerische Simulation des Tiefziehprozesses. Dissertation,
Fortschritt-Berichte Betriebstechnik Nr.95, VOl-Verlag
(1985)
/6/ Witthliser, K.P.
Untersuchung von Prufverfahren zur Beurteilung der Rei-
bungsverhaltnisse beim Tiefziehen,
Dissertation, University of Hannover (1980).
- 279 -
APPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
TO SHEET METAL FLANGING OPERATIONS
by
N.-M. \'iang
S. C. Tang
Research Staff
Ford Motor Company
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A.
SUMMARY
This paper summarizes several recently developed finite
element models for numerical analysis of stretch flanging
operations in sheet metal forming. For flange geometries
which can be represented by a ruled surface, the forming
operation is shown to be adequately modelled by using an
elastic-plastic, in-plane deformation finite element analysis
provided that the ruled surface is developable. The obvious
advantage of an in-plane model is that numerical solutions
can be more easily obtained as compared to those by an out-
of-plane model. Calculations for the flanging of a circular
tube and a notched
The application of
stretch flange are discussed in detail.
the in-plane model has been recently
extended to the case where the ruled surface is non-developable.
As an example, calculated strain distributions in a flange
formed by twist ing are presented. For flange geometries
which cannot be represented by a ruled surface, modelling
of the forming operation must include out-of-plane deformation
and friction contact as well. Numerical results for the
forming of an offset flange by using an axisymmetric finite
element model were obtained, and compared with experimental
data. Effects of the tool friction and material parameters
on the forming operation are discussed.
1. Introduction
In recent years,
forming processes
- 280 -
the finite element modelling of sheet metal
has received a great deal of attention
in the automotive and appliance industries. One of the main
objectives behind such modelling activities is to provide
technical support for computer-aided design and manufacturing
efforts. To date, a number of such models for various primary
and secondary forming operations have been reported. For
draw forming of automotive panels, Tang et al [1] have demonst-
rated that the sheet shape in the die cavity, after the closing
of the binder ring but prior to punch contact, can be accur-
ately modelled by using a bending theory of thin shells.
Work done so far in the modelling of the punch forming process,
which involves friction contact and large plastic deformation,
is still in the early stages of development. For example,
models of the stretch and draw forming operations were described
in Refs. [2-5] for axisymmetric shapes and in Refs. [6-7]
for general shapes. In a recent paper by Arlinghaus et al
[8], the modelling of a stretch-formed production panel by
the finite element method was reported.
This paper summarizes several finite element models recently
developed [9-12] for stretch flanging, which is a secondary
formi ng opera t i on tha t takes place after a panel has been
drawn and its edge trimmed. The focal points of these models
are two practical design issues: (i) formability whether
a desired flange shape can be manufactured with an intended
material and process, and (ii) trim development -- the required
blank configuration prior to flanging so that the final flange
shape is within design specifications.
We begin by presenting a geometrical condition which catagorizes
the most commonly used ruled-surface flanges into two types:
developable and non-developable. For developable flanges,
the formulation of an equivalent in-plane deformation model
is presented. Applications of the in-plane model using the
finite element method to the flanging of a circular tube
- 281 -
FLANGE IN BREAKLINE
TRIMMED POSITION
/
MAIN
SURFACE
Fig. 1: Ruled-surface flange configurations before
and after flanging.
and a notched stretch flange are illustrated. For non-devel-
opable flanges, the forming of a flange by twisting is modelled
as an example. Using an existing axisymmetric model, finite
element results for the forming of the so-called offset flanges
are presented next. The effects of tool friction and material
parameters on the modelling results, together with a comparison
with experimental data, are discussed.
2. Forming of Ruled-Surface Flanges
The majority of sheet metal flanges on automotive panels
can be described by a ruled surface as shown in Figure 1.
To clarify our notation, we denote t, nand b as the tangent,
normal and binormal vectors along the root of the flange,
or the breakline r. Specifically, we assume that the flange
is a straight line in the normal plane (n,b). Thus, any
point Pi on the flange satisfies
- 282 -
r + A (cos 8i n + sin 8i b) (1 )
where = 0 and i refer to the flange geometry in the
initial (trimmed) and final configurations, respectively.
In (1), A measures the distance from the breakline, and 8i
is the angle of the flange measured in the normal plane coun-
terclockwise from n as viewed in the negative t direction.
The values of 6i lie in the range of (8
s
- 21f, 8
s
) with 8
s
denoting the angular orientation of the main sheet metal
surface. It is well known that the vectors r, t, nand b
satisfy the following relationships [13]:
r t
t' k n
,
n T b - k t
b' T n
( 2 )
(3 )
where prime denotes differentiation with respect to the arc
length s along the breakline; k and T are the principal curv-
ature and the torsion of the breakline, respectively.
For the flange geometry defined by (1), the two specific pro-
blems associated with the design and manufacturing of flanges
may be stated as follows: First, for a given flange design
prescribed by r(s), 8, (s) and flange length L, (s), can the
flange be made with an intended material from a trimmed fla-
nge angle 80(s) without failure? If so, what should the trim
length LO(s) be such that the final flange length will indeed
be L,(s)? In the remainder of this section, several recently
developed finite element techniques for providing numerical
solutions to the above problems in the forming of ruled-surf-
ace flanges are reviewed.
2.1 Developable Flanges
If the surface of a flange in both its trimmed and final con-
figurations is developable, we shall term it a developable
flange. A necessary and sufficient condition for ruled-
- 283 -
surface flanges defined by Eq.(1) to be developable is [11]:
T + 9 i' = 0, for i o and 1 (4 )
For this class of flanges, the flanging operation has been
shown to be equivalent to an in-plane deformation operation
of which numerical solutions can be easily obtained by using
a two-dimensional plane-stress finite element method, provid-
ed that the tool friction can be neglected. This technique
was demonstrated in [9-10] for special cases and in [11] for
the general case. In the following, the methodology of the
finite element discussed in [9-11], as well as num-
erical examples of the flanging of a circular tube and a not-
ched flange, are presented.
2.1.2. An Equivalent In-Plane Deformation Model
Consider a developable flange with trimmed configuration des-
cribed by r(s), 90(S) and LO(s). The coordinates xo and Yo
of the breakline r. after being developed in a plane cartesi-
an x-y coordinate system, satisfy:
xo' = cos
YO' sin $0
$0' k(s) cos 90(S)
and those on the trimmed edge satisfy:
Ye
xo - LO(s) cos $0
yo + LO(s) sin $0
(5 )
(6 )
(7 )
(8 )
(9 )
In Fig. 2, we show a schematic of a developed flange domain
AOBOCODO where BOCO corresponds to r. The in-plane deformat-
ion model discussed in [9-11] for the flanging operation is
essentially a method which calculates the final flange confi-
guration A1B1C1D1 developed in the same plane x-y coordinate
system. The in-plane deformation from AOBOCODO to A,B1C1D,
satisfies the following boundary conditions:
- 284 -
Do
L.
Co
BOt- -
BI I
Fig. 2: An equivalent in-plane deformation model
for developable flanges.
On AaBa:
On BoCa:
On CoDa:
On DoAa:
fixed or tangential force equal to zero;
inextensible and monotonically in 8 from BoCa
to B1C1 with the latter satisfying:
x1
Y1
q,1 '
cos q,1
sin q,1
k(s) cos 81(s)
( 1 0 )
(11 )
( 1 2 )
rigid body motion with respect to Co or tange-
ntial force equal to zero;
traction free.
Assuming that the transition from 80(s) to 81 (s) is a monoto-
nic function of a time-like process variable t such as 8(s,t)
= (1 - t) 80(s) + t 81(s), the boundary value problem defined
in Fig. 2 becomes well-posed and is amenable to finite eleme-
nt techniques for numerical solutions. The finite element
procedure which we employed is described in Appendix A. The
option of specifying a shear free condition on the boundaries
AOBO and CoDa is a new feature, and its implementation is de-
scribed in Appendix B.
- 285 -
Application of the above in-plane deformation model to the
forming of developable flanges consists of the following ste-
ps:
1. For given rCs) and 90(S), calculate xo' YO and
using Eqs. (5-7);
2. For the given final flange angle 91(s), calculate
xl, Yl and using Eqs. (10-12);
3. Assuming a trim length LO(S), calculate the develp-
ed coordinates of the trim line xe and Ye by Eqs.
(8-9);
4. Construct a finite element mesh for the initial do-
main AOBOCODO;
5. Calculate the deformed flange configuration using
the in-plane deformation model;
6. Check if the desired flange shape is acheived; if
not, modify the trim configuration and repeat Steps
3 thru 6;
7. Compare the calculated free edge strain with the
forming limits of the sheet material to assess the
fomability of the flange.
