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w
 24 
Firstly, after a time step the mechanical quantities like
stresses, forces, displacements, etc. are predicted on the
fixed points (nodes, elements) by the FEM. Subsequently, the
resulting heat generation is computed from the dissipative
forming and frictional force for the concerning time step. The
results of this computation show an inhomogeneous temperature
field with a time dependent temperature compensation. The tem
perature compensation is analysed for the same time step by
the FDM. With the help of the yield stress Y = Y (E, I, T), the
coupling on the mechanical behaviour is ensued. The procedures
of the calculation of plastic deformation and heat transfer
and the coupled analysis are shown in Fig. 1.
For the heat calculation,it is necessary to assign the element
temperatures to discrete reference points. These reference
points are the middle points of the finite elements. To calcu
late the temperature at the boundary of the workpiece,
more additional temperature points are needed at the bound
ary: All boundary elements have two and the corner elements
have three reference points.
The boundary reference points are placed on the center
of the boundary sides of the finite elements. For calculation
of heat generation and heat transfer, imaginary volumes are
assigned to the temperature points at the boundary. All other
temperature points lying in the center of the elements are
allotted to the real element volumes. Fig. 2 shows the meshes
of FEM and FDM in case of cylinder upsetting.
3.2 The Basic Equations of the Heat Calculation
The total temperature increase each element or reference
point is obtained from the heat balance:

G
with
+
and 6Q
6T
(5 )
z
i
L
T i
T
r
T
 25 
J}
=
I
Die
tWorkpiece
FE  mesh
FO mesh to
calculate the
temperatu re fiel
r
Fig. 2: FE mesh and mesh of the FDM
on workpiece and die
llTu(81
IH
u
(12)
+ll TR(1
+ll T
R
(<1))
(j)
d
0
8 0
12
llTu(121
+llTR!1
llTu(81
II Tu (12)
Workpiece
0
7
0
11
llTum
I1Tu(111
Temperature increasE due to forming energy
fiT
R
: Temperature increase due to friction losses
Surrounding
Fig. 3: Heat generation in the workpiece
 26 
lIQ
R
and lIOu are heat flows due to the dissipated friction and
forming energy; lIOo the heat transfered over the element; c
the specific heat capacity; pthe density and V the volume of
the examined element.
The solution for heat conduction problems shown in the litera
ture is, in contrast to the here represented method, formulated
for locally fixed finite difference mesh. The FD mesh of the
developed method is changed with the finite element mesh.
3.3 Calculation of Heat Generation
The friction losses and the forming energy are transformed into
heat. The temperature increase during a time increment is cal
culated as following:
The temperature increase llTR due to friction between workpiece
and tool can be given with
and T
as
FR lis = T llA lit
lit
my/!3 lis/lit = v
2 m Y llA v lit
(6 )
for an area llA. V means the volume of the friction element
divided into two equal halves on the workpiece and the tool
side; c
w
' c
t
and Pw' P
t
are the specific heat capacities and
densities of the workpiece and tool material respectively. The
value v is the sliding velocity of the node at the interface.
The temperature increase llTU due to the dissipated forming
energy is calculated with
lIQ
U
= lIWU = n Y I lIV
liT = Y lit
U n C
w
P
w
as
(7 )
The factor n (0.85 :;; n :;;0.95) is the thermal efficiency; I is the
equivalent strain rate.
 27 
The determined temperature increase is assigned to the reference
point of the element, Fig. 3. At the interfacial area, it is
the sum of 6T
R
and
3.4 Equations of Heat Transfer
As it has been mentioned earlier, the developed equations of
heat transfer are based on the temporarily changing finite ele
ments. The derivation of the equation of heat transfer was
done not as usual by compensating the corresponding differences
in the differential equation of the heat conduction, but by
establishing heat balances to the finite elements.
The heat balance is established for each element. At the addi
tional reference points on the boundary, the heat balances
established consider the heat conduction and heat convection
as shown in Fig. 4.
The starting point of the following consideration is the heat
balance equation:
By the use of the forward differences = Tgt  TO ' the
explicit equation of heat balance yields from equation (8):
(8 )
(9 )
The temperature after the time increment 6t is calculated
o
due to the heat transfer to the neighbouring elements j. KOj
is the factor of heat transfer and is given as
AOJ
k
LOj
in case of heat conduction between inner elements;
(10 )
(11 )
in case of heat transfer at
flow QOj' it becomes
boundary. With a prescribed heat
 28 
interior element
boundary element
Die l
It+i! Air
Free Surface
corner element

heat conduction
heat convection
Fig. 4: Scheme of a coupled analysis through
combined approach FEM+FDM
Fluid/Air
Fig. 5: Contact surface with the temperature
path due to the heat transfer
 29 
(12)
Here, k is heat conductivity coefficient; a the average heat
transfer coefficient on the surface AOj ; AOj the average sur
face perpendicular to the direction of heat flow; and LOj the
distance between two temperature levels at 0 and j.
The Eq. (9) can be written as
o
(13 )
Due to the stability and convergence condition, the time step
of the solution method has to fulfill the following equation
(14)
3.5 Boundary Conditions
The heat transfer due to the convection appears mainly on the
free boundaries of the workpiece and tool. The heat flow through
these boundary surfaces is given by
(15 )
The heat flow q depends on the difference between the surround
ing temperature Ta and the temperature TR of the boundary sur
face and on the average heat transfer coefficient na of the
surrounding medium (air).
Some problems are appearing on fixing the boundary condition
for the heat transfer into the die, Fig. 5. At the interfacial
area, the lubrication, the contact pressure and the oxidation
layer affect the heat transfer in addition to the influences
of temperature and the surface finish. The heat flow across the
area A at the interface between workpiece and die is
 30 
(16 )
whereby T
t
and Tw are the surface temperatures of the die and
workpiece; the contact conductance data /10/. The contact
conductance data is chosen under the assumption of an ideal
material contact.
The heat transfer at the contact surface is treated like the
heat convection at the free surface. Heat radiation is neglected
in the solution method. The contact conductance data a
K
is a
function of the contact pressure, temperature and surface
roughness, but, for simplification, the values a
K
and aa are
assumed to be constant in the calculation.
During an unsteady forming process, the change of the boundary
conditions due to the contact problem is also checked. Since
there are some nodes on the free surface of the workpiece touch
the die as this surface is bulging so much. This causes an
increase of the interface between die and workpiece. such a
contact problem (normal and frictional contact problem) is
considered in the solution methods for plastic deformation
and heat transfer. The increase of the interfacial area also
means the increase of the friction losses and of the heat
transfer between dice and workpiece.
3.6 Model of FDM for Heat Transfer (Supplement)
The element for heat calculation with the FDM is developed as
following:
For elements in the interior of the workpiece and the tool, the
equation (9) for heat conduction changes with
KOj
k
AOj
AOj SOj
"TSOj" Vo AO
11 TAO 11
LOj
to
TLlt
LIt
(
SOj
ITT ,11
(T
j
 TO +
TO
(17 ) = a
AO
LOj
0
J J
The value a is the thermal conductivity
(
k/cp ) .
 31 
The stability and convergence condition becomes
lit
:;;
1
AO
a
l: SOi
liT .11
i
LOi
J
(18)
In these equations, AO and Vo indicate the surface and volume
of the element; SOj is the side where the heat flow goes
through; LOj means the distance between two temperature levels
at 0 and j; "TSOj" and "TAO" are the "depths" of the center of
the edge side and of the surface of an element.
"T "
SOj
{
"1"
2nr SOj
____ _
axisymmetric
as:
itT ,II
J
"T "
SOj
"TAO"
The geometrical dimensions of the preceeding equations are
shown in Fig. 6.
(19 )
(20 )
( 21)
For boundary elements, one has in addition the heat convection:
with the temperature T of surrounding medium and the associated
depths, the equation (9 ) can be written as:
TLlt
lit
4
SRj
(k l:
"TRj"
(T
j
 T
R
)
R
PRCRA
IR
j=2
L
Rj
(22 )
for the temperature at boundary point no. 1.
 32 
FDM
Point
YIzI =ro
crsnO.j.1
x/r
FEM: FourNode
Element
Fig. 6: Geometrical dimensions for the heat
conduction between two neighboring points
4
2
Air/Die
3
'''L
x/r
<r{J.," 'lR
Fig. 7: Geometrical dimensions for the calculation of
the heat transfer at a boundary point
1
Fig. B: Geometrical dimensions of a corner element
with two sides belonging to the friction. surfaces
 33 
The associated criterion of convergence is given by
1
(k
4
E
j=2
"T "
Rj
In the above given equations, one has
"T "
Rj
{
   
axisymmetric
(23)
(24)
The geometrical dimensions used are illustrated in Fig. 7. The
developed element of the FDM is related to the quadrilateral
linear element of the FEM /6/. The imaginary surface AIR is
selected to be a half of the surface Ao of the observed bound
ary element. The surrounding medium (c, p, a, T) is either air
(c
a
' P
a
' aa' Ta) or tool (c
t
' P
t
, at' T
t
) if the boundary
point 1 of the workpiece is concerned.
The corner element, with sides no. 1 and 2 belonging to the
friction interfacial area, is shown in Fig. 8. In this case,
the surface and volume of the element are given as:
(25 )
wl
"th { ___ ___ _
"TSR"= 2nr
SR
axisymmetric
to insert in Eq.(6).
3.7 Convergence Condition
The considerable influence of the convergence criteria, given
in Eqs. (9) & (14), could be explained in Fig. 9 for a test
calculation. In a simple configuration of a volume element,
the temperature of the central element is determined with
u
o
90
70
E
'" iJj
 34 
E
r""*,.,ml,...}i
j:7900 kg/rJ
c :0.477 kJ/kg
\ k:36.0 W/moC
"U
"U
'0 30
:l
'" 10
a.
Convergence Criterion
\
\
\
\
\
f 0,05 0.10 0.15 ,0.20
10 t [s] \
Fig. 9: Convergence condition of a test calculation
using the developed FDM
1901
Thermoelement
j :.,..,.: l
o
1+._ 1
12001
Geometry:
Material:
60 x 60 x 200 rnm
C22 Steel
o
w
;J\
1++'
60
Fig. 10: Geometry of the test piece and the positions
of the thermoelements at the crosssection
 35 
various time increment A worse result is obtained for a
larger time increment. And, there isan oscillatory temperature
path predicted, as the maximal allowable time increment is
exceeded.
The maximal allowable time increment is related with the
ness of the FO mesh and the FE mesh respectively. It is propor
tional to the size of the element, i.e. a fine mesh renders
small time increment. The increasing distortion of the mesh
could lead to a convergence problem. With regard to the greatest
possible time increment, we prefer to use the equilateral tri
angles and quadrangles. By calculating the temperature distri
bution, the maximal allowable time increment 6t is estimated
by the Eq. (23) for the smallest interior element.
The time increment 6t of the heat calculation could be different
to the time step of the plastic deformation. To increase the
accuracy of the heat calculation, a smaller time step is chosen
for this calculation. That means the time step of plastic
deformation is normally divided into many time steps in order
to predict the temperature field.
4 Numerical Results
4.1 Test Calculation
As test example for the developed FD method, the process of
convective cooling of a quasiinfinitely long rod is analysed.
The initial temperature of the rod is at 102S
o
C. The experimen
tal results of this test are obtained at the RWTH Aachen /11/.
The geometry of the crosssection and the positions of the
thermoelements are given in Fig. 10. For the purpose of com
paring, the temperatures at the survey points 1 and 5 are
determined theoretically with both FEM and FOM. Therefore, the
top right quarter of the crosssectional area is divided into
36 linear fournode elements (49 nodes) in the FEM. Accordingly,
the FO mesh is composed of 60 representative nodes (36 middle
nodes of the finite elements and 24 additional nodes at the
boundaries).
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(
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)
 37 
The calculation of heat transfer with the FDM yields a stabil
and nonoscillatory temperature path if the time increment is
selected to be 0.5 sec. The FEM requires a time increment
tlt = 0.467 sec. The experimentally predicted and with FDM de
termined temperature paths are plotted in Fig. 11 (at point
no. 1) and Fig. 12 (at point no. 5) for a short time behaviour.
They show an excellent agreement between the experiments and
the FD solutions. But, if the time period observed is longer,
there will be a considerable departure between both results,
Fig. 12. From 800
0
e, the theoretically predicted temperatures
could not be compared with the experimental data, since the
physical constants of the material are assumed to be the same
as those at 1025
0
e during the cooling process. Whereas the FD
solution is smooth and always less than the exact solution for
all nodes at all times.
In Fig. 13 it can be shown that the FEM yields the upper bound
for the temperature path. Although the eigenvalues of the FEM
obtained from the resulting difference equations are usually
somewhat closer to the true values than those of the FDM, the
FEM is prone to the problem of temperature overshoots for a
short time behaviour /14,15/. The error of the FEM is always
maximum at the nodal point nearest to the boundary, such as at
the survey point no. 5. But then, a good agreement between the
experimental results and the FEM/FDM solutions is ensured at
the survey points near the centre of the crosssection (points
I, 2,7) .
4.2 Forging an Engine Disk
The metal flow in forging a Titanium alloy engine disk, Fig. 14,
is simulated with the combined approach FEM + FDM. Such a pro
cess has been analysed before by Oh et al /12/ using the rigid
viscoplastic finite element technique. In the observed unsteady
process, the preform at the initial temperature Tow = gOOOe is
forged between curved symmetric dies with a constant die velo
city 1.27 mm/s.
 38 
Upper Die V!
I" 152.4
rLtLtCLLL1.CLLL1.""'"lrr.r 12 .7 mm (0.5) fl.l..WUJ.=UI.J
1/
"'132mm(5.2 in.) ==I
zt
Preform  "I r
f158.8mm(6.25)ol
Air 20C
Fig. 14: Schematic drawing of disk forging die
and preform /12/
 Equation
 Experimental
150
0
n..
::E
"'
100
"'
III
"
if)
'" :::I
40
..
t
20
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6
True Plastic Strain
Fig. 15: Flow stresses of Titanium alloy /13/
 39 
Two cases of forging processes are analysed: isothermal forging
and hotdie forging. In the isothermal analysis, the initial
temperature of the preform and of the dies are the same and,
during the process, the temperature dependence of the flow
stress is accounted for. The hotdie forging process is per
formed with the initial temperature Tot = 371
0
C and the air
temperature at 20
o
C. The FE mesh consists 60 linear quadrila
teral elements. The friction factor m = 0.3 is chosen, friction
stress T = my/l3. The values of the physical constants for heat
calculation are taken from the papers /7,12/. But the flow
stress data of Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo0.lSi are given by Dadras and
Thomas /13/, Fig. 15.
In Fig. 16, the temperature distribution within the workpiece
during the isothermal forging process is shown visavis those
of the hotdie forging process. The reduction in height is 70%
at this intermediate stage. A severe temperature gradient can
be seen in the workpiece in the hotdie forging. The heat
transfer, due to the temperature gradient between the workpiece
and the dies, is also intensive and it cools the workpiece
partially. Logically, the forging load in the hotdie forging
should be higher than the forging load required in the isother
mal forging process in which the temperature gradient within
the workpiece is obviously unimportant. Similar temperature
distributions can be found in the paper of Oh et al /12/. But
direct comparison is not attempted for lack of exact information
on material properties.
The material flows at some intermediate steps are plotted in
Fig. 17 for the hotdie forging process. The bulge of the outer
surface can be observed step by step. It indicates the contact
problem since the surface folding is limited to the top and
bottom dies. The particularly complicated die profile dictates
the large number of the deformation steps to be chosen. The
computer simulations will enable the process designer to modify
the die and manufacturing technique for the purpose of yielding
the desired material flow.
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 41 
4.3 ClosedDie Forging
In the last numerical example, the technical and economical as
pects of the different manufacturing techniques are discussed
by means of the forging process in Fig. 21. The isothermal for
gings of axis ymmetrica 1 disk are analysed for purpose of com
paring with the oftused cold forgings. The conditions of four
forging processes concerned are:
l. Cold forging process with T
ow
T
ot
20
0
C
and friction factor m = 1. 0,
2. Cold forging process with T T
ot
20
0
C
ow
and m = 0.3,
3. Isothermal forging process with T =T =900
o
C=const
ow ot .
and m = 1. 0,
4. Isothermal forging process with T
ow
Tot
900
0
C
and m = 1. 0,
S. Isothermal forging process with T T
ow ot
900
0
C
and m = 0.3.
In all processes the formed part (Tow) and the dies (Tot) have
the same temperature at the beginning. The temperature effects
are considered through the combined approach FEM + FDM, except
the case no. 3 (constant temperature assumed during the process).
The temperaturesensitive material of the formed part is CIS
steel with its flow stress curves shown in Fig. 18 for cold
forgings and in Fig. 19 for isothermal forgings /17/. The heat
transfer properties are illustrated in Fig. 20.
Fig. 22 shows the temperature distributions predicted at 40%
reduction in height in four forging processes. For the friction
factor m = 1.0 (Figs. 22a,d) the temperature gradient in the
formed part and dies are slightly higher than those with m = 0.3
(Figs. 22b,c) due to the intensive deformation of the material
in the formed part and the high dissipated friction energy. In
both cases of the friction conditions, the material, in the zone
near the round corner of the bottom die,is shearing to flow
toward the two openings and press strongly on the bottom die
(Fig. 22f). Temperature peak can also be seen in this zone. It
means that the die corner is a part subject to wear. At the
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 44 
/ ):/ /
280= B
v
"I Top Oil'
/ /
/// //
/ /
/
//////////
m
"+r
a
I
co
1 1
1
m
/ / / /
///////
15
t / / /
. . Hh
Air 20C I
65 J Bottom Oil'
Height Reduction = H
i, f (v.t<>citY',O)
/
Fig. 21: Schematic drawing of closeddie forgings
b)
Tow
= 20 C m = 0.3 @
25
40
SO
50
40
50
25
Fig. 22: Temperature distributions rOc] at 40% reduction
in height during various forging processes
c
)
T
o
=
9
0
0
C
=
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!
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=
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;
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=
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 46 
outer opening, the relative movement of the material particles
and high temperature increase are also the cause of wear and
tear.
"0
120
CD Taw = 20(; m=1.0
CD Taw = 20
0
(j m = OJ
TOw = 900
0
(=const.; m=1.0
@TOw = 900
0
(;m=1.0
Taw =900(; m=O.3
.. 80
0>
C
10 20
Reduction ["!oj 40
50
Fig. 23: Predicted forging loads as function of height
reduction in various forging processes
The predicted forging loads as function of the top die travel
are plotted in Fig. 23. Logically, the forging load increases
with the increasing friction factor. It emphasizes the necessity
of the lubrication. The isothermal forgings require in general
lower forging loads so that the production costs could be re
duced. The modern production techniques are performed in these
conditions. The heated die prevents the thermal loss which
occurs due to the heat transfer into die if there is a tempera
ture gradient between formed part/die. The heated formed part
is deformed easily with lower ramspeed. The die cavity filling
is also promoted.
The execution time of the above calculation raises about 4 %
in comparison with the CPU time on CYBER 76 of a same calcula
 47 
tion without regard to the temperature effects (case no. 3).
5 Conclusions
A thermomechanical analysis of unsteady forming processes is
developed through the combined approach FEM + FDM. In compari
son with the coupled analysis with FEM only, the combined
approach yields some numerical advantages in computational
efforts:
In the combined approach, the use of the modified
element (Figs. 6,7 & 8) allows a calculation of the
element temperatures in spite of the distorted mesh.
The element temperature is predicted after a time
increment just only at the discrete nodal point
(middle point of the element) and by means of one
equation (9). The calculator operation is therefore
fewer than those of the FEM in which the temperature
is allotted to each node of the element.
The FDM is accommodated the special heat transfer pro
perties. The nonlinearity of the heat transfer proper
ties is easily to be treated in equations (8) and (9).
After each time increment the actual values of physical
constants are calculated from specialpurpose routines.
On the contrary, in the FEM an additional incremental
solution is necessary in each time increment to consider
the variable properties and timedependent boundary
conditions. The FE equations should be altered and
solved repeatedly.
The equations of FDM are wellknown so that no new
development is attempted. The thermal conductance and
capacitance matrices need to be found for each type
of the element of the FEM.
The FDM for heat transfer is an effective method of computing
shorttime solutions. The accurate determination of temperatures
with large transients by use of the FEM requires either a large
number of elements or large time steps to avoid the problem of
temperature overshoots /15/. The FEM usually forms the thermal
conductance and capacitance matrices explicitly, it may generally
 48 
require more execution time and computer memory capability /16/.
However, the use of FEM for heat transfer has also some advan
tages, such as a comfortable output postprocessing, efficient
treatment of irregular regions. And extensions to three dimen
sional treatment can be made without difficulties.
The numerical results show that the combined approach FEM +
FDM is satisfactory for the thermomechanical treatment. The
effects of the temperature inhomogeneity on the forming load,
material flow and material property could be taken into account
easily in the analysis of precise hot forming processes.
6 References
/1/ Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Onate, E.; Heinrichs, J.C.: A General
Formulation for Coupled Thermal Flow of Metals Using
Finite Elements. Int. J. Num. Meth. Engg. 17 (1981),
pp. 14971514.
/2/ Pillinger, I.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.W.:
ThermoMechanical FiniteElement Analysis of Metalforming.
Proc. of 4th Int. Conf. Numerical Methods in Thermal
Problems, Swansea (1985).
/3/ Altan, T.; Kobayashi, S.: A Numerical Method for Estima
ting the Temperature Distributions in Extrusion through
Conical Dies. J. Engg. Ind. 90 (1968), pp. 107118.
/4/ Rebelo, N.; Kobayashi, S.: A Coupled Analysis of Visco
plastic Deformation and Heat Transfer, Parts I & II.
Int. J. Mech. Sci. 22 (1980), pp. 699705 & pp. 707718.
/5/ Dung, N.L.; Newerla, A.; Marten, J.: FARM rinite Element
Analysis of RigidPlastic MetalForming, User's Manual.
University of Hanover, Institute of Mechanics (1982).
/6/ Marten, J.: Numerische Untersuchung des Temperaturein
flusses auf technische Umformprozesse. Diplomarbeit,
Universitat Hannover (1983).
/7/ Mahrenholtz, 0.; Westerling, C.: Untersuchung der Form
genauigkeit und der Werkzeugbeanspruchung bei Umformvor
gangen  Wechselwirkung Werkstuck/Werkzeug. Zwischenbe
richt zum DFGForschungsvorhaben Ma 358/283, Universitat
Hannover (1984).
/8/ Mahrenholtz, 0.; Westerling, C.; Klie, W.; Dung, N.L.:
Finite Element Approach to Large Plastic Deformation at
Elevated Temperatures. In 'Constitutive Equations: Macro
and Computational Aspects', Ed. by K.J. Willam, ASME
(1984), pp. 165178.
 49 
/9/ Schroder, G.; Rebelo, N.: Umformverhalten 1nduktiv er
warmter Rohteile beim Schmieden. WtZ. indo Fertig. 73
(1983), pp. 565568.
/10/ Rohsenow, W.H.; Hartnett, J.P.: Handbook of Heat Transfer.
McGraw Hill (1973).
/11/ Lu, S.: Ubertragung von Modellergebnissen beim Kalt und
Warmwalzen auf Betriebsverhaltnisse. Dissertation, RWTH
Aachen (1984).
/12/ Oh, S.I.; Park, J.J.; Kobayashi, S.; Altan, T.: Applica
tion of FEM Modeling to Simulate Metal Flow in Forging
a Titanium Alloy Engine Disk. J. Engg. Ind. 105 (1983),
pp. 251258.
/13/ Dadras, P.; Thomas, J.F.: Characterization and Modelling
for Forging Deformation of Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo0.lSi.
Metallurgical Transactions A, 12a (1981), pp. 1867.
/14/ Altenbach, J.; Sacharov, A.S.: Die Methode der finiten
Elemente in der Festkorpermechanik. Carl Hanser Verlag
(1982).
/15/ Emery, A.F.; Sugihara, K.; Jones, A.T.: A Comparison of
Some of the Thermal Characteristics of FiniteElement
and FiniteDifference Calculations of Transient Problems.
Numerical Heat Transfer 2 (1979), pp. 97113.
/16/ Gray, W.H.; Schnurr, N.W.: A Comparison of the Finite
Element and FiniteDifference Methods for the Analysis
of Steady TwoDimensional Heat Conduction Problems.
Compo Meth. Appl. Engg. 6 (1975), pp. 243245.
/17/ MeyerNolkemper, H.: FlieBkurven metallischer Werkstoffe.
HFFBericht Nr. 4, Universitat Hannover (1978).
Acknowledgements
This work is carried out under financial support of the German
Research Society (grant no. DFGMa 358/28). Thanks is due to
Dr. W. Klie and Mr. J. Marten for their valuable suggestions
and assistance. The authors wish to thank Prof.Dr.Ing. R. Kopp
for the experimental data obtained at his Institute in Aachen.
The authors also thank Mrs. U. Schmeller, Mr. J. Kohlmaier and
Mr. W. Pietsch for their care in preparing the manuscript.
 50 
FiniteElementSimulation of Metal Forming Processes Using Two Different
MaterialLaws
A.Erman Tekkaya*, Karl Roll**, JUrgen Gerhardt*, Martin Herrmann* and
Guohi Du*
* Institut fUr Umformtechnik, Universitat Stuttgart, Stuttgart
** Control Data GmbH, Stuttgart
Different kinds of finiteelement approaches are available to simulate
metalforming processes. For bulk metal forming, the basic differences
between these approaches arise from the constitutive equations modeling
the material behaviour. The appropriate choice of the material law de
pends onto the aims of the analysis (such as the kind of results sought
for) and the physical nature of the problem.
In this paper, firstly, the theoretical backgrounds for the implementation
of two finiteelement methods based on rigid and elasticplastic consti
tutive laws are described. Although both of the methods build up on the
v. Mises yield criterion, the former is based on the LevyMises flow rule,
whereas the latter one on a generalized PrandtlReuss flow rule. Further
more, for the elasticplastic material law, the nonlinear kinematics are
of prime importance. Secondly, the paper presents comparative numerical
studies with the two approaches for selected metalforming problems such
as upsetting, rodextrusion and cupextrusion. Finally, some examples of
industrial applications of finiteelement simulations are given as the
determination of residual stresses in workpieces formed through container
less extrusion, rodextrusion, tubeextrusion. upsetting and drawing, and
the analysis of combined forming processes. Special emphasis is given to
to industrial utilization of the simulation methods.
 51 
Introduction
Metal forming processes being in competition with machining and casting
have reached today a significant place in the production industry. This
place has to be respected especially in the light of the handicap that
successful production by forming requires still highly skilled and exper
ienced experts compared with the other manufacturing alternatives.
The current trend in metal forming is to produce geometrically complex
workpieces which are almost netshaped. This leads necessarily to more
costly tools and pressing machines. so that the profit basically depends
on the process development time and the costs of the experimental trial
anderror analysis. Therefore. numerical simulation procedures. through
which the tremendous costs for experimental tools can be reduced. gain
industrial importance.
The most effective numerical simulation procedures are of the finite
element type. The formulation of these methods is usually based on the
solid continuummechanics utilizing the theory of plasticity for the des
cription of the material behaviour. For the analysis of metal forming pro
cesses there are two fundamental  competitive  finiteelement aproaches
which differ in the material description: the socalled "rigidplastic"
and "elasticplastic" formulations. These two approaches not only differ
in the theoretical sense. but also by the limitations of application. The
latter  not thoroughly discussed in literature  is of prime importance
for industrial applications. and it is therefore one of the aims of this
paper to give some insight to this question.
Besides summarizing the theoretical foundations of the finiteelement codes
used (section 2) and giving comparative examples (section 3). practical
examples of application are discussed in section 4. In this final section
special emphasis is given to the basic problems of practical applications
and furthermore an attempt is made to display the reasons of computing from
the technological point of view of metal forming.
 52 
2 Review of Basic Formulation
2.1 RigidPlastic Material Model
In practical metal forming processes the plastic strains in the deformation
zone are larger for 3 orders that the elastic ones. Hence, it seems to be
plausible to neglect these elastic strains and consider the material to
behave rigidplastic. In that case, the constitutive relations can be ex
pressed by the LevyMises material law:
i; = oj
= (1)
with and
I
E=. (2)
Here, E is the rate .of deformation tensor, Q'the deviatoric Cauchy stress
tensor and k
f
the uniaxial flow stress. It must be emphasized that the
material response in eqns. (1) and (2) does not possess a "geometrical
memory", so that the formulation gets automatically free of any nonlinear
kinematic relations.
For such a material, there exists an extremal statement known as the upper
bound principle which reads as /1/
7[ =!g ; : d V  J !2' a . '!.. d 5 = mInimUm
y  S
(3)
if a body of current volume V and surface S unit normal vector on S)
is considered with boundary conditions which ensure a plastic deformation
throughout that body. Eqn. (3) states that from all admissible velocity
fields  i.e., satisfying the conditions of compatibility and incompres
sibility, as well as the boundary conditions  the exact one makes the
functional 7[ minimum.
During the finiteelement discretization of eq. (3) it can be easily veri
fied /2/ that there exists no velocity shape function which is rotationally
invariant, respectively complete and at the same time fulfills the basic
requirement of the material law, namely the volume constancy (eq. (2.
Therefore, the incompressibility has to be added as a secondary condition
to the functional of eq. (3), e.g. by means of the Lagrange multiplier CY
H
resulting
 53 
'j['=/kftfdV+fUHl:f:.dVfn 'O"'V dS=.stationory (4)
V V 5
with
. V2 ' ,
LO::.  E : E
T 3 = =
the equivalent plastic strain rate, O"H the hydrostatic Cauchy stress and
the identity tensor. Besides introducing the secondary condition, the
workhardening assumption together with the v. Mises equivalent stress
definition, i.e.
(5)
has been used to convert the first integrand in eq. (3) .
.
By expressing the deformation rates in the variational principle given
by eq. (4) in terms of the velocitis then discretizing the whole ex
pression on an elemental level by introducing the unknown nodal velocities
{a} and elemental hydrostatic stresses {crH] , finally, differentiating
with respect to {a} and{crH1 ' a coupled system of equations nonlinear in
{a] (linear in crH) can be obtained. Including just the first term of a
series expansion around an assumed velocity field, the system of equations
can be linearized and hence solved with a relevant equation solving scheme.
It must be noted however, that the statement of eq. (4) is only applicable
in material regions which are plastic. Therefore, during the analysis the
rigid zones h?ve to be identified. On this purpose an average equivalent
strain rate yp, defined through
, 1 f .
9= 
V V
(6)
is computed. Now, for the rigidzones the condition
. 3 .:..
'P < 10 yJ (7)
applies. Within the zones for which eq. (7) holds, a pseudoelastic material
law is used to approximate the stress state.
 54 
2.2 ElasticPlastic Material Model
The usage of the rigidplastic material model leads to a powerful and,
moreover, to an economic analysis method for many metal forming problems.
However, there are restrictions onto the application of this sort of FE
formulations, as:
i) In problems where springback or residual stresses or very accurate
dimensional changes are of interest.
ii) For processes, in which between the elastic portion of the workpiece
and the tools the interfacial friction is not negligible.
iii) For processes where the deformation zone of the workpiece, is imbedded
in elastic regions. Experiences have shown that stresspeaks are just lo
cated at the transition zones between the elasticplastic and elastic re
gions of the workpiece.
In such cases, it is unavoidable to model the material with an elastic
plastic constitutive relationship. The formulation consists of three basic
steps: a variational statement covering the equilibrium conditions, the
material law and the numerical discretization of the differential equations.
In the following three subsections these basic steps will be handled:
2.2.1 The Variational Statement: Rate Form of the Principle of
Virtual Velocities
For the derivation of a convenient variational statement two points have
to be considered:
i) In order to handle large strains and rotations all aspects of nonlinear
kinematics must be included properly (material possesses a geometrical
memory!). This means, all kinds of rotational and convective terms that
may arise have to be kept.
ii) The only known proper theory of plasticity is of ratetype. For exten
sion to elasticplastic material laws, such as the PrandtlReuss one,
these result constitutive equations relating the rate of stress to the
rate of deformation. Hence, the final variational statement must be of
rate type.
So, starting with the equilibrium equations, which can be written through
 55 
purely mathematical considerations as
J cr : 6 9 d V = J 1 . 6 u d 5 *)
(8)
V  = S
it is possible to obtain the statement which fulfills the requirements i)
and ii). Eq. (8) is known as the principle of virtual displacements. Here,
(J is the Cauchystress tensor, [) g the gradient of the displacements u
= = 
and i the traction. The configuration is the current one.
In order to obtain the rate form of eq. (8) it is advisable to transform it
to the constant initial configuration with volume VO and surface So; using
the relevant kinematic relations it is easy to obtain
j
g
O;6E
T
dV
O
=i
vo  SO 
(9)
with er
o
the first PiolaKirchhoff stress, E the deformation gradient,
= 
the current position vector and superscript 0 denoting the constant
initial configuration. The rate form of equation (9) leads to the statement
given by Hill /4/.
In terms of a workconjugate stress and strain pair, eqn. (9) gets the fami
liar form of
J TO: 6 d V 0 = J i 0, 5 d 5
VO =  So
(10)
Here, the symmetric second PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor and the
finite GreenLagrange strain tensor. This equation is the basis for the geo
metrical nonlinear elastic formulations (see e.g. Ramm /5/ and Bathe /6/.
Taking the material time derivative of eq. (10) results
J (fa: 6 I. 1" '[ 0; B g,> d V 0 = IS 0 i o. 6 d 5 o.
yo
( 11)
On the other hand, following identities hold
2 0 E = 0 F T,!:: '!. + !T 'I:. ' 6
= =    
(12 )
(13)
*) Body forces are neglected.
 56 
A
where the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress [ is given by
(14)
==    
Here, k is the gradient of velocities, J the Jacobian determinant of so
that
dV po
J= IFI= dV0=' P
(15)
with p the dens ity, and the spi n tensor.
Inserting eqs. (12) and (13) into (11) for getting current variables on the
lefthand side and dividing by a virtual time 6t results
0::' dSo. (16)
V
This is the basi s for the formulations by Nagtegaal et al. /7/ and Wert
heimer /8/. Equation (16) is the exact form of the principle of virtual
velocities, i.e. no convective and no rotational terms are neglected. The
equation results, however, a nonsymmetric stiffness matrix during the dis
cretization procedure. For an updated Lagrangian formulation with
( 17)
eq. (16) can be reformulated as
J[f;6:' 2
V   .
+Q';(6{,=)1dV=j iO fJ y"d5
   S
(18)
Here, is the Jaumann rate of Kirchhoff stress defined by (for instana
neously coincidence initial and current configurations,J = 1)
and
or
j,S.' 1ft
L==Jcr+cr
= = =
Together with a material law like
if>' 1'
y=:. :e
=  =
(19)
(20)
(21)
 57 
equation (18) yields a symmetric stiffness matrix during discretization.
Eqs. (18) to (21) correspond to the formulation of McMeeking
and Rice /9/. which was improved later on by Lee and Mallett /10/. and
which serves as the fundament of the present finite element method. Two
aspects should be emphasized:
i) The constitutive equation (eqn. (21 is an approximation since the
Ki rchhoff stress r is used instead of the Cauchy stress ?{ . However.
for practical metals this is a justified approximation. since the elastic
volume change is negligible anyhow.
ii) Equations (18) to (20) can be written also as
(22)
with the rotational terms
ll=(0"Wwa):6
== =
(23)
and the convective terms
z =[0(1 ; e) E .0' a E:] : [; E I 0; (6 t!. L )
2.======= == ==
(24)
The socalled "small strain" principle reads. Zienkiewicz et al. /11/.
J (y; 6EodV=! i Q;{ dS
V== 5
(25)
comparing eqs. (25) with (22) it is apparent that Zl and Z2are absent
in (25) and the small strain tensor EO is used instead of the rate of
deformation t as well as the curren; rate of traction f instead of fo.
2.2.2 Material Law: Generalized PrandtlReuss Equations
The elasticplastic law applied is the linear combination of the wellknown
Hooke's law for purely elastic deformations and the PrandtlReuss relation
ship for plastic deformations. The bases for the combination are the rates
of deformation, such that
(26)
 58 
with the elastic part of the total deformation rate and i:.
P
the plas
tic one. As implied already by the approximation sign in eq. (26), the tri
vial addition is kinematically not exact as it is schown by Lubarda /12/.
However, for small elastic deformations eq. (26) holds with a quite reason
able accuracy. For all sorts of metals used in the metal forming practice,
the elastic strains are for some orders less than the plastic ones, so that
the above linear decomposition can be applied without a significant error.
Now, for the elastic part of the strain the generalized Hooke's law states
(27)
Here, U is the elastic shear modulus and K the bulk modulus.
The plastic part is covered by the PrandtlReuss equations through
(28)
(29)
Eqs. (28) and (29) preassume isotropic materials, isotropic workhardening
and volume constancy.
Hence, the complete stressstrain relationships are defined through eqs. (26)
to (29). For the basic formulation this relationships have to be inverted.
By Yamada et al. /13/, this results
In the light of the axiom of objectivity (Eringen, /14/), eq. (30) can be
generalized through the replacement of r by or by the approximation
{Y !I' g' ]. (31)
r ..
2Ci
+ 1lV
l1

f3
i kr' :
Hence, the required material law. eq. (21). is given through eqs. (31) and
(29)
 59 
2.2.3 Numerical Discretization
Through the wellknown procedures within the generalized RitzMethod, the
differential equations of the problem (eqs. (18), (29), and (31)can be dis
cretized to yield
(32)
Here, Kif< is the tangential stiffness matrix, Q the unknown Godal velo
cities and the nominal external force rate at the nodals. For a given
force rate, eq. (32) is a system of equations linear in a. .
For the practice of analysing the deformation history, eq. (26) must be
transformed (integrated) into
(33)
with b the nodal displacements. Now, eq. (33) represents a system of
equations nonl inear in !J b
The critical points which have to be kept in mind during the derivation of
eq. (33) are:
 satisfying static equilibrium at the end of the increment Llb .
 satisfying the constitutive equations at the end of the increment fJb
 modelling the nonsteady boundary conditions exactly.
 fulfilling incompressibility.
 being economic.
The basic concept of the elasticplastic code is to use a small increment
size. This agrees with the following natural facts:
 the constitutive equations hold for infinitesimal time steps.
 the nonsteady boundary conditions vary nonlinearly in such an extent
(in metalforming operations), that these can be handled only with small
time steps accurately.
the error due to the discretization in time increases somewhat stronger
than linearly with the stepsize (for an Eulerian forward integration
 60 
scheme) and exponentially with the accumulated strain as will be shown in
section 3.
Every attempt to increase the time step may reduce the computational time,
however will deduce necessarily  significant  errors in the response of the
continuum. This errors will playa significant role, if an elasticplastic
response is analysed, since the only justification of dragging the elastic
part of the response is the desired "high accuracy".
In the light of the above idea, following numerical features of the code can
be summarized:
For ensuring static equilibrium, the socalled midpoint stiffness method
(see e.!4. Ramm /5/) in combination with the self correcting approach of
Yamada et al. /15/ is applied. This iterative procedure converges  especial
ly for small time steps  very rapidly.
To integrate the constitutive equation  which is necessary for obtaining
the incremental stiffness equation (33)  the elasticpredictor, secant
corrector procedure, firstly developed by rlallett/16/, is used.
Incompressibility is enforced through reduced integration of the hydrostatic
stiffness contribution.
Feasibility of the computations are satisfied through explicit boundary des
criptions and similar tricks. Through this explicit handling of the boundary
conditions and implementing some engineering "common sense", the contact
problem is solved in an economical way.
3 Comparative Examples
3.1 Axisymmetric Upsetting
For the analysis, a cylindrical billet of the initial height ho = 30 mm and
initial diameter do = 20 mm has been considered. The workhardening charac
teristics of the material has been approximated by the Hollomonequation
("Ludwik"equation), i.e.,
 61 
(34)
Here, k
f
is the flow stress, the geometrical strain (equivalent strain),
C and n are material constants. In the example considered, a commercial steel
with C = 700 N/mm2, n = 0,25, E = 200 kN/mm2, = 0,3 and initial yield
stress of k
fo
= 270 N/mm2 has been analyzed.
The initial height of the billet has been reduced by 60 % down to 12 mm
( e h = 60 %). Fig. 1 shows a comparison between the meshes computed by the
two FEcodes for e h = 60 %. Due to symmetry only a quarter of an axial
crosssection is given. 150 isoparametric quadrilateral finite elements have
been used, resulting 352 degrees of freedom for the elasticplasticcode
(EPC) and 502 degrees of freedom (352 velocities + 150 hydrostatic stesses)
for the rigidplasticcode (RPC).
At the interface between workpiece and compression plate, sticking has been
set. Sticking is a purely kinematic constrain, so that the uncertainties in
the frictional laws can be eliminated.
N
QJ
u
c
E
III
'0
__ elasticplastic material model; rigidplast. material model
2
6 8
10
mm
radial distance r
Fig. 1: Deformed FEmeshes for upsetting after 60 % height reduction
(sticking friction).
 62 
The agreement of both meshes is satisfactory, except the slight radial de
viation. These deviations correspond to a volume difference of about 4 %.
An analysis of the fulfillment of volume constancy has shown, that during
the computations with the RPC a volume lost of about 4.2 % occured (the vo
lume lost of the EPC was 0.4 %). This high value of inaccuracy can be ex
plained to some extent by the errors procuced due to a timediscretization:
For frictionless (homogeneous) compression the error due to a timediscreti
zation for a Eulerian forward integration scheme can be analytically com
puted as
with
rn1 . fJh
rn :::. rn1 t ''
2 hn
t
(35)
(36)
Here, the subscript n is the number of increments, V the volume, r the
outer radius of the billet, h the height and Ll h the constant step size.*)
These relationships are plotted in Fig. 2. Here, the abscissa is the equiva
lent strain , and the ordinate the volume lost, i.e. the error in time
discretization. Furthermore, is used as parameter and is recomputed to
yield a mean equivalent strain increment according to the equation given
in the Figure.
As a first approximation, the chart of Fig. 2 can be generalized in that way,
that  for Eulerian forward integration schemes  the time discretization
error can be read for the current equivalent strain 'f' as a function of the
increment in 'f' for any metal forming process. For this sort of interpreta
tion, the following facts can be derived:
For constant increments in equivalent strain, the discretization error
( Ll V/V) increases exponentially with the total equivalent strain f . That
means, for inhomogeneous metal flow  for which strains up to 3.0 or even
3.5 are possible  this errorsource will be very significant.
*)A different version of eq. (35) was firstly given by Dung and Erlmann /17/.
However, their version does not include the history of deformation, as the
recursive eqs. (35) and (36), and is therefore somewhat confusing.

63

10
%
5'
8
:::::.
>
5'
c:
ho =30 mm
0
do = 20 mm
6
t:,. t:,.h
Q)
hoh
w
VI
D
ho
.E
ljl=ln
ClJ 4
Ih
::::J
1:l
Q)
E
:::J
0
>
....
0
2
til
.3
__ __
o 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6 2,0
equivalent strain ljl
Fig. 2: Lost of volume due to discretization as a function of the
equivalent strain and the increment size for frictionless
upsetting.
Secondly, for a constant total equivalent strain , the error Ll VjV in
creases about linearly with the magnitude of equivalent strain increment
Hence, e.g., if the aim of an analysis isto determine the final dimensions of
an extruded rod after 70 % area reduction within the accuracy of elastic de
formations, it would be a nonsense to use, e.g. an increment size of
LlgJ = 0.06, since the discretization error is about 10 % anyhow (see Fig. 2
In this context, it is worth to mention that a very first check of the elas
ticplastic code was performed through the frictionless compression test. For
the same data as given in Fig. 1, the analytical solution yields for the
stress state and geometry after 40 % height reduction = 0.51)
 64 
cr
z
=  591.8 N/mm.l, O'r = O't = (Jrz = a
and (37)
= 99.882 % (e{asf,'c compressibility)
with an increment size of L1 h = 0,02 mm 0.0017) the numerical
results read
oz =  591.5 N/mm 2
I (Jr I I at I I a r z I < 10
1
99,816 % (elastic compressibility + discretization
error)
(38)
On the other hand, using the chart of Fig. 2, the discretization error is
found to be
= 99,933 %
o
Hence, multiplication of eq. (39) with eq. (37) results
= 99,815 %
o
(39)
(40)
Now comparing eq. (40) and eq. (38) shows that the reduced integration
scheme in order to fulfill incompressibility works quite reliably. The
error in the axial stress value is a result of the error in the volume.
Returning to Fig. 1, the discrepancy can be partly explained by the 5
times larger time step used with the rigidplasticcode as with the elastic
plastic one.
Figs. 3 and 4 ,show the computed axial and flow stresses. If the regions are
considered where the isolines are dense, i.e., where large stress gradients
are present, a good agreement between the results of both finiteelement
codes can be recorded. However, appreciable deviations are noticed at the
upper right corner of the workpiece, i.e., where folding has occured. The
EPC supplies large stress peaks in the region where the first element fol

65 
6.
4
2
N
QJ
u
0
c
Cl
6
+
VI
:0
0
'x
4
Cl
2
2 4 6 B 10 12
radial distance r
elastic  plastic
material model
kfO= 210 N Imm
2
kf=(.p"
(
= 100 N/mm
2
n = 0.25
E = 200 kN/mm
2
Y =
0.3
do/h
o
= 0.61
ho/2 =15 mm
( sticking
rigid  plastic
material model
)
Fig. 3: Normalized axial stress CTz/k
fo
for upsetting after 60 %
height reduction (sticking friction).
ded. This is basically due to the poor integration character of a 4point
Gaussian integration scheme applied to a quadrilateral element which de
formed itself into a triangle. In such cases, is is advisable to use a
singlepoint integration scheme, if only very few such elements exist.
This problem is less critical for the RPC, since in this code a smoothening
of the results could be performed without any difficulty after each incre
ment. This is done by interpolating the quadrature values (for a rigid
plastic material model only the equivalent strains!) to the nodals at the
end of an increment and, then, during the integration of the successive
increment, back to the quadrature points. Hence, in that way the overshoots
of stresses in the critical elements are carried away.
For the computations up to C h = 60 %, the RPC required 5227 CPUseconds
(90 increments and about 2 iterations/increment), whereas the EPC needed
6807 CPUseconds (450 increments and 4 iterations/increment). Both compu
tations were carried out on a conventional scalarcomputer.
 66 
3.2 Axisymmetric RodExtrusion
In the present example, an extrusion problem with 50 % area reduction and
cone angle 2 = 60 has been considered. The analysis by the RPC has been
performed with an Eulerian mesh (spatially fixed mesh) considering a control
volume around the forming zone and, hence, making use of the steadystate
character of the process. Such an approach with the EPC is not possible due
to the difficulties in defining the boundary conditions at the entry and
exit of the control volume. Therefore. the EPCanalysis has been conducted
using a deforming mesh (updated after each increment), so that the compu
tations for the unsteadystate phase of the extrusion process were unavoid
able.
The distribution of the normalized axial stress crz/k
fo
in the
zone is given in Fig. 5. "It must be emphasized that for the elasticplastic
analysis che sharp corners at the transition between the cylindrical and
conical portions of the die have been rounded by using a radius of curva
ture of 3 mm. This is necessary in order to overcome singularities during
computations. Furthermore, a somewhat larger "calibrationzone" at the exit
6
1.2
mm
4
2
N
QJ
u
0
C
0
6 +
VI
"0
mm
d
4
x
d
2
00
2 4 6 8 10 12 mm 16
radial distance r
elastic  plastic
material model
kl o= 270 N / mm
2
kf= (.pn
( = 700 N/mm
2
n::: 0.25
E = 200 kN/mm
2
y = 0.3
do/h
o
= 0.67
hol2 = 15 mm
( sticking)
rigid  plastic
material model
Fig. 4: Normalized flow stress kf/k
fo
for upsetting after 60 % height
reduction (sticking friction).
 67 
I d
o
 Z1.3mm I d,=15.0mm I I kf=704.p24Nlmm21 kfO=Z40Nlmm
2
I /L=O.061
updated
4 2 0 2 4 6 B mm 12
radial distance r
Fig. 5: Normalized axial stresses c1
z
/k
fo
for rodextrusion with 50 %
area reduction.
of the die has been utilized in comparison with the RPCanalysis. The
stresses below the conical portion of the die show a good agreement. The
material in this region deforms elasticplastically. However, at the entry
and especially at the exit regions, a very poor agreement between the EPC
and RPCsolutions can be recognized. This is an expected observation, since
these regions are elastic and, hence, the axial stresses computed by the
rigidplastic analysis in these regions are unreliable.
On the ohter hand, a comparison of the normalized yield stress kf/k
fo
' as
given in Fig. 6, is uneffected from the elastic regions. The agreement be
tween EPC and RPCsolutions is for the yield stress not very good, even in
the deformation zone where the axial stresses agreed well. This is basically
due to the deviating shear stress distributions. Several computations with
the RPC have shown that the meshlayout at the die entry (especially around
the sharp corner) has a rather large effect on the shear stress distribu
tions.
The unsteady state computations with the EPC required 6890 CPUseconds,
whereas the RPCcomputations required only 407 CPUseconds (Computer:
 68 
CDC 6600). The total numbers of degrees of freedom are 268 for the EPC and
502 for the RPC in the considered control volume.
3.3 Axisymmetric CupExtrusion
In the last example of comparison axisymmetric cupextrusion is ana
lyzed. The reduction of the crosssectional area is chosen in the example
as 33 %, so that no remeshing has been necessary. Hence, for the initial
dimensions of the workpiece with a height of hwo = 15 mm and a diameter of
d
W
= 28 mm, the punchdiameter is taken as d
p
= 16 mm. The same material is
chosen as in the rodextrusion case.
Fig. 7 shows the deformed meshes as computed by the EPC and RPC. For the
analysis, 210 and 483 elements have been used in the EPC and RPC, respec
tively. The punch has travelled for 5 mm. In order to get rid of the diffi
culties in defining the boundary conditions at the punchinterface, the
trick has been utilized in both codes to move the workpiece and to hold
the punch fixed. A comparison of both meshes in Fig. 7 yields the result,
that the deformation patterns away from the punch show a good agreement in
12 mm B 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 B mm 12
radial distance r
Fig. 6: Normalized flow stresses kf/k
fo
for rodextrusion with 50 %
area reduction.
 69 
I hwo15mm I dw28mm I dp=16mm I kt =704<jl2
4
N/mm
z
l kfO=240 N/mmzl fl=O,Q6
Fig. 7: Deformed FEmeshes for cupextrusion after 5 mm punch travel.
spite of the unbalanced fineness of the meshes. However, in the regions
around the punch, the RPCsolutions deviates appreciately from the EPC
solution. The elements being in contact with the punch are squeezed down
at the center and at the radius of the punch in the RPCsolution. This is
due to the fact, that in the RPC the current location of the nodal points
are compared with the location of the punch profile and then forced back
onto this profile. This procedure leads to volume losts in the relevant
elements. In a sense, such an approach has its roots in the solution
scheme of the RPC: the solution for a specific increment is obtained for a
fixed tool geometry, i.e., without considering the new geometry which is
going to be reached at the end of the increment. Hence, it is unavoidable
that the "computed" new geometry does not fit the real boundary conditions
(e.g., given by the punch profile) at this new stage. In addition to this
fact, the usage of large incremental steps  which is always claimed to be
the "big advantage" of RPC's  leads to intolerable overshoots in the sol
ution, if highly nonlinear geometries are attacked. At the end, a "nodal
coordinatecorrection" as mentioned above, results the apparent errors in
Fig. 7. On the other hand, in the EPC, the new boundary conditions are
taken into account during the computation of the solution for an increment.
During the iterations within an increment, estimates are made for the new
 70 
geometry, and, hence, all boundary conditions are chosen such that the
"computed" new geometry fits the "real"new geometry practically exact at
the end of the iteration process.
The distribution of the normalized flow stress kf/k
fo
for the geometry
reached after a punch travel of 5 mm is given in Fig. 8. In the front por
tions of the material which are rising through the throat between die and
punch, regions of elastic, respectively, rigid states have started to de
velop. Therefore, the discrepancy between the two solutions in this part
of the workpiece is explainable (in fact for the EPCsolution at the left
upper portion, the plotted isolines present the equivalent stresses and not
the flow stresses). Anyhow, in the remaining regions of the workpiece a
good agreement between both solutions can be observed. The smoother iso
lines in the RPCsolution are definitely the result of the higher number
of degrees of freedom used.
Since the computations are carried on distinct computers (scalar and array
computers: CDC 6600 and CYBER 205, respectively), no objective time compa
rison can be given.
I h
wo
=15 rnm I d
w
=28 mm I d
p
= 16mm ! kf=704 .p1\2
4
N/mml! kfO=240 N/mml ! fl =0.D6 I
Fig. 8: Normalized flow stresses kf/k
fo
for cupextrusion after 5 mm
punch travel.
 71 
4 Practical Applications
From the industrial application point of view, the numerical simulation of
metalforming processes has four basic goals:
i) To identify the critical deformation regions in order to predict pos
sible shortcomings of a production concept.
ii) To analyse the effect of various boundary conditions  such as friction,
die geometry, material properties, temperature, etc.  onto the flow
behaviour for optimizing the process parameters.
iii) To determine the product properties  such as final workpiece geometry,
hardness distribution and residual stresses  in order to evaluate the
product quality.
iv) To determine contact pressures in the interface between tools and
workpiece in order to design the tools and to select the appropriate
forming press.
In this section, several examples of application are given in which at least
one of the above goals has been the basic motivation for the computations.
4.1 FlowPattern Analysis
Radial Forging
Radial forging as the basis of flexible manufacturing by metal forming is
gaining an increased attention in the industry. The idea is to produce
workpieces with various geometries by just using the same tools. Starting
with a cylindrical billet, the workpiece is formed through four radially
acting punches. For a detailed description of the process see e.g. /18/.
One of the basic problems in radial forging is to determine the process
parameters, such as the depth of indentation of the punches per stroke and
the geometry of the punchheads, so that a uniform hardening across the
crosssection of the workpiece can be achieved. On this purpose, computa
tions have been carried out with the RPC, /18/.
 72 
Fig. 9 gives a comparison between the by FEM computed and measured strains.
Due to symmetry, only one quarter of the workpiece is shown. The three
dimensional problem has been analysed through two dimensional computations
for a plane strain forming mode in the symmetry plane. This simplification
was justified through experimental observations. As depicted in the Figure,
the agreement between computations and measurements is quite good, so that
th costly measurements were replaced through computations in order to de
termine the optimal process parameters of the process.
Combined Radial Extrusion
The combined radialtube extrusion is a newly developed forming process, for
which almost no experience based knowledge is available. Fig. 10 shows the
basic principles as well as the computed deformation patterns (by the RPC)
during the course of deformation.
The aims of the computation in this case are to determine the contact
pressure in order to design the tools properly and to analyse the deforma
tion pattern for getting some hints to modify the tool geometry. The billet
has been idealized with 352 axisymmetric fournode elements, /19/. Friction
between tool and workpiece has been included through a Coulomb friction co
efficient of 0.1.
Visi oplasticity
FiniteElementMethod
Fig. 9: Comparison between computed and measured equivalent strain in
radial forging, /18/.
 73 
initial state
24 Trrrrrrn;r;orrrl" /).\ die
mm
20 / .. )\
18 //'\
. ///'>1
16 I+H++H!+V /) height reduction 46%
14
121+f+HCfttHHI
10 / ///0
B
6 / ///
1
//. ///
4 . / /,
2
height reduction 63 %
o
mm 16
Fig. 10: Computed distortions in the combined radialtube extrusion, /19/.
Besides giving the required contact pressures, the computations allowed
also to analyse the characteristic behaviour of deformation, i.e. the lif
ting of the material from the mandrel before reaching the deflection and a
nonadapting of the material at the deflectionradius after deflection
(see Fig. 10). This observations have been justified also through experi
ments. Hence, by varying the exitheight and deflection radius of the die,
optimal process parameters could be determined through the computational
procedure.
After a stroke of 15 mm, which corresponds to an axial upsetting ratio of
63 %, the elements  especially very near to the mandrel  are distorted
that much, that the solution does not converge any more within the supposed
error limits. At the latest at this time, a remeshing is necessary.
For the above two examples of application the usage of a rigidplastic
material model is completely acceptable within the aims of the analysis.
However, to judge the product properties, as it is the case in the follow
ing examples, it is necessary to conduct an elasticplastic analysis of
the complete forming process.
 74 
4.2 Determination of Product Properties
In this section some examples are given related to the residual stress
state left in plastically formed workpieces. The importance of residual
stresses is obvious: they lower the nominal yield strength, accelerate or
decelerate stresscorrosion cracking, and may (depending on the ductility
of the material) have an influence on the static and dynamic fracture of
the product. Therefore, the knowledge of the magnitudes of these stresses
in metal forming products is necessary in order to evaluate their in
fluences and particularly to optimize the manufacturing process with regard
to a convenient residual stress state.
Extrusion
For computing the residual stresses, it is necessary to simulate the com
plete extrusion process, since even minute plastic deformations may
change the residual stress state drastically. Therefore, in the case of ex
trusion, not only the socalled "pressing" stage should be considered but
also the "ejection"stage. During this stage, there is a negligible amount
of plastic flow in the surface near regions of the extrudate, since the
inner hole diameter of the die is now smaller as during pressing due to the
elastic springback effect.
Fig. 11 shows the scheme of the procedure for computing the residual stress
es in extruded workpieces with the elasticplastic code EPDAN (Ilastic
flastic Qeformation Analysis), /20/. The basic idea behind simulation is
the uncoupling of the elastic behaviour of the die from the elastic
plastic behaviour of the workpiece. In module 1 the pressingstage of the
extrusion process is computed. Here, the die is assumed to be rigid. This
is a justified simplification, since the elastic expansion of the die is
negligibly small compared with the overall area reduction. After reaching
a predefined position of the punch, computations
are stopped and all the necessary data and results are saved in the storage
unit I. Physically, the next step is to draw back the punch. Now, it is
not possible anymore, to consider the die as rigid, since as the punch
loses contact with the billet, the pressure exerted from the workpiece
onto the die diminishes and so the die springs back and squeezes the extru
date at the cal ibration zone (at the die exit). In order to find the amount
of this springback of the die some iterations are required, because of the
 75 
Fig. 11: Configuration of programmodul es for the determination of residual
stresses in industrial extrusion.
uncoupled analysis. For a first approximation, it can be assumed that the
die recovers its original geometry completely. In this case, the spring
back can be computed using the internal pressure distribution Pi during
pressing and assuming that it will be equal to the amount of elastic expan
sion of the die. This is done in module 2. Here, the linear elastic FE
code ASKA /21/ or the boundary element code BETSY /22/ is used to compute
the elastic expansion of the die corresponding to the internal pressure
distribution Pi in the pressingstage. Knowing the springback of the die 
which is taken for a first approximation equal to the elastic expansion ,
the punch can be drawn back numerically in module 3. Finally, the extrudate
is ejected with a pushout punch in module 4 through the calibration zone
(the short cylindrical portion at the die exit) having now an inner hole
diameter which is smaller than the one during the pressingstage by the
amount of the springback of the die.
 76 
Of course, it is now possible, to perform a second or even more iterations,
such that the springback amount of the die is corrected by making use of
the pressure exerted from the workpiece onto the die during ejection.
Fig. 12 shows a illustrative idealization and dataset for the analysis of
tube extrusion. The material used is a typical extrusion steel Ck 15 (0.15 %
carbon). For this example the mandrel was attached rigidly to the punch.
Fig. 13 shows the distribution of residual and applied stresses in the work
piece during the pressing stage. Just after the die exit the inner surface
of the extrudate loses contact with the mandrel due to elastic unloading and
springback. Hence, the extrudate is in a completely externalload free
situation, so that the axial and tangential stresses after the dieexit
(see Fig. 13) are "residual" stresses. It must be mentioned, however, that
the extrudate does .not lose contact with the mandrel for all kind of geome
tries of the workpiece. For large. ratios of outer to inner diameter of the
tube, the extrudate still keeps contact with the mandrel even after the die
exit. In such cases, of course, the stresses in the extrudate are also in
fluenced by the friction between the mandrel and the inner surface of the
tube.
//
/ die
// /
LJ
Zlb
workpiece
mandrel (fixed l
_11 J..
Workpiece  Data
land
I
E = 210.000 N/mm2; y =0,3
I, 
Die Data FEMData
d
o
=35,8; d,=32mm; d
2
=25mm 225 isoparametric
10= 45mm
i
10/do=1,26 1,= 53mm;ra=6mm,re=6mm
quadrilateral elements
klo =
240 N/mm2 ZIB= 2.5 mm; 2Q1,=30
276 nodes
kl =
704 '\lQ24 N/mm
2
(Ck15l ==? ..p =0,5; CA = 39,3 % Iterations 3
Increments: 35 steps
Jl. = 0,06 (constant l per element
Fig. 12: Idealization and data for the analysis of tubeextrusion.
 77 
I <II =0,51 t A = 39,3 % 1 k,o= 240 N/mm21 k f = 704 N/l1Vll l 1 punch travel : 36 mm I
24
mm
16
12
residual stresses
8
cr,
N
4
mandrel (fixed)
......
."
tIo
u
0
VI
I
c
'"
I I I I I I
.E
tIo
10 20 30 40 50
(
...,
4
axial dis lance :c
0
8
:c
e
12
16
20
24
Fig. 13: Applied and residual stresses in tube extrusion (pressing stage).