2.1.3. Flanging of A Circular Tube
To demonstrate the use of the finite element techniques desc-
ribed in the preceding section, we present numerical results
obtained for the flanging of a circular tube, Fig. 3(a). The
radius of the tube is RO and its flange length in the trimmed
position is LO' Since the breakline is a circle in a plane,
its torsion T = 0 and curvature k = (RO)-l. In the curvilin-
ear coordinate system (t,n,b) shown in Fig. 3(a), the corres-
ponding flange angle 90 is a constant equal to -w/2. Based
on Eqs. (5-7), the developed coordinates Xo and YO of the br-
eakline are those of a straight line, Fig. 3(b). Since the
problem is actually an axisymmetric one, the initial domain
AOBOCODO can be arbitrarily chosen as long as AOBO and CODO
are parallel to the axis of the tube. Without loss of gener-
ality, let AOBOCODO represent a quarter of the tube. The le-
ngth of BOCO is thus equal to wRO/2. Assuming a 90
0
(0) STRETCH FLANGING OF
A CIRCULAR TUBE
--------
- 286 -
A
(b) EQUIVALENT IN-PLANE
DEFORMATION MODEL
Fig. 3: (a) Stretch Flanging of a circular tube and
(b) its equivalent in-plane deformation model.
flanging operation, i.e., L AOBOAl = 11/2, the final flange
angle 61 equals to -11. It follows from Eqs. (10-12) that
the transformed coordinates xl and Yl of the breakline in its
final position are those of a circle with radius RO'
The material parameters used in our calculation are those of
a typical mild steel. We assume that the material satisfies
Hill's anisotropic yield theory [14J with the normal anisotr-
opy coefficient r = 1 (isotropic) and its hardening is descr-
ibed by the Osgood-Ramberg relation, E = olE + (o/K)l/n, with
E = 206.8 GPa, K = 539 MPa and n = 0.21.
Three different stepwise integration schemes as described in
Appendix A were used. These are: (i) the Euler's method with
no load correction: (ii) the first order self-correcting met-
hod; and (iii) the modified Newton's method [15J. Figures 4
and 5 show, respectively, the calculated final flange config-
uration and strain distribution along the free edge with a
9x4 finite element mesh having a pattern as indicated in the
- 287 -
y
0.5
Ao 7r/2 ... 1
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -j Do
t :
I
I
I
__ __ __ -L ____ ____
-0.5
Ro=1
-1.0
1.5
WITHOUT LOAD
\ CORRECTION
= 0.003333)
\
WITH LOAD
CORRECTION
Fig. 4: Calculated deformed flange shapes with or
without load correction. In this figure as
well as in Figs. 5-7, all lengths are scaled
with respect to the radius of the tube RO.
150
100
FREE
EDGE
STRAIN
("!oj
50
A 9.4 MESH 0
ammo
Bo Co
WITHOUT
LOAD
CORRECTION
o L-____ ______ ______ ______
7r/4 7r/2
INITIAL ARC LENGTH ALONG FREE EDGE
Fig. 5: Calculated free edge strain distributions.
- 288 -
figure. The first order self-correcting method was found
most favorable since it took about one-third of the computing
time required by the modified Newton's method, to obtain ess-
entially the same result. The Euler's method produced very
poor results as evidenced by the slow convergence shown in
Fig. 5. Unless otherwise stated, all numerical results pres-
ented in this section on ruled-surface flanges were calculat-
ed using the first order self-correcting method.
Figure 6 shows the effect of step size on the calculated free
edge strain. Even for a very large step size of bk = 0.01333
which corresponds to a total of 75 increments to completely
model the flanging process, the calculated strain values are
within 3% (relative) of the converged solution.
The calculated flange length L1 with step size bk = 0.003333
varies from 0.44 to 0.46 with an average value of 0.4515.
This value compares well with 0.4522 calculated by the close
form solution derived in [10] by assuming that the stress st-
ate in the flange is everywhere uniaxial.
60
50
40
FREE
EDGE 30
STRAIN
(%1
20
10
WITH LOAD CORRECTION
A 9x4 MESH D

Bo Co

7T/4 7T/2
INITIAL ARC LENGTH ALONG FREE EDGE
Fig. 6: Behavior of solutions with load correction.
150
100
FREE
EDGE
STRAIN
(%)
50
- 289 -
A 9x4 MESH D
0
600
0
60 Co
WITH LOAD CORRECTION
6./ = 0.003333
\
WITHOUT
LOAD
CORRECTION
o '--___ L-___ ..I.-___ ...I-___ J
11"/4 11"/2
INITIAL ARC LENGTH ALONG FREE EDGE
Fig. 7: Solutions for a different mesh pattern.
It is known that mesh arrangements in finite element models
of constant-strain triangular elements can significantly aff-
ect numerical results. Figure 7 shows the free edge strain
calculated with the same 9x4 mesh of Fig. 5, but arranged in
a different pattern. The mesh pattern shown in Fig. 7 is un-
desirable as evidenced by the large deviation of the calcula-
ted strains (with load correction) from a constant value.
With a refined 17x7 mesh, the calculated result shows that
the deviation still persists although its magnitude is reduc-
ed from 6% to 2% (absolute).
2.1.4. Modelling of A Notched Flange
In Ref. [9], an analytical and experimental study was made of
the formability of notched stretch flanges. Experimental st-
rain distributions along the free edges were obtained by mea-
suring and comparing the grid spacings before and after flan-
ging. The analytical part of that work consisted of the ori-
ginal formulation of the flanging operation in terms of an
equivalent in-plane model and the use of finite element mode-
lling techniques to calculate the strain distributions in
- 290 -
Co
Fig. 8: Specimen configuration of a notched flange
prior to flanging.
several notched flanges. The calculated strain distrubiton
along the free edge showed a strain peak some distance away
from the root of the notch in agreement with the test data.
Furthermore, the magnitudes of the calculated peak strains
were found to differ from their corresponding test data with-
in 10% (relative).
In this paper, we present a new modelling result for the fla-
nging operation of one specific notch configuration, Fig. 8,
of aluminum-killed (AK) steel. The material parameters and
finite element mesh used were the same as in [9J. The prese-
nt calculation however differs from the previous one in two
respects. First, load correction which was ignored in [9J,
has now been incorported. Second, the boundary condition al-
ong CODO was assumed to be a rigid body displacement relative
to the flexing of the breakline BOCO. In the present work,
the physically correct, shear free condition can be specified
as an option.
120
100
80
FREE
EDGE
STRAIN 60
('Yo)
40
20
- 291 -
O. TEST DATA
/V
/ " I .. BOUNDARY CONDITION ON CrA,
" I \
ro \
\
I \
---SHEAR FREE
--- RIGID ROTATION
/
/ \
10
------ PREVIOUS RESULT [9]
(WITHOUT LOAD
CORRECTION)
20 30
INITIAL ARC LENGTH ALONG FREE EDGE, mm
Fig. 9: Calculated free edge strain of a notched flange
and comparison with test data.
Figure 9 shows a comparison of the newly calculated strain
distributions along the free edge with the one obtained in
[9] as well as the corresponding test data. While the prese-
nt and previous calculations produce basically the same stra-
in distribution, the location of the strain peak 1s better
predicted in the present work. The differences between the
strain distributions calculated from the two types of bounda-
ry conditions appear to be insignificant.
2.2. Non-Developable Flanges
If T + e' t 0 for either the initial or the final flange geo-
metry, the ruled-surface flange is non-developable according
to our classification. Modelling of the forming operation
for non-developable flanges generally requires an out-of-pla-
ne formulation involving the progression of punch and die co-
ntact. While a general method of solution remains a topic of
current research, an approximate method which calculates the
deformation in non-developable flanges with an in-plane algo-
rithm in the same way as for developable flanges has been
- 292 -
proposed in [11]. In the following, a brief description of
the method and its application to a twisted flange are given.
2.2.1. An In-Plane Algorithm
Consider a typical flange element ABCD as sketched in Fig.
10 where BC represents a segment of the breakline with arc
length As, AD is the free edge, BA and CD are the flange sec-
tions in the normal plane at Band C, respectively. With T
denoting the torsion of the breakline and a, the angular ori-
entation at Point B, a developable surface ABCE may be const-
ructed with CE having an angle a - TAs measured in the normal
plane at C. The difference between ABCD and ABCE as represe-
nted by the angle ECD, or As(T + a'), is the magnitude of the
non-developability of the flange surface ABCD.
In Ref. [11], an in-plane algorithm for calculating the defo-
rmation in non-developable flanges was proposed by first "de-
t;:- AI 7
__________ c
L DCE ,. (T+ lAs
LECF. Aw
F
Fig. 10: An approximate scheme to 'develop' non-develop-
able ABCD onto a developable surface containing
ABCE.
- 293 -
veloping" the surface ABCD in a developable surface containi-
ng ABCE. This was done by approximately representing each of
the two surfaces ABCD and ABCE by two flat triangles with ABC
as their common triangle. Rotating ACD about the "crease"
line AC until Point D intersects the plane containing ACE,
determines the point F in Fig. 10, which together with Points
C and E forms a non-zero angle Expressing in terms of
the geometrical quantities of the flange and letting -> 0
results in:
W' ([(1 - kL cos 8)2+ L2(T + e')2]1/2 -
(1 - kL cos e)l 1 L ( 1 3 )
With w' defined, the surface ABCD may be developed in a plane
x-y coordinate system in the same way as discussed in Section
2.1.2 for developable flanges. Since w' represents an addit-
ional rotation of the breakline while being developed in the
x-y coordinate system, it can be included in the differential
equations for the angle of inclination 4>, Eq. (7) or (12), as
follows:
4>- '
1
k(s) cos ei(s) - Wi
(14)
where = 0 refers to the initial flange configuration and i
= 1, to the final configuration. Equation (14) together with
(13) completes the algorithm for calculating the deformation
in the forming of non-developable ruled-surface flanges.
2.2.2. Flanges Formed by Twisting
To demonstrate the application of the in-plane algorithm to
non-developable flanges, we have modelled a class of flanges
formed by twisting along a straight breakline as sketched in
Fig. 11. The initial domain is assumed to be flat with flan-
ge length La, and the final flange configuration is given by
Eq. (1) with
0,
el (s) + 2s/SLO)/2,
e,
s < _ SLO/2
lsi
s >
SLa /2
SLa /2
( 1 4 )
150
FREE
EDGE
STRAIN
(%)
- 294 -
2 3 4
DIMENSIONLESS INITIAL ARC LENGTH ALONG FREE EDGE,SIL
o
Fig. 11: Calculated strain distributions in flanges
formed by twisting.
where is the magnitude of the twist, and a denotes the ra-
tio of the distance over which the tWisting takes place to
the flange length La.
In Fig. 11, the calculated strain distributions along the
free edge for = w/2 were plotted. In this calculation,
the material parameters were assumed to be the same as those
in the flanged-tube case, and a 17x7 mesh was used to model
one half of the flange domain. As expected, the magnitude of
the strain in the flange increases as a decreases.
3. Forming of Offset Flanges
Some practical flanges are formed with an additional break on
the flange wall as shown in Fig. 12. Modelling of such flan-
ges would generally require a two-dimensional out-of-plane
- 295 -
Fig. 12: Tool configuration for axisymmetric offset
flanging.
analysis. In this paper, we consider only the forming of ax-
isymmetric offset flanges. The assumed simplicity in geomet-
ry permits us to assess more easily the effects of friction
and material parameters used in the model.
The finite element algorithms employed here for the modelling
of axisymmetric offset flanges have already been reported,
Refs. [12,16]. We assume that the deformation of the flange
can be described by the standard nonlinear theory of membrane
shells. The frictional forces at the punch-sheet and die-sh-
eet interfaces are assumed to satisfy the Coulomb's law.
The material investigated is a specially-killed draw quality
(SKDQ) steel of 0.96 mm thick with the following material pa-
rameters:
Anisotropy: 1.8
Hardening:
1
280.8 ( + 0.0004)09, 0 < 0.0112
oe = 552.5 0.24, 0.0112 < 0.1
524 0.217, 0.1 E
- 296 -
where the effective stress ae 1s expressed in MPa. In our
modelling of the offset flanges, the geometric parameters
shown in Fig. 12 were set to be: Rp = 50 mm; Rd = 52.5 mm;
and rp = rd = 6.35 mm, identltical to those in a parallelly
conducted experimental program. Four values of the trim rad-
ius HO were calculated. These are 9.525, 12.7, 20.32, and
25.4 mm, respectively, corresponding again to the sheet
specimens tested in the experimental program.
Our calculated results are summarized in Figs. 13-17. Figure
13 shows several calculated sheet positions for trim radius
HO = 12.7 mm and friction value O. In this calculation,
the finite element mesh contains 26 uniformly spaced nodes.
The last node is located at a radial distance of 62 mm from
the center, where the boundary condition is assumed fixed to
simulate a lock bead used in the experiment. The incremental
step size was determined as in Ref. [6] that the maximum ele-
ment-rotation and element-strain increments must be less than
their respectively pre-assigned tolerances.
In Fig. 13, we show also the calculated paths of Node 1 and
Node 11. Node 1 is located at the trimmed edge of the flang-
e which is in contact with the punch all the time. On the
CURRENT -10
VERTICAL
DISTANCE,
mm
-20
-30
10
\
\
CURRENT RADI AL DISTANCE, mm
20 30 40 50 60
"
TRIM RADIUS, "..,... _____ _
12.7mm <D
FLANGED EDGE
}L =0
70
Fig. 13: Calculated sheet profiles for several flange
depths. The finite element mesh contains 26
nodes. Shown are traces of Nodes 1 and 11.
- 297 -
other hand, Node 17, initially unsupported, comes into conta-
ct with the punch and, at larger flange depths, becomes again
unsupported after it slides over the punch radius.
Figure 14 shows the circumferential and radial strain distri-
butions at a flange depth equal to 20 mm for two friction va-
lues. As expected, the peak strain occurs on the free edge.
The effect of friction on the strain distributions is rather
small. This indicates that the assumption made earlier in
the modelling of ruled-surface flanges is a valid one.
In Fig. 15, we have plotted the free edge strains as a funct-
ion of the flange depth for the four initial trim radii mode-
150
100
STRAIN
(%)
50
TRIM RADIUS Ho = 12.7 mm
FLANGE DEPTH D = 20 mm
-fL=O
--- fL=0.2
CIRCUMFERENTIAL
STRAIN

10 20 30 40 50
-50
A.
INITIAL RADIAL
DISTANCE. mm
RADIAL
STRAIN
Fig. 14: Effect of friction on strain distributions
in an offset flange with initial trim radius
12.7 mm at a constant flange depth.
- 298 -

o 5 10 15 20 25
FLANGE DEPTH D, mm
Fig. 15: Comparison of calculated free edge strain
with test data for four initial trim radii.
The r value used in the calculation is 1.8.
lIed. Corresponding experimental data were also included.
Our model overestimates the test data by 10% (relative).
Since the discrepancy between the model and experiment shown
in Fig. 15 cannot be reconciled by friction alone, other ass-
umptions, such as neglecting the bending deformation in our
formulation, the shape of the yield locus used, or the harde-
ning representations at very large strains, need to be asses-
sed. In the present work, we have evaluated only the effect
of the yield locus as represented by the normal anisotropy
coefficient r. In Fig. 16, we compare results for r = 1 with
those for r 1.8. The free edge strain decreases significa-
ntly with the r value. Figure 17 shows a combined effect of
FREE
EDGE
STRAIN
("!o)
150
100
50
- 299 -
EFFECT OF 7 VALUE
P. = 0
--r=1.8
--- r= 1.0
INITIAL TRIM
____ ____ ____ -L ____
o 5 10 15 20 25
FLANGE DEPTH D,mm
Fig. 16: Effect of r value on the free edge strains for
four initial trim radii. Friction value = O.
friction and r value on the free edge strain. In this calcu-
lation, the r value is assumed to be 1.4 and = 0.2. We see
that a good correlation between the model and test is obtain-
ed.
4. Conclusions
From the numerical examples presented in this paper, the fol-
lowing conclusions may be drawn:
(i) The applicability of the in-plane deformation model
to the forming of ruled-surface flanges has been
further demonstrated by two new test cases: Stretch
- 300 -
150
INITIAL TRIM
RADIUS Ho
TEST DATA
o 9.525mm
.12.7mm
20.32mm
100
6 20.32mm
FREE
.25.4mm
ZI.
EDGE
STRAIN
("!o)
FEM RESULTS BASED ON
fL = 0.2
r = 1.4
50

o 5 10 15 20 25
FLANGE DEPTH D, mm
Fig. 17: Comparison of calculated free edge strains
using r = 1.4 and = 0.2 with test data.
flanging of a circular tube and flanges formed by
twisting.
(ii) Stepwise integration of the incremental stiffness
equations with load correction or equilibrium iter-
ation is highly desirable to assure solution conve-
(iii)
rgence. The first order self-correcting method ap-
pears to be most effective.
Present results on the offset flanges show that the
role of tool friction in the forming of flanges is
of minor importance, thus justifying one of the ma-
in assumptions made in the in-plane deformation mo-
del for the analysis of ruled-surface flanges.
(iv) Comparison of our model results with test data for
offset flanges indicates that the yield surface of
- 301 -
SKDQ steel based on r = 1.8, which is measured in
the uniaxial tensile test, is unsatisfactory. In
fact, calculated results based on r = 1.4 are in
better agreement with test data.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Dr. R.G. Davies and Mr. W.S. Stewa-
rt for determining the tensile properties of SKDQ steel, and
Messrs. W.G. Brazier and G. Swift for providing the test fac-
ilities and assistance in obtaining the offset flange data.
References
[1] Tang, S.C.; Chu, E.; Samanta, S.K.: Finite Element Pred-
iction of the Deformed Shape of an Automotive Body Panel
During Preform Stage, Numerical Methods in Industrial
Forming Processes, Pittman, J.F.T., Wood, R.D., Alexand-
er, J.M., and Zienkiewicz, C.C., eds; Pineridge Press,
U.K. (1982) pp.929-640.
[2] Wang, N.-M.; Wenner, M.L.: Elastic-Viscoplastic Analyses
of Simple Stretch Forming Problems, Mechanics of Sheet
Metal Forming, Koistinen, D.P. and Wang, N.-M., eds;
Plenum Publication, N.Y. (1978) pp.367-398.