A critical point in the analysis of tubeextrusion with a mandrel is the
handling of the "neutral point" at which frictional shear stresses in the
interface between the mandrel and the inner surface of the tube change
their sign. The neutral point is located somewhere between the dieentry
and dieexit. The basic problem here is the oscillation of the numerical
response about the exact solution through which also the shearstresses
switch their sign back and forth. These oscillations are observed most
clearly in the forcedisplacement curve of the problem and are the results
of discretizing the boundary conditions.
Another consequence of the oscillating numerical response is the apparent
loss of contact between the billet and the die at the entry. Depending on
whether the total external force is increasing or decreasing, contact or
nocontact can be observed at the dieentry between the billet and the tool.
In fact, the only way to reduce such oscillations is to increase the number
of elements in the axial direction.
In order to demonstrate the effect of the ejectionstage onto the residual
stresses, the axial stress distributions during the container1ess extrusion
 78 
of a workpiece are given in Fig. 14 for both the pressing and ejection
stages. After pressing, relatively high residual stresses are present in
the extrudate. They are compressive in the core of the shaft and tensile
in the surfacenear regions. For the ejection, a radial springback of
about 0.01 mm has been assumed for the die at its land. During ejection
only the surfacenear layers get significantly plastic. The lower figure
in Fig. 14 shows that, after ejection, the residual stresses have been re
duced drastically, however, without a sign change in the core and at the
surface. Extensive computations have shown that a sign change of residual
stresses can only be expected at relatively high area reductions as it is
the case in rodextrusion.
To examine the validity of the computed residual stresses some experiments
have been conducted. Fig. 15 shows a comparison between experimental and
computed axial residual stresses in a rodextrusion product before ejection.
16
mm
12
10
w
c
c
'"
0 4
"
0
c
0
ejection
stage
workpIece
16
mm
12
10
W 8
6
u
40
pressing 
stage
1 'i' =Q00331 CA =0,33 % 1 fL =0,06 1
workpIece
Fig. 14: Axial stresses during the pressing and ejectionstages of
containerless extrusion.
 79 
600r,,...r.,.....,...,.....
N/mmzl++I+I
2001j1lf+:
o IlIl:
200
.f
'"
g 400
"C
600
C
'x
c
material: Ck 15 (steel)
I/I+ '1'=0.5, eA=40%;2OG=90 jfj
without ejection
o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 mm z 180
core crosssectional area A surface
Fig. 15: Comparison of experimental and numerical residual stresses for
a rodextrusion product.
Here. a billet has been extruded with an area reduction of 40 % through a
die with a coneangle 2 CG = 90
0
The material is again steel Ck 15 with
an initial yield strength of 250 N/mm2. The diameter of the workpiece has
been reduced from 19.3 mm to 15.0 mm.
The experimental measurements have been performed by two methods: To
measure the residual stresses in the core of the extrudate. the Sachs
boringout method has been utilized. On the other hand. the Xray method
has been employed to determine the residual stresses in the surface near
regions of the workpiece. To measure sublayer stresses, the surfacelayers
have been removed successively by electropolishing. Hence. two branches of
residual stresses were measured. one starting from the core and the other
from the surface of the workpiece. Inbetween these branches. an indetermi
nante region remains, in which the stress distributions have been interpo
lated. Fig. 15 reveals an acceptable agreement between measurements and
computations.
As a result of the extensive numerical analysis it was possible to indicate
ways for manipulating the residual stresses in extrusion products. For this
 80 
purpose, two process parameters can be varied: the cone angle and the stiff
ness of the die.
Drawing
The basic difference between drawing and extrusion  with regard to the
determination of residual stresses  is the absence of an ejectionlike
process in drawing. Besides, the drawing stresses are superposed onto the
residual stresses during forming. Fig. 16 gives the computed stress dis
tribution in a drawn wire after an areareduction of 18 % (single pass). The
upper curve in Fig. 16 corresponds to the distribution of the sum of resi
dual and applied stresses, i.e. the relevant crosssection is considered
during drawing. The second curve in Fig. 16 stands for the residual stresses,
which are obtained after unloading. Two observations can be made: Firstly,
the residual stress distributions are qualitatively and quantitatively
similar to the ones obtained for extrusion products (before ejection) with
the same areareduction. Secondly, the residual stresses (in fact only the
axial ones) are obtained through a downward parallel shift of the stress
N/mm2
400
o
V1
V1
'"
.!:: 200
V1
d
::J
400
In
1':
cross  sectional area A
Fig. 16: Axial stresses during and after drawing of a wire.
 81 
distribution (i.e. applied + residual stresses) during drawing by the
amount of the applied stresses. This corresponds to nothing else but the
wellknown superposition principle in linear elasticity in combination
with the Saint Venant principle. The tangential and radial components are
the same for the loaded and unloaded states.
BUhler and Schulz /23/ suggested 40 years ago to use a second (or even
third) drawing die causing an additional very slight area reduction in
order to reduce the residual stresses. This would approximately result in
the natural effect of the ejection stage in extrusion. In Fig. 16 a third
curve is drawn showing the residual axial stresses if a second die with
an areareduction of 0.06 % is used in addition to the first die. Similar
to the extrusion case, the usage of the additional die reduces the residual
stresses in the wire. However, in drawing the slight areareduction causes
a much larger plastic flow in the surface layer than an identical area
reduction in extrusion. This is due to the fact that for drawing the
applied stresses are tensile whereas for extrusion compressive, and since
the residual stresses are tensile in the surface layers, plastic flow be
gins much earlier at the surface and to a larger extent in the drawing case.
mm
2 f+=+,
N
0,5
t mm
0
4
d  0,5
'x
d I
2
oL
4 6 o 2
12 8 10 mm
radial distance r
normalized axial
residual stress az/kfO
kfo= 270 N/mm2
kf=C..pn
C = 700 N/mm2
n = 0,25
E = 200 kN/mm2
y = 0,3
do/h; = 0,67
ho/2 =15 mm
(sticking)
normalized tan
gential residual
stress as 1 k
fo
F
" 17 Residual stresses in billets after upsetting (height reduction
19. :
60 %).
 82 
Upsetting
In section 3 the applied axial stresses have been discussed through Fig. 3
for a billet which has been upset by a height reduction of 60 %. Fig. 17
gives the residual stress distributions for the same billet after unloading.
Comparing Fig. 3 with Fig. 17 shows that the residual axial stresses are
less in magnitude than the applied stresses. Furthermore, considering the
largest crosssection of the specimen, it is seen that the residual stresses
change sign for two times.
4 Conclusions
Theoretical fundamentals of two finite element codes based on rigid and
elasticplastic material models, as well as, examples of academic and
practical applications have been discussed in this paper.
In the common range of applicability, i.e. in the direct analysis of plas
tic deformations which are much larger than elastic ones, both codes show
a satisfactory agreement. For steadystate problems, application of the
rigidplastic code is much more economic than the elasticplastic code
which has the disadvantage of not being able to make use of the steady
state character of the problems. Furthermore, the rigidplastic formula
tion is free from any nonlinear kinematics and the only variables which
have to be carried in time are the equiva'ient strains, so that the method
is rather stable, economic and also suitable for simple remeshing proce
dures. On the other hand, for problems exhibiting highly nonlinear boun
dary conditions, the advantage of using large increments diminishes for
the rigidplastic formulation.
The usage of the elasticplastic code is without any alternative in cases
where residual stresses, elastic springback and accurate dimensional
changes have to be analysed. Besides, if the forming process embraces fric
tional contact between elastic material zones and dies, and/or, if the
boundary conditions are highly nonlinear in time, it is advisable to
apply an elasticplastic analysis.
The practical examples of application demonstrate the industrial merits
of finiteelement simulations. But, they demonstrate also that a technolo
gical knowledge is an absolute prerequisite for a numerical simulation in
order to achieve the desired information.
 83 
Acknowledgements
This work has been sponsored by the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk, Hannover
and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn.
The authors are grateful to Ms. Collins and Ms. Erat for typing the
manuscript.
Literature
/1/ Markov, A.A.: On Variational Principles in the Theory of Plasticity.
Mehkanika, 11 (1947), pp. 339350.
/2/ Lung, M.: Ein Verfahren zur Berechnung des Geschwindigkeits und
Spannungsfeldes bei stationaren starrplastischen Formanderungen
mit finiten Elementen. Dr.Ing. Dissertation, Technische Univer
sitat Hannover, 1971.
/3/ Roll, K.: Einsatz numerischer Naherungsverfahren bei der Berechnung
von Verfahren der Kaltmassivumformung. Berichte aus dem Institut
fUr Umformtechnik, Universitat Stuttgart, Nr. 66, Berlin/Heidel
berg/New York: SpringerVerlag, 1982.
/4/ Hill, R.: Some Basic Principles in the Mechanics of Solids without
a Natural Time. J.Mech.Phys. Solids, 7 (1959), pp. 209225.
/5/ Ramm, E.: Geometrisch nichlineare Elastostatik und FiniteElemente.
Habilitationsschrift, Universitat Stuttgart, 1976.
/6/ Bathe, K.J.: FiniteElement Procedures in Engineering Analysis.
New Jersey: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1982.
/7/ Nagtegaal, J.e.; de Jong, J.E.: Some Aspects of NonIsotropic
Workhardening in Finite Plasticity. In: Plasticity of Metals at
Finite Strain: Theory, Experiment and Computation. Proceedings of
Research Workshop held at Stanford University, June 29, 30, July 1,
1981, pp. 65106.
 84 
/8/ Wertheimer, T.B.: Problems in Large Deformation ElastoPlastic
Analysis Using the FiniteElementMethod. Ph.D.Thesis, Stanford
University, 1982.
/9/ McMeeking, R.M.; Rice, J.R.: FiniteElement Formulations for Problems
of Large ElasticPlastic Deformation. Int.J.Solids Structures,
11 (1975), pp. 601616.
/10/ Lee, E.H.; Mallett, R.L.; Yang, W.H.: Stress and Deformation
Ana lys is of the Metal Extrus i on Process. Comp .Appl .Mech. Engg.
10 (1977), pp. 339353.
/11/ Zienkiewicz, D.C.; Valliappan, S.; King, I.P.: ElastoPlastic
Solutions of Engineering Problems 'Initial Stress', Finite
Element Approach. Int.J.Num.Meth.Engg., 1 (1969), pp. 75100.
/12/ Lubarda, V.A.: ElasticPlastic Deformation at Finite Strain.
Ph.D.Thtsis, Stanford University, 1980.
/13/ Yamada, Y.; Yoshimura, N.; Sakurai, T.: Plastic StressStrain
Matrix and its Application for the Solution of ElasticPlastic
Problems by the FiniteElementMethod. Int.J.t4ech.Sci., 10 (1968),
pp. 343354.
/14/ Eringen, A.C.: Mechanics of Continua. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1967.
/15/ Yamada, Y.; Wifi, A.S.; Hirakawa, T.: Analysis of Large Deformation
and Stress in Metal Forming Processes by the FiniteElement Method.
In: Metal Forming Plasticity. Proceedings of Symposium held at
Tutzing, August 28September 3, 1978, pp. 158176.
/16/ Mallett, R.L.: Personal Communication, 1982.
/17/ Dung, N.L.; Erlmann, K,: Die Berechnung der Metallumformung bei
groBen plastischen Formanderungen mit der Methode der Finiten
Elemente. Final Report of Research Project 1/34 210 sponsored by
Stiftung Volkswagenwerk, December 1980.
 85 
/18/ Paukert, R.: Rechnerische Ermittlung von ZustandsgroBen beim
Radialumformen. Berichte aus dem Institut fUr Umformtechnik,
Universitat Stuttgart, Nr. 78, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York/Tokyo:
SpringerVerlag, 1983.
/19/ Lange, K.; Osen, W.: Cold Extrusion Processes Combined with Radial
Extrusion. To be published in: Proceedings of the NAMRC XIII, 1985.
/20/ Tekkaya, A.E.; Gerhardt, J.: Residual Stresses in ColdFormed Work
pieces. To be published in Annals of the CIRP, 1985.
/21/ Argyris, J.H. et al.: ASKA User's Reference Manual, ISOReport,
Nr. 73, Stuttgart, 1971.
/22/ Drexler, W. et al.: EDVProgrammsystem BETSY, Final Report of the
research project 209/245 sponsored by the Forschungsvereinigung Ver
brennungskraftmaschinen e.V., Erlangen, 1982.
/23/ BUhler, H.; Schulz, E.H.: Die Verminderung der beim Kaltziehen in
Stangen entstehenden Eigenspannungen. Stahl u. Eisen, 70 (1950) 25,
pp. 11471152.
 86 
Discussions (Session lal
Steck (Chairman): Are there questions? I think we don't have to take any
order we can ask to the first and second presenter. Yes, are there que
stions to the papers presented by Professor Mahrenholtz and Mr. Tekkaya.
Perhaps I can start. Professor Mahrenholtz, I am always wondering why this
thermal analysis is done by finite difference if you do the stress analysis
by finite elements. Because it is a very good method to do the thermal
analysis by the finiteelementmethod. What is the real advantage other
than the shortness of time?
Mahrenholtz: It depends on the scheme of the problem, and in our case we
started with the finiteelementprocedure and due to the stability condi
tions we have to go through the whole loop essentially needing more compu
ting time. Second point is the central differences. You need only the cen
tral point of one element, otherwise you have to use the other four nodes
and it is really simple to reorganize the program.
Steck: For the computations with the finite difference procedure you need
a rectangular mesh. You cannot use an arbitrary mesh. And if there are some
unnormal conditions onto your mesh ... ?
Mahrenholtz: Yes, you are right, we have tu rearrange the surfaces.
Steck: Thank you.
Altan: I've got a question for you, Professor Mahrenholtz. I understand
you correctly, that the temperature in your scheme also influences the flow
of the material? That is to say after each step the variation of tempera
ture is calculated and then the flow stress is accordingly determined and
then, therefore, you will see differences in flow. So, it is a real cou
pled effect.
Mahrenholtz: Yes, that's correct. So, the influence is only through the
yield stress, that is, through the yield curve depending only on the equi
valent strain, equivalent strain rate and temperature. No facetransition
is present as lange mentioned in the opening speech. There might be a need
for a more sophisticated approach in the future, of course.
 87 
Altan: May [ask another question. We are doing similar studies and the
most difficult aspect in the whole temperature simulation that we found is,
that there are no values of heat transfer coefficients between the forming
material and the die under the different lubrication conditions, the diffe
rent pressures, the different temperatures. Do you have any comment on
that or are there any published results about these values?
Mahrenholtz: [was pointing out that this conduction coefficient CtK is a
weak point not in the analysis itself but in the data available.
Altan: Do you know anybody doing a lot of research in this area? We are
doing a lot of work in the determination of the flow stresses but see
very little being done in the determination of the heat transfer coeffi
cients which are absolutely necessary to model the system.
Mahrenholtz: There is, at least published, very few research on this sub
ject. Therefore, we checked these results from Aachen about the cooling of
the bar, of course there is no contact problem involved in that particular
cooling case. But at least we could see how close we get to the experi
ments.
Altan: Thank you.
Rowe: Professor Mahrenholtz, in your last picture [ think you show a quite
small effect of the heat flow on forces. Is this typical or is that a spe
cial example?
Mahrenholtz: It depends of course on the temperature range you have and on
the sensitivity of the system parameters on the temperature. You see, in
the range of 900
0
C there is no large effect for steel.
Rowe: Do you have some examples where there is a large effect?
Mahrenholtz: No, we don't solve such examples. But if you are in the range
of 700
0
to 800
0
C there must be a tremendous effect, of course. But, as a
matter of fact, the flow itself  which could not be seen so nicely in our
results  is affected much more sensitively, so that if you are forging in
a closed die the flow into the corners is influenced very very nicely, even
 88 
if the overall energy or force effect is small. The flow field is more
sensitive.
Rowe: Just ask me a supplementary question to that, whether you have loo
ked at the isothermal forging with heat transfer. What's the result given
for cold tools? If the tools are heated or cooled, does that make a diffe
rence?
Mahrenholtz: No, the tools were heated at 900 C.
Dung: We have considered two cases of forging process. One is cold for
ging. In cold forging we have the same initial temperature of 20 C in die
and workpiece. By hot forging we had also the same temperature for the
workpiece and the die but at an evaluated temperature of 900 C.
Mahrenholtz: For the cold forging case the temperature of 20 C was just a
starting point for the computations which were not carried on isothermally.
Onate: Mr. Tekkaya, could you make any comment on the computer time of the
elastoplastic and rigidplastic solution. You know, this is of course an
important criterion to choose one or the other method.
Tekkaya: Of course, that's true. The only thing I can say is that the
rigidplastic one is faster  overall  than the elasticplastic solution.
You know, you cannot do any time comparison objectively because the codes
are developed by different people, we do not use the same processors in
both of the codes and furthermore, there are differences in the efficiency
of coding, also. The question is, how should you compare it? If you just
compare it related to the accuracy what is the measure of accuracy, so you
can change the total time by just changing the time steps. However, if we
compare the times per iteration, I can say, they are about the same for
both methods and this may be due to the different efficiencies of program
ming for the two codes.
Ramm: In plasticity you are using a lot of computer time in coming back to
the yield surface. What kind of return method are you using?
Tekkaya: We are using the elasticpredictorsecantcorrector method deve
loped by Rus Mallett at RPI.
 89 
Steck: But what is the reasoning behind this method?
Tekkaya: As I told you, you stopped with the continuummechanics at these
equations which are in rate form and everything else you do is just in the
scope of numerical methods. I don't know any person who gave a physical
reasoning for this procedure. The only reason for doing this is to say:
okay, between two points on the yield locus the material has to use an
average yield normal!
Steck: Thank you.
Mattiasson: In one of the examples you show you said that you used 5 times
larger time steps in the rigidplastic solution as in the elasticplastic
one. I wonder after what criteria you choose the step size. Did you do any
convergence checks?
Tekkaya: The convergence checks related to the step size are just done. In
the present case, the chosen step size was based on extensive experiences.
Doltsinis: I wish to make a comment on the comparison between rigidpla
stic and elastoplastic computations because we use the same code for these
computations. So the gain in the computer time is about a factor of 4 in
the rigidplastic case. have a question to Professor Mahrenholtz. Does
thermal expansion play an important role in your computations?
Mahrenholtz: No, it did not. Because we did not have a closedformingdie
sensitive to change of volume. In that case it would. It could not be
neglected.
Marten: Mr. Tekkaya, I have a question concerning the transformation of
Prandt1Reuss constitutive equations to the reference configuration. You
know the discussion during the workshop in Hannover and Professor Besdo has
a special formulation of elastic deformations. Would you say something
about your transformation.... You know, the PrandtlReuss equations are
equations of the actual configuration. Now, you transform the equations to
the initial state without changing the coefficient matrix and just using it
to relate the second PiolaKirchhoff stress to the Green strain. Do you
think this is correct?
 90 
Tekkaya: It is not the Green strain, it is the rate of deformation. You
have the rate of deformation on the right side and on the left side some
Jaumann rate of stress measure which are both rotationally invariant. Hen
ce, there is no problem.
 91
ElasticPlastic ThreeDimensional FiniteElement Analysis of
Bulk Metalforming Processes
I. Pillinger, P. Hartley, C.E.N. Sturgess and G.W. Rowe,
Department of Hechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK.
Summary
An elasticplastic threedimensional finiteelement formulation is presented
for the study of bulk metalforming problems. The incremental technique is
based upon the PrandtlReuss flow rule and von Mises' yield criterion, and
incorporates a finitedeformation formulation using correct definitions of
stress and strain increment for accurate and efficient solution of
largestrain analyses.
The finiteelement technique has been used to model a number of metal forming
processes: the forging of rectangular blocks and a connecting rod, the
rolling of thick steel billets and the planestrain side pressing of
circular and shaped sections. These results illustrate the ability of the
technique to predict not only flO\; patterns and forming loads, but also
of stress and the location of ductile fractures.
1. Introduction
Knowledge of flow and stress in metal forming operations is of great
importance in determining the optimum forming conditions and in predicting
the final properties of the workpiece. The finiteelement method (FEB) is
now accepted as the most useful and versatile technique for the detailed
study of industrial forming operations [1]. The majority of applications so
far have been confined to planestrain and ax isymmetric geometries where
only the flow of the material in two dimensions need be considered. Although
such examples constitute some 60% of forming processes, it is those
belonging to the remainder which pose the most difficult and costly design
problems and for which the finiteelement (FE) technique may prove to be of
the greatest value.
 92 
The major obstacle to the threedimensional (3D) analysis of metal forming
is that such analyses involve matrix equations which are considerably larger
than their twodimensional counterparts. 3D solutions therefore require
lengthy computational times. Several attempts have been made to overcome
this problem by assuming a simplified flow pattern [2,3]. by using few
elements [4,5]. or by considering only small amounts of deformation [6].
Recently however, Park and Kobayashi have presented a full 3D analysis of
the upsetting of rectangular blocks and wedges using the rigidviscoplastic
method [7]. In this type of FE treatment. the elastic response of the
plasticallydeforming elements is neglected and the deviatoric stress in
unyielded elements is assumed to be proportional to the strain rate. Good
agreement is obtained between the FE predicted profiles of the billets and
experimental observations, but no experimental comparison has been made with
the FE values of strain or dieinterface pressure.
There are two main limitations of the rigidvisco plastic treatment. Firstly,
since elastic deformation is not included. all unyielded elements are
assumed to be rigid. Thus the method cannot accurately model the early
stages of a deformation when the workpiece is in the process of yielding and
elastic regions predominate. Secondly, since the unloading of a
previouslydeformed workpiece is a purely elastic phenomenon, accurate
prediction of the residual stress distribution is only possible if the whole
analysis takes the elastic behaviour of the body into account.
For these reasons, a full elasticplastic approach is necessary to model
flow and stress correctly in forging operations. Providing the
elasticplastic analysis is designed to be performed in finitesized steps.
the time of computation need not be any greater than that of a comparable
rigidviscoplastic treatment.
This paper introduces an elasticplastic FE treatment, based on the
PrandtlReuss equations of flow, that has been developed for the analysis of
3D forming processes using finite increments of deformation. The technique
has been used to examine a wide range of metal forming operations, such as
the forging of rectangular blocks (with and without holes), the forging of a
 93 
connecting rod, slab rolling and planestrain side pressing. The results of
these analyses are presented
predict not only the pattern of
stress components, the site
degree of deformation at which
2. Finiteelement theory
2.1 Fundamental principles
here and they show that the FE technique can
metal flow in the workpiece, but also the
at which ductile fracture initiates, and the
this is probable.
A FE analysis of a deformation problem obtains an approximate solution by
considering the displacement of only a finite number of points, or nodes, of
the workpiece. The workpiece is partitioned into a finite number of regions,
or elements, interconnected at the nodes. In the present analysis, 3D
"bricktype" elements are used, each of contains eight nodes. The
value of any quantity which is a function of position, such as the
displacement of a particle, may be found at an arbitrary point of an element
by interpolation between the nodal values of the function. This allm;s the
principles of stress continuity and force equilibrium to be used to
construct a set of equations for the element, relating nodal force and nodal
displacement. These are called the elementstiffness equations. The element
relationships are then combined :into a set of equations describing the
behaviour of all the nodes of the body.
In metalforming processes, the geometry of the body, the material properties
and the boundary conditions change during the deformation, so the stiffness
relat:ionship is nonlinear. The analysis is therefore performed
incrementally. With the updated Lagrangian approach, which is adopted here,
the incremental stiffness equations are based on reference geometries and
states of stress and strain. These are assumed to be constant throughout an
increment and are only reevaluated at the end of each step.
Netalforming operations may often involve total natural strains of 1 or
more. Therefore, to reduce the time of computation to a minimum, it is
desirable to be able to use increment sizes at least of the order of 1 or 2%
 94 
in the FE analysis. The present treatment employs a finitedeformation
formulation for accurate solutions under these circumstances.
2.2 Finitedeformation model
Consider a particle P within a given element and let be an orthonormal
basis for vectors in 3D space. This will be called the reference basis.
During an increment, the element will deform. Denote the instantaneous
coordinates of P with respect to the reference basis by xi. Suppose that at
some stage during the increment, there is a force i acting upon an
infinitesimal plane situated at P. If at the start of the increment this
plane had area da
o
and its normal had covariant components with respect
to the reference basis, then consideration of the contravariant reference
components of leads to the definition of the
unsymmetric or nominal stress sij [8]:
(1)
Since the nominal stress does not obey the coordinate transformation rules,
it is not strictly a tensor quantity [9]:
It is possible to define other types of stress. Consider a set of
curvilinear axes which deform with the material so that the coordinates of
P with respect to this system are always the same. These are called the
convected axes. The lines of constant convected coordinates passing through
P at the instant considered above may be used to obtain a new basis for
3D vector space. If the infinitesimal plane upon which the force facts
has area da, and a normal with covariant components of n
i
with respect to
this new basis, then the contravariant components of the
Cauchy or true stress in the convected system are defined by:
(2)
Without loss of generality, it is possible to choose the convected
coordinate system so that it coincides with the reference (Cartesian) frame
at the start of the increment, at which time the two stresses defined by
 95 
equations (1) and (2) are identical. However. their time derivatives at this
instant are not the same and in fact can be shown to be related by the
expression [9]:
o ..
+
(3)
where, as in the rest of this paper, a dot over a symbol indicates time
differentiation. Since from now on the only bases which will be considered
will be orthonormal (or at least instantaneously so) there is no difference
between the covariant and the contravariant components of vectors and
tensors, and these quantities will be denoted by subscripts only. The strain
rate .. in equation (3) is defined by the expression:
!(v .. + v. k)
J,
where the deformation rate v .. is:
v ..
(4)
(5)
The rate of change (or more strictly the Jaumann rate of change) of Cauchy
stress is measured in the convected coordinate system and so can only
depend upon the rate of distortion of the material and not upon any
rigidbody motion. If the linear constitutive relationship between this rate
of stress and the strain rate takes the form:
then equation (3) may be as:
s ..
l.J
2.3 Variational principle
(6)
+
(7)
The total power supplied to a region of the deforming material is the rate
of increase in the deformation energy of the material, less the rate of
 96 
decrease of the potential energy due to the movement of external applied
forces. By minimising this total power, a variational expression can be
derived describing the equilibrium conditions relating to the region under
consideration. Hill [8] has shown that in a correct form of this expression,
the deformation power is the dyadic product of the nominal stress rate and
the deformation rate. The assumes the forces acting on the body are
concentrated at the nodes of an element, so the variational expression is:
(8)
where fIm denotes the mth component of force, and dIm denotes the mth
component of displacement, at node I of the element. The delta symbols in
equation (8) indicate arbitrary variations in the quantities enclosed in
parentheses and the integration is carried out over the volume of the
element. The summation convention has been extended to include summation
over all the nodes of an element when an uppercase subscript is repeated in
a term of an expression.
Substitution of equation (7) into equation (8), using the symmetric
properties of the stressrate and strainrate the basic rate
expression:
2.4 Incremental expression
In the present formulation, the fundamental variables are the changes in the
various parameters during each increment of the deformation. Providing these
increments are not too large, the rates of change of nodal displacement,
nodal force and particle displacement are all proportional to their
incremental values, to a good approximation. However, if the change in
strain is defined by the incremental form of equation (4), the infinitesimal
definition, a nonzero value is calculated when the material is undergoing
rigidbody rotation, a situation for which the strain increment should, by
definition, be zero. Hore generally, whenever there is a rotational
component to the deformation, the infinitesimal definition of incremental
 97 
strain predicts an anomalous change in volume. Since in metal deformation
the volume can only change elastically, the erroneous volume strain will
either generate very large elastic hydrostatic stress or, if constancy of
volume is enforced, lead to overstiffness of the deformation model in
response to material rotation.
2.5 LCR definition of strain increment
To avoid these problems, a modified form of strain increment is used, called
the linearised corotational (LCR) increment. This is defined by [10]:
n., ,
1J
1CR
k
,U
k
' + Rk,u
k
'
1 ,J J ,1
 SI(CR'kRk')(u, IUk ,) +
1 1 J, ( ,J
where the deformation gradient u, ,is:
1,]
u, ,
1,]
(R'kRk')(U' kuk ,))
J J 1, ,1
(10)
C ll)
and Rik is the rotational component of the unique decomposition of the
linear transformation of particle coordinates into orthogonal and symmetric
mappings. Thus:
RikQkj
u,
+
0, ,
l,j
1J
(12)
where:
RikRjk
0, ,
and 0, ,
Q
ji
1J 'lJ
(13)
The quantity 0, ,in equations (12) and (13) is the Kronecker delta. In
1J
practice, the values of the rotational matrices are estimated during the
previous step of the analysis, so the righthand side of equation (10) is a
linear function of displacement gradients. It can be seen from equation (10)
that the LeI( increment of strain is the same as the infinitesimal value when
the material is not rotating. Furthermore, the tensor Rij  0ij is
approximately skel>symmetric providing the incremental angles of rotation of
the material do not exceed about ten degrees. Thus for pure rotations up to
"
E
o
e
500
0
500
1000
500
.200( 
2500
IVI.
01
1001
2001
3001
400 
SOOI
600
0
0
0
0
10
 98 
I I
0
0
0
0
0
theoreti ca I

0 0 finiteelement 
no >rotational stroin
I
0 fini te element 
I
with c<H"Otati anal strain
l ..,...
s
0
0
0
0
0
0
I I .J
20 30 40 SO 60 70 eo 90
angle of rotation a Idegreesl
Fig. 1: Comparison of FE and theoretical predictions of force and stress
during combined extension and rotation of a single element.
this magnitude, equation (10) leads to approximately zero values of strain
increment [10 J.
The importance of using the correct definition of strain increment is
clearly demonstrated in fig. 1 11hich compares FE predictions (one ,;ith LCR
strain, the other using the infinitesimal definition) of the force and
stress 11ith a direct analytical approach for the combined extension and
rotation of a body.
 99 
With the LCR definition of strain increment, and the deformation gradient
defined in equation (11), equation (9) may be rewritten in its incremental
form:
J(
OCll" J(D" "kl  26 "lo"k)lIll + OCu" ")o"k
u
" k)dVOl (14)
1J 1J J 1 < J ,1 1 J,
2.6 Elasticplastic constitutive relationship
Most common metals appear to obey von Hises' yield criterion. This states
that a region will deform plastically when its generalised stress a reaches
a critical value determined (in the simplest approach) by the accumulated
plastic strain (p, that is when:
o (15)
in which a prime denotes a deviatoric component of stress.
A basic assumption of an elasticplastic formulation is that an increment of
strain may divided into its elastic (recoverable) and plastic
(irrecoverable) parts. This assumption appears to be valid providing the
increments are not too large [11]. Normality of the plastic strain increment
to the yield locus in stress/strain space [12], and the use of the
generalised form of Hooke's lall for the elastic component leads to the
PrandtlReuss flOli rule [13]:
+
1J
(16)
In these equations, lIA is a proportionality factor depending upon material
properties and the strain history, E is Young's modulus and v is Poisson's
ratio.
The PrandtlReuss equations may be rearranged [14] to obtain the
incremental form of equation (6). This defines
constitutive matrix D
ijkl
to be:
the elasticplastic
 100 
(17)
in which Y' denotes the derivative of yield stress with respect to plastic
strain.
In practice, the last term of equation (17) is omitted if an element is
deforming elastically, and for a plasticallydeforming element, Poisson's
ratio is given a value close to 0.5 (0.4999 is frequently used) in order to
enforce plastic incompressibility.
2.7 Constantdilatation correction
Using a value of Poisson's ratio close to 0.5 in the stiffness formulation
for a plasticallydeforming element tends to enforce volume constancy at
every point of that element. Since each element has only a limited number of
degrees of freedom, the effect is to overconstrain the deformation [15].
From equation (17) it can be shown that:
O(lIE: .. )D. 'J I!:lE
J
I
J.] J.];: {
.)D. '11!:lEk'l + KO(1:l )I:l
J.] J.] { pp qq
(18)
in which the deviatoric strain increment is defined by:
!:lE .
J.]
!:lE ..
J.]
(19)
and K is the elastic bulk modulus. It can be seen that the last term of
equation (18) represents the contribution of the bulk strain to the. element
stiffness. In the constantdilatation technique, first proposed by
Nagtegaal, Parks and Rice [16], this term is replaced by one \,hich involves,
not the bulk strain increnent at a point, but the change in volume strain or
dilatation of the whole element ,,,here:
(20)
and V is the volume of the element.
 101 
Thus the insistence upon incompressibility at every point of an element is
relaxed, and only the total volume of the element is required to be
constant. This technique leads, in the limit, to the same number of volume
constraints per degree of freedom as occur in a continuum.
Since the dilatation is the same for the whole element, its use in equation
(14) produces:
 )nE )dVOI
pp qq
2.8 Interpolation procedure
+ vKfo(nE )dVOI.f6E dvol
pp qq
(21)
In order to evaluate the volume integrals in equation (21) it is necessary
to express the strain increment and the deformation gradient at each point
in terms of the nodal displacements. The incremental displacement of a
particle of the element with initial coordinates Xj may be written in the
form:
6x.
1
(22)
\,here NI is the interpolation function of the Ith node of the element. If:
then from equation (11):
and from equation (10):
where:
{': ..
1J
u. .
1,]
.M
I
,J 1
(23)
(24)
(25)
"B"I
1J m
 102 
(26)
The form of the interpolation functions depends upon the number and
arrangement of the nodes of the element. Usually, they may be expressed most
simply as functions of a local coordinate system defined for each element.
In this case, the Cartesian spatial derivatives of the shape functions in
equations (24) and (26) must be evaluated from the local spatial derivatives
using the chain rule.
2.9 Incrementalstiffness eguations
Substitution of equations (24) and (25) into equation (21) produces:
fOCMIm)(Bijrm(Dijkl  20jl(\k)BklJn + Nr,iOmnaikNJ,k
 KB"
r
B "J ]M
J
dvol
11 m JJ n n
+ 0(6d
I
) (vKfB" I dVOl.fB "J dVOI]lld
J
m 11 m JJ n n
(27)
from which the arbitrary variations in nodal incremental displacement may be
cancelled to give the element stiffness equations:
+ K(o) + K($) ]6d
ImJn ImJn In
(28)
where:
JBijlmDijklBJnkldVOl
(29)
is the deformationstiffness matrix, i.e. the usual infinitesimal strain
stiffness matrix,
K(a)
ImJn
J(
N
1
.0 a'
1
N
J
k
,1 mn 1.< ,
is the stressincrement correction matrix and:
is the constantdilatation correction matrix.
(30)
(31)
 103 
2.10 Solution of stiffness eguations
The volume integrals in equations (29), (30) and (31) are evaluated by
numerical quadrature, and the element matrices are assembled to form the
global stiffness matrix. This matrix may then be inverted by means of
Gaussian elimination and backsubstitution to solve for the nodal
incremental displacements [17].
2.11 Nonlinearity
Since the incremental stiffness equations are linear, they can give only an
approximate description of the nonlinear behaviour of the workpiece during
an increment. To improve the accuracy of the FE solution, a secondorder
RungeKutta technique is adopted [17]. Hith this approach, the stiffness
matrix is evaluated using the material stress and strain at the start of the
increment, and the equations are then solved in order to determine an
estimate of the stress and strain halfway through the step. A new stiffness
matrix is then constructed, based upon these midincrement values, and
solved to give a better estimate of the incremental nodal displacements.
Accurate predictions during the early stages of deformation are obtained by
means of a procedure which reduces the size of yieldtransition increments,
in l;hich elements start to deform plastically [14].
2.12 Boundary conditions
Any F:O: analysis ",hich is used to study metal forming processes must be
capable of modelling complex and changing boundary conditions, and of
applying a frictional restraint to any surface of the Horkpiece. In the
present analYSiS, complicated die shapes may be defined by combining simple
geometric prir:1itive surfaces. The analysis automatically detects contact
betl1een the lwrkpiece and the defined surfaces and resets the nodal
boundary conditions accordingly [17]. Frictional restraints are applied to
the surfaces of the lwrkpiece using the betafactor technique introduced by
Hartley et al [18]. In this technique, the stiffness of a supplementary
layer of elements at the surface is modified by a factor proportional to
m
where is the ratio of shear stress at the surface to the shear
Im'
m
yield stress.
.....
.....
"
.....
2.13 Calculation of stress
 104 
,
,
\
\
\
Fig. 2: Representation on
synoptic plane of strain
hardening meannormal method
of calculating a finite stress
change.
Nategaal and de Jong [15] have shown that use of the elasticplastic
constitutive expression to calculate the changes in stress from
previouslycalculated strain increments can lead to inaccurate and unstable
FE solutions unless the increment size is very small. In the present
finitedeformation formulation therefore, the meannormal method of
calculating the increments of stress is used. This technique was first
suggested by Rice and Tracey [19] and extended to include strainhardening
properties by Tracey [20].
The technique is illustrated in fig. 2 with reference to stresses plotted in
the synoptic plane. Point A represents the stress state at the start of the
increment on the initial yield locus, and B represents the final stress
state after some degree of strain hardening. The form of the PrandtlReuss
flow rule given in equation (16) assumes the increment of plastic strain is
parallel to the deviatoric stress at the start of the increment. The
meannormal method makes the more realistic assumption that the plastic
strain increment is parallel to the deviatoric stress halfway through the
step. It can be seen from fig. 2 that the latter stress (OC) is parallel to
8I
j
(aD) "here:
and:
b.rf .
a
ij
 105 
0.. +
The quantity G in equation (33) is the elastic rigidity modulus.
The modified PrandtlReuss equations are therefore:
I.hich may be rearranged to give:
b.o ..
(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
Equation (35) a11ol;s the stress increment to be calculated once the
proportionali ty factor b.m is knOlm. Application of von I'lises' s yield
criterion to the state of stress at the end of the increment shows that this
factor may be evaluated by solving the equation:
ailm'
+
bilm
+
c
y' [E
P
+
(36)
where: a
(37)
b .+LIa
e
,,) (38)
1J 1J 1J
C
 .+ilo
e
'.)( a' ',)
1J 1J 1J 1J
(39)
The solution is carried out iteratively, and is found to be rapidly
convergent. The procedure is particularly efficient since the coefficients
of the quadratic function need only be evaluated once at the start of the
iteration.
Although the formulation used attempts to enforce the incompressibility of
 106 
the workpiece, small changes in volume are unavoidable due to the finite
number of degrees of freedom available to model the deformation. Since such
volume changes must be interpreted elastically by any elasticplastic
technique, they can give rise to very large errors in the hydrostatic
component of stress. For this reason, the meannormal method is used only to
calculate the deviatoric components of incremental stress, and the
hydrostatic stress is calculated by the indirect method proposed by
Alexander and Price [21].
Since the present technique assumes zero body forces, principles of force
equilibrium lead to the expression:
.
3,,ll
ax.
J
(40)
The deviatoric stress may be calculated at arbitrary points within the mesh
using the meannormal method, so the distribution, and hence the spatial
gradients, of deviatoric stress may, in principle, be evaluated throughout
the body. Integration of equation (40) along a given line therefore a11O\;s
the change in hydrostatic stress to be calculated bett;een its t",o
endpoints. Since the hydrostatic stress at any free surface is known to be
equal to the negative of the deviatoric stress normal to that surface, a
starting point is easily found for the integration, so that the hydrostatic
stress may be determined anYI'lhere within the I;orkpiece.
3. Applications of the threedimensional finiteelement method
T,m examples of the application of 3D elasticplastic FE analysis to
industrial forming processes are given. Those selected are the forging of a
connecting rod and the rolling of steel slab. In addition, the problem of
forging a rectangular block t;ith a central hole is considered, to compare
detailed predictions I,ith controlled experimental lubrication
conditions. The use of the analysis for prediction of fracture during
forging is also illustrated.
 107 
3.1 Forging of rectangular blocks
Experimental observations of the deformation in the compression of solid
aluminium blocks between flat, parallel
platens with no lubricant, reveals a complex mode of flow[22]. All faces of
the blocks exhibit reflex curvature with central convex bulges. The bulges
on the longer vertical faces are more pronounced and depressions caused by
more slowly moving material are formed at each end of the face. Significant
rollround of this initially free surface into contact with the platens is
also observed.
Predictions of the deformation using the 3D FEH are shown in fig.3.
Comparisons of the predictions of the distortion of the external profile
with that found experimentally are shOl'lll in fig.4. The coarseness of the FE
mesh prevents exact agreement but the important features are clearly
predicted.
0.1%
11\111
I
II \ \ \ \
. I \ j \ r \
\ \ \ \ 1 \ I \
. _ I \ I \ \ t \ 1 1
I : I 1111 I JI
Fig. 3: Distortion of FE grids in the simulation of the upsetting of a
rectangular aluminium block with no lubrication.
 108 
 exptl.
profile


1
r
1 I :
1 U: 
T
I \
I'.
\ L
Fig. 4: Upsetting of a rectangular aluminium block: FE grid distortions and
experimental profiles.
Verification of the FE results through comparison with experiment in bulk
forming is always difficult as exact solutions to real problems cannot be
determined. A reasonable assessment of FE simulations can be made through
the use of hardness distributions. Though some experimental scatter is
inevitable, hardness can be related directly to generalised plastic strain
and therefore provide one of the fel'l means of checking the theoretical
results. Such a comparison is presented in fig.5, for selected vertical and
horizontal planes through the compressed block, and good agreement is found.
The compression of a block I;ith a central hole can be used to assess the
comparative performance of forging lubricants and to check theoretical
techniques for incorporating friction effects in 3D simulations in the same
way that the "ringtest" has been used for axisymmetric forging[18].
 109 
60
I VPN
60
SO
SO
SO
40 40
40
30
30
30
(Q)
bO
SO
SO
SO
40
40
40
30
30
30
60
SO
SO
40
40
Fig. 5: Predicted and
30
30
experimental VPN hardness
distributions on (a,b) two
vertical planes and (c) a
horizontal plane through a
rectangular block upset by
60
approximately 40Z.
SO
SO
40
40
30
30
 11 0 
In the ringtest the central hole will either expand or contract during the
axial compression of the ring, depending on whether low or high friction is
present at the interface, but will always retain its approximately circular
shape.In contrast,the hole in the rectangular block changes both size and
shape during the compression process.\<}hen the lubrication is good, the
central hole becomes elliptical with the major axis parallel to the shorter
side. \,hen lanolin lubrication was used on an aluminium block, the major
axis was found to increase in size throughout compression. Hhen no lubricant
was used the hole became elliptical as before but the major axis decreased
throughout. In both experiments the minor axis was always found to decrease.
The FE simulations for both levels of friction are shmm in fig.6.
Fig. 6: FE simulation of the upsetting of an aluminium block with a central
hole.
 111
The changes in the major axis are compared ,.ith experiment in fig. 7, a
similar pattern is found up to 35 per cent reduction in height, after which
the low friction analysis tends to overestimate the frictional restraint.
The forging of a rectangular block with a central hole is particularly
useful in assessing FE methods incorporating a realistic friction technique
as the existence of changing flow divides and neutral zones within the
workpiece provides a complex and demanding test for any FE model.
50
]
40
go 10
.!!!
.!O
o expll results
lunlubricated)
o expll results
(lea:! lubrication)
xx finiteelement
results
3.2 Forging of a connectingrod
Fig. 7: Experimental and FE
predictions of the change in
the major axis of the ellipse
formed ,,,hen compressing a
rectangular block ",ith a
central hole.
Automobile components form a large part of UK production of forged products,
of "hich a cor.unon exnf.lple is a connectingrod. These may appear in a Hide
rnnge of sizes and in a number of different materials, but all have their
major geometric features in common. The model aluminium component chosen for
analysis here is typical of connectingrod design. These components are
usually formed in a sequence of about six operations. Although complete
sequences can be analysed using FE techniques incorporating frequent
remeshing[23], only one stage of the connectingrod sequence has been
selected to demonstrate the capability of the 3D model in simulating a
complex industrial forging operation[24].
 11 2 
The preform shape and initial FE mesh are shown in Fig.8. Inthis model 600
eightnode brick elements were used, representing one quarter of the
,wrkpiece. The material properties of commerciallypure
aluminium ,.,ere used in the analyses which were performed in steps of 0.5 per
cent reduction in height per increment. Each increment required about 120
seconds of CDC7600 CPU time.
Laboratory forging trials were performed using an aluminium billet
lubricated graphite and deformed at room temperature. The t,w limiting
frictional conditions for FE analyses were conducted assuming (i) zero
friction and (ii) sticking friction on all boundary surfaces that came into
contact with the workpiece. These show the external extremes of deformation
pattern that are possible. Sixteen boundary surfaces were required to
represent the diecavities for this forging.
Fig. 8: Preform shape and
initial FE mesh used for the
modelling of the forGing of a
connecting rod.
During the stage selected for simulation the bigend and smallend cavities
are formed together 'vith the 'H' shaped connecting piece. Some flash
formation is inevitable as the material spreads out to fill the
diecavities. Fig.9 illustrates the FE grid distortions for the two limiting
boundary conditions. The grid distortions and incremental displacemental
vectors from various vertical and horizontal planes through the model shown
in fig.IO illustrate more clearly the differences that occur in the
metalflow for the tHO levels of friction. Hith no frictional restraint the
flm1 is predicted to be more homogeneous compared to the sticking friction
results. This is clear from fig. lOa, but more striking is the different
pattern of metal floH indicated on the horizontal plane in fig. lOb. In the
bigend, flow ,,'ith sticking friction is of a radial nature, away from the
centre. Flml in the connecting piece is away from, and almost perpendicular
to, the centre line of the Horkpiece. Uhen zero friction is assumed, more
 11 3 
flow in the axial direction of the workpiece is evident in both the bigend
and the connecting piece.
Fig. 9: FE grid distortion at
sticking friction and (b) zero
connecting rod forging operation.
various levels of
friction during
deformation for
the simulation
(a)
of a
An interesting feature of the simulations is that very little flash
formation is predicted in both analyses at one location, ",here the
connecting piece joins the smallend. This unusual feature is also observed
in the laboratory experiments. As in the previous examples, general
agreement with experiment is obtained but again the necessary coarseness of
the FE mesh prevents exact correlation, particularly around the sharp
corners of the diecavities ",here material is extruded out to form the
flash. Remeshing at various stages in the analysis together "'ith a finer
mesh "ill reduce the differences but obviously increase the computing time.
(0)
 114 
stic.king friction
AEP
zero friction
"3 _
F S ==... \ \ \ __
I
,
I
 I
zero 1
3
zero friction
@L
'\ //,'
__ __
Fig. 10: Hodelling a connecting rod forging: FE predictions of deformation
on (a) vertical planes and (b) a horizontal plane through the >lOrkpiece at
approximately 64% deformation.
 11 5 
3.3 Rolling of steel slab
During the rolling of thin plate where the width of the plate is much
greater than its height, very little lateral spread of the workpiece occurs.
This allows the process to be considered as one of planestrain and means
that a number of analytical methods such as slipline fields or even the
theory of homogeneous deformation, as well as FEH[25], may be used to
analyse the process. When the height of the plate or slab is of the same
order as its width, this is no longer true; lateral spread becomes important
and the process requires a full 3D model for a proper analysis. The example
given here shows the use of the elasticplastic 3D FEN to simulate the
rolling of steel slab[26]. Fig.11 illustrates slab rolling and the quarter
of the workpiece modelled in the FE simulation.
WORKPIECE (SLAB)
H
QUARTER OF SLA B
USED FOR FE MODEL
/tn..J
W I
INITIAL GEOMETRY OF SLAB
Fig. 11: Slab rolling and section used in FE model.
Three ratios of initial \V/E and various reductions of slab thickness are
considered to shO\, their influence on spread. Fig.12 shows the FE results
compared to experimental measurements[27]. The correlation is clearly very
good. Since there are no severe geometric changes such as occurred in the
forging examples, the coarse FE mesh used is adequate for rolling. An
example of a distorted FE grid is shown in fig.13.
 11 6 
10
Experiment
8
0
W/H= 1
;0
Il.
W/H= 2
v W/H= 3
FEM w
a:
0..
III
<14
a:
w
.....
<{
'
2
0
0 5 10 15 20
REDUCTION IN SLAB THICKNESS "I.
Fig. 13: Typical distorted
FE mesh used in slab rolling
simulation.
25
Fig. 12: Experimental
observations [27] and FE
predictions of spread in
slab rolling.
The pressure distribution on the roll/workpiece interface is also of
importance in rolling. This can be used to assess rolling force and torque
and the elastic flattening of the rolls.
 117 
A typical distribution obtained using the FEN is given in fig.14. The
determination of accurate pressure distributions and of residual stresses in
the rolled slab requires an elasticplastic solution since the slab will
deform elastically after leaving the rolls. The point of separation of the
roll and workpiece must be carefully determined as this occurs at some point
after the minimum roll gap. The elastic/plastic transition on entry cannot
be assumed to occur at the initial contact point, as in some simpler
theories, because this occurs at a short distance upstream of the initial
contact point. The elasticplastic FEfI therefore provides a means of
obtaining a complete analysis of all the important features of slab rolling.
,,500
a..
;;:"00
Fig. 14: Typical pressure distribution in slab rolling predicted by the 3D
FEll.
3.4 Fracture initiation in for3ing
The location and level of deformation at \"hich fractures initiate needs to
be identified to avoid failure either during the forging process or more
 118 
seriously, during the use of the forged product.
Several criteria to predict the initiation of a ductile fracture associated
lYith the large plastic flolY involved in metalforming have been proposed.
Nost of these appear to be satisfactory for specific cases but fel< are of
general applicability in forming. Some of these may be described as
continuum models lYhere the criterion'is a function of the stress components,
usually integrated over the strain path to fracture, while others rely on
models of void growth and coalescence. A fracture mechanics approach may
also be considered in "hich the energy required to propagate a crack is
analysed.
As the FEN allows a detailed analysiS of the stress and strain states
throughout the deforming lYorkpiece
forming process it is an ideal tool
and of their variation throughout the
for assessing the various fracture
criteria. As a preliminary study several of the fracture criteria lYhich lYere
compatible ,;ith the FE model lYere selected for further consideration. A
number of materials and processes, such as extrusion, upsetting and
sidepressing, lYere simulated using the 3D FEH. The results lYere then used
to assess the predictions given by the various criteria[28J.
Typical of the results obtained in this assessment are those produced from
an analysis of planestrain sidepressing of a 7075 aluninium alloy[29]. In
this operation a cylindrical rod is constrained longitudinally, to prevent
axial movement while being deformed perpendicular to the central axis. Rods
,;ith two opposing machined flats were also deformed in this 'lay. The
crosssections and initial FE meshes are shown in fig. IS. During the
deformation process fractures were observed to occur at the centre of the
l<orkpiece with an initially circular crosssection. l!OIvever, when the rods
with machined flats "ere deformed, fractures were found to initiate near to
the original corner on the outer surface, Fig.16.
Each of the fracture criteria were considered in turn in a postprocessing
program. After the FE simulations "ere complete the results 'Iere analysed
and the nodal point at which the fracture criterion reached a predetermined
critical value was located. The variation throughout the deformation process
 119 
of the value of the criterion at the relevant nodal point was then plotted.
Fig. 15: Initial geometries and FE meshes for planestrain sidepressing.
INlTIATIlN SITE fOR
INITIAlLY CACUlAR SECTION
Fig. 16: Fracture initiation sites in planestrain sidepressing.
Fig.17 Sho\lS a typical presentation of the results. This diagram shOllS the
variation of the generalised plastic \lOrk criterion[30j "hich "as the only
one of those tested that accurately predicted the fracture initiation site
for all the geometries considered. Other criteria such as one based on
maximum principal tensile stress[31j or one that included an explicit
influence of hydrostatic stress[32j failed to predict the correct initiation
site for the noncircular rods. The level of deformation at "hich fracture
occurred was also correctly predicted using the generalised plastic "ork
criterion.
 120 
E CRITICAL VAlUE OF jlJ dl.
Z
: FR().I
II
i'
bH
C II
FRACTURE FOR TI I . I
CIRCU.AR sa:TJON ANO
Ill. AND FOR H/W.2OJ
5 10 IS
DEFORMATION ."
XI
191
7
Fig. 17: Variation of the plastic "ork fracture criterion for specific
nodes in the modelling of planestrain sidepressing.
This demonstrated t",o points, firstly that many of the established fracture
criteria have only a restricted range of application, and secondly, assuning
that a general criterion of fracture can be found, that the FEN can be used
to identify ;,1here and ",hen fractures are likely to occur during the forming
process. Information of this nature is vital to establishing optimum forming
routes and improving the quality and reliability of products manufactured by
bulk forming.
 1 21
4. Related developments
The development of FE methods has now reached a stage where they can be
applied to industrial problems with some confidence, although some expertise
in choosing the correct mesh, increment size, type of formulation etc. for
each problem is still required.
FE simulation programs are now being linked to CAD diedesign programs to
produce an integrated system for forging design[33]. The use of 'learning'
databases also allows the overall program to be constructed in the form of
expert or intelligent knOl"ledge based systems.
Several other areas still require further investigation. The inclusion of
temperature effects for example[ 34] requires detailed knOldedge of the
variation of the material properties with temperature and of the
conductivity of various surface coatings normally used with forgings. !>iuch
of this data is not readily available. The anisotropic behaviour of some
materials may also need to be considered.
The use of remeshing has been referred to earlier. This is essential for
modelling multistage operations but in 3D this is at present particularly
difficult and laborious. This needs to be improved for future applications.
The need to use large computers is at present restricting the industrial use
of nonlinear FE techniques. Although recent developments have been r.lade in
developing programs for microcomputers[35] much work remains to be done,
especially for 3D simulations.
5. Conclusions
An elasticplastic 3dimensional finiteelement method suitable for the
simulation of large deformation processes such as occur in bulk metal forming
has been described. The importance of including in the formulation precise
definitions of incremental stress and strain has been demonstrated.
Several examples of the application of the 3D FE model have been presented
and demonstrate the capability of such a technique for simulating real
 122 
industrial processes.
Techniques of this type should be of particular value in the introduction of
new forged products complex geometries or new materials are used and
should contribute to a significant reduction in development lead times.
Acknowledgements
The work on fracture was conducted by Ns. S. E. Clift and on rolling by Hr.
C. Liu. Huch of the work reported here has been supported by the Science
and Engineering Research Council.
References
[1] Kobayashi, S.: A revie" on the finiteelement method and metal forming
process modelling. J. App. iietal"kg. (1982) 2, pp. 163169.
[2] fiori, K.; Osakada, K.: Simulation of threediwensional rolling by the
rigidplastic finite element method. Proc. 1st Int. ConL on Numerical
Hethods in Ind. Forming Processes, S.18nsea, UK (1982) pp. 747756.
[3] Sun, J.; Li, G.; Kobayashi, S.: Analysis of spread in flattool forging
by the finite element method. Proc. 11th N. Amer. tietahlkg. Res. Conf.
(1983) pp. 224231.
[4] Hebster, U.: A threedimensional analysis of extrusion and metalforming
by the finite element method. Ph.D. thesis, University of
i'lissouriRolla, USA (1978).
[5] Sebastian, n.A.; Rodriguez, P.; Sanchez, A.H.: A method of
discretisation and an approach to threedimensional deformation
analysis of extrusion by the finite element method. Proc. 1st. Int.
Conf. on Numerical liethods in Ind. Forming Processes, S\;ansea, UK
(1982) pp. 227236.
[6] Nagamatsu, A.: Analysis of contact pressure and deformation of square
blocks in elasticplastic compression by the finite element method. J.
Jap. Soc. Tech. Plasticity (in Japanese) (1973) 14, pp. 220229.
[7] Park, J.J.; Kobayashi, S.: Threedimensional finite element analysis of
block compression. Int. J. Iiech. Sci. (1984) 26, pp. 165176.
[8] Hill, R.: Some basic principles in the mechanics of solids "ithout a
natural tiDc. J. ]Iech. and Phys. of Solids (1959) 7, pp. 209225.
[9] Lec, E.H.: The basis of an elasticplastic code. SUDAH rep. no. 761,
Stanford, USA (1976).
[ 10] Pillinger, I. ; Hartley,
linearised definition of
analysis of deformations
J. Hech. Sci.
 123 
P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; RO>le, G.!J.: A ne"
strain increment for the finiteelement
involving finite rotation. Submitted to Int.
[11] Lee, E.H.; ncHeeking, R.H.: Concerning the elastic and plastic
components of deformation. Int. J. of Solids and Structures (1980) 16,
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[12] Drucker, D.C.: A more fundamental approach to plastic stressstrain
relations. Proc. 1st Nat. Congo on Applied Nech. (1951) pp. 487491.
[13] Hill, R.: The mathematical theory of plasticity. Clarendon Press,
Oxford (1950).
[14] Yamada, Y.; Yoshimura, N.; Sakurai, T.: Plastic stressstrain matrix
and its application for the solution of elasticplastic problems by the
finite element method. Int. J. Hech. Sci. (1968) 10, pp. 343354.
[15] Nagtegaal, J.C.; de Jong, J.E.: Some computational aspects of
elasticplastic large strain analysis. Computational Hethods in
Nonlinear llechanics, ed. J.T. Oden, NorthHolland (1980) pp. 303339.
[16] Nagtegaal, J.C.; Parks, D.H.; Rice, J.R.:
finite element solutions in the fully plastic
App. :iech. and En;;. (1974) 4, pp. 153177.
On numerically accurate
range. Computer Heth.
[17] Pillinger, I. : The prediction of metal flow and
threedimensional forgings using the finiteelement
thesis, University of Birmingham, UK (1984).
properties in
method. Ph.D.
[18] Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.H.: Friction in finiteelement
analyses of metalforming processes. Int. J. l'Iech. Sci. (1979) 21, pp.
301311.
[1 <)] nice, J .1:. ; Tracey, D.H.: Computational fracture mechanics. Nup.lerical
and COClputer ;;ethods in Structural Hechanics, ed. S.J. Fenves, N.
Perrone, A.lL Robinson and H.C. Schnobrich, Academic Press, He ... , York
(1973).
[20] Tracey, D.:i.: Finite element solutions for cracktip behaviour in
smallscale yielding. Trans. ASHE, J. Engg. !'[aterials and Tech. (1976)
93, pp. 146151.
[21] :\lexander, J .ll.; Price, J. i:i .lI.: Finite element analysis of hot metal
Proc. 13th :;achine Tool Design and Research Conf. (1977) pp.
26727/f
[22J Pillin8er, 1.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.:J.; Rowe, G.\';.: An
elasticplastic threedimensional finiteelement analysis of the
of rectangular blocks and experioental comparison. To be
published in Int.J. NaClline Tool Design and Research (1985).
[23] AISened, ll.A.!:'; Iiartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.:1.; I;O\;e, G.\!.: Forming
sequences in axisymmetric coldforging. Proc. 12th. i'l. Amer. iletal'dkg.
Res. Conf. (1934) pp. 151153.
 124 
[24] Pillinger, I.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.W.: A three
dimensional finiteelement analysis of the cold forging of a model
aluminium connecting rod. To be published in Proc. I. Mech. E. (1985).
[25] Liu, C.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.H.: Elasticplastic
finiteelement modelling of cold rolling of strip. To be published in
Int. J. Hech. Sci. (1985).
[26] Liu, C.: Hodelling of strip and threedimensional rolling using an
elasticplastic finiteelement method. Ph. D. thesis, University of
Birmingham, UK (1985).
[27] Lahoti, G.D.; Akgerman, 1'1.; Oh, S.l.; Altan, T.: Computeraided
analysis of metal flow and stresses in plate rolling. J. ; iech. Harking
Tech. (1980) 4, pp. 105119.
[28] Clift, S.E.: Identification of defect
using the finiteelement method. Ph.
Birmingham, UK (1985).
locations in forged products
D. thesis, University of
[29] Clift, S.E.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.H.: Fracture
initiation in planestrain forging. Proc. 25th. i'lachine Tool Design and
Research Conf. (1985) pp. 413419.
[30] Freudenthal, A.H.: The inelastic behaviour of engineering materials and
structures. Hiley, NeVI York (1950).
[31] Cockroft, II.G.; Latham, D.J.: Ductility and \10rkability of metals. J.
Inst. Hetals (1968) 96, pp.3339.
[32] Brozzo, P.; Deluca, B.; Rendina, R.: A new method for the prediction of
the formability limits of metal sheets. Proc. 7th. Congress of the Int.
Deep Dra\dng Research Group (1972).
[33] Eames, A.: A computer system for forging die design and flow
simulation. ;lSc. thesis, University of Birmingham, UK (1985).
[34] Pillinger, 1.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.:'l.; Rowe, G.H.:
Thermomechanical finiteelement analysis of metal forming. Proc. 4th.
Int. Conf. on Thermal Problems (1985).
[35] Hussin, A.A.M.; Hartley, P.; Sturgess, C.E.N.; Rowe, G.IV.:
Finiteelement plasticity on microcomputers. Stress analysis and the
Hiero Conf. City Uni versi t y, London (1985).
 125 
ThreeDimensional Thermomechanical Analysis of
Metal forming Processes
J.H. Argyris, J.St. Doltsinis, J. Luginsland
Institute for Computer Applications,
University of Stuttgart
Summary
The analysis of metal forming processes requires consideration
of the threedimensional nature of the process involving a
material undergoing substantial deformations under the action
of the die. Significant thermal phenomena may be activated
by both pronounced temperature differences and internal
dissipation during the forming process. Furthermore, unsteady
contact between material and die plays a significant role and
involves frictional effects and heat transfer phenomena.