[3J Kobayashi, S.; Kim, J.H.: Deformation Analysis ofAxisy-
mmetric Sheet Metal Forming Processes by the Rigid-Plas-
tic Finite Element Method, Mechanics of Sheet Metal For-
ming, KOistinen, D.P. and Wang, N.-M., eds; Plenum Publ-
ication, N.Y. (1978) pp.341-363.
[4] Zienkiewicz, D.C.; Onate, E.; Heinrich, J.C.: Plastic F-
low in Metal Forming I. Coupled Thermal II. Thin Sheet
Forming, Applications of Numerical Methods to Forming P-
rocesses, Armen, H. and Jones, R.F.Jr., eds; AMD-Vol.6,
ASME, N.Y. (1978) pp.107-120.
[5J Lee, D: Computer-Aided Control of Sheet Metal Forming P-
rocesses, J. of Metals 34 (1982) 10, pp.20-29.
[6] Wang, N.-M.; Budiansky, B.: Analysis of Sheet Metal Sta-
mping by a Finite Element Method, J. Appl. Mech. 45 (19-
78) pp.73-82.
- 302 -
[7] Wennerstrom, H.; Samuelson, A.; Mattiasson, K.: Finite-
Element Method for Sheet Metal Stretching, Chapter 14,
Numerical Analysis of Forming Processes, Pittman, J.F.
T., Zienkiewicz, O.C., Wood, R.D. and Alexander, J.M.,
eds; John Wiley, Chichester, U.K. (1984) pp.387-404.
[8] Arlinghaus, F.J.; Frey, W.H.; Stoughton, T.B.; Murthy,
B.K.: Finite Element Modelling of a Stretch-Formed Part,
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Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, Mich., April 29
(1985); presented at the AIME Symposium on Computer Mod-
elling of the Sheet Metal Forming Processes, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, April 29-30 (1985).
[9J Wang, N.-M.: An Analytical and Experimental Study of No-
tched Stretch Flanges, Novel Techniques in Metal Deform-
ation Testing, Wagoner, R.H., ed.; AIME, N.Y. (1983) pp.
309-321.
[10J Wang, N.-M.; Johnson, L.K.; Tang, S.C.: Stretch Flanging
of "V"-Shaped Sheet Metal Blanks, J. Appl. Metalworking
3 (1984) 3, pp.281-291.
[11J Wang, N.-M.: to be published.
[12] Tang, S.C.: Large Elasto-plastic Strain Analysis of Fla-
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pp.363-370.
[13J Struik, D.: Classical Differential Geometry, Addison-
Wesley Co., Reading, Mass. (1950)
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[17J Hutchinson, J.W.: Finite Strain Analysis of Elastic-pla-
- 303 -
stic Solids and Structures, Numerical Solution of Nonli-
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ASME, N.Y. (1973) pp.17-29.
[18] Tang, S.C.; Samanta, S.K.: In Plane Stretching of High-
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[19] Bathe, K.J.; Wilson, E.L.; Iding, R.H.: NONSAP - A Stru-
ctural Analysis Program for Static and Dynamic Response
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vil Engng, Univ. of California, Berkeley (1974).
Appendix A. An Elastic-Plastic In-Plane FEM
The FEM procedure used in this work is based on the total La-
grangian description of elastic-plastic deformation of a met-
al sheet stretched in its plane. Since the formulation of
the procedure has already been documented [6,18], only a bri-
ef account is given here.
The appropriate variational equations used are:
(A.1 )
(A.2)
where ho is the initial sheet thickness, Ao is the initial
sheet domain, raa is the Kirchhoff stress tensor, EaS is the
Lagrangian strain tensor, fa and u
a
are components of the fo-
rce and displacement vectors, respectively. In these expres-
sions, a dot over a symbol denotes its rate quantity.
Equat-
ion (A.1) assures the satisfaction of equilibrium, and is us-
ed in our finite element procedure for calculating the unbal-
anced forces at every stage of deformation. Equation (A.2)
provides the basis for calculating the incremental stiffness
matrix equations. To express the material's yield criterion,
we have used the Kirchhoff stress instead of the Cauchy stre-
- 304 -
ss. This was originally proposed by Hutchinson [17] for thr-
ee-dimensional solids and mOdified in [6], and also in [18],
for treating finite deformation of normally anisotropic shee-
ts. The constitutive equations used in this work are precise-
ly those derived in [6]. Accordingly, the effective stress
ue is given by
Ue [GaSGyp raYrSP -(GaS r
aS
)2 r/(1+2r)]1/2 (1+2r)/(1+r)
(A.3)
where r denotes the normal anisotropic coefficient and GaS is
the deformed metric tensor. The rate form of the stress-str-
ain relationships may be written as follows:
(A.4)
where
+ +

+
(E - Et)
I
ue
2
loading
{
,
(A. 5)
0 , unloading
with Et denoting the current tangent modulus.
Following the usual procedure, assembling the elemental stif-
fness equations defined by (A.2) gives the global matrix equ-
ations for the nodal velocity U as follows:
K U F
(A. 6)
where F denotes the nodal force rates. To maintain equilibr-
ium at end of an incremental step. Equations (A.6) are modif-
ied by subtracting the unbalanced nodal force Rs on the right
hand side:
K (A.71
In the present work, the unbalanced nodal force Rs is determ-
- 305 -
ined, following the procedure of Bathe et al [19], by integr-
ating (A.5) to calculate the stresses at end of each increme-
nt and then applying (A.l).
In the numerical implementation of the finite element method,
plane cartesian coordinates and constant-strain traingular
elements were used. Three numerical schemes were employed
for the solution of (A.7). The first one totally ignores the
unbalanced nodal force H
s
' which we refer to as the Euler's
method. The second scheme corrects the unbalanced force from
the previous incremental step without iteration. This is kn-
own as the first order self-correcting method [15]. The thi-
rd one is the modified Newton's method which iterates for ev-
ery step the displacement increments 6U until Hs is sufficie-
ntly small while the stiffness matrix K is kept constant.
Appendix B. Shear Free Boundary Conditions
To deal with the cases where the boundaries AoBo and CoDo of
the flange domain in Fig. 2 are free of tangential forces, we
have devised a special algorithm. We first choose the coord-
inates such that AoBo aligns with the y axis of the global
coordinate system. In this way, the shear free boundary con-
dition on AoBo is equivalent to the usual condition of symme-
try. To express the boundary conditions on CoDo which rotat-
es as well as contracts in the global system, we introduce a
local x-y coordinate system shown in Fig. 18. Let Ti and
Ti+l be, respectively, the transformation matrices between
the local and global systems for the current and subsequent
configurations. Then, the appropriate rows of the stiffness
equations in (A.7) may be rearranged as follows:
(Ti+l)* K (Ti+l)
where * denotes the transpose of a matrix, and the subscripts
and 2 refer to the tangential and normal directions in the
- 306 -
local system, respectively. When solving the stiffness equa-
tions, the second equation in (B.1) is temporarily replaced
by a displacement boundary condition, 6u2 = 6
n
, where 6
n
is a
specified quantity from the current to subsequent configurat-
ions. After the incremental displacement 6u1 is determined,
the second equation in (B.1) gives the unknown F2i+1 as the
reaction in the normal direction.
SHEAR FREE EDGE
AT CURRENT
LOAD STEP
SHEAR FREE EDGE
AT SUBSEQUENT
LOAD STEP
(GLOBAL)
Fig. 18: Shear free boundary conditions.
- 307 -
Discussions (Session 2b)
Argyris (Chairman): We have now little time for discussion.
Tekkaya: I have a question to Norman Wang. Did I understand you correct-
ly. that the self-correcting (or the first order) method is four times fa-
ster than the Newton-Raphson type methods in your example?
Wang: Three times faster.
Argyris: Any more technological questions?
Altan: have a question to Mr. 5talmann. You predicted loads and also
strains. Loads are really irrelevant, because you can calculate them with
other techn i ques. 50, I am rea, 1 y wonderi ng, ina 11 th i slot of work one
does I'm being on purpose critical now - what is the main advantage of
the finite-element-technique in simulating an axisymmetric deep-drawing
process?
Stalmann: Of course, the basic aim is to calculate three-dimensional pro-
blems. Since this is very difficult we started firstly with two-dimensio-
nal problems. One of the very sensible ..
Argyris: Sensitive.
Stalmann: ... sensitive values was this punch load. However, I agree with
you that the load-calculation is in general not really important. But, in
this case, it was a quite good value to compare with.
Altan: Can you vary the blank-holder force?
Stalmann:
able.
Yes, of course. The blank-holder and punch force is free vari-
Altan: During the process you can vary in your program the blank-holder
force?
Stalmann: Yes, of course.
- 308 -
Altan: Can you predict any wrinkling?
Stalmann: No, because this is an axisymmetric problem.
Argyris: It is axisymmetric, so you can't.
Altan: I was wondering, in axisymmetric deep-drawing processes sometimes
you have wrinkling.
Stalmann: Yes, of course. But this is the difference between theory and
practice, you know.