The present survey summarises the theoretical fundamentals of
thermomechanically coupled deformation processes together with
methodologies for the computational treatment in the context of
the finite element technique. In addition, frictional effects
are investigated and an attempt to describe these analytically
via a numerical interpretation of experimental data_is made.
As a selected application, the threedimensional computation
of the forging of an aircraft turbine blade in titanium alloy
is demonstrated.
 126 
1. Introduction
Numerical investigations of industrial metal forming processes
become increasingly important in conjunction with the
requirement of an optimal employment of materials and tools.
Such investigations are of a complicated nature as they
ultimately involve a threedimensional consideration of large
deformations coupled with thermal effects as well as unsteady
contact conditions between tool and material.
On the basis of the natural approach to the mechanics of
continuous media, a computational methodology is being
developed for the finite element solution of coupled
thermomechanical problems and has been applied to the solution
of various metal forming processes [1,2,3,41. A recent
account of the natural approach to the mechanics and
thermomechanics of continuous media may be found in reference
[5] . Here, we will restrict ourselves to the presentation of
the infinitesimal tetrahedron element in fig. 1 which, in the
natural description, replaces the parallelepiped of the
classical cartesian point of view. Furthermore, natural
(supernumerary) coordinate axes are defined along the
directions of the edges of the tetrehedron element. For a set
up of finite expressions on this basis, the reader should
refer to [4,6,7].
Our present survey begins with the mechanical equations
governing the deformation of the material under an of
external loads. The principle of virtual work provides the
adequate weak statement which may serve as a starting pOint for
the development of finite element expressions. In the next
step, stresses are related to strains via constitutive
equations, which are of relevance in the present context. Thus,
constitutive equations of the rate type are first presented
describing hypoelasticplastic behaviour in the presence of
large strains. Alternatively, a mixed total/rate formulation
combines a hyperelastic material constituent withfue flow
 127 
characteristics of the inelastic constituent. The latter may
be specified in accordance with time independent plasticity,
but may also account for time and rate inelastic
effects. Under certain conditions materials exhibit a
pronounced viscous behaviour whilst elastic contributions to
the overall strains are negligible. In such cases elastic
effects can often be entirely disregarded and an exclusively
inelastic viscous material can be dealt with.
Thermal effects may occur during the course of forming
processes as a result of temperature differences between the
die and the material and may also be due to local dissipation
of mechanical work. An account of thermal action requires non
isothermal stressstrain relations where the temperature enters
as an additional variable affecting the equations of motion.
The balance of energy provides the equation governing the
temperature field which is coupled with the deformation. For
this purpose, the specific internal energy of the body has to
be described in terms of the temperature and the strains.
Besides which, the classical Fourier's law is applied to relate
the temperature gradient and the heat flow in the material.
Once the discretised equations governing the coupled thermo
mechanical problem are established, numerical methods may be
applied to their solution. If we consider the purely
mechanical inelastic problem first, a nonlinear solution
methodology based on the classical Newton iterative scheme is
indicated. Different variants are intended to simplify the
iteration procedure and are frequently applied in actual
computations. The solution of the thermomechanically coupled
problem requires the treatment of the equations of motion
concurrently with the energy equation. The numerical treatment
can, in principle, be based on a coupled solution of the two
equation system. A simplified technique treating the mechanical
and the thermal problem sequentially within each iteration
loop, however, proves to be satisfactory for our present
purpose.
 128 
Contact between material and tool and the phenomenon of
friction between the contact surfaces are of great importance
in metal forming processes. Some preliminary investigations on
frictional effects have been performed as part of a joint
research programme at the "Institut fUr Bildsame Formgebung" in
Aachen and the Institute for Computer Applications, which may
be of interest to the scientific community. In this context,
an attempt is made to specify a frictional law by interpreting
experimental test results numerically and applying them
subsequently to the computation of a second test configuration.
A threedimensional computation of the unsteady forging
process of a turbine blade in titanium alloy concludes the
paper and involves substantial thermomechanical coupling due
to the action of the cold die on the hot material as well as
internal dissipation of mechanical energy and temperature
dependent thermomechanical material characteristics.
2. Motion and Deformation of the Material
We begin with a consideration of the deformation process of
the solid, which for the present purpose is assumed to occur
quasistatically so that inertia terms may be omitted in the
equations of motion. Bearing in mind our prospective
application of the finite element technique to the deformation
of the solid material, we will consider the condition of
equilibrium in the weak form, assuming within the deformed
configuration a finite volume V bounded by the surface S
The principle of the virtual work may then be expressed in the
natural form
j d V = J tic d V r j t ( d 5
V V S
(2.1)
The symbols of the kinematic and static variables in (2.1)
refer to column matrices comprising natural entries in
 129 
accordance with the the natural approach to the mechanics of
continua and must be seen in antithesis to the traditional
cartesian approach [81. Thus, V
t
comprises the total natural
entries of a virtual velocity vector field (cf. fig. 2) and
denotes the associated rate of deformation, based on the
symmetric part of the velocity gradient [7}. It is interesting
to observe that the total velocity corresponds  in the sense
of virtual work  to the component volume forces and
surface tractions tG (cf. fig. 2). In addition, the total
natural rate of deformation corresponds to the natural
component definition of Cauchy stress and vice versa, fig. 3.
This correspondence is expressed via the invariance relation
(2.2)
In order to relate the lefthand side on (2.1) to the kinematic
and thermal variables involved in the deformation process, the
constitutive equations for the particular material must be
specified. Below, we list a representative selection of
constitutive laws applicable to the range of our prospective
problems. We will begin with the description of elastoplastic
materials given by R. HillI9]. In this formulation, use is made
of the KirchhoffTrefftz stress O>K which refers to the
current deformed configuration of the material and cOincides,
therefore, with the Cauchy stress. Differences between the two
definitions of stress are recognised merely in their
respective time rates. Thus, the current density remains
constant in the former definition of KirchhoffTrefftz stress
while density varies in the latter Cauchy definition. The
constitutive relations ultimately connect the Jaumann rate of
the so defined KirchhoffTrefftz stress with the rate of
deformation f . The cartesian formulation of reference [9}
can be converted into the natural one and reads (cf.
(2.3)
 130 
v
where ()KC denotes the Jaumann rate of the natural component
KirchhoffTrefftz stress and ){ct the respective natural
material stiffness.
Here, the material stiffness in (2.3) is assumed to be
symmetr ic. In the case of elastic unloading, the stressstrain
relations of (2.3) reflect hypoelastic (rate) behaviour. In
the elastoplastic case, on the other hand, the symmetric
relation between G
KC
and St cannot be established from a
yield condition unless the density of the material, its volume,
respectively, remains constant in the course of the deformation
process. This remark is independent of the particular
presentation of (2.3) whether it is natural or cartesian.
Furthermore, the transition to a relation between stress and
kinematic variables in (2.1) requires a careful integration of
the rate relation (2.3) which can generally only be performed
in an approximate progressive manner.
Alternative methodologies [10,111 establish a hyperelastic
(total) constituent of the material characterised by an elastic
relation between stress and the elastic part of strain. The
inelastic component of the material is specified by a rate
type constitutive assumption modelling either plastic flow,
viscoplasticity or creep. In particular, the material
description going back to E.H. Lee [10] takes advantage of the
fact that the elastic characteristics of the material may be
considered independent of preceding inelastic deformations to
a certain extent. This, however, applies to strain and stresses
referring to the socalled stressfree configuration fC of
the material. The stressfree configuration reflects the
result of inelastic deformation and is based on an imaginary
elastic local unloading of the deformed material, and is
generally discontinuous.
Elastic and inelastic strains are defined in accordance with
the aforementioned partitioning of the deformation process.
Thus, the total natural strain
 131 
== (2.4)
is a Greentype strain referring to the unloaded configuration.
This reference configuration is common to the elastic part of
strain Ct which then proves to be a Green strain, and the
inelastic part which is in accordance with an Almansi
definition. The stress is assumed to be that of the symmetric
PiolaKirchhoff definition with reference to the stressfree
configuration. It satisfies the virtual work expression in the
form
=
(2.5)
o
where ! is the density of the material and d't denotes the
time rate of the strain d't in (2.4) taken at a fixed stress
free configuration. Expression (2.5) provides a transition to
the Cauchy stress on the righthand side and can be used
directly to replace the integral on the lefthand side in
(2.1)
The elastic response of the material may be given via Hooke's
law as
G'
Pc
(2.6)
and connects the stress directly with the elastic part of
strain. Nevertheless, an integration in time of the particular
inelastic evolution law is still necessary in order to arrive
at the inelastic strain entering into the final expression in
(2.6). We should also note that the oombination of a total
elastic and a rate inelastic material constituent leads, in
principle, to nonsymmetric relations between stress rates and
strain rates.
 132 
In certain situations relevant to metal forming processes the
material can be modelled adequately as a purely viscous medium.
The constitutive relation for an isotopic material can then be
stated in natural terms as [6,7]
(2.7)
between the deviatoric parts of the Cauchy stress and the rate
of deformation, and as
between the hydrostatic stress and the volumetric rate of
deformation. In (2.7), f1 stands for the viscosity
(2.8)
coefficient of the material. Usually, the inelastic flow occurs
under isochoric conditions, so that the coefficient k in
(2.8) serves merely as a penalty parameter; in which case
X 00 The penalty approach is often used in order to
facilitate the treatment of the incompressibility constraint
by standard procedures. From (2.7) and (2.8), the natural form
of the viscous constitutive equations are derived in the form
[71
(2.9)
where the viscosity coefficient is the decisive material
characteristic and may be a nonlinear function of the rate of
deformation, and of the accumulated strain, if strain
hardening effects are to be considered in addition to the
viscous behaviour [4]. As a matter of fact, the constitutive
relation (2.9) may be substituted directly into the integral
on the lefthand side of (2.1).
 133 
For typographical brevity, the application of the natural
finite element technique to the discretisation of (2.1) will
be omitted here and the interested reader should refer to
(6,71 in connection with this. For the present purpose, quoting
the final equation governing quasistatic deformation of the
body discretised by finite elements in the form
(2.10)
is sufficient. Equation (2.10) expresses the equivalence
between the forces applied to the modes of the discretised
body as collected in the column matrix , and the nodal
stress resultants in the column matrix 5 . The dependence of
the external forces on the time t and possibly on the
current position of the nodal points as specified by the
column matrix )( is noticeable. The stress resultants 5 may
also depend on both the deforming geometry )( and, in the
case of a viscous material, on the velocity )(
3. An Account of Thermal Effects
Thermal effects can arise in the deforming solid by externally
applied thermal action and irreversible, as well as reversible,
deformations in the material. The interaction between the
transient fields of deformation and temperature in the body
necessitates the consideration of a coupled thermomechanical
problem.
For an account of thermal effects during the course of the
deformation process, the mechanical constitutive relations
must be modified for nonisothermal situations. For this
purpose, the rate equation in (2.3) may be stated in the form
=
(3.1)
 134 
where r denotes the absolute temperature and specifies
the rate thermal expansion of the material. That the material
characteristics depend on the temperature is not indicated
explicitly in (3.1), this also applies to the subsequent
considerations. The total formulation of the material
constitution as given in (2.6) may be modified for non
isothermal situations as follows
(3.2)
where T is the temperature of the actual stressfree state
and 0( accounts for the thermal expansion of the material in
a total sense. Finally, the nonisothermal form of the
constitutive equation for the viscous material (2.9) may be
stated as
(3.3)
The presence of the temperature as an additional variable
requires an appropriate governing equation. The latter is
provided by the energy balance. Considering the local form, we
have as usual
where
.f
is the
U the specific
material. The heat
by
9
and W is
of the rate of the
(3.4)
density of the reference configuration, and
internal energy (per unit mass) of the
supply per unit reference volume is denoted
the mechanical work. An adequate expression
specific internal energy and of the rate of
mechanical work in (3.4) furnishes (cf. [11)
JC T  =
(3.5)
 135 
In (3.5) C denotes the specific of the material
at constant strain. The stresses indicated and additive rates
o 0
of elastic and inelastic strain E
t
J 'It are not restricted
to a particular definition and may be adjusted to conform to
the particular stressstrain relations used for the
description of the material response. In (3.5) the entire
inelastic work represented by the second term on the right
hand side is assumed to be dissipated in the material.
A weak form of (3.5) is given for a finite volume V at the
reference configuration of the material as
J Tyc t dV  j T it dv = jT rdV + J1 u
G
t
1.t dV
V V V V
(3.6)
and establishes the starting point for a finite element
formulation of the temperature problem. Here, T denotes a
virtual temperature field. A complete specification of (3.6)
requires the expression of the rate of heat supply 9 in
terms of the temperature field. For this purpose, we introduce
the heat flow vector 9 first of all, which may be
represented in natural component or natural total terms
according to fig. 2. In particular, using the column matrix
.;
0(, . ", S
(3.7)
comprising the derivatives of the natural component heat flux
along the natural coordinates , the rate of heat
supply per unit volume of the material may be expressed as
(cf. [5,6J, fig.4)
(3.8)
where eo acts as a summation matrix for the six entries of
1:, . A natural form of Fourier's law may also be obtained
 136 
in the form
(3.9)
and this connects the total representation of the heat flux
9
t
with the temperature gradient along the natural
directions Alternative natural expressions of (3.9)
can be obtained via standard transformations [5,6]. Finally,
using (3.8), applying Gauss's theorem and considering Fourier's
law, the rate of heat supply integral in (3.6) may be
transformed into the convenient natural form [1,6]
1Tf dv = dv  J Tot (T T.",) cis
y V 0
(3.10)
where
[
dT ] t
tl[ = d Xc
(3. 11 )
denotes the total gradient of the virtual temperature field
and
= [dT ]t
dX
t
(3.12 )
denotes the component gradient of the actual temperature
distribution in the material. The heat transfer coefficient
in (3.10) controls the heat exchange with
temperature through the surface S
temperature /.
the surroundings at
with the local
With (3.10) all prerequisites are given for a natural finite
element formulation emanating from the weak expression of the
energy balance in (3.6). For an application of the
discretisation technique the reader should refer to L4,6].
The ultimate expression governing the energy balance in the
 137 
material discretised by finite elements assumes the form
CT + L(i)T
(3.13 )
and indicates the explicit coupling with the mechanical
variables. In (3.13)
c
denotes the heat capacity matrix,
L a generalised heat conductivity matrix comprising
reversible mechanical effects and Q is the generalised
heat flux comprising irreversible mechanical contributions.
The column matrix l' comprises the nodal point
temperatures which also influence the equations governing the
mechanical response of the discretised material via the non
isothermal stressstrain relations (3.1), (3.2), (3.3).
Consequently, (2.10) reads
o
(3.14 )
in the thermomechanically coupled case.
4. Computational Techniques
As an introduction, we will consider first of all the solution
of the purely mechanical problem governed by equation (2.10).
A fully algebraical equation can be obtained by linking
geometry and velocity in (2.10) via an approximate integration
within a time increment
b a
T : t  t
(4.1)
Thus, the geometry at the end of the time increment may be
given as
 138 
a a I.
X + (/$) r X t S 7: X
(4.2)
with
L
=
(4.3)
representing the collocation parameter. With the aid of (4.2)
either the deforming geometry )( = "X or the velocity
X= 1.;( may be considered to constitute the unknown variables
in (2.10). We may therefore state the problem of quasistatic
deformation at time instant I = 'I in the form
f (Y) = R.. (t, Y)  5 (y) = 0
(4.4)
.
where Y stands for )( or )( at the end of the current
time increment.
A solution of the nonlinear system (4.4) is given
subsequently on the basis of the iterative Newton technique.
The relevant recurrent formula reads
f
l
, + 6. [y,  y,] = 0
I If! I
(4.5)
and furnishes the result of iteration i f/ using the data
obtained in the ith iteration cycle.
It should be noted that an evaluation of the residual forces
f according to (4.4) is required in (4.5). This implies the
computation of the resultants of the internal stresses at the
nodal pOints of the discretised material. We then have
(4.6)
 139 
and the local stresses (f obey the constitutive law of the
particular material. The rate relation in (2.3) then requires
the application of an integration procedure while the latter
may be restricted to the inelastic constituent of the material
as stated by (2.6). The viscous material described by (2.9)
immediately specifies the stresses as a function of the actual
velocity gradient and here, the integration in time concerns
merely the global level and is given in (4.2).
The system gradient in (4.5) is defined by
6 =: dF ;::. 'JR. dX _ 85 dX uS di
d"l ()X d Y c;X dy ,()X c/Y (4.7)
where expression (4.4) has been used for the function F . We
must remember that the relation between )( I it and Y is
provided by the choice of the unknown variables in (4.4) and
the integration scheme in (4.2). Inviscid problems are
formulated preferably in terms of the deforming geometry )(
while;( might be convenient in the case of viscous motion.
The basic constituents of the gradient matrix in (4.7) may be
given as follows. The matrix
(4.8)
is known as the load correction matrix which accounts for the
dependence of the applied loads on the geometry [121. The
derivatives of the stress resultants are easily interpreted by
means of the presentation in (4.6). In a symbolic notation
(4.9)
The geometric stiffness K. IT reflects the effect of changes
in geometry at constant stress and results from changes of
stress associated with changes in geometry. This also presumes
 140 
dependence of the stress on the strain in the material which is
to be deduced from the particular constitutive relation.
Also
'JS(x, X) = fa) 'd (f ::
D
(4.10)
reflects the viscous properties of the material in the
behaviour of the discretised body. It should be noticed that
use of the complete expression for the system gradient is not
always possible. Nevertheless, a consideration of (4.8), (4.9)
and (4.10) is useful in order to select suitable approximations
to the gradient in the iterative scheme of (4.5).
Next, we proceed to the numerical solution of the thermo
mechanically coupled problem, the thermal part of which is
governed by (3.13). A fully algebraic expression of this
equation is obtained by
rate via an approximate
leading from time
linking the temperature and its time
integration within each time step T
to time 6e . In analogy to (4.2)
(4.11)
and hence (3.13) may be written at the end of the incremental
step at time t = of in the form
(4.12)
(3.14) is also symbolised by
(4.13)
and together with (4.12) constitutes the system of equations
governing the coupled thermomechanical problem. Obviously an
 141 
alternative choice of the set of variables is equally possible.
A solution of (4.12), (4.13) via the Newton technique is given
by means of the recurrent formula
(4.14)
where the particular gradients can be derived from the
governing equations but are conveniently replaced by
approximate expressions. Assuming offdiagonal terms to be
zero, reduces the problem to the uncoupled treatment of the
individual problems in (4.14). Alternatively, equations (4.12)
and (4.13) may be solved sequentially in conformity with the
scheme
fA ( X'fl ) )
=
0 for X.
1+/
and
(4.15 )
f7 (1. ) X. ) = 0
I +/ 111
for
The technique applied to the solution of each equation in
(4.15) can be adjusted to the individual character of the two
expressions. Within the range of our applications, the scheme
provided by (4.15) proves the most suitable [3,13].
5. Contact and
This section gives a brief report on some preliminary
investigations of friction phenomena which result at the
contact surface between tool and material in the course of the
deformation process. These investigations are based on a
 142 
numerical simulation of experimental tests performed at the
"Institut fur Bildsame Formgebung" in Aachen.
In order to study friction phenomena between tool and material,
friction coefficients are first obtained by means of the
numerical simulation of an upsetting test. Subsequently, an
attempt is made to explore the results in the light of
frictional laws reported in the literature (cf. [14,15] for
example). Furthermore, these results are applied to the
numerical simulation of a second upsetting test and
comparisons with experimental data are given.
The upsetting test used for a determination of friction
coefficients is described in fig. 5. The geometry of the
axisymmetric, cylindrical specimen is specified in the figure
together with the uniaxial stressstrain diagram of the steel
material. In addition, the 12 x 12 finite element mesh is
indicated in fig. 5 as used in conjunction with 4node
axisymmetric elements. A reduced (onepoint) integration rule
is applied to the volumetric response of the element in order
to avoid an overintegration of the incompressibility
constraint governing the inelastic response of the material.
A primary investigation is based on a prescribed motion of the
surface of the specimen which is in contact with the die. In
this case, the motion of the respective nodes is steered in the
axial and the radial direction in accordance with the data
provided by the experimental investigation. Thus, the radial
velocity of the material must vary with the radius at the
contact surface as indicated by the experimental line in fig.8.
This variation is independent of the reduction in height of the
specimen. The latter is followed numerically up to a final
value of 16 mm using 100 increments. Both the elastoplastic
and the rigid plastic material model yield the same results
at the global and the local level. The stage of deformation
which is finally obtained is shown in fig. 6 together with the
intermediate one. The load required for the upsetting of the
 143 
specimen is depicted in fig. 7. The results of the computation
are shown in comparison with experimental data. In addition to
the described procedure, alternative investigations concern
application of Coulomb friction at the contact surface between
tool and material. The results obtained with a friction
coefficient c::: 0./5 are also plotted in fig. 7 and indicate a
certain insensitivity of global behaviour with respect to the
variations employed. Local behaviour, on the other hand, seems
to be more sensitive to the assumption of friction. As an
example, fig. 8 shows the effect of the friction coefficient
employed on the radial velocity at the contact surface.
The experimentally driven computation of the upsetting test is
subsequently considered to simulate the relevant mechanical
phenomena adequately. On the basis of the numerical results a
friction coefficient
c
(5.1)
is obtained locally as the quotient of the stress r tangential
to the contact surface and the contact pressure u
Figure 9 indicates the variation of the calculated stress
ratio over the radius of the contact surface at different
stages of the upsetting process. In accordance with the
pertinent literature on the subject (cf. [14,15], for example),
our next step is to seek an interpretation of the friction
coefficient as a function of the local contact pressure
and of the local sliding displacement u . Thus, we assume
that a dependence
C ::: C ( u, u)
(5.2)
exists. The respective variations obtained from the numerical
data are depicted in figs. 10 and 11. In particular, fig. 10
shows the dependence of C on the sliding displacement at
 144 
different intensities of contact pressure while fig. 11
illustrates the variations of C with contact pressure at
different stages of sliding. Both diagrams achieve the
expected frictional behaviour in their tendencies. Motivated by
the work described in reference [16], the diagrams in figs. 10,
11 may be approximated by a function of the type
where Co and /'/0 are considered to depend on the contact
pressure and are specified in accordance with the
available data.
(5.3)
The above results are applied next to the numerical solution
of a second upsetting test described in fig. 12. The 14 x 10
finite element discretisation employed is analogous to that of
the previous case. The computation is performed up to a
reduction in height of 4 rom using 80 increments. Fig. 13 shows
the final deformed stage compared with an intermediate stage.
The load required for upsetting the test specimen is depicted
in fig. 14 and shows the results of two computations against
the experimental data. The two distinct computations differ by
the boundary condition applied on the contact surface with the
tool. In one version, the radial velocity is prescribed
according to the experimental data given in fig. 15. In the
other, the friction law of (5.3) is implemented as an
approximation to the results of the former investigation in
figs. 10 and 11.
Fig. 15 shows the variation of the radial velocity of the
material along the contact surface. The experimental line is
independent of the reduction in height and indicates the
existence of a neutral point characterised by zero radial
velocity. The numerical results which account for a variation
of the friction coefficient with both the sliding
displacement and the contact pressure, approach the experiment
 145 
well at the early stage of the deformation and are shown once
in fig. 15. Results obtained with a dependence of the friction
coefficient on the sliding displacement only, representative of
a mean contact pressure, exhibit a better comparison with the
experiment at higher deformations and are indicated in fig. 15.
As a matter of fact, the degree of reproduction of the
experimental data depends largely on a reasonable approximation
of the friction in figs. 10, 11. The following two facts,
however, might indicate the relevance of the applied approach
to friction. The diagrams in fig. 15 reproduce, to a certain
extent, the invariance with respect to the stage of the
upsetting process, in accordance with the experimental
recognitions. This is not the case when using a constant
friction coefficient in the computation. Furthermore, the
computational treatment of the neutral point requires special
techniques in conjuction with a constant C , while
accounting for its dependence on the sliding displacement,
allows standard procedures to be applied. Nevertheless, a
considerable amount of work is still to be invested in order
to obtain satisfactory answers to this complicated problem.
6. Forging of an Aircraft Turbine Blade
Here, we consider the forging process of an aircraft turbine
blade, shown in fig. 16, as a particular application of the
techniques outlined. The initial geometry of the material and
the geometry of the final product are specified in fig. 17.
One recognises the complex threedimensional nature of the
forging process involving unsteady contact of material and die.
In addition, the significant coupling of thermal and mechanical
phenomena must be accounted for during the course of the bulk
forming process.
An illustration of the principle of the forging process is
given in fig. 18. Accordingly, the hot material, actually
Ti  6Al  4V at 7 =/203 t is formed through a
 146 
relatively cold die subject to T<>o =Jj13i<. In order to prevent
extensive heat loss, the die velocity must be high. Here, it
is taken to be V= 0./ ...... Heat transfer to the surrounding
air is accounted for as well as heat transfer to the die as
respective surfaces come into contact instantaneously. The
relevant heat transfer coefficients are specified in the
figure. Besides, heat generation due to dissipation within the
material and heat conduction are important. In the present
case, the contact between the material and die is assumed to
be frictionless.
Fig. 19 indicates the thermomechanical properties of the
Ti6Al4V alloy, as reported in (4,131. Under the assumed
forging conditions, this alloy can be assumed to act as a
rigid viscous material. For different temperatures covering the
range of interest, the dependence of the stress on the
rate of deformation S under uniaxial test conditions is
shown in the upper diagram of fig. 19. The intermediate diagram
in this figure indicates the dependence of the stress on the
temperature of various prescribed rates of deformation. The
lower diagram specifies the dependence of the material's
thermal conductivity ) and its specific heat capacity C on
the temperature 1
The finite element discretisation of the materia.l given
initially is depicted in fig. 20. The mesh consists of 1356
nodal pOints comprising 1020 hexahedral eightnode elements
(HEXE 8). The volumetric response of the element is obtained
by a reduced integration rule in conjunction with the penalty
approach. The problem specified yields 3676 unknown velocities
and 1356 unknown temperatures which are necessary for the
description of the unsteady thermomechanically coupled process.
The kinematic boundary conditions for the blade material are
automatically updated in the course of the computation in
order to simulate the motion of the die towards the material's
desired ultimate shape. Concerning the foot, out of plane
motion on the front and back vertical surfaces is suppressed,
 147 
while the sides are free to move. The motion of the upper and
lower horizontal planes has to follow the die.
The forging process is' numerically traced via a thermo
mechanically coupled computation using 100 equal time
increments of T=2.5 The results of the computation are
shown in figs. 21 to 24. Fig. 21 illustrates the stages of
deformation during the forging process at 80 %, 90 % and 100 %
of the ultimate die motion. The development of the associated
temperature field for the surface of the material is given in
fig. 22. A temperature decrease of approximately 400 K is
noticeable, this is caused by the contact with the cold die.
Finally, figs. 23 and 24 demonstrate the deformation of a
prescribed crosssection and the associated unsteady
temperature field at significant stages of the numerical
simulation of the forging process.
References
(11 Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.: On the natural
formulation and analysis of large deformation coupled
thermomechanical problems, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech.
Engrg. 25 (1981), pp. 195253
(2) Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.; Pimenta, P.M. and
Wlistenberg, H.: Thermomechanical response of solids at
high strains  natural approach, Comput. Meths. Appl.
Mech. Engrg. 32 (1982), pp. 357
[3J Doltsinis, J.St.: Physical and numerical aspects in
large deformation coupled thermomechanical problems,
The 18th Israel Conference on Mechanical Engineering,
Technion, Haifa, June 27  28th, 1984
 148 
[4] Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.; Fischer, H. and
Wustenberg, H.: .. III .. , Fenomech '84
Conference, Stuttgart, Sept. 10  14th, 1984, Comput.
Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg., to appear 1985.
[5] Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St.: The natural concept of
material description, ASME  Symposium on Constitutive
Equations, Winter Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Dec. 10
14th, 1984.
[6] Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis, J.St; Pimenta, P.M. and
Wustenberg H.: Natural finite element techniques for
viscous fluid motion, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg.
45 (1984), pp. 355.
[7J Argyris, J.H. and Doltsinis, J.St.: A primer on super
plasticity in natural formulation, Comput. Meths. Appl.
Mech. Engrg. 46 (1984), pp. 83131.
[81 Prager, W.: Introduction to Mechanics of Continua, Ginn,
Boston, 1961.
[9] Hill, R.: Some basic principles in the mechanics of
solids without a natural time, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 7
(1959), pp. 209225.
1101 Lee, E.H.: Elastoplastic deformation at finite strain,
J. Appl. Mech. 36 (1961) pp. 16.
[11) Green, A.E. and Naghdi, P.lL: A general theory of an
elasticplastic continuum, Arch. Rat. Mech. Ann. 18
( 1 965), pp. 251 2 81 .
112 ]
Argyris, J.H.; Straub, K. and Symeonidis, Sp.: Static
and dynamic stability of nonlinear elastic systems
under nonconservative forces  natural approach, Comput.
Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 3234 (1982), pp. 5983.
(14)
 149 
Argyris, J.H.; Doltsinis J.St.; Kneese, F.; Wustenberg,
H.: Numerik thermomechanischer Vorgange, lCAReport No.
1, Stuttgart (1984).
Herbertz, R.; Cho, M.L.: Reibungsmechanismen in der
Grenzflache Werkstuck/Werkzeug bei Umformverfahren und
daraus resultierende Probleme fur theoretische
Berechnungen, Arch. Eisenhuttenwes. 54 (1983), pp. 499
502.
Oden, J.T. and Martins, J.A.C.: Models and
computational methods for dynamic friction phenomena,
Fenomech '84 Conference, Stuttgart, Sept. 10  14th,
Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg., to appear 1985.
Taylor, L.M. and Becker, E.B.: Some computational
aspects of large deformation, ratedependent plasticity
problems, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg 41 (1983),
pp. 251277.
150 
fF?l
j'"
,,X
Parallelepiped Cartesian directions.
(0) Cartesian approach
Tetrahedron Naturel directions
(b) Natura I approach
Fig. Cartesian and natural system of reference
Triangle
Natural directions
Notura I and cartes ion directions
(o) Reference systems
Component definition
Cartesian definitions
Tatar definition
(Non unique composition of 0 vector)
(Unique decomposition of a vector)
Fig. 2
" b) Alternative of veclor
Natural and cartesian specifications of a
vector for the twodimensional case
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
 151 
Corresponding definitions of natural
stresses and rates of deformation
Heat to a natural element due to a
component heat flux vector
(;= PIA
800 NImm2
600
h = 29.85mm
r
Fig. 5
400
200
a
= lnlh/oh)
"d=4 32mm
a 0.4 OB 1.2
'tl=19.98mml
Cylindrical specimen under compression.
Geometry and uniaxial material properties
tfI
500.00 kN
P
400.00
300.00
200.00
100.00
a
a
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Fig. 6
 152 
.4h=8mm
.4h=16mm
tfJj
Stages of deformation
o 0 0 0 EXPERIMENT
PRESCRIBED RADIAL VELOCITIES vr
FRiCTION c=0.15
.1h
4.00 8.00 12.00 mm
16.00
Fig. 7
Load  compression diagram
 153 
.400 mm/s
.300
.200
.100
o
EXPERIMENT
 COMPUTATION, c =0.15
___ =,r____ .__ O..:.r __ ..,
2.00 4.00 6.00 B.OO I .00 mm 12.00
Fig. 8
Radial velocity Vr at contact surface
for a friction coefficient C;: 0.15
.75
T
G
.50
Lfh= 16mm
.25
1.6
B.O
.25
r
.50+,.r,...
2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 1000 mm 12.00
Fig. 9
Ratio of tangential stress r to normal stress (j'
along contact surface
 154 
.400
c
.lOO
.100
.400
c
.300
.200
.100
o .050 .100 .150 200 mm
Fig. 10 Variation of friction coefficient C with
sliding displacement U for different normal
pressures (J'
U = O.Olmm
.250
300.00 350.00 400.00 450.00 50000 550.00 600.00
N/mm2
Fig. 11 Variation of friction coefficient C with
normal pressure rr for different displacements U
 155 
a = PIA
800 N/mm'
z
r
200
>"D=28.SS6mm
a 0.4 0.8 1.2
Fig. 12 Short cylindrical specimen under
compression. Geometry and uniaxial
material properties
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Fig. 13 Stages of deformation
.dh:2mm
.dh:4mm
700.00 kN
p
600.00
500.00
400.00
300.00
200.00
100.00
 156 
e e e a EXPERIMENT
PRESCRIBED RAD IAL VELOCITIES v,
FRiCTION, c= c (u,.)
O+______________
o 1.00 2.00 3.00 mm 4.00
Fig. 14 Load  compression diagram
1.00 mm/s
.75
.50
.25
 EXPERIMENT
 FRICTION, c=clu)
 FRICTION, PC lu,u}
'r
7.00 11.00 13.00 mm 15.00
Fig. 15 Radial velocity U
r
along contact surface
 157 
Fig. 16 Turbine blade
O.1mls
Fig. 17 Forging of a turbine blade
/
OIIIGINAL PF!OOUCT
8 K 61.74 mm
H . 65. 2' mm
L 192. 00 mm
D = 2l. 30mm
t 20,00 Mrn
d. 12 .S0mm
DIE VELOCITY
If_ O.lm/s
Fig. 18 Description of forging process
Fig.
19
 158 
10'
tI MN/m
2
10'
1100 1200
20
A
15
liDO 1200
K
K
T. 1100 K
T.1200K
T. 1300K
1.10
.,
'c10
1
r'
,.10
a3
.
1
1300
liDO
c
1000
900
Thermomechanical properties of
Ti6Al4V material
1356 NODAL POINTS
1020 HEXE 8  ELEMENTS
3676 UNKNOWN VELOCITIES
1356 UNKNOWN TEMPERATURES
Fig. 20 Finite element mesh
F
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.
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a

D
 161 
Discussions (Session Ib)
Mahrenholtz (Chairman): Before we start to discuss I want to thank Profes
sor Argyris for his excellent presentation through the concluding film.
Again, a very broad approach of both of our speakers to the subject. There
are, am sure, a lot of questions. We have a little overdone the time of
presentation and I have to ask the organizer how we could proceed, because
I wouldn't interrupt the program.
Tekkaya (organizer): I think we can have 20 minutes of discussion.
Mahrenholtz: About 20 minutes discussion, okay. So we then should imme
diately start to do so and I'm asking for the first question. Professor
Steck.
Steck: I have a question t2 Dr. Sturgess concerning his generalized pla
stic work criterium for fracture. Is it possible to give a number for how
much plastic work can be accumulated depending on the material before frac
ture, or is it just a magnitude criterium, so that you check the element
which has the most plastic work accumulated?
Sturgess: Now, we go only through all of the elements, we pick out the one
which got most of plastic work, that is, the one most likely to fail and we
use that to indicate the size of the fracture. Once we identify the size
of the fracture, then there is commonly identified the level of deforma
tion. To date, any fracture criteria is a criteria equal to a magic number
which you've got to get from some test data and we've chosen to use the
tensile test, because it is today the most simple one. We do the tensile
test, work out this magic number from the tensile test, and say in the pro
gram, when accumulating plastic work equal to the number as derived from
the tensile test then it will fracture. And we get with 70 75 Al and Cup
per about 1 %  1.15 % error ...
Steck: This number is material depending?
Sturgess: Yes, it is material depending.
Steck: It is strongly materialdependent, not processdependent.
 162 
Rowe: The number I'd like to take from the tensile test on aluminium alloy
on various processes or other materials  it doesn't matter where you are 
it's like an ultimate tensile strength.
Steck: After you determine the element in which the crack will set on, you
will probably find that you have elements with the second most, the third
most plastic work accumulated. Will the crack propagate in this direction?
Sturgess: We haven't considered that point yet. Because, once a crack
occured, the continuing analysis seemed to be irrelevant. We are not mode
ling a crack; we have a continuum and are just trying to isolate the number
for which the crack will initiate. What we have to do then is to simulate
the crack.
Altan: have two questions to Professor Argyris. In the turbine blade
simulation, although it was threedimensional, the same results could be
obtained by a twodimensional simulation. The problem in turbine blade is,
the transition from the root to the blade. Have you studied, investigated
the deformation mode in that area? That is very critical, very difficult,
in threedimensions to simulate. The rest of the section, although it is
quasi threedimensional, the same information can be very accurately obtai
ned by a twodimensional analysis.
Argyris: You are right, concerning the axial turbine blade away from the
root itself. Nevertheless, we have even there flow of material in either
direction, because also contact is changing all the time, you see. So, you
don't have an uniform contact. One of the greatest difficulties is the
change of contact. I would like to say, that to my great disknowledgement,
at the NUMETA conference in January 85 at Swansea, organized by Professor
Zienkiewicz, there was a participant, I forgot his name, from Livermore
Laboratories ...
Rowe: Benson.
Argyris: Benson, Dr. Benson, Livermore Laboratories, they were so intri
gued by the results of our FENOMECHpaper, that they attempted to repeat
also the calculations at Livermore.
Altan: They did. I have seen it.
 163 
Argyris: You have seen it. But, from the results I saw at NUMETA they
were not as smooth as our results, but it was remarkable that they did it
in such a short time. Now, as far as the root, we had difficulties there,
mainly due the flow of the material in/out and the sharp 'change of the bil
let there, producing difficulties. But thanks to the trying efforts of Dr.
Doltsinis and Luginsland, there are some results. But I would say, that we
would have not much, if we had done a second twodimensional analysis of
the main turbine blade, because we would have difficulties anyhow, going
towards the roots. So that is my impression. I have to repeat, I haven't
done any actual dieprocess in my life, so, I speak as a theoretician.
Altan: Second question, if I may.
Mahrenholtz: If I can just add a quick question, Professor Argyris. It
looked like a planestrain deformation. This was obviously due to the
fact, that the original shape was such that it filled the die shape in any
crosssection. That is correct? I mean the original conical shape of the
rod was such that it prevented more or less axial deformation, displJce
ment.
Argyris: But we had axial displacement. Not very pronounced, but we had.
Mahrenholtz: But this was obviously due to the original shape of the spe
cimen. That's right?
Argyris: Yes. More or less. Yes.
Altan: May I ask my second question?
Mahrenho1tz: Yes.
Altan: The short cylinder you simulated  you had two cylinders at the
beginning of the presentation , the short cylinder, could you please tell
me on which processor did you simulate it and how much time did it take,
the second one.
Argyris: The short specimen?
Altan: Yes.
 164 
Argyris: think , on which computer did we do that, Herr Luginsland?
Doltsinis: CRAY.
Agyris: It was done also on the CRAY.
Altan (after whistle): How long did it take?
Luginsland: Five, six minutes.
Altan: Five, six minutes on the CRAY? And that is elasticplastic?
Doltsinis: Rigidplastic.
Altan: That is too much.
Argyris: I'd probably say, the difference between rigidplastic and ela
stoplastic cannot be shown in .
Altan: In that case?
Argyris: In that case. I forgot to mention that there is hardly any noti
ceable difference between the diagrams.
Mahrenholtz: Mr. Tekkaya, you had a question.
Tekkaya: Yes, I have a question to Clive Sturgess. You know, you define a
corotational strain component and you do that with the argument, that we
have some Jaumann rate, some sort of Jaumann rate, for the stress and
should have the same for the deformation. However, the objectivity for the
deformation is given, since the rate of deformation tensor is objective
anyhow. So, why do we need another corotational measure for the strain?
Sturgess: It is not a right formulation but ...
Pillinger: The rate is objective but not the increment.
Tekkaya: So for the stress.
 165 
Pillinger: Yes, okay. You think about the Jaumann rate in this case. But
the same has to be true for the strain. If you work it out, you will find
that any superimposed rotation gives you an enormous value.
Tekkaya: Okay, that is for numerical discretisation, for the time discre
tisation. But, if you use it in the material law, you have to be consi
stent and have to use a similar incremental objective stress rate measure
on the lefthand side. That is, you have to transfer both of the objective
rates stress and strain  into an incremental objective form, not only
the strain. Have you done such transformations also for the stressrate?
Pillinger: If you use the incremental objective stress rate, your strain
has to be also incremental objective.
Tekkaya: That means, you have used an incremental objective stressrate.
Pillinger: Yes.
Tekkaya: Thank you.
Stalmann: I have a question to Professor Argyris regarding your last cal
culation of the turbine blade. How did you solve the contact problem? What
is your method of describing the surface traction and can you tell us how
many percent, roughly, takes the contact calculation related to the overall
time?
Ooltsinis: There is no problem with contact. We have to test against the
geometry of the die and the material is not allowed to move into the die.
It was without friction.
Argyris: The turbine blade computation was without friction. Every time.
Stalmann: And you have only nodal points or you have a surface function?
Ooltsinis: We have only nodal points.
Stalmann: And how many nodal points do you have, as much as on the surface
of your finite element mesh?
 166 
Doltsinis: We have an analytical description of the die surface and the
nodal points of the mesh are not allowed to go into the die.
Stalmann: And you need a penalty function?
Doltsinis: Yes.
Altan: I have one more question to turbine blade. Actually. two more que
stion. One: does your program have a preprocessor built into it. second.
did you have a remeshing to be able to continue deformation after a certain
amount of deformation?
Doltsinis: We don't have remeshing in this case.
Argyris: We didn't do any remeshing.
Altan:
blems?
You can take that tremendous amount of deformation without pro
Doltsinis: Without remeshing.
Altan: How much time did it take you to prepare the initial mesh. enginee
ring time? So. let's say on the CRAY two hours. but how much would be your
estimate, if you have to do a similar problem. in terms of preparing the
mesh and preparing the data. and inputting the data ...
Doltsinis: would say two weeks. Also. in order to take the geometry
from the blade. from the actual blade, you know.
Marten: You have presented a thermomechanical coupled analysis. Could you
say something about the finite element transformation. Especially. time
integration and materials with large temperature gradients.
Argyris: The time integration was the same as I showed you there on the
motion scheme. It was on time a linear scheme between the velocity at the
beginning and the velocity of the gradient of the temperature at the begin
ning and at the end. It was a linear interpolation between the stage A and
stage B.
 167 
Marten: Then you show us a scheme for explicit and implicit time integra
tion. There was a factor you can change to go over from explicit to have
implicit integration. What have you used for this factor?
Argyris: One half.
Marten: And have you had difficulties with the large temperature gradient?
Argyris: But you have large temperature gradients, you have enormous tem
perature gradients on the specimen. You have large temperature differences.
Marten: And there are no problems?
Argyris: I didn't say there were no problems, but in four weeks we have
solved the problems. (Laughing)
Sturgess: A question to Professor Argyris on the friction work on the
rings. You used a friction coefficient. Did you tryout a shear factor
approach?
Argyris: No. Our friction coefficient shows a complicated dependence from
velocity, stresses and all that. I forgot to mention, Coulomb friction is
an abstraction that doesn't apply to this problem. So, we just force it
more or less into this calculation and put all our difficulties into this
friction coefficient. I wouldn't say that this is an ideal state, it is a
means to solve the problem. I don't say you should put it into a textbook.
(Laughing)
Mahrenholtz: A question to Dr. Sturgess from myself. Your threedimensio
nal approach to the block compression, with the rectangular crosssection.
So, the main flow direction came up from the Mises flow rule, that is cor
rect?
Sturgess: Yes.
Mahrenholtz: The components of the stress deviator?
Sturgess: Of course.
 168 
Mahrenholtz: No additional assumption? Nothing?
Sturgess: No. It is straightforward, isotropic. Again, the difficulties
we may have there, could be not only anisotropic friction, but anisotropic
material properties. In bulkforming processes, anisotropic material pro
perties are probably second order.
Tekkaya: I have a question to Clive. You showed that example of rolling
and there is a problem of neutralpoint. You know, you get that oscilla
tion in rolling force or rolling torque due to the discretization of boun
dary conditions. Now, do you have problems caused by this oscillations in
the determination of the neutralpoint?
Sturgess: No. There were no oscillations at all.
Tekkaya: You do not have any oscillating rolling torque?
Sturgess: No. We haven't noticed it. We always plot normal pressure dis
tribution to shear stress distribution. From the shear stress distribu
tion, we then integrate it and calculate the torque. So, we are not calcu
lating the torque incrementally. If we did it, we would probably get os
cillations.
Dung: I have a question on your fracture criterion. So, you use a plastic
work criterion for your fracture. Do you use the yield stress in order to
calculate this plastic work?
Sturgess: Yes.
Dung: That means, you don't need the hydrostatic stress for the plastic
work computation. Oh, I see. Because, this may be only good for your pro
blem, mean sidepressing of a circular rod, but not for other problems,
let's say forging of cylinders, because you have a large hydrostatic stress
in these problems.
Sturgess: In the presentation, I show the example of planestrain side
pressing. We have also done upsetting, simple upsetting, striptension and
compression, by that we mean, a strip with a machined groove pulled to
fracture, and then a strip with a forged groove pulled to fracture. And we
 169 
analysed the combined forging subsequent tensile process using the finite
element to get various strain trajectories. We have also done forwardex
trusion as yet, it seems the generalized plastic work  shear work  is a
reasonable indicator for fracture. I believe, all fractures are shear
fractures, I don't believe there is something like a tensile fracture.
Because of shear fracture, because generalized plastic work is shear work,
it seems a very sensible parameter to me. But, I accept there is also a
hydrostatic component, which has got to be cooperated.
 170 
Numerical Simulation of Stretch Forming Processes
Kjell Mattiasson, Department of Structural Mechanics, Chalmers
University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden
Arne Melander, The Swedish Institute for Metals Research,
Stockholm, Sweden
Summary
Constitutive relations and finite element formulations for
elasticplastic and rigidplastic materials in sheet metal
forming analysis are reviewed. In the present study an elastic
plastic material model and a Total Lagrangian finite element
formulation is used. Arbitrarily shaped punches and dies can
be treated. The interface contact forces between the tools
and the metal sheet are assumed to be either of Coulomb fric
tion type or simply a constant shear stress. The effects of
various material parameters and friction in the strain distribu
tion in hemispherical punch stretching have been investigated
numerically and are shown in diagrams. A few experimentally
determined strain distributions are shown and are compared
with results from finite element calculations.
Introduction
Finite element procedures for sheet metal forming analysis
can be classified into two main groups depending on if they
are based on an elsticplastic or a rigidplastic material
model. Large strain formulations may be based on either an Eu
lerian or a Lagrangian description of motion, leading to two
basically different .finite element procedures with nodal velo
cities and nodal incremental displacements, respectively, as
primary unknowns.
In Ch. 2 the constitutive equations for the two material models
above are derived. A number of finite element procedures for
large strain analvsis of sheet metal problems are reviewed.
The elasticplastic material model leads natural Iv to a Laq
 171 
rangian finite element formulation, while both Lagrangian and
Eulerian formulations have been used in connection with the
rigidplastic model. In Ch. 2 all formulas are given for the
case of plane stress, thus forming the basis of a membrane or
shell theory. The assumption of plane stress is justified if
the sheet thickness is much smaller than the radius of curva
ture of the tools, in which case the variations of stress and
strain across the thickness are negligable.
In Ch. 3 the finite element procedure developed in the present
study is described. It is based on an elasticplastic material
law and a total Lagrangian formulation. The membrane theory is
adopted, thus limiting the application of the procedure to
problems where bending effects are negligable. Threedimensi
onal, triangular eilements are employed, permitting fairly ge
neral shaped punches and dies to be treated.
The tangential nodal forces, arising from sliding contact be
tween the sheet and the tools, may in the present procedure
be of Coulomb friction type, or result from a constant inter
face shear stress. The contact forces at a node act as a non
conservative load and yield a nonsymmetric contribution to
the tangent stiffness matrix. The contact equations are con
sidered by socalled 'contact elements', defined for each con
tact node. In these nodes the normal force will act as an ex
tra unknown.
The strainrate may have a significant influence on the strain
distribution in sheet metal forming processes. In the present
study this effect is considered simply by letting the effec
tive stress be a function also of the effective strainrate.
The program has been used to simulate hemispherical punch
stretching in order to study the effects on the strain distri
bution of various material parameters. The results from this
study are discussed in Ch. 4.
Strain distributions from nine different materials, obtained
by the finite element program, have been compared with the
corresponding strain distributions, experimentally determined
at the Swedish Institute for Metals Researh. Four of these
are dispayed in Ch. 5.
 172 
2 A review of constitutive relations and finite element
procedures for sheet metal forming analysis
2.1
Numerical analyses of metal forming processes reported in the
literature are based on constitutive models such as elastic
plastic and rigidplastic (or viscoplastic). The finite ele
ment formulations described are in each case closely associated
with the particular material model used.
The object of the present chapter is to give a review of the
most common constitutive models used in sheet metal forming
analysis. Finite element formulations associated with the
various material models will be briefly described. Formulas
presented are given for the case of plane stress. Further
more the various material models are all assumed to obey
Hill's modification of von Mises' yield criterion to states
of initital normal anisotropy and its associated flow rule.
2.2
The constitutive law presented here is the generalization to
large strains of the J
2
flow theory for elasticplastic ma
terials proposed by Hutchinson [1]. The effects of normal ani
sotropy are considered through the generalization of von Mises'
yield criterion to states of initial anisotropy as suggested
by Hill [2]. These constitutive relations were first presented
by Wang and Budiansky [3]. Detailed derivations are found in
Mattiasson [4,5].
For a material which is (or in the case of
plane stress  isotropic in the plane of stress) and
the can be expressed as
This relation implies that yielding occurs when the
G
e
, which is a scalar function of the threedimensional
state of stress, reaches a critical value H, which in turn is
a function of the The function
 173 
H(E{P is obtained from a uniaxial stress  plastic strain
e
curve.
The condition states that the plastic rate of defor
mation vector (P) is outward normal to the yield surface
f = O. This is expressed as
(2 )
where is a scalar function that depends on the current state
of stress and strain. The relationship (2) is called an a660
ciated blow
During loading in the plastic range the stress point remains
on the yield surface. This implies that f = 0, which is known
as the con6i6tency condition. In the present case we find
af : 6  H' (p)
"ji(J e
o (3)
where H' = dH/dE(P) is the slope of the uniaxial stress
e *
plastic strain curve, and is the or the
Jaumann defined by
* .
o = 0 + 0  W 0 (4)
and W is the spin tensor.
The eboective pla6tic is defined by the rela
tion
(5)
where 0' is the deviatoric stress tensor.
Combining Eqs. (2), (3), and (5), and solving for A, we get
From Eqs. (1) and (3) the following relations are obtained
H' . (p)
Ee
o
e
(6)
(7)
 174 
Combining Egs. (2), (6), and (7), we can express the plastic
rate of deformation as
0
e
e/
H
' 3f
(3f/3) :' aa
(8)
The effective stress according to Hill's yield condition for
normal anisotropy is in a convected coordinate system given by
(9)
where Greek indices are ranging from 1 to 2 and R is the ani
sotropy parameter, defined as the ratio of plastic width strain
rate to plastic thickness strain rate in a uniaxial test of a
sheet specimen. For R = 1 Eg. (8) reduces to the wellknown
von Mises effective stress.
The gradient 3f/30
aS
is now found to be
3f
30
aS
3o
e
30
aS
1 1 +2R[ as
a 1+R
e
Furthermore, the effective stress rate 0e is obtained as
The Jaumann stress rate component is given by
(10)
( 11 )
(12 )
The following equality can be shown to hold (see Mattiasson
[4,5]) :
(If
3a :'
( 13)
The plastic rate of deformation component .can now finally,
in view of Egs. (8), (10), and (13), be written as
 175 
(14 )
The large strain elasticplastic constitutive law being derived
here is based on the assumption that the rate of deformation
tensor 2 can be additively decomposed into an elastic and a
plastic part, i.e.
2
2 (e)
+
n2(P)
(15 )
ex = if 0
0 and 0
(0 e) max
e e
.
(0 e) max
ex = 0 if 0 < 0 or 0 <
e e
The elastic part, 2(e), is simply provided by Hooke's law in
the case of plane stress. In order to make the constitutive
law obey the 06 it is written in terms
of the objective Jaumann stress rate.
The stressstrain relation in stiffness form may be consider
ably simplified by making two additional assumptions:
1. The material is assumed to be elastically incompressible,
. (e) 0
l..fl. 0ii = .
2. The elastic width and thickness strain rates are assumed
to be related like the corresponding plastic ones, i.e.
Dee) /o(e) = R
22 33
As a consequence of these assumptions the following relation
is obtained:
R
v = 1+R
( 16)
The components of the rate of deformation tensor can now be
written
1+2R[1 ( R ) 6YP +
nS 1+R E gexygSp  1+2R gexSgyp
+ ex (gexygsP  1!2R
g
exS
g
yP)OYP]
e
(17a)
( 17b)
 176 
where a is defined in Eg. (15), and the 3direction is the
thickness direction.
Noting the relation
(18 )
where (e) is the elastic fourth order constitutive tensor, we
can derive the elasticplastic stressstrain relation in the
form
(19 )
The components of the elasticplastic constitutive tensor C
are found to be
caSYp = +gaPgSy) + RgaSgYPj _
E2(JaS(JYp
 a
(J2(E+H' )
e
2.3
In rigidplasticity the elastic deformations are assumed neg
ligible compared to the plastic ones. Eg. (14) represents thus
the constitutive relation for a rigidplastic material obeying
Hill's anisotropic yield criterion and its associated flow
rule, if the plastic rate of deformation E(P) is interpreted
as the total rate of deformation E. It is obvious, in view of
Eg. (18), that this relation eannot be inverted to a stress
strain relation of the form 2 = C:D.
Noting that cr = H'E we can rewrite Eg. (14) in matrix form
e e'
as
'"['
1+2R 2 R
2gxxgxy
(Jxx
(21a)
l :XX
(Je gxx
1+R (gXY  1+2R
g
xx
g
yyl
2
2g
yy
gxy j
(JYY
yy
gyy
2D SYM
21 +2R + 1 2 (Jxy
xy
1+R (gxxgyy 1+2R
g
xy)
 177 
{D} [Gl{cr} (21b)
In case of a coordinate system the metric tensor
components gaS become equal to the Kronecker delta components
0as. Then the constitutive relation gets the following simple
appearance:
r:=
'er 1
R
0
 1+R
cr
'e _
xx
0 cr
yy
yy
2Dxy
0
2 1+2R
xy 1+R
(22)
The inverse form of Eq. (21b) is
[G
1
]{D} {a}
e
(23)
E
e
where the matrix [G
1
] generally is obtained by a numerical
inversion of the matrix [Gj. However, in case of a Cartesian
coordinate system, we can write explicitly
e
Ee
R
o
R (24)
1+R
o
Noting that the rate of plastic work can be expressed as
0eEe : = {o}T{D}, we can write the effective strain rate
Ee as
(25)
Some writers, Refs. [61  [8], have derived the constitutive
relations for a rigidplastic material starting from the
general form of a material as suggested by
Perzyna [9]. If the time dependent effects in the viscoplastic
material model are neglected, the equations of the rigid
plastic model are recovered.
 178 
It is interesting to note the analogy between the equations of
rigidplastic or viscoplastic flow, and those of small strain,
linear elasticity. It is easily shown that completely analo
gous stressstrain relations are obtained, if the variables of
velocity and rate of deformation of the flow equations are
interchanged by displacement and strain of the elasticity
equations.
Take for instance Hooke's generalized law in the case of plane
stress and replace Poisson's ratio v by R/(1 +R) according to
Eq. (16). Then we get
R
 1 +R
(26)
R
1 +R
o o
The analogy between these equations and the corresponding
plastic flow equations in Eq. (22) is immediately seen. It is
noted that the modulus of elasticity E in the elasticity re
lations plays the role of the 'viscosity' 0e/Ee in the flow
relations.
2.4
The equilibrium conditions of a body are readily expressed by
means of the principle of virtual velocities. In terms of
variables referred to the current configuration the principle
is stated
(27)
where is the CauQhy is the 06
t{on is the veloQ{ty i is the
t{on, and i is the body load. Integration is performed over
current volume V and surface area S.
In a Lagrangian formulation equilibrium must be expressed in
terms of variables referred to a fixed, known reference con
figuration. A suitable pair of energy conjugate stress and
strain measures are the 2
and the Transformation of Eq. (27)
 179 
to the reference state can be shown to give
J S : dV
R
V
R
In Eq. (28) and !R are pseudo forces per unit area and
volume, respectively, in the reference state, defined by
The tensors and are defined by
S
PR 1
T
 F cr
P
!!;
2(F
T
OF I)
2
E
"
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
where r is the deformation gradient tensor, f is the
unit tensor. and p and P
R
are the mass densities in the current
and reference configuration, respectively.
In the following we will assume that the convected coordinate
system is coinciding with a Cartesian system in the. reference
configuration. The components of the tensors and and
of the displacement vector E are referred to the Cartesian base
vectors in the reference state, while the components of and
are referred to the convected base vectors in the current
state. This implies that the components of become equal to
the Kronecker delta components 0ij' which in turn implies that
and in the case of incompressibility (PR/p
s.. = Sij = cr
ij
1 )
(33 )
(34 )
Specializing to the case of plane stress, we can express the
components EaS and EaS in terms of displacement and velocity
gradients as
 180 
(35)
and
(36)
where comma denotes differentiation with respect to coordinates
in the reference state.
In order to solve the set of nonlinear equations in Eq. (28),
the NewtonRaphson iterative solution procedure or related
techniques commonly are used. This requires a linearization of
Eq. (28) around the last obtained solution The linearized.
form of this equation can be shown to be (in component form,
assuming plane stress, incompressibility and conservative
loads)
R R
= f tiouidS
R
+ f f.ou.dV
R
SR V
R
1. 1.
(37)
where c
aSYp
is the constitutive tensor relating stress rate
oaS and strain rate E (or D ).
YP YP
2.5
In the Lagrangian (or material) description of motion the in
dependent variables are the particle P and time t. It is common
to write the equation of motion in terms of the position X of
the particle P in a chosen reference configuration, i.e.
A number of different finite element approaches, based on the
Lagrangian description of motion, can be constructed depending
on the choice of reference configuration. The most commonly
used Lagrangian formulations are the Total (TL) and Updated
(UL) formulations. In the TLformulation the initial,
unstressed configuration is taken as reference configuration,
while in the ULformulation the last calculated configuration
 181 
is used as a reference state. These two formulations will be
described below.
The Lagrangian description of motion is sometimes referred to
as the '.6 oLLd applLoac.'h I, since this description is natural to
use in solid and structural mechanics problems. In this type
of finite element formulations are always primary
unknowns.
Lagrangian finite element procedures are naturally connected
to elasticplastic material models. Among the elasticplastic,
finite element sheet metal analyses reported in the literature,
the following should be mentioned: Wifi [10] and Andersen [11]
used ULprocedures and various twodimensional, axisymmetric
elements, Honnor and Wood [12] used a ULformulation and axi
symmetric shell elements of Mindlin type, Tang [13] used a
TLformulation and axisymmetric membrane elements, and, finally,
Wang and Budiansky [3], and Wennerstrom et.al. [14,15] used a
TLprocedure and triangular, threedimensional membrane ele
ments. Both TL and ULprocedures are also reported in the
joint paper [16].
Total 60lL memblLane
element.6
The FEMdiscretization follows the standard procedure. The
metal sheet is assumed to be decomposed into an assemblage of
finite elements, interconnected at a number of nodal points.
For each element the displacement assumptions are written
{u} = [q,]{u} (38)
where {u} is a vector with the three displacement components,
[q,] is a matrix with interpolation functions, which in a TL
formulation are functions of and {u} is
a vector with element nodal displacements. The vectors with
velocities and virtual velocities are accordingly given by
{u} = and {au} =
Introducing the displacement assumptions, Eg. (38), into the
strain and strain rate expressions, Egs. (35) and (36), we get
 182 
{E} ([B
L
] +
1
Z[B
NL
]) {u} (39)
and
= ([B
L
] + [B
NL
]) {u} [B]{u} (40)
where {E} = [E , E , 2E ]T and the nonlinear strain matrix
xx yy xy
[B
NL
] is a function of nodal displacements.
Furthermore, the equilibrium relations, Eq. (28), take the form
(41)
where the stress vector {cr} is defined by {cr} = [cr
xx
, cr
YY
, crxy]T
and integration is carried out over volume Vo and sur
face area SO.
When solving the set of nonlinear equilibrium equations in
Eq. (41) by a stepbystep procedure involving NewtonRaphson
iterations, we rewrite the equations in incremental form as
(42)
In Eq. (42) is a vector with incremental, consistent nodal
forces, and [K] is the tangent originating
from the left hand side of Eq. (37). The matrix [K] can form
ally be written as a sum of three matrices:
where
f [BL]T[C] [BL]dV
O
Vo
f ([ BL ] T [ C 1 [B
NL
] + [B
NL
1 T [ C 1 [B
L
] +
Vo
+ [BNL1T[Cl[BNL1)dVO
(43)
(44a)
(44b)
(44c)
 183 
The matrices [K
L
], [K
LD
], and [KS] are respectively termed
and
stiffness matrices. The matrix [C] is the (3 x 3) constitutive
matrix, [0] is the (2'x 2) stress matrix with contravariant
stress components aa
s
, and the matrices [k] (k = 1, 2, 3) contain
derivatives of interpolation functions. In case of a noncon
servative load a (usually unsymmetric) contribution
called toad stiffness matrix, is added to the total
stiffness matrix.