Argyris: The theory is over-smart. (Laughing)
Tang: have a comment. In wrinkling you have a bifurcation. Because, we
have a axisymmetrical mode, so therefore, we go always axisymmetrically.
But at a certain point bifurcation we'll come out, and the deformation will
be circumferential variable (as a function of e ).
Stalmann: As I know, Professor Lippmann (Munich) is investigating wrin-
kling by using an axisymmetric code.
Onate:
fracture?
Or. Stalmann, does your program include any failure criterion for
Stalmann: No, not yet.
Argyris: want to thank the two speakers for the excellent presentation
and for the interesting discussion. Many thanks indeed.
- 309 -
FOR U M
Rowe (Chairman): Now, we start our final session... The idea is we try to
come away from our academic perspective we had for the rest of the day, and
say: "what will we do, if somebody provides us with a magic box, how do we
use it". Can we just have the slide, please.
BUDJANSKY'S DREAM
Harvard University
I ima2ined a black box -- a black computation box that was incredibly
powerful and into which we could feed a mathematical description of
what the st)lists em'isioned for a certain sheet metal shape. Then push a
button and the computer spits out the die shape, the blank configuration
needed, the drawbeads and their orientation and configuration. If it's
possible to make the part -- the computer program tells us this. If it's not
possible. it tells us that too!
Altan: Firstly, I'm quite disappointed about, not about this conference,
but in general the work on FEM is going all around the world. The reason I
am quite disappointed is in general due to exceptions. The way I see, the-
re are really three areas. One is the handling of the geometry, where we
have a mesh - I am considering all the geometry - ... There is no way on
earth anybody is going to come up with any FEM that is useful at all, un-
less you integrate your interface there - that is sensibly supported - to a
mesh generator. Otherwise, it is all academic play. Second, - I want the
geometry - the other one is of course the mechanics, that was here all the
time, you know ... That is of course necessary. And the third area, what
had the feeling that stands more than the others, the third area is the
material and the boundary condition, interface and material. We are doing
three-dimensional analysis on temperatures, nobody knows what the interfa-
ce, heat transfer coefficients are, what is the physics of that phenomena,
what is the influence of temperature, of pressure, time and so on. I'm
gonna say, but those things have to be given some consideration and, what I
see personally, in worse of that, there is in Europe, also in the United
States, there is no continuity. People are writing programs to finish
- 310 -
their thesis.... I can't criticize to do that, that is what they think
about first. But I can criticize their boss for not asking them to have a
reasonable amount of documentation of code, and we have the real .. pro-
blem of engineers writing codes without any thinking sufficiently about
documentation, explanation. That happens all the time. In many places,
where a student writes a code, the next guy comes along and he is all star-
ting over again. It is a waste of money, waste of time, waste of tax-
payers money in all countries we can think about it. So, there is hardly
some continuity of some sort. Maybe institutes have to change their idea
putting one guy on a Ph.D.-thesis working, they have to have two people
maybe going together: one is coming to the end, the other should start, so
there is some sort of continuity. Also some of the people who are writing
codes, in my judgement, have to learn about software engineering. Because,
the code which is only to be written and used by the guy who wrote it, as
far as I am concerned, is useless. Because he is the only one who uses it
and he leaves. That's it. So, this, as a last point, leads unfortunately
to a tremendous separation of industry and academy. There was a time,
was studying in Germany 20 years ago, there was a tremendous co-operation
between industry and universities. I have the impression now, here as
anywhere else, .... , the co-operation between industry and academy has been
not so good. It has been going, in my view at least, .. downward. And
this kind of working, in my judgement, is great: we get all together, all
professors talk to each other, we have a good time, it's very exciting and
very interesting, we enjoy that in this meeting, in other meetings. But
when you sit down and think about it, I'm not sure that is the right thing.
Because it is possible to do the right thing, that is to say, very exci-
ting, very challenging technical problems, which also have not 100 % but
some relatively soon application in industry. There are many examples of
that. So, being not specifically, I would be specific if you want to hear
about it, but ....
Rowe: How about the time?
Altan: So those are my doubts on the subject.
Rowe: Thank you very much.
Tang (Co-chairman): That also applies to sheet metal forming. I think you
are absolutely correct.
- 311 -
Altan: Pardon me?
Tang: I think, you raised these three points, I perfectly agree with you.
The first of all, no matter sheet metal or bulk forming, we need to define
our geometry, which we well try to do that. And the second one, ... , I
think we probably write a data base program. And then, each student deve-
lops a modulo It is really in modular form. That means, to write a data-
base at the very beginning, it will cost a lot of time, but once we have
that, and then gradually increase the moduls, it will be very convenient
for everybody to use. When you say co-operation, I think that is very im-
portant. I agree with you in the United States there is really not much
co-operation.
Altan: Well, what is happening at the end is the industry says forget
about universities, they cannot do anything. They don't say that, but they
really mean it. And what happens is in the theory maybe it's good, I don't
know. IBM in the United States started giving a lot of computers and com-
puting equipment to Universities. This is special to happen on CAD/CAM.
Universities missed entirely the development in the CAD/CAM-area, in geome-
try, in drafting etc. And as a result, we had a big push from industry,
because they finally realized that the students at our universities, that
they are still making drawings by hand and industry was to do this with
computers. So, and then they come in, they draw everything themselves. So,
you sometimes wonder whether industry should be doing the type of basic,
very fundamental research, they are doing, but the reason they are doing,
they think nobody else will do it, so there seems to be such a situation
there, I think.
Stalmann: I don't think whether it's really very effective to write a com-
mon data-base which you suggested. I think it would be quite good, if one
has some scientific pools, perhaps between some institutes, where groups of
about 5, maximal 10 people work together. That would be a good number of
persons. And this group is continuously working, it doesn't stop when a
person is ready to get his doctor-degree and go to the industry, just as
you said. A continuous following of persons is very important. The real
thi ng, you have a group vlork i ng under the dec is i on of the resu 1 ts of sc i en-
tific research and these results are giving continuity further, that is the
right thing.
- 312 -
Tekkaya: I think there is some other part of the matter. The other side
is the people working in industry. My experience was that people in indu-
stry have too high expectations, they are expecting much more things than
we can do. And if they don't get the things they are expecting. and the
things they are expecting are practically not possible to solve by the con-
ventional computers, even by the next or overnext generation of computers
and if they are disappointed by that fact, they are just rejecting ever-
ything coming from the universities. I think that is the wrong way. They
should try to follow the developments and start with the simple parts. I
think, there are really simple parts which can be computed very well by the
codes which are just existing and then the developments will catch up the
complicated parts and so the continuity on the co-operation between indu-
stry and universities can be established in that way. by just starting from
the simple parts.
Rowe: I think that is right. There is overdependency, I'm afraid, when we
do have success in something, one just wants the next thing .... As soon as
you solve anything, we always think of another.
lange: That is basically the attitude of industry. So, some people in the
industry are always putting the level of expectation very high and when the
system of the product cannot follow these expectiations, then they say no
at all, and then they continue in the old fashioned manner. When I was
working in industry, that was 25 or 20 years ago, we had not yet a compu-
ter, but it was just the same with many other items. I feel this attitude
is still active living in industry. So, we have to change that. And just
one means, I just listen to you very carefully, you didn't mention the term
"technology-transfer", but you meant it. And you meant especially the
technology transfer from universities to industry by individuals leaving
universities and going to industry and that is, to my opinion, one of the
best approaches. I always try to describe that as a communication: you
need two items, one is a transmittor and the other one is a receiver. And
both have to work on the same frequency, otherwise it doesn't work. Our
problem is not only in all this computer-simulation business, but this is
more general. But specially, it becomes more and more in the introduction
of modern technologies and computer techniques. What is true is that you
need large numbers of educated engineers in industry, who are able to re-
ceive, what has been transmitted by the universities. And in order to op-
timize communications, these individuals should be trained in such a form
- 313 -
that they can act as receiver in the universities on scientific level and
as receiver in the industry, so that they can communicate and change
lipowsky: You give us these people and we will buy them. (laughing)
lange: We try to educate them.
lipowsky: That's good.
lange: feel that is our concern, that should be the concern of the uni-
versities to do that. That is the most important contribution we can give
to industry.
lipowsky: May I say something about ourselves. We are used to setting up
our goals very high to get at least half of what we want to get. (Laughing)
Rowe: You have to, on the other hand.
lipowsky: Just an example. Take the Audi 100. The original goal was C
w
of 0.25 and what did we get: 0.30! That is our way of working.
Altan: But I think, sometimes the people in research encourage this kind
of situation. For example, , please don't get it wrong, I'm excusing
anybody, but we do all the same thing in our enthusiasm, we call a paper
"three-dimensional simulation of metal forming processes", only have simu-
lated may be a rectangular block, you see, or a wedge or whatever and it
took us may be two hours on the CYBER or whatever. But when you entitled
it like this and you talked about it like this, the expectation is G, you
know. There is three-dimensional simulation already impossible, this fel-
low is talking about it. So, we had to maybe begin All of us are re-
searchers. May be we have to say, more modestly, I think in German litera-
ture it is done very well "Introduction to Something", you know, there are
many books which are called introduction to something, although they are
probably the fifth book of the subject, still "introduction". So, we have
to be at the end more modest, I think, in our evaluation of what we have
done, or in the description of what we have done.