Having solved for incremental nodal displacements in Eq. (42),
we can calculate increments of Lagrangian strain as
(45 )
Denoting with a superscribed bar that a variable is evaluated
at time t + lit, the total Lagrangian strain at t + is obtained
as
(46)
The primary object of the calculations is to determine the
strain distribution in the blank in terms of or
principal strains. Principal logarithmic strains
in the plane of the sheet are given by
lnll.(1)'
(47)
where 11.(1) and 11.(2) are principal ratios. Stretch is a
measure of extensional strain of a differential line element,
defined by A = ds/dS. The principal stretch values can be shown
to be related to the inplane principal values of Lagrangian
strain, E(1) and E(2)' by
A ( 1) = 12E ( 1) + 1 , /2E (2) + 1
(48)
where
(49)
 184 
The convected metric tensor components gij can, in case of an
initial Cartesian coordinate system, be shown to be related to
the Lagrangian strain components Eij by
(50)
Furthermore, the volume ratio dV/dV
O
can in the case of plane
stress be expressed as
(51)
where A
z
is the stretch ratio in the thickness direction. For
volume constancy, dV/dV
O
= 1, the transverse logarithmic strain
E
Z
is thus found to be
In'; 1/det gaS
(52)
Increment of stress is obtained by a numerical evaluation of
the integral
(53)
and the total stress at time t + lit is obtained as
(54)
Updated non membnane
The UL finite element formulation follows largely the same
pattern as outlined for the TLapproach. The main differences
are as follow. All entering the formulas should be
interpreted as eunnent ones. Since the displacements are
measured from the reference (current) configuration, all terms
involving displacements in the general formulation will vanish.
This implies that the matrices [B
NL
] and [K
LD
] of the TLfor
mulation do not enter the ULformulation. Furthermore, inte
grals are carried out over eunnent voLume and anea.
If the convected coordinate system is assumed to be Cartesian
in the current state, the metric tensor components gaS of the
constitutive matrix [C] will be equal to the Kronecker delta
 185 
components This simplifies the constitutive relation con
siderably. The stress components entering the stress matrix [0]
will, furthermore, be Cartesian ones.
Increments of stress are calculated according to Eq. (53), and
total stress is obtained as 0 = 0aS + , where 0aS are
Cartesian stress components at time t. At every step of the
calculations a transformation of convected stress components
to Cartesian ones has to be performed. At time t + the Car
tesian components a
as
are given by
ai* ai*
a
a
YP
S
(55 ) 0
as 3X* ax*
Y
p
The calculation of total strain is much more complicated in the
UL formulation than in the TLformulation, since the Lagrangian
strain increments in all steps are referred to different con
figurations and usually to different base vectors. This implies
that they cannot be added to total strain without complicated
transformations.
A way to overcome these problems is to calculate strains just
as in the TLformulation, i.e. to add increments of displace
ments in each step to total displacements, referred to a common
set of base vectors, and to use interpolation functions express
ed in terms of initial coordin"ates. Under all circumstances a
lot of information about the initial state must be stored, which
normally is unnecessary in a ULformulation. The procedure de
scribed above is thus a mixture of the UL and TLapproaches.
For threedimensional membrane elements it is usually necessary
to use local coordinate systems for each element, which are re
defined (updated) in each step. This implies that a new trans
formation matrix has to be established in each step, and that
a number of transformations of displacement and load vectors
between local and global systems have to be performed.
 186 
2.6
In the Eulerian (or spatial) description of motion attention is
fixed on a given region in space (a point) instead of a certain
particle of a continuum. Independent variables are the present
position and time t. The Eulerian description is best suited
for fluid mechanics problems, as it enables us to observe the
flow in a point in for instance a channel or a wind tunnel. In
finite element procedures based on the Eulerian approach, or,
as it also is known as, the 'ntow primary unknowns
are the at the nodal points.
The rigidplastic constitutive relations in Sect. 2.3 have the
form of the constitutive relations for a
In metal forming problems, such as extru
sion and rolling, the velocities at a given point in space re
main constant in time. The material behaviour in this type of
problems is similar to that of a fluid, and an Eulerian finite
element approach is a natural choice. The finite element mesh
in such problems is fixed in space (Eulerian).
The Eulerian formulation has, however, also been used for the
solution of rigidplastic, problems, such as stretch
forming and deep drawing of sheet metal, although the material
behaviour in such problems bears small resemblance with a fluid
flow. In transient problems the element mesh has to be 'updated'
in each step (Lagrangian).
The use of the flow approach in sheet metal forming problems
has been advocated particularly by o.c. Zienkiewicz and co
workers in Swansea, Refs. [7], [8], [16], [17]. It should also
be noticed that a thorough treatise on this subject is given in
the chapter by E. Onate and R. Perez Lama in these proceedings.
A review of the flow approach in application to various steady
state and transient forming problems is given in Zienkiewicz
[18 ].
The analogy between the constitutive relations of viscoplastic
flow and small strain elasticity, discussed in Sect. 2.3, should
once again be pOinted out. This analogy makes it possible to use
a standard finite element program for linear elastic analysis
 187 
in large strain viscoplastic analysis with only minor changes
of the program.
The finite element equations are thus established in a standard
fashion. We assume that a local Cartesian coordinate system is
defined for each element and is updated in each step. Components
referred to these local axes will in the following be marked by
a star. Briefly, the major steps of the discretization process
are as follow:
Velocity assumptions:
(56)
Rate of deformation  nodal velocity relations:
1 .
DuS = Z(uu,S +uS,u) (57a)
{D*} = [B*]{u*} (57b)
Local equilibrium equations (Eq. (27:
[K*] = f[B*]T[C] [B*]dV
V
Trnasformations from local to global system:
Global equilibrium equations:
(58b)
(58c)
[I] (59a)
(59b)
(60 )
In the solution process a steadystate flow situation is assumed
at every deformation level. Due to the nonlinear 'viscosity',
cr IE , an iterative solution scheme has to be employed at every
e e
deformation level to ensure equilibrium. When convergence is
achieved, the geometry is updated by The effective strain
at time t + is obtained as Ee
E + Strain hardening
e e
 188 
effects are considered by calculating a new value of the effec
tive stress. From the uniaxial stressplastic strain curve we
get G
e
= H{E
e
).
In rigid or nearly rigid zones of the material the value of Ee
tends to zero and, thus, the 'viscosity' 0e/Ee tends to in
finity. To avoid numerical difficulties due to this fact, the
use of a large but finite cut off value of the 'viscosity' is
recommended in the references above. Such a cut off value makes
it possible to compute stresses even in zones where the stress
state is below the yield stress.
Osakada et. al. [19] have pointed out the importance of satis
fying the equilibrium conditions at the end of the increment,
at time t + in certain large strain transient problems,
such as sheet metal forming problems. Such a procedure incorpo
rates the effects of shape change and work hardening during the
incremental step, and yields for certain problems more accurate
results than the simple extrapolation scheme previously de
scribed. In the method proposed in Ref. [19] the nodal velo
are assumed during the time increment In
the equilibrium relations in Eq. (58) the matrix [B*] and the
integration domains are functions of the unknown nodal coordi
nates at the end of the increment. Furthermore, the effective
stress is a function of the unknown effective strain E .
e e
Concerning the strain calculation in the flow approach, the
same comments can be made as for the ULformulation in Sect.
2.5.
2.7
As shown in Sect. 2.6 the rigidplastic material model leads
naturally to a set of discretized, nonlinear equilibrium equa
tions expressed in terms of nodal Some writers,
Refs. [20] , [22], have, however, preferred to reformulate
these relations to forms involving nodal
as primary unknowns. Thus, these formulations are of
Lagrangian type. However, in the process of reformulation a
number of more or less rude approximations have to be intro
 189 
duced. Below, the two most recent papers on this subject, Refs.
[21]  [22], will be briefly reviewed.
Toh and Kobayashi [21] use a ULformulation and triangular
membrane elements. The yleld is expressed in terms
of heeand Plaia Kl4ehhan6 ht4ehh as
(61)
where
[S2 + S2 _ 2R S S + 2 (1+2R) s2 ] 1/2
xx yy 1+R xx yy 1+R xy
(62)
is the effective PiolaKirchhoff stress, and Ee is the effec
tive Lagrangian strain. It should be noted that thlh yleld
lh app4axlmatlan to the one defined by Eqs. (1)
and (9). The function S(E
e
) is determined from the cr
e
 Ee
curve, by noting that S = cr at current time t and that
1 e e
flEe = '2 ln (1 + flEe). Furthermore, by all te4mh
flEe 06 a4de4 two 04 hlghe4, the following approximate
relation is obtained:
where H'
The flow rule is assumed to be given by
af
A
aS
ij
(63)
(64)
From the consistency condition, f = 0, the flow rule, Eq. (64),
and the yield condition, Eqs. (61)  (62), the following con
stitutive relation is obtained
{S}
where the matrix [G
1
] contains constant elements and is
defined in Eq. (24).
(65)
The rate of plastic work can be expressed as SijE
ij
= SeEe.
Integrating this relation from time t to t + fit, and
that the 6t4e66 lh and equal to its value at the end
 190 
of the time increment, one gets s .. .. The vectors
with Lagrangian strain increments, strain rates, and virtual
strains are written = + 1/2 [B
NL
]) = [H]
{E} = ([B
L
] + [B
NL
] ){u} = [B]{u}, and {eEl = [B]{eu}, respec
tively. Furthermore, a nadIa! path during the
time increment one finds
(66)
In view of the above relations, the virtual effective strain
is given by
e
Noting that the internal virtual work can be written
(67)
(68)
we finally arrive at the following set of discretized, non
linear equilibrium equations
f
S T 1
Time t + [B] [G ]
V e
(69)
where the matrices [B] and [H] are functions of the unknown dis
placement increments
As noticed, a number of approximations have been introduced
during the derivation of these relations. It is therefore very
difficult to form an opinion of the accuracy of the results
obtained from the current procedure.
Wang [22] also uses constantstrain triangular membrane ele
ments, but a TLformulation. His basic assumption is that the
path nadla! during the incremental step from time t
to t + This results in a formulation which essentially is
a deformation theory of plasticity during each incremental
step. Due to this assumption the Lagrangian strain rate can be
expressed as
f k(t)dt
t
(70)
 191 
where is a scalar constant, k(t) is a scalar velocity which
is a function of time, and EaS  EaS is the Lagrangian
strain increment from time t to t +
Wang has made his derivations in a rather general fashion, and
then specialized to the 50called Hill's 'new' yield theory.
However, keeping to Hill's 'old' theory and using a convected
coordinate system, we can, in view of Eq. (23), write the
constitutive relation as
Time t + !.It: {cr}
where the effective strain rate is given by
.
Time t + E
e
({E}T[G
1
(gaS) HE}) 1/2
(71 )
(gaS) 1/2 (72)
Making the additional assumption that the Ee and
ane conhtant duning the time htep LIt, we get
(73)
The constitutive relation can now, in view of Eqs. (71)  (73),
be rewritten as
cr
e
1
Time t + LIt: {cr} = ;;;:[G (g 13)] {LIE} (74)
Ee a
Using the relations {eEl = [B]{eu} and {LIE} = [H]{Llu}, the virt
ual work done by the internal stresses can be expressed as
Time t + LIt: f {eE}T{cr}dV
o
=
Va
where the matrices [B] and [H] are functions of total nodal
displacements. The equilibrium equations can thus be written
 192 
In Ref. [22] a way to solve this system of equations by the
NewtonRaphson solution procedure is described. The incremental
displacement vector is then represented as a sum of a trial
vector and a correction vector.
To cite from the references above, the main advantage of using
the rigidplastic material model combined with a Lagrangian
formulation is that much larger stepsizes are allowable than
in an elasticplastic formulation (difference of the order ten) .
On the other hand, manymore iterations are needed per step in
the rigidplastic formulation (1015 iterations/step) than in
the elasticplastic formulation. A drawback of the rigidplastic
method seems to be the sensitivity of the solution procedure
to the trial solution. According to Wang [22] 'a generally
valid trial strategy has yet to be developed for modelling
forming processes involving complex shapes'.
3 An elasticplastic, Total Lagrangian, membrane finite ele
ment formulation for sheet metal forming analysis
In this chapter a finite element procedure, developed in the
course of the present study, will be described. The primary
purpose of this numerical procedure was to simulate, mainly,
axisymmetric punch forming tests, in order to evaluate the
effects of various material parameters and friction on the
formability of sheet metals. Thus, an axisymmetric formula
tion would have satisfied these requirements. However, a sec
ondary purpose was also to predict strain distributions in in
dustrial manufactured sheet metal parts. To fulfil this second
purpose, the numerical procedure had to be able to handle arbi
trarily shaped tools.
The present finite element procedure therefore employs ;(:tc..i.aYlg
u.latc., C.O Yl.6;(:aYl;(:.6;(:tc.aiYl, me.mbtc.aYle. e.le.me.Yl;(:.6. The use of membrane
theory excludes the study of forming processes in which ben
ding plays a significant role, such as in drawforming over
small radius. It also excludes the study of effects such as
springback and wrinkling.
 193 
The present procedure is based on an
taw and a 06 motion. This choice is mo
tivated by that accuracy and reliability have been considered
to be more important than computational efficiency in the pre
sent study. Hill's yield theory, described in Section 2.2, has,
furthermore, been adopted.
I
z
__ ..................
=:1 ________ ...
Initial configuration at time t
(coinciding with the xyplane) 0
V
2
V W
2
fi
<..,,3
_ V3
W3
Current configuration at time t
Fig. 1: Triangular membrane element in 3D space
Because of its relative simplicity the ULformulation is known
to be more effective than the TLformulation in cases when the
constitutive relations are formulated in rate form. For instan
ce, in a ULformulation there is no need for an 'initial dis
placement stiffness matrix', and the constitutive relations
get a much simpler appearance than in a TLformulation.
However, in the sheet forming case there are some factors in
favour of a TLformulation. Since the sheet is initially coin
ciding with the xyplane, the interpolation functions can be
directly expressed in global x and ycoordinates, thus avoi
ding time consuming transformations between local and global
coordinate systems. Furthermore, as discussed in Section 2.5,
the strain calculation is much more straightforward in a TL
than in a ULformulation.
Both a TL and a ULformulation have been programmed and tes
ted. The two procedures were found to be approximately equally
effective. The was, however, considered to be a
 194 
more 'natural' choice in the present application, and was
therefore implemented in the final version of the program.
The derivation of the finite element equations follows the out
line of the general theory in Section 2.5. Explicit forms of
the finite element matrices of the TLformulation are found in
Refs. [3] and [14], while those of the ULformulation are found
in Ref. [5].
3.2
From the viewpoint of contact condition, every node of the
blank has five possible 'status':
( 1) Free node (no contact)
(2) Contact with the die and slip
(3) Contact with the die and stick
(4) Contact with the punch and slip
(5) Contact with the punch and stick
Assume that the blank at initial time t=t
o
coincides with the
xyplane of the global Cartesian coordinate system, and that
the punch just touches the sheet. The punch is assumed to move
in positive zdirection. The punch surface at current time t
can than be expressed by the equation
F(x, y, z) = z  f(x, y)  wp = 0
(77)
where wp is the punch travel distance at time t.
Consider now a node in slipping contact with the punch. The
relative velocity, u , between the node and the punch is given
by
u
{Ii }
r
(78a)
w;.  w ]T
u, v, P
(78b)
A unit normal vector to the punch surface at the point x,y is
defined by
n
grad F / I grad F I
(79a)
 195 
c} [_df af 1]T/lgradFI
nn = ax' ay'
(79b)
The condition that the node is constrained to move tangential
to the punch surface can be expressed as
(80)
This geometn{Q is in explicit form given
by
a f a f;" ;..
ax u  ay v + w
(81)
A tangent unit vector in the direction of slip, may be ex
pressed in horisontal velocity components, if Eg. (81) is used
to express w, as
(82a)
(82b)
In the present study two different models have been used to si
mulate the interface forces at sliding contact. In the first
model, which is of Coulomb type, the frictional force is ex
pressed as
lJ P
(83)
where lJ is the coefficient of friction, and P is the (scalar)
normal force. In the second model the shear stress between the
punch and the blank is assumed to be constant, i.e. independent
of the normal force. The tangential nodal force is then approx
imated by
(84 )
where Tp is the constant shear stress, Ai is the area of ele
ment i, and the sum is taken over all adjoining elements at
the node.
The total applied load on a slipping node is thus U P n + F
For the Coulomb friction model this force can be written in
symbolic matrix notation as
 196 
(85)
and for the constant shear stress model as
A 1 A
{U} = p{nn}  )Tp IAi{n
t
}
(86)
The form of Eqs. (81), (85), and (86) are
 df LI u  3 f LI v + Llw = L1wp + W
R
ax 3y
(87)
It should be noted that Eqs. (88)(89) introduce the increment
in normal force, LIP, as u.nknown in each slipping con
tact node. However, Eq. (87) yields
aint at the same nodes. The highly nonlinear nature of the pro
blem should be emphasized. The vectors and
are all functions of the unknown nodal displacement increments.
It should also be pointed out that, since the load is displace
ment dependent, it is a
The vector {R} in Eqs. (88)(89) is a residual vector that com
pensates for the lack of equilibrium at the start of the step.
It is defined as {R} = {U}  {U }, where {U } is the sum of in
a a
tegrated stresses from the adjoining elements. The quantity w
R
in Eq. (87) compensat.es for tha:t a node, that has been assign
ed to a contact node, is not exactly situated on the punch sur
face. It is defined as w
R
 (f(x, y) + wpl . w .
In Refs. [3), [14), and [15] a simple stepbystep solution
procedure without equilibrium iterations was employed. In such
a procedure it is very important that the correct tangent sti
ffness matrix is used, and consequently in these studies all
terms in Eq. (88) (excluding {R}) were retained. In the pres
ent solution procedure, where lack of equilibrium is corrected
for in each step, it is not equally important to use the corr
ect tangent stiffness matrix. As a matter of fact, in the pre
sent study two procedures were tried, one where all terms in
 197 
Eqs. (88)(89) were retained, and one where the terms contai
ning and were neglected. However, no differences
in results or rate of convergence were observed for the two
procedures, so in the final version of program these terms
were neglected.
Con.tac.;t
The contact equations are in the present computer program trea
ted as 'contact elements', defined for each contact node. The
contributions from one single node in slipping contact with
the punch to the tangent stiffness matrix and the load vector
become (Coulomb friction model)
x X X (n 
nx
\ln
tx
) 0 + R (90)
x
X X X (n  \ln
ty
) 0 R
ny y
X X X (n  \ln
tz
) fJw 0 R
z
nz
af/ax df/ay 0
fJp
fJwp
w
R
The elements
' X'
in the matrix above denote contributions to
the tangent stiffness matrix from adjoining membrane elements
to the node. It is noted that the contribution from the 'con
tact element' is For the constant shear stress in
terface model the terms \l n
ti
will vanish, and the stiffness ma
trix will remain symmetric if the last equation is divided by
[grad F [. In the present procedure the punch travel increment
serves as a prescribed 'load'.
For a node in nonslipping contact, the conditions 0
are imposed in the usual way. The last equation in Eq. (90)
than yields fJw = fJwp. Similar 'contact elements' also apply
for nodes in contact with the die. In that case the prescribed
displacement is equal to zero.
60n and c.on;tac..t
Let IT denote the nodal force vector arising from internal str
esses in the adjoining elements. The maximum tangential force,
if, in the node is then given by iT = u  p;:; The condition
.
 198 
for a node that previously has been assigned to 'stick' to be
come 'slip' is straightforward:
'slip' if
lEI> 11 P
(Coulomb friction)
lEI > 3
l
,P l: A. (constant shear stress)
i 1.
(9l)
The criterion for a node that previously has been assigned to
'slip' to become 'stick' is, on the other hand, not at all ob
vious. Checking of the balancing forces is meaningless, since
the equality lEI = 11 P always holds at equilibrium.
In the present procedure a sudden change of slip direction at
a node has been interpreted as an indication of that this node
should be assigned to 'stick'. The criterion is: If the angle
between the slip directions in the two previous steps is grea
ter than 90
0
, then the node is assigned to 'stick'.
It is a wellknown fact that the behaviour of some metals in
the plastic range is strongly influenced by the strainrate.
In sheet metal forming processes the strainrates can vary with
several orders of magnitude in different regions of the sheet,
and, thus, have a significant influence on the strain distri
bution. A simple way to extend the inviscid flow theory to in
clude the effect of strainrate is to let the effective stress
be a function of, not only effective strain, but also effective
strain rate. In the present study the following expression for
the effective stress has been used:
K E
nl
. m
d
(5
(Ee/EO) ,
Ee
< E
e e
e
K' E
n2
. m
Ed
(5e
(EeIE
O
) ,
Ee
> (92)
e
e
K'
(nln2)
d
where K, n
l
, n
2
, m, Ee' and EO are material parameters. The in
fluence of strainrate in sheet metal forming has been studied
by, for instance, Wang and Wenner [23], and Neale and Chater
 199 
[24,25].
Solution
Two different solution procedures have been tested in the pre
sent study. These are the NewtonRaphson iterative method and
the socalled first order self correcting method [26]. Both
these methods presume that the unbalance in nodal forces is
corrected for in each step.
The NewtonRaphson method was difficult to implement since
convergence problems were encountered. It proved necessary to
keep as many variables as possible constant during the itera
tions. For instance, the contributions to the tangent stiff
ness matrix from the 'node elements' discussed above must not
be updated during the iterations, while the contributions from
the membrane elements are updated in each iterative step. Fur
thermore, the 'status' of the nodes has to be kept unaltered
during the iterations, i.e. a free node remains a free node, a
slipping node remains a slipping node, and so on. In the final
version of the program the method performed excellently.
The first order self correcting method is a stepbystep me
thod without equilibrium iteration. However, the unbalance in
nodal forces is corrected for in each step by adding to the
new incremental load vector the residual vector from the pre
vious step.
Convengenee 6tudies
Convergence studies with respect to punch travel increment 6Wp
were performed for a hemispherical punch stretching problem
wi th punch radius rp=50. 8 mm and coefficients of friction Jl
p
=
Jl
D
=0.17. The maximum punch depth was 33.5mm. The axisymmetri
of the problem was used, and only a narrow sector (angle 10
0
)
of the sheet was modelled with 61 elements. Convergence was
assumed attained when two successive punch travel increments
gave indistinguishable strain plots.
The NewtonRaphson procedure converged for Mlp=O.lO mm with a
total number of iterations equal to 1023. The self correcting
method converged for 6W
p
=0.05mm. The computing time was in
the latter case 640 CPUsecs on an IBM 3081 computer.
 200 
4 Influence of material parameters on the strain distribution
in stretch forming
In the present section it is studied how different material
parameters influence the strain distribution in hemispherical
stretch forming.
The tool geometry, which is also used in the experiments of
the next section, is illustrated in Fig. 2. The punch radius
is 50 rom and the blank is firmly clamped at a distance of
70 rom from the punch axis.
Fig. 2: The stretch forming geo
matry used in experiments and FEM
calculations
The friction conditions at the interface between sheet and die
are described with the Coulomb model. In the present calcula
tions only one coefficient of friction = 0.4 is studied
corresponding to no lubrication.
Friction at the punchsheet interface is considered both with
the Coulomb friction model and the model of constant shear
stress. A range of friction parameters will be studied below.
The influence of the flow parameters of the sheet material is
taken into account by varying the work hardening exponent n,
the strain rate sensitivity m, and the normal anisotropy R.
The calculations are based on a state of reference which is
given in Table 1. One parameter at a time was varied from
the reference value.
 201 
K
R I "p
"p
T E
"0
Parameter n m
p
(MFa) die punch (MFa) (MPa) (sec
1
)
Value 0.2 0.01 577
1.0i 0.04
0.2
 2.07'10
5
1.4'10
3
Table 1: State of reference
0.3,..,
H=30
0.2
'
w 0.1
"" w
o
I 0.2
0.3 LINITIALRAOIAL
Fig. 3: Influence of work harde
ning exponent n on the strain
distribution
Wp
sheet
thickness
(m/sec) (m)
8.3'10
5
7.7.10
4
Fig. 3 shows how the work hardening exponent n influences the
strain distribution. The diagram presents the radial and cir
cumferential logarithmic strains at a punch depth of 30 mm.
It should be noticed that the radial strain is plotted in the
positive sence upwards while the circumferential strain is
plotted positive downwards. The results are given as a function
of the original radial coordinate of each material point. The
radial strain becomes more smoothly distributed over the sheet
cup as the nvalue increases. This implies a lower pole strain,
a lower peak strain, and a drift of the peak away from the
pole. The circumferential strain decreases as the nvalue
 202 
increases.
Fig. 4 illustrates how the strain rate sensitivity m influences
the strain distribution. The studied range of mvalues is
typical to commercial sheet materials at ambient temperature.
The influence of the mvalue is small in Fig. 4. An increasing
mvalue reduces the radial strain peak and distributes the
strain away from the pole.
0.3,.
1 0.2
'
w
w
o
0.1
0.2
H=30
10
INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 4: Influence of strain
rate sensitivity m on the
strain distribution.
'
w
'" w
03..,
0.2
10
o
 .:.:.:::..:,,::.:.:.::::.:;.,,;;;;..;:;.;&.
0.1
H=30
l 0.2
0.3 INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 5: Influence of normal
anisotropy R on the strain
distribution (the anisotropy
parameter is denoted r in the
figure) .
The influence of the normal anisotropy R on the strain distri
bution is illustrated in Fig. 5. An increasing Rvalue reduces
the radial pole strain, increases the peak strains and moves
the peak away from the pole. The circumferential strain is de
creased by an increase in the Rvalue.
In Fig. 6 it is illustrated how the friction conditions between
punch and sheet influence the strain distribution. The results
 203 
are based on the Coulomb friction model. An increasing coeffi
cient of friction leads to a drop in the radial pole strain
and an almost constant or increasing peak strain. The peak moves
away from the pole. The circumferential strain decreases with
increasing
t..
W
0.3,,
0.1
....
.. '
H=30
10
o
_._._.7
.... /
_ .....
0.3 '::::::=:'
INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 6: Influence of the
Coulomb friction coeffi
cient at the punch on
p
the strain distribution
0.3,,
H=30
t
0.2
T=1.3 MPa
'
w
0.1
0
10
0.1

.... /.
q..
w
I
0.2
0.3 '__ .....
INITIAL RADIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 7: Influence of the
stress Tp at the punch on
the strain distribution when
the constant interface shear
stress model is used.
Fig. 7 illustrates the effect of the interface contact condi
tions at the punch in terms of the constant shear stress model.
The results are similar to those of Fig. 6.
It can be concluded from Figs. 3 to 7 that a high nvalue and
a mvalue have positive effects on the strain distribu
tion in hemispherical stretch forming. High values of these
parameters reduce both the radial and circumferential strain
levels. In the case of R, and Tp the situation is more
complicated. Low values of these parameters often reduce the
radial strain peaks, but at the same time increase the
 204 
circumerential strains.
A stretch forming operation is usually terminated by sharp
necking and failure. The strains at which sharp necking occur
are characterized by the forming limit diagram. The forming
limit often has a maximum close to equibiaxial stretching
(r = p) and a minimum close to plane strain deformation
(p = 0). It is thus unfavourable if the most critical strains
of a strain distribution shift from equibiaxial stretching
towards plane strain deformation. This is however the case
when the R, and Tpvalues increase. The radial peak
strains increase at the same time as the corresponding circum
ferential strains decrease. In this respect high R, and
Tpvalues are detrimental to the formability in stretch for
ming. This is however not the case for high nand mvalues,
since they are associated with falling radial peak strains
and circumerential strains. In that case the strain levels
decrease and the state of strain is not drastically changed
when nand m increase.
5 Comparison between experimental and theoretical strain
distributions in stretch forming
In the present section a few examples will be given of experi
mental strain distributions in stretch forming and the corre
sponding FEM calculations.
The stretch forming experiments were performed with the geo
metry of Fig. 2. Nine different materials were studied inclu
ding deep drawing quality steels, high strength carbon steels,
austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, and brass. The flo\>l
properties of these were determined in uniaxial
tension in the plane of the sheet and compression in the normal
direction of the sheet, Refs. [27] and [28].
The stretch forming experiments were in all cases performed
\>lith teflon film lubrication on the punch.
It is believed that the constant shear stress model describes
the behaviour of the teflon film better than the Coulomb fric
tion model. The former model has thus been used in the
 205 
FEM calculations.
The strain distributions of four materials are presented below.
They were obtained for a deep quality steel (OOQ), a
high strength carbon steel (HSS) , a ferritic stainless steel
(FSS) and brass. The parameters used in the FEM calculations
are given in Table 2.
K
Tp
E
EO Wp
sheet
n
1
n
2
m R thickness
(MPa) die (MPa) (MPa)
(secI)
(m/sec) (m)
DDQ 0.25 0.21 0.21 0.0105 571 1.73 0.4 1.3 2.07"0
5
1.4'10
3
8.3'10
5
7.7.10
4
HSS 0.15
  0.007 874 1.04 0.4 1.3 2.07'10
5
1.3'10
3
6.9'10
4
FSS 0.26 0.12 0.27 0.008 978 1.80 0.4 1.3 2.07'10
5
1.3'10
3
8.3'10
5
7.2'10
4
Brass 0.53 0.37 0.38 0 804 1.04 0.4 1.7 1.14'10
5
1.4'10
3
8.3.10
5
7.0'10
4
Table 2. Parameters of FEMcalculations.
All the parameters of Table 2 were determined by mechanical
testing or other independent measurements except the friction
parameters. The strain distributions are not sensitive to the
value of the friction parameter at the die so was set to a
value which is believed to be typical to no lubrication. The
sheetpunch interface shear stress, Tp' was used as a fitting
parameter. The fitting was originally performed for the deep
drawing quality steel. The best fit was obtained for
Tp = 1.3 MPa. The same parameter was subsequently used for all
other materials.
Fig. 8 shows the strain distributions of the deep drawing qua
lity steel (OOQ) for five pressing depths. The strains are
plotted as a function of position along the original blank
diameter. The experimental results plotted as points were
obtained by evaluating the strains from circles of 2 rom diameter
etched to the blank surface. Five different blanks were used
to obtain the results of Fig. 8. The agreement between the
experimental results and the FEM calculation plotted with solid
lines is very good.
 206 
000
T=13MPa
0.5 E,
50 o 50
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 8: Experimental
(points) and FEM (lines)
strain distributions for a
deep drawing quality steel.
HSS
T=1.3 MPa
o.s t
H=43.9
50 o 50
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 9: Experimental and FEM
strain distributions for a high
strength carbon steel.