Rowe: I am very happy, you have given a part of my book. Thank you very
much. (Laughing)
- 314 -
Tang: think, you are right. Because a lot of people promise too much,
actually they couldn't do as much, that is why industry people are disap-
pointed. They try to get the contract, it is always too much.
Rowe: I think probably, it is better, to prepare two papers about our sub-
jects: one for other people who are in the subject, and the other one to
show what it really means. (Laughing)
Altan: Actually, I would say may be two papers: one for our colleagues to
have a real interesting discussion, the other one for the common folk who
would try to see whether that makes any sense at all, for example, practi-
cal application.
Sturgess: Just a side comment. We are talking today generally about large
computers and we have done .... some work on very small computers. The
forging industry in UK, you probably say, three forges in which the people
actually follow any sort of the practices we are talking about today. The
other .... are very small companies. So .... on micro computers. Relati-
vely simple geometries, and reasonable number of elements, you can get rea-
sonable type solutions, which are probably built up for a lot of industrial
applications For 30,000 OM you get a nice micro-computer with a Win-
chester disk, a screen and a printer, and can run finite elements with a
couple of hundred elements to get a solution ..... Switch on the computer
on your desk during the day, come at the morning and get your finite ele-
ment solution.
Rowe: CPU-time is the same as turn on time.
Sturgess: And this is an alternative way to the big packages for big indu-
stries, big institutions ....
Lange: I would like to put one question to the auditory. I feel that the-
re are three difOerent approaches to the solution of metal forming pro-
blems. One is to do just experimentation with real tools, real machines
and real materials. And the other one is to carry out physical model expe-
riments. And the third method now is computer modelling. What, to your
opinion, will be the future development? To our knowledge, the physical
model technique is only used to very small extent and if you do it correct-
ly it also requires a lot of calculation and a sort of expertise as we know
- 315 -
from our colleague Professor Wanheim, who has the best, modern laboratory
in Europe, to my knowledge. This being so, what will be the future deve-
lopment? I personally, I believe saying that computer modelling has a lot
of advantages: You don't need any tools, you don't need any physical model
material But you have to know the material laws, you have to assume
boundary conditions like friction, heat transfer coefficient etc., all the-
se items we have discussed today. Still I believe this might be more accu-
rate and also be the cheaper solution as applying very sophisticated physi-
cal models. If somebody can give a comment on that, I would be very glad.
Altan: I will like to make a comment about that. Of course, like you do,
Professor Lange, we also think about it "is that the best way". The physi-
cal modeling is probably not a bad thing, especially for cold forming. But
when you talk about hot forming absolutely there is just the whole thing
going down the window, because you don't have temperature. That is number
one. Even in cold forming, there are problems in terms of process fric-
tion.... However, I would like to suggest that there is a possibility of
combining existing knowledge with FEM. And I hope you don't mind, I put
this slide on. One minute, may be two.
Rowe: One and a half.
YES
- 316 -
Altan: Okay, the idea is that, for the forging preliminary design, this
blocker design, the preform design could be done by an expert system. That
is to say, col1ab1e existing rules and trying to make a preliminary de-
sign What I am saying is, put the FEM in between (see figure). But FEM
will be then not used extensively, if you have done your job good. So, the
idea is benefit from what you have The same thing could be done pro-
bably for sheet metal.
Sturgess: That is exactly the flow diagramm more or less for what we did.
Tekkaya: I just have a comment regarding the expert system approach in
metal forming. The problem I see is that there are almost no rules which
you can touch, which you can put into a physical, logical statement, you
know. If you ask people, why they are doing something, they just say, they
don't know.
Altan: May be you ask the wrong people. Ask Professor Lange! You are
partially right. But not exactly.
Tekkaya: Of course, there are some rules. But to apply these rules, you
don't need an expert system, or any computer code. You can read these ru-
les in the books. But the rules which you cannot get out of books, for
example the one of Professor Lange, you cannot put these rules into a logi-
cal statement.
Sturgess: But there are examples
Rowe: Well, I am sorry, but I think we really should stop discussion .
Thank you very much for your discussion. Before we close this Session, I
would like to express our very warm thanks to the organization, Professor
Lange and Mr. Tekkaya, and also to our sponsor Stiftung Volkswagenwerk and
Forschungsgese11schaft Umformtechnik, who have been extremely helpful in
the background. We are extremely grateful and I like to express our thanks
to them and all the organization here. Thank you!
Berichte aus dem Institutflir Umformtechnik
der UniversiUit Stuttgart
Herausgeber Professor Dr.-Ing. Kurt Lange
Untersuchung iiber den EinfluB der Belastungszeit auf die Streuung der Riickfederung von BiegeteUen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Tafel. 70 Selten Text u. 64 Selten mit 49 Bildern u 15 Tafeln Vergrlffen
2/3 Untersuchungen iiber das freie Napfen
Von Dlpl.-Ing Gerhard Schmitt und Dlpl.-Ing Dieter Schmoeckel
Untersuchungen Uber den Kraft- und Arbeitsbedarf sowte den Umfor'mwtrkungsgrad beim Vorwiirts-VoliflieBpressen
von Stahl
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Dieter Kast 40 Selten Text u. 43 Seiten mit 47 Bildern u. 5 Tafeln DM
Untersuchungen iiber die Werkzeuggestaltung beim Vorwarts-HohlflieBpressen von Stahl und Nichteisenmetallen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Dieter Schmoeckel. 72 Seiten Text u. 117 Selten mit 179 Bildern. DM
Untersuchungen uber das Stauchen und Zapfenpressen
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Marten Burgdorf. 126 Selten Text u. 58 Seiten mit 138 Blldern u. 4 Tafeln. DM
6 Untersuchungen iiber die Streuung der Kriifte und Arbeiten beim FlieBpressen in der lautenden Fertigung und den
EinfluB der Phosphatschichtdicke und des Schmiermillels
Von Dipl.-Ing. Hans-Dietrich Witte. 38 Seiten Text u. 48 Seiten mit 49 Blldern. DM
Untersuchungen iiber das Riickwarts-NapfflieBpressen von Stahl bei Raumtemperatur
Von Dipl.-Ing. Gerhard Schmitt. 132 Selten Text u. 93 Seiten mit 130 Bildern u. 5 Tafeln DM
Die Abbildegenauigkeff beim Biegenim 9O"-V-Gesenk und ihre Beeinflussung durch Nachdriickenim Gesenk
Von Dipl.-Ing. Eckart Danne-nmann. 50 Seiten Text u. 31 Seiten mit 28 Bildern-u. 1 Tafel - - Vergriffen
9 Untersuchungen Liber den Zusammenhang zwischen Vickershirte und Vergleichsformanderung bei
Kaltumformvorgangen
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Hans Wilhelm. 50 Selten Text u. 35 Selten mit 37 Bildern u. 2 Tafeln Vergrtffen
10 Untersuchungen Ober das Abstreckziehen von zylindrischen Hohlkorpem bei Raumtemperatur
Von Dipl.-Ing Rolf K Busch. 86 Seiten Text u. 92 Selten mit 97 Bildern . Vergrtffen
11 Vorgange beim elektromagnetischen und elektrohydraulischen Umformen von metallischen WerkstOcken
Von Dlpl -Ing. Herbert Muller. 90 Selten Text u. 110 Seiten mit 93 Bildern u. 10 Tafeln. DM
12 Ein Verfahren zur niherungsweisen Berechnung des Spannungs- und Forminderungszustandes beim FlieBen
starrplastischer Werkstoffe
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Gerhard Adler. 124 Selten Text u. 76 Seiten mit 72 Bildern. Vergriffen
13 Mo<!ellgesetzmiiBigkeiten beim RiickwiirtsflieBpressen geometrisch iihnlicher Niipfe
Von Dipl-Ing. Dieter Kast. 101 Selten Text u. 73 Selten mit 60 Bildern u. 6 Tafeln.
14 OntersUChUngen iiber das Genauschneiden von Stahl und Nichteisenmetallen
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Wllfned Kramer. 96 Selten Text u. 132 Selten mit 128 Bildern u. 10 Tafeln
Vergriffen
Vergriffen
15 Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Simulators zur reproduzierbaren Nachahmung der Kraft-Weg-Verlaufe von
Umformvorgiingen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Kurt Schmid 88 Selten Text u. 38 Selten mit 35 Blldern u 2 Tafeln 17,- DM
16 Walzrichten von Metallbandern mit symmetrisch angestellter Fiinf-Walzen-Richtmaschine
Von Dlpl.-Ing Hans-Dietnch Witte J08 Seiten Text u. 63 Selten mit 60 Bildern u 8 Tafeln DM
17/18 Erzeugung riiumlicher Blechgebilde millels Fliichenbiegung
Konstruktion, Abwicklung und Herstellung von Schraubtorsen aus Blech
Von Prof. Dr.-Ing. E h. Dr. techno h. C. Otto Kienzle.
120 Selten Text u. 55 Seiten mit 86 Bildern U. 3 Tafeln. DM
19 EinfluB der Alterung auf die mechanischen Eigenschaften von Stiihlen zurn KallflieBpressen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Vladimir Hasek. esc. 43 Seiten Text u. 54 Seiten mit 50 Bildern u. 3 Tafeln
20 Beitrag zur Frage der Spannungen, Formanderungen und Temperature" beim axialsymmetrischen
Strangpressen
Von Dipl.-Ing Rolf Dalhelmer. 118 Selten Text U. 76 Selten mit 79 Bildern U. 3 Tafeln
21 Uber den EinfluB der Werkzeuggeschwtndigkeit auf den Stauchvorgang
Von Dlpl -Ing. H-J Metzler 127 Selten Text u. 100 Selten mit 94 Bildern u 6 Tafeln
22 Numerische Behandlung von Verfahren der Umformtechnik
Von Dr.-Ing. Elmar Steck. 67 Selten Text u. 22 Seiten mit 43 Bildern
DM
Vergriffen
DM
DM
23 Ein Verfahren zur niherungsweisen Berechnung"der Warmeentwicklung und der Temperaturverteilung beim
Kallstauchen von Metallen
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Walther Pohl. 78 Selten Text U. 51 Selten mit 61 Bildern U. 4 Tafeln. DM
24 Untersuchungen Ober das Druckwalzen zylindrischer Hohlktirper und Beitrag zur Berechnung der gedruckten
Riche und der Kriifle
Von Dipl.-Ing. Hans-Jurgen Dreikandt. 161 Seiten Text u. 79 Seiten mit 73 Bildern u. 6 Tafeln Vergriffen
25 Uber den Formiinderungs- und Spannungszu.tand beim Ziehen von groBen unregelmiiBigen Blechteilen
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Vladimir Hasek, esc 129 Selten Text U. 106 Seiten mit 109 Bildern U. 9 Tafeln DM
26 Uber die Anisotropie des plastischen Verhal:ens stranggepreBter SUlbe aus hexagonalen Metallen
Von Dipl.-Ing Gunther Schroder. 129 Seiten :e:.t L.I. 75 Seiten mit 97 Bildern u. 2 Tafeln. Vergriffen
27 Die Messung der mechanischen Kontaktspannung in der Wirkfuge
Werkzeug WerkstUck bei Umformverfahren
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Fritz Dohmann 99 Seiten Text u. 82 Seiten mit 93 Bildern u 4 Tafeln. Vergriffen
28 Beitrag zur rechnerunterstUtzten Auslegung Yon Pressengestellen
Von Dlpl -Ing. Manfred Geiger 94 Seiten u. 56 Seiten mit 63 Bildern Vergnffen
29 Untersuchungen fiber das Aufweittiefziehen
Von P S Raghupathl M E ISBN 3-7736-0780-6
80 Seiten Text u 54 Sellen mit 73 Blldern l! 2 Tafeln
30 Faltenbildung als Verfahrensgrenze beim Stauchen von Hohlkorpern
Von DipL-lng Klaus Dletelle ISBN 3-7736-0781-4
55 Selten Text u 35 Selten mit 43 Blldern u 3 Tafeln
3 t Beitrag zur Ermittlung von FlieBkurven im kontinuierlichen hydraulischen Tiefungsversuch
Von Olpl.-Ing. Franc Gologranc ISBN
125 Sellen Text u 58 Sellen mil 95 Blldern u 6 TafelrJ
32 Untersuchungen an StrangpreBmatrizen
Von Dlp! -Ing Klaus Gieseiberg ISBN 3-7736-0786-5
101 Sellen Text u 56 Selten mit 69 Blldern
33 Beitrag zur der Strangoberflachentemperatur beim Strangpressen
Von Olpl-lng, Karl-Heinz Frledrrch ISBN
83 Seiten Text u. 90 Sellen mit 84 Blldern u 3 Tafeln
34 Uber das Umformverhalten von Blechen aus Titan und Titanlegierungen
Von DlpL-lng Hans Wilhelm ISBN 3-7736-0788-1
107 Selten Text u 69 Sellen mit 76 Blldern u 13 Tafeln
35 Untersuchung der magnetischen Induktion. Siromdichte und Kraftwirkung bei der Magnetumformung
Von Dlpl -Ing Volker Schmidt ISBN 3-7736-0789-X
32 Otv1
28
Vprgrrflf'r1
45 OM
48 OM
48 OM
60 Sellen Text u 53 Selten mil 84 Btldern 21 - OM
36 Der StoffluR beim kombinierten NapfflieBpressen
Von DlpL-lng Rolf Geiger ISBN 3-7736-0790-3
111 Selten Text u, 74 Selten mit 80 Brldern u 6 Tafeln Vergrrflprl
37 Beitrag zum Verhalten superplastischer Werkstoffe beim Massivumformen
Von Dlpl-Ing Hans Schelosky ISBN 3-7736-0791-1
123 Selten Text u 61 Selten mit 60 Btldern u 4 Tafeln Vergriffen
38 Energieumsatz beim elektrohydraulischen Umformen
Von olpl-Ing Hans-Joachim Weckerle ISBN
103 Seiten Text u. 46 Sellen mit 56 Blldern
39 Elastische Wechselwirkungen an Gestell und Hauptgetriebe weggebundener Pressen
Von Dlpl-Ing. Lutz Schemperg ISBN 3-7736-0793-8
91 Selten Text u :'8 Sellen mit 65 Blldern u 3 Tafeln
40 Uber das plastische Verhalten von Sintermetallen bei Raumtemperatur
Von Dlpl -Ing Hartmut Honerl ISBN 3 7736-0794-6
84 Sell,en Texl u 54 Selten mit 67 Blldern u 2 Tafeln
41 Untersuchungen zurn HalbwarmflieBpressen von Stahl
Von or.-Ing Rolf Geiger, Dlpl -Ing Eckart Dannenmann und Dlpl -Ing Jean Stefanakls
45 OM
45 OM
45.- OM
37736-0795-4 50 Selten Text u 33 Selten mit 34 Blldern u 2 Tafeln Vergrlffen
42 Anderung der Werkstoffeigenschaften beim Ziehen von zylindrischen Hohlkorpern aus austenitischen und
ferritischen nichtrostenden Stahlen
Von Dlpl-Ing Rolf Zeller ISBN 3-7736-0796-2
80 Seiten Text u 52 Selten mit 34 Btldern u 2 Tafeln 38. - OM
43 Untersuchungen tiber das Flie6pressen superplastischer Werkstoffe
Von Dr-Ing Hans Schelosky ISBN 3-7736-0797-0
36 Sellen Text u. 24 Serten mit 26 Blldern u 1 Tafei
14 Umforrnende Bearbeitung in flexiblen Fertigungssystemen
Von -Ing Hartmul Kaiser ISBN 3-7736-U798-9
87 Sellen Text u 24 Selten mit 47 Blldern
45 Geometrische Eigenschaften tiefgezogener kreiszylindrischer Napfe
Von Dlpl-Ing D:eter Schlosser ISBN
107 Selten Te'l(t u 64 Selten mit 60 Blldem u 9 Tafeln
Vergriffen
36.- DM
48 - OM
46 Die Eigenschaften einer AIZnMgCu-legierung nach ausgewahlten Kombinationen von Warmebehandlung
und Kaltumformung
Von Dlpl -Ing Karl Hankele ISBN 3-7736-0880-2
86 Selten Text Lo. 51 Selten mit 52 Blldern u 4 Tafeln 45 OM
47 Kaltmassivumformen von Sintermetall
Von Dlpl -Ing Hans Dieter Schacher ISBN 3-7736-0881 0
84 Sellen Text II 44 Selten mit 47 Blldern u 5 T.1leln
48 RechnerunterstOtzte Arbeitsplanerstellung und Kostenrechnung beim Kaltmassivumformen von Stahl
Von Dlpl -Ing Peter Noack ISBN 3-7736-0882-9
216 Sellen Text u 116 Selten mit 134 Blldern \1. 23 Tafeln
49 Beitrag zur beanspruchungsgerechten Auslegung von rotationssymmetrischen Flief3preBmatrizen
Von OIDI -tng Gunther Kramer ISBN 3-7736-0883-7
94 Selten Text u 53 Selten mit 56 Blldern
50 Erzeugung gratfreier Schnittflachen durch Aufteilen des Schneidvorgangs (Konterschneiden)
Von Dlpl -Ing Heinz Lrebrng ISBN 3-7736-0884-5
87 Selten Text u 51 Seiten mIt 55 Bddern u 4 Tafeln
Die Berichte 1 bis 61 sind zu beziehen durch das Institut fOr Umformtechnik, Holzgartenstr. 17, 7000 Stuttgart 1
4? .OM
65 OM
48 OM
46 - DM
51 Berechnung d.r .Ialll.ch.n EIg.n.ch.ltan von Baugrupp.n 1m Pr .... nb.u
Von Dipl.-Ing. Herbert BlUm ISBN 3-540-09804-6.
151 Seiten mit 55 Abblldungen.
52 Unler.uchung d.r Verfahrensgrenz.n b.lm 1BOO-Bieg.n von Feln- und MIH.lblech.n
Von Dipl.-Phys. Wolfgang Schaub. ISBN 3-540-09881-X.
65 Seiten mit 24 Abbildungen.
53 Ab.trackgleltzleh.n von nichtro.tenden .u.t.niti,ch.n Stlihlen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Jobst-H. Kerspe. ISBN 3-540-09882-8.
109 Seiten mil 36 Abbildungen.
54 RieBpr .... n VOl> Stahl 1m T.mpereturberalch 773 K (500C) bis1073 K (800C)
Von Dipl.-Ing. Ulrich Diether. ISBN 3-540-09959-X.
165 Seiten mit 80 Abbildungen.
55 Die num.rlsch ge.tauerte Radial-Umformm chlne und ihr Elnsstz 1m Rahmen elnar fI.xlbl.n F.rtlgung
Von Dipl.-Ing. Peter Metzger. ISBN 3-540-1 0073-3.
158 Seiten mit 65 Abbildungen.
56 Milgllchk.lt.n zur Steu.rung d Stoffflu belm Zieh.n groB.r unregelmlBlger Blechtella
Von Dr.-Ing. Vladimir V. Hasek. ISBN 3-540-10074-t
193 Seiten mit 96 Abbildungen.
57 Beitrag zur Arb.ltagenaulgk.lt del Ksltmal.lvumform.n.
Von Dipl.-Ing. Herbert Leykamm. ISBN 3-540-10363-5.
165 Seiten mit 84 Abblldungen und 5 Tabell"n ..
58 Untarauchung.n Ub.r de. VerjUng.n von zyllndrischen Vollk6rpem
Von Dipl.-Ing. Helmut Binder. ISBN 3-540-10466-6.
146 Seiten mit 50 Abbildungen und 3 Tabellen.
59 Umformv.rhelten l.glertSr Sinter.i.en
Von Dipl.-Ing. Manfred Stilz. ISBN 3-540-11051-8.
170 Seiten mit 75 Abblldungen und 5 Tabellen.
60 Intaraktlv Progr.mm.yslem zur Erst.llung von Fertigungaunterlagen fOr die Kaltmes.ivumformung
Von Dipl.-Ing. Michael Rebholz. ISBN 3-540-11052-6.
121 Seiten mit 46 Abbildungen.
61 Beitrag zum Zi.h.n von Blechtailen au. Alumlniuml.gi.rung.n
Von Dipl.-Ing. Michael Blaich. ISBN 3-540-11067-4.
141 Seilen mit 64 Abbildungen und 5 Tabellen.
Vergriffen
38.-DM
43,-DM
48,-DM
43,-DM
48.-DM
48.-DM
43,-DM
48.-DM
43,-DM
43.-DM
62 Au.I.gung von rotation ymm.trl.chen FIi.BpreBwerkz.ugen im B.r.lch el tisch-plastischen Werk.toffverhaltan.
Von Dlpl.-Ing. Thomas Neitzert. ISBN 3-540-11623-0.
159 Seiten mit 51 Abbildungen. 53.- OM
63 RI.Bpr .... n von Sinterm.tall 1m T.mperaturb.r.ich zwl.chen 873 K (600C) und 1173 K (900C)
Von Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Schaub. ISBN 3-540-11678-8.
160 Seiten mit 85 Abbildungen und 9 Tabellen. 53.- OM
64 RechnerunterstUtzte Konstruktion Yon Umformwerkzeugen und die Fertigungsplanung von Werkzeugelementen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Dieter Steuss. ISBN 3-540-11856-)(,
178 Seiten mit 87 Abbildungen und 6 Tabellen. 53.- OM
65 M6gllchkeltan und Grenan d Ksltg ... nkschmied.n. al. elne fertigung.technische Alternative fUr kl.ln.,
g.nau. Formtalle
Von Dipl.-Ing. Khang Hoang-Vu.ISBN 3-540-11876-4.
156 Seiten mit 62 Abbildungen und 5 Tabellen. 53.- OM
66 Einsstz num.rlsch.r Niherungsv.rfahr.n b.i der Ber.chnung von Verfahr.n d.r Ksltma .. ivumformung.
Von Dipl.-Ing. Ksrl Roll. ISBN 3-540-11910-8.
166 Seiten mit 49 Abbildungen und 2 Tabellen.
67 Untar.uchung Ob.r das V.rjUngan von dlckwandig.n, zyllndri.chen Hohlk6rpern
Von Dipl.-Ing. Knut Haarscheldt. ISBN 3-540-12229-)(,
124 Seiten mit 58 Abbildungen und 6 Tabellen.
68 Rechnarunlerstiitzt. Opllml.rung d Ti.fzi.h.n. unr.g.lmilBig.r BI.chlen.
Von Dipl.-Ing. Hans GIOckl.ISBN 3-540-12522-1.
143 Seiten mit 60 Abblldungen.
69 Hydro.tallsch RI.Spr .... n: V.rfahren.param.tar und W.rksIOck.igenschaltan
Von Dipi.-Ing. Jobst H. Kerspe.ISBN 3-540-12537-X.
123 Seiten mit 69 Abbildungen und 5 Tabellen.
70 Untersuchungen zum HalbwarmftleB." en von Automatenstlhlen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Eberhard Nehi. ISBN 3-540-12568-)(,
145 Selten mit 104 Abbildungen.
71 Entwlcklung und Anwendung neuer Schmlerstoffpriilverfahren fOr die Ksllma ivumformung
Von Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Grabener.ISBN 3-540-12836-0.
140 Seiten mit 65 Abbildungen.
72 EinfluB d.r BI.choberflich. b.lm Zi.hen yon Blecht.llen aus Alumlniumlegierungen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Erhard MOssle.ISBN3-540-12837-9.
142 Seiten mit62 Abbildungen und 6 Tabellen.
73 WerkzeugverschlelB in der Massivumformung
Von Dipl.-Ing. Matthias ISBN 3-540-13033-0.
72 Seiten mit 36 Abbildungen und 2 Tabellen.
Die Berichte 62 und folgende sind zu beziehen durch den Springer-Vertag, Bertin Heidelberg New York Tokyo
53,-DM
58.-DM
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74 Grundlagen der Umformtechnik I Fundamentals of Metal Forming Technique I
298 Seiten.ISBN 3-540-13039-X.
75 Grundlagen der Umformtechnik II . Fundamentals of Metal Forming Technique II
280 Seiten. ISBN 3-540-13040-3.
76 Herstellung und Versteifungswirkung von geschlossenen Halbrundsicken
Von Dipl.-Ing. Michael Widmann. ISBN 3-540-13172-8.
150 Seiten mit 63 Abbildungen.
77 Kostenoptimierter Einsatz der Radialumformmaschine in gemischten, flexiblen Fertigungssystemen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Michael Dostal. ISBN 3-540-13286-4.
121 Seiten mit 61 Abbildungen.
78 Rechnerische Ermittlung von ZustandsgroBen beim Radialumformen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Roland Paukert.ISBN 3-540-13287-2.
131 Seiten mit 57 Abbildungen und 1 Tabelle.
79 Numerische Steuerung einer flexiblen Bearbeitungseinheit zum Radialumformen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Helmut Noller. ISBN 3-540-13550-2.
120 Seiten mit 41 Abbildungen und 2 Tabellen.
80 Vergleichende Betrachtung der Verfahren zur Prufung der plastischen Eigenschatten
metallischer Werkstoffe
Von Dr.-Ing. Klaus POhlandt.ISBN 3-540-13578-2.
176 Seiten mit 43 Abbildungen und 11lTabellen.
81 Aufweitung von FlieBpreBmatrizen mH: uberlagerter thermischer und mechanischer Beanspruchung
Von Dipl.-Ing. Ewald Kling. ISBN 3-540-15755-7.
139 Seiten mit 61 Abbildungen und 1 Tabelle.
82 Messung des WerkzeugverschleiBes bei der Kalt- und Halbwarmumformung mit Radionukliden
Von Dipl.-Ing. Eberhard Nehl.lSBN 3-540-16497-9.
131 Seiten mit 55 Abbildungen und 11 Tabellen.
83 Ermittlung von Eigenspannungen in der Kaltmassivumformung
Von A. Erman Tekkaya.ISBN 3-540-16498-7.
162 Seiten mit 60 Abbildungen und 2 Tabellen.
84 KorrosionsbesUindigkeit tiefgezogener rotationssymmetriseher Werkstucke aus austenitischen SUihlen
Von Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Weiergraber. ISBN 3-540-16560-6.
137 Seiten mit 63 Abbildungen und 4 Tabellen.
85 Simulation of Metal Forming Processes by the Finite Element Method (SIMOP-t)
Workshop Stuttgart 1985. ISBN 3-540-16592-4.
316 Seiten mit 147 Abbildungen und 3 Tabellen.
Die Berichte 62 und folgende sind zu beziehen durch den Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo
58,- DM
58,- DM
63,-DM
63,- DM
63,- DM
63.- DM
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68,- DM
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