Fig. 9 illustrates the experimental and theoretical strain
distributions for the high strength carbon steel (RSS). This
steel has a tensile strength which is almost a factor of two
larger (580 MFa) than for the deep drawing quality steel
(315 MPa). In spite of the large difference in flow proper
ties a very good agreement between experiments and FEM
calculation was obtained with the same friction parameter
T = 1.3 MPa for RSS as for DDQ.
p
Fig. 10 presents the experimental and theoretical strain distri
butions for the ferritic stainless steel (FSS). The same inter
face shearstress parameter was used as for the two carbon
steels. The tensile strength of FSS is slightly lower (530 MPa)
 207 
than for HSS. The agreement between the experimental points
and the theoretical lines is very satisfactory.
FSS
'T=1.3MPa
so o so
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 10: Experimental and FEM
strain distributions for a
ferritic stainless steel.
0.3 IE
p
so
o so
INITIAL COORDINATE
Fig. 11: EXperimental and FEM
strain distributions for brass.
The results for brass are presented in Fig. 11. For that mate
rial the fit between theory and experiments was improved by
increasing the interface shear stress from Tp = 1.3 to 1.7 MPa.
The tensile strength is 320 MPa. The overall agreement between
experiments and the FEM calculation is not as good for brass
as for the three previous materials.
Detailed comparison was made between experimental strain
distribution and FEM calculations for nine materials. In six
of these cases a very good agreement between theory and experi
ments was obtained with Tp = 1.3 MPa. For two types of brass
a Tpvalue of 1.7 MPa was used. In the last material, an
 208 
austenitic stainless steel with very high ultimate pressing
depth, a value of 'p = 2.4 MPa gave the best fit.
It can thus be concluded that the constant interface shear
stress model gives a good agreement between FEM and experimen
tal strain distributions for all studied materials. For the
three materials with the highest ultimate pressing depths a
higher value of 'p had to be used than for the other materials.
It is presently not quite clear why the interface conditions
are different in those cases.
6 Conclusions
The Eulerian and Lagrangian finite element formulations based
on the rigidplastic material model, reviewed herein, are all
based on simplifying assumptions such as constant nodal velo
cities or radial strain path during a finite time increment
6t. The rigidplastic model is, of course, in itself a ruder
approximation of the real material behaviour than, for
instance, the elasticplastic model, since elastic deforma
tions are ignored, and elastic unloading cannot be handled.
The main advantage of the rigidplastic formulations is that
relatively large incremental steps are allowed for.
The elasticplastic, Lagrangian finite element formulations
are based on a more firm theoretical basis. The only approxi
mation inherent in the numerical model (excluding discretiza
tion errors) is the evaluation of the time integral of the
rate constitutive equations. The elasticplastic formulations
are known to be less efficient than the rigidplastic ones,
due to its greater complexity, and since relatively small step
sizes are required.
Although a few comparisons between elasticplastic and rigid
plastic formulations have been reported in the literature,
there still is a great demand for an objective comparative
study of the accuracy and efficiency of the various formula
tions.
In the present numerical study an elasticplastic material
model was used. Although the ULformulation generally is known
 209 
to be more effective than the TLformulation in problems with
constitutive relations in rate form, there were some factors
in the present punch forming case that favoured a TLformula
tion. Severe convergence problems were encountered in connec
tion with the implementation of the NewtonRaphson solution
procedure. These problems could, however, be solved, and the
method is now performing excellently. Also the first order
self correcting method was tested, and was found to be slight
ly more effective than the NewtonRaphson procedure.
The computer program was used to simulate hemispherical punch
forming tests. The effects of varying certain material prame
ters were studied. An increasing work hardening exponent n or
strain rate sensitivity m was found to reduce both the radial
and circumferential strain peaks. An increasing value of the
normal anisotropy parameter R or the coefficient of friction
at the punch increases the height of the radial strain peak
but decreases the circumferential strain level.
A good agreement was obtained between experimental strain dis
tributions in hemispherical stretch forming and finite element
calculations for nine different sheet materials, including
carbon steels, stainless steels, and brass.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Dr. R. Glemberg for preparing a spe
cial version of the GENFEM program for the present application,.
and for continous support in the course of the program develop
ment. They also wish to thank E. Schedin, M. Hedman, and A.
Thuvander for determining the strain distributions.
The present research was financed by the Department of Struct
ural Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology, the Gene
ral Research Program of the Swedish Institute for Metals Re
search, and the National Swedish Board for Technical Develop
ment.
 210 
References
[1] Hutchinson, J.W.: Finite strain analysis of elastic
plastic solids and structures. Numerical solution of non
linear structural problems (ed. Hartung), AMDVol. 6,
ASME, New York, 1973.
[2] Hill, R.: The mathematical theory of plasticity. Claren
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[3] Wang, N.M.; Budiansky, B.: Analysis of sheet metal stam
ping by a finite element method. ASME J. of Appl. Mech.
45 (1978), pp. 7382.
[4] Mattiasson, K.: Continuum mechanics principles for large
deformation problems in solid and structural mechanics.
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Struc
tural Mechanics, Publ. 81:6, Goteborg, 1981.
[5] Mattiasson, K.: On the corotational finite element formu
lation for large deformation problems, (doctoral thesis).
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Struc
tural Mechanics, PUbl. 83:1, Goteborg, 1983.
[6] Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Godbole, P.N.: Flow of plastic and
viscoplastic solids with special reference to extrusion
and forming processes. Int. J. Num. Meth. in Eng. 8 (1974),
pp. 316.
[7] Zienkiewicz, O.C.; Jain, P.C.; Onate, E.: Flow of solids
during forming and extrusion: Some aspects of numerical
solutions. Int. J. Sol. Struct. 14 (1978), pp. 1538.
[8] Onate, E.; Zienkiewicz, O.C.: A viscous shell formulation
for the analysis of thin sheet metal forming. Int. J.
Mech. Sci. 25(5) (1983), pp. 305335.
[9] Perzyna, P.: Fundamental problems in viscoplasticity.
Recent Advances in Applied Mechanics, Academic Press,
New York, 1966, pp. 243377.
 211 
[10] Wifi, A.S.: An incremental complete solution of the
stretch forming and deep drawing of a circular blank
using a hemispherical punch. Int. J. of Mech. Sci. 18
(1976), pp. 2331.
[11] Andersen, B.S.: A numerical study of the deep drawing
processes. Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Pro
cesses (ed. Pittman et al.), Pineridge Press, Swansea,
U.K., 1982, pp. 709721.
[12] Honnor, M.E.; Wood, R.D.: Finite element analysis of
axisyrnrnetric deep drawing using a simple twonoded Mind
lin shell element. Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Prob
lems (ed. Taylor et al.), Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K.,
1984, pp. 440449.
[13] Tang, S.C.: Large elastoplastic strain analysis of
flanged hole forming. Compt. Struct. 13 (1981), pp. 363
370.
[14] Wennerstrom, H.: Numerical and computer techniques in
finite element analysis, (doctoral thesis). Chalmers Uni
versity of Technology, Department of Structural Mechanics,
Publ. 81:7, Goteborg, 1981.
[15] Wennerstrom, H.; Samuelsson, A.; Mattiasson, K.: Finite
element method for sheet metal stretching. Numerical Ana
lysis of Forming Processes (ed. Pittman et al.), Wiley
Interscience, 1984, pp. 387404 and in Numerical Methods
in Industrial Forming Processes (ed. Pittman et al.),
Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K., 1982, pp. 5165.
[16] Zienkiewicz, D.C.; Wood, R.D.; Mattiasson, K.; Honnor,
M.E.: Viscous flow and solid mechanics approaches to the
analysis of thin sheet forming, Computer Modelling of the
Sheet Forming Process  Theory, Verification and Applica
tions (will be published by AlME, 1985).
[17] Baynham, J.M.W.; Zienkiewicz, D.C.: Developments in the
finite element analysis of thin sheet drawing and direct
redrawing processes, using a rigid/plastic approach. Nume
 212 
rical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes (ed. Pittman
et all, Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K., 1982, pp. 697707.
[18] Zienkiewicz, O.C.: Flow formulation for the numerical
solution of forming processes. Numerical Analysis of Form
ing Processes (ed. Pittman et al.), WileyInterscience,
1 984, pp. 14 4.
[19] Osakada, K.; Nakano, J.; Mori, K.: Finite element method
for rigidplastic analysis of metal forming  formulation
for finite deformation. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 24, No.
8 (1982), pp. 459468.
[20] Kobayashi, S.; Kim, J.H.: Deformation analysis of ax i
symmetric sheet metal forming processes by the rigid
plastic finite element method. Mechanics of Sheet Metal
Forming (eds. Koistinen, D.P. and Wang, N.M.), Plenum
Press, New York, 1978.
[21] Toh, C.H.; Kobayashi, S.: Finite element process modeling
of sheet metal forming of general shapes. Proc. of the
Int. Conf. on Fundamentals of Metal Forming Technique 
States and Trend, Stuttgart, October 1983, pp. 3956.
[22] Wang, N.M.: A rigidplastic ratesensitive finite ele
ment method for modelling sheet metal forming processes.
Numerical Analysis of Forming Processes (ed. Pittman et al.),
WileyInterscience, 1984.
[23] Wang, N.M.; Wenner, M.L.: Elasticviscoplastic analysis
of simple stretch forming problems. Mechanics of Sheet
Metal Forming (eds. Koistinen, D.P. and Wang, N.M.) Ple
Plenum Press, New York, 1978.
[24] Neale, K.W.; Chater, E.: Limit strain predictions for
strainrate sensitive anisotropic sheets. Int. J. Mech.
Sci., Vol. 22 (1980), pp. 563574.
[25] Chater, E.; Neale, K.W.: Finite plastic deformation of a
circular membrane under hydrostatic pressure  II, strain
rate effects. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 25 (1983), pp.
 213 
235244.
[26] Tillerson, J.R.; Stricklin, J.A.; Haisler, w.e.: Numeri
cal methods for solution of nonlinear problems in struc
tural analysis. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Structu
ral Problems (ed. Hartung), AMDVol. 6, ASME, New York,
1973.
[27] Melander, A.; Schedin, E.; Karlsson, S.; Steninger, J.:
A theoretical and experimental study of the forming limit
diagram of deep drawing steels, dual phase steels, auste
nitic and ferritic stainless steels, and titanium. Scand.
J. Met., (1985), to be published.
[28] Melander, A.; Thuvander, A.: Influence of surface rough
ness and void growth at inclusions on the forming limit
diagram of brass. Scand. J. Met., Vol. 12 (1983), PP.
217226.
 214 
Possibilities of the finite element viscous shell approach for
analysis of sheet metal forming problems.
E. Onate, R. Prez Lama, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Universi
dad Politcnica de Cataluna, Barcelona, Spain
Summary
The viscous shell approach combines the use of viscoplastic
flow and classical shell theories. The paper presents the general
aspects of the viscous shell formulation for axisymmetric and
general 3D shell problems using finite elements. Details of
treatment of coordenate updating, friction effects, strain
hardening and extensions to include the elastic deformations
are also given together with some examples of application to
the forming of axis ymmetrica I thin sheets of metal under hemi
spherical punches.
1. Introduction
The finite element [lJ formulations developed for the analysis
of metal forming problems can be basicaly classified into two
categories. In the first, the main variables are the displacements
of the deformed body (solid approach). Here, different finite
element non linear formulations for elastoplastic structural
analysis (in Lagrangian or Eulerian forms) have been successily
used for the solution of sheet metal forming problems [2J[8J
The main difference with respect to conventional structural
analysis lays in the fact that in most metal forming processes
the displacements and deformations are very large. This makes
the displacement formulation not only much more complex but also
computationaly more demanding. On the other hand, for problems
in which continuous deformation and flow of the material occurs
(as is the case with most metal forming problems) is a more
natural approach to use velocities as the main variables (flow
approach). This procedure has been extensively used in past years
for the analysis of various kinds of metal forming problems [9J
[17J. Recent applications of the "displacement" and "flow" ap
proaches can be found in references [25J and [26J.
 215 
It has also been shown that if elastic and acceleration effects
are neglected in the analysis, the flow formulation is analogous
to classical non linear incompressive elasticity theory. This
allows the use of standard finite elements elasticity programs
for the solution of metal forming problems [9], [10] In parti
cular, the extension of the flow approach to deal with sheet
metal deformation problems, leads to the "viscous shell"
tion which can be easily derived combining the basis of the flow
formulation with classical shell theory [16] , [17].
In this paper, the basis of the finite element viscous shell
formulation for axisymmetric and general thin shell metal forming
problems is presented. The first part of the paper is focussed
in the axisymmetric formulation for which explicit forms of the
finite element matrices are given together with details of the
coordinate updating procedure, treatment of friction effects and
some examples of application. The second part of the paper deals
with the general viscous shell formulation and here the funda
mental finite element forms are given. Finally, the possibility
of including elastic effects in the viscous shell formulation
are discussed in the last part of the paper.
The basic introductory concepts of the flow approach are pre
sented in next section.
2. Flow formulation. Basic concepts.
In a general elastoviscoplastic model the total strains can be
obtained as sum of the elastic and viscoplastic parts of the
deformation, i.e.
(1)
If the elastic strains, are neglected in the analysis eq.
(1) leads, after deriving with respect to time, to
. .vp
ij = Eij = f(oij)
(2)
Eq. (2) can be rearranged to give
a = D E:
(3)
where is the current, real (Cauchy) stress vector, the rate
of the deformation vector and Q a constitutive matrix which may
be dependent on total strain invariants temperature T and
 216 
indeed the rate of straining itself.
If the above assumptions are accepted, then the material behaviour
is essentially that characterizing a fluid (Note that in eq. (2)
any change in stress will result in a change in the deformation
rate, i.e. in motion of the body), and the resulting numerical
approach is known as the "flow formulation".
It can be found [101 that for isotropic associated flow of me
tals, eq. (2) can be written in the form
1
ij = 2]l Sij
where Sij is the deviatoric stress and ]l the flow viscosity
which can be obtained as [91, [101
:. 1
()/n
cry + y
3 E
(4)
(5)
In eq. (5), cry is the uniaxial yield stress;y and n are the
fluidity parameter and the power exponent of the appropriate
viscoplastic constitutive law [10), respectively/and is the
effective strain rate defined by
(6)
Note that eq. (4) implies = 0, Le. the material flows without
change of volume.
Ideally plastic materials are a special case of viscoplasticity
where viscous effects cease to operate. This simply implies y=oo
in eq. ( 5) and
(J
]l = +
3"E
(7)
The value of viscosity tends to infinity as tends to zero so
in numerical computation a large but finite cut off value must
be assumed to allow for zones of rigid or nearly rigid behaviour.
It is also worth noting that a purely creeping material is
characterized by cry = 0 in eq. ( 5 ). Fig. 1 shows the relationship
between the stress and strain rate invariants thus providing a
physical insight into the meaning of the viscosity coefficient ]l.
We have to note here that the effect of normal anisotropy can
also be taken into account to evaluate an orthotropic stress
strain rate relation,Eij = l/]lij sij,in which the viscosity
 217 
coefficients Vij can be calculated similarly as above using
Hill's definition of the yield surface and strain rate invariants
for normal anisotropic bodys
.
a = Uy+ rfJ'ln
..
Ideal plasticity
Fig. 1 :E,ffective, stress (if=3/2 Sij Sij ), viscosity (p) and strain rate irNariant
(1: 2/3 G,j Gij) rplationships for viscoplastic materials.
3. Flow elasticityanalogy
We have already introduced the constitutive equation (3) defining
the real (Cauchy) stresses in terms of the strain rates Eij' This
strain rates can in turn be defined by the spatial derivatives
of the velocities in the usual manner
(dVJ + dVi)
Eij =
2 dXl oXj
(8)
where vi is the velocity in the ith directions.
The equilibrium equation can be written in a standard form
(9)
where a
i
is the acceleration,b
i
the body forces and p the density.
If the forming velocity is assumed to be relatively slow, ac
celeration effects can be neglected in (9). In such case there
is a one to one analogy between eqs. ( 4 ), (8) and ( 9) and
those of incompressible elasticity. Thus, velocities, strain
rates and viscosity are identified with displacements, strains
and the shear modulus, respectively in the corresponding elastic
problem, which, due to the strain dependance of the viscosity
from eq. ( 5 ), is of non linear nature.
 218 
4. The viscous shell formulation
The analogy between the pure viscoplastic flow equations and
those of elasticity, presented in last section, allows the ana
lysis of large plastic deformation of thin sheets of metals by
using shell theory. The procedure is as simple as taking a
standard finite element shell program in which incompressibility
conditions are imposed, and just replacing displacements by
velocities, strain by their rates and the shear modulus by the
viscosity. Moreover, since plane stress assumptions are implicit
in shell theory, the incompressible behaviour can be simply
achieved by simply making the Poisson's ratio equal to 0.5 and
adjusting the shell thickness along the deformation process to
ensure constant volume.
Sheet metal deformation are problems for which continuous up
dating of coordinates is obviously necessary to follow the
sheet shape changes (sect.ion 54). However, this updating can be
accomplished in an easily manner by a straightforward integra
tion in time of velocities. With the new geometry and boundary
conditions, new flow conditions are established and the general
process can then be restated. As each flow solution implies
determining the velocity components in the current configura
tions, very large deformations can be readily followed by a
simple process of repetition of the solution in updated (La
grangian) material coordinates
The solution scheme thus typically follows:
a) Identify an incompressible elastic shell finite element
formulation. The discretized system equations for the flow
approach can thus be directly written, using the analogy
previously mentioned, in the standard form [1]
K a = f (10)
where K is the viscous shell stiffness matrix, and a and f
are the nodal velocities and nodal forces vectors, respecti
vely. Eq. (10) is a system of non linear equations due to
the straindependance of viscosity and it must be solved
iteratively.
b) For each current (or updated) configuration assume some ini
tial value of velocities or extrapolate these from previous
configurations. USing the appropiate strain rate expressions,
 219 
is found from eg.(5) and = is computed.
c) Solve for al. If direct iteration is used we have
a
l
= !S:;l !
d) Check for convergence. This implies satisfaction of an error
norm. We have chosen
_ ) 2
_______________ < 2
(af.') 2
i
In the examples shown in the paper the value of = 0.01 has
been taken. If desired convergence is not achieved go back
to b) and repeat the process with the new velocity field
obtained.
e) Once convergence has been achieved update geometry by nt
where nt is an appropiate time step size. Check if new points
of the sheet have come into contact with the tool or punch
surface and change the boundary conditions accordingly. Fina!
ly, update the sheet thickness to satisfy incompressibility,
and start the process again from step b)
We have to note that direct iteration usually yields convergence
after a small number of iterations. This is due to the boundary
value nature of the problem in which prescribed nodal velocities
are known at the toolblank contact points, and forces (reactions)
are obtained "a posteriori" from the converged velocity field.
Thus, for each solution the initial velocities can be guessed
to be not too far from their correct values and convergence be
rapidly achieved. Special care, however must be taken with the
cutoff value of the viscosity in the blank regions where almost
rigid deformations are expected in order to prevent matrix K
from ill conditioning.
In the next sections we present details of the finite element
formulation for axisymmetric and general viscous shell ap
proaches.
5. Axisymmetric viscous shell formulation
5.1. Basic theory
The formulation is based directly in the analogous elastic shell
formulation [18] with the following assumptions:
 220 
1) Normals to the midsurface of the shell before deformation
remain straight but not necessarily orthogonal to the mid
surface after deformation.
2) The normal stress 0
z
is negligible.
3) The curvature of the shell is moderate, i.e. the terms
(l+
t
/ R) 1 where t and R are the shell thickness and radius
of curvature, respectively.
4) The loading is also assumed to be axisymmetric.
with the above assumptions the velocity, strain rate and stress
fields are obtained as follows.
Ve loci ty fie ld
From Fig. 2, it can be deduced that the two local velocities of
a shell point P can be expressed as
u'
w'
 z' e
w'
o
(11)
where z' is the coordinate in the thickness direction, index 0
indicates midsurface velocities and e is the normal rotation
velocity. The relationship between global and local velocities
can be written in matrix form as
! u' with
where and angle are shown in Fig. 2.
Strain rate field
cos
sin
o
(12)
The local strain rate vector in an aXisymmetric viscous shell
under axisymmetric loading can be written as
I 1
1
r ax'
E:
.' u
.,
r= r
I I
Y I dW'
I r8  +
....., .....ax I
3z'/
Axes x' and z' are defined in Fig. 2 , and u is the velocity in
the global r direction.
Using eqs. (1) and (12) and assumption 4, vector can be written,
after some transformation, as
 221 
Z,W;W
o
Z',W'
.... (Jr
r,u,uo
Fig. 2 :Axisyf'TlfTJetric shell. G#!ometry,W!Iocity end field.
r
1
r
I
I': }
1
00
e
I
:
tg+."k
e
=
s
r
s
Y:ce
ke
Yre ...
(13)
where
0
3u
o
3wo
r
sin 4>  +
cos 4>
3s
3s
r
'1 0 z' 0
U
o 3e
I
0
kr
:0 1 0 z'
e
r
as
0 0 0
ke
e sin e
r
 cos 4>
auo . awo
Yre
 + 4>  e
as 3s
In above is the generalized strain rate vector and Eel,
(k
r
, ke) and Yre correspond to membrane, flexural and shear
generalized strain rates respectively.
The incompressibility condition at each point is simply satisfy
by updating the shell thickness at each stage of the deformation
 222 
according to the actual thickness strain, which is calculated as
where r and e are evaluated from their corresponding rates.
Stress field
Stresses are related with strain rates by the standard expression
(deduced from incompressible isotropic shell theory [181, making
Poisson's ratio equal to 0.5)
a = D E
(14)
with (see Fig. 2)
and D
Virtual work expression
The equation of the rate of virtual work is written as
ST a r ds dz I (15)
where t and correspond to surface and point load vectors,
respectively, The left hand side of eq. (15) can be rewritten
using eqs. (13) and (14) as
where
j
+ t/2 <
u Tar ds dz I =
_ t/2
(16)
Eqs. (15) and (16) are the basis for the finite element discretisa
tion which is shown in next section.
5.2. Finite element discretization.
With the above formulation we note that a finite element inter
olation involving only continuity of the velocity field is
requires (Co continuity) as only first derivatives of velocities
 223 
occur [1] . Obviously/any of the isoparametric one dimensional
finite element interpolations are possible. Thus for an straight
or curved element of k nodes (see Fig. 3 ) the velocity field
can be interpolated in an standard manner as
k
:E N !e)
u
i=11.
where
N
_1.
1.
and
(e)
(s)
['
(e)
wei I
(17 )
1
,]
(18)
(19)
are the shape function matrix and global velocity vector of
node i of element e. In (18) (s) is the shape function of
1.
node i and s the normalized natural coordinate [1].
r
Fig.3 . Straight and curved one dImensional elements for
axisymmetric shell analYSIs.
The generalized strain rate vector of eq. (13) can be expressed
in terms of the element nodal velocities as
where
(e)
a.
_1.
(20 )
 224 
r
o
o
a N ,(e)
cos __ l._
as
aN
COS ct> __ l._
o
as
o
o
o
d
sin ct> __ 1 __
3s
as
(e) sin ct>
N
i

r
Equations (17) and (20) can be used directly to obtain the
standard discretized system of equilibrium equations, upon
substitution in the virtual work equations (15), as
K a = f
(21 )
(22)
where a is the nodal velocity vector and K and f are the global
stiffness matrix and nodal force vector. These can be assembled
from their corresponding element forms which are obtained as
2 TT j t B e) 1 T D B e) r ds
1 ]
(23 )
o
(24 )
Note that due to the strain dependance of viscosity, the compu
tation of matrix of eq. (23) implies a double integral
(along the element length and thickness, respectively). This,
in practice, is performed numericaly using a Gaussian
We have to note here that use of "reduced integration" techniques
is needed to relax the constraint imposed by the shear terms in
(23) when the thickness of the shell is small. We will not enter
here in details about this well known technique which can be
found lenghtly explained in many references [lJ, [19].
 225 
Linear element
It has been shown by Zienkiewicz et al. [18] and Onate and Zien
kiewicz [171 that the simple two noded linear element is ex
tremely accurate for the analysis of both elastic and viscous
(sheet forming) shell problems. A geometric description of the
element is shown in Fig. 3.
A clear advantage of the linear element is that only one point
reduced integration rule along the element length is needed for
the evaluation of the stiffness matrix [18J This allows to
obtain a direct explicit form of the stiffness matrix of eg. (23)
as
nrn _
211 [(e)]TC A) (e) (e) lie)
r
(25 )
where l(e) is the element lenght and the bar indicates values
at the element midpoint. It is easy to obtain from the shape
functions of Fig. 3 and eg. (21) that
i
(1) i
(1) . <p (e)
cos <p (e)
0
0eJ Sl.n
0eJ
1 0 0
2r(e)
 (e)
0 0
(1) i
(26 )
12
i
 J:Tel
0 0
sin <p (e)
2r (e)
(1) i
cos <p (e)
(1) i
sin <p (e)
1
2
5.3. Treatment of friction.
The algorithm used to simulate friction effects between the con
tact interfaces is more complex than for continuum problems
where non directional friction laws can be introduced [101. Here
we have used a treatment of friction based in the iterative ad
justment of nodal reactions corresponding to contact blank 
punch/tool nodes until they satisfy a Coulomb type of friction
law. Thus, at the end of each iteration the reactions at each
contact node in a "friction coordinate system" are checked. If
the value of the force along the slippage direction (ui direction
 226 
in Fig.4 ) exceeds the value of the normal force times a fric
tion coefficient, the node is allowed to slip in the appropiate
direction and a prescribed friction force is applied at the
node. The normal velocity of the node is then constrained to
the value of the normal velocity of the punch, or to zero if
the node is in contact with a fixed point of the tool/punch.
Friction boundary conditions impose that a transformation of
the equilibrium equations at the friction coordinate system,
defined the direction of velocities ui and wi in Fig.4, (where
direction u
i
is the average of the directions of two elements
meeting at the contact node i) must be performed,so that the
friction boundary conditions in velocities and forces can be
appropiately imposed or checked. The new stiffness matrix of
the element in the friction coordinate system is obtained
by the standard transformation.
R(e
l
= [L:elF
1 1))
where is given by eq. (25).
1)
Fig 4 Treatment of friction.
Free node in
Ui direction
Apply Ti
(27 )
 227 
Eq. (27) allows to obtain velocities and forces at the contact
node in the friction coordinate system, thus allowing for an
easy checking of the friction forces and a direct prescription
of the adequate boundary conditions. On the other hand, once
the convergence of the solution has been achieved, velocities
and forces are transformed into their cartesian nodal components
using matrix (see Fig. 4).
5.4. Increment computation and geometry updating.
As already mentioned in sheet forming problems a continuous up
dating of coordinates is obviously necessary to the sheet
geometry changes. This implies that the sheet geometry has to
be updated every time convergence of the velocity field is
achieved and the limit of the blank/tools contact surface sub
sequently adjusted.
Time step computation
We will be concerned here with the calculation of the time
increment for which the first node of the noncontacting region
comes into contact with an indenting hemispherical punch; how
ever the same procedure could be applied to study the contact
with the fixed tooling region.
The equation of the punch in the coordinate axes of Fig. 5 is
(28)
where R is the punch radius. If (r4,z4) and (u
4
,v
4
) are
respectively the coordinates and velocities of the next node to
come into contact (see Fig.5 ) at time t, the new coordinates
(r
4
,z4) at time will be
r'
4
z'
4
r
4
+
z + (v
4
v
4 P
where vp is the punch velocity. From Fig. 5 we see that node 4
will come into contact when
Z'
4
= zl
The value of zl at time is obtained from eq. (28). Therefore
node 4 will come into contact if
(29 )
 228 
Which is a non linear equation in If direct iteration is
used, we have
The process stops when
v' 2  z4
v
4
v
f

'= .;;; O. 01
llt
rn
r,u
Fig. 5 : Coordinate axes for time step
computation .
(30 )
Convergence of the above computations has proved to be very fast
and unexpensive.
The simplest updating procedure is to use the time step cal
culated in eq. (30) to increment the blank coordinates by to
its new deformed position so that we can be sure that the
deformed blank does not cross the punch surface. However, the
use of large time steps leads to instability and usually a small
fraction of the time step calculated in eq. (30) must be used.
Fixed time step. Computation of contact point
An alternative procedure which has proved to be more efficient
is to use a fixed time step, throughout the analysis and
calculate the position of the next contact point, which, obviously,
in general it will not coincide with the next free node (see
Fig.6 ).
 229 
The coordinates and velocities of the unknown contact pOint, m,
can be interpolated in terms of their values of the two nodes
of the element in which it lays (3 and 4 in Fig.6 ). Thus
Zm
rm
and
u
m
v
m
Step 1
N1 z3
N1 ()r
3
N1
mesh at time
t
+
+
N
2
()r.i
+
+N
2
(t;)v
4
Step 2
Fig. 6 : Updating procedure using a fixed time step.
new mesh at
t+tJ t
(31)
where s is the natural coordinate defining the position of the
unknown point and theprjmesindicate velocities and coordinates
of point 3 and 4 at time The contact equation for point
m can be written similarly as eg. (29) by
(32 )
substitution of eqs. (31) in (32) yields a non linear equation

for the unknown coordinate s which can be easily obtained in an
iterative manner.
Once the position of the contact point m has been obtained the
finite element mesh can be slightly modified so that the closest
node is displaced to coincide with point m. The choice of the
node (3 or 4 in Fig.6 ) depends on the vecinity of the contact
point with one or other end of the element under consideration.
 230 
This method has the advantage that for each time step the contact
region is modified in a simple manner, thus avoiding the numerical
oscillations which occur when the contact points are limited to
the nodes and the distance between these is not sufficiently that
small. Obviously, the time step chosen should not be so large
the next contact point lays outside the next free element of the
non contacting region.
Use of constant spatial velocity field
It can be easily checked that in most sheet forming problems
the "spatial" velocity field does not change much between two
consecutive solutions once the forming process reaches a well
developed stage. Consider, for example, the case recently shown
by Baynham and Zienkiewicz [20] of the deep drawing of a circular
sheet with a flat bottom punch. Fig 7a shows the shape of the
blank at two positions of the punch (6 apart) for a well developed
process (that is one where punch displacement is greater than
the sum of the punch and die profile radii). If the radial and
axial components of instantaneous velocity for the two blank
geometries are plotted against the radial coordinate (see Fig.7a)
it is found that the shape of the curve is very similar for the
two punch positions.
If, however, the of a particular point of the blank is
compared at two punch travel positions (for example, by plotting
the velocity against the radius of the blank in the first position)
it is found that some parts of the blank undergo a severe change
of velocity. Such comparison is made in Fig.7b and, clearly, the
points which undergo the greatest change of velocity are those
near the die profile radius.
Thus, if a Lagrangian approach in which the velocity of the
material points are used to update the blank geometry, the time
steps must be small. On the other hand, if an Eulerian ap
proach is used in which the constant spatial velocity field is
used to update the geometry, then the same velocity field can
be used for a greater length of time and so the number of re
solutions is reduced significantly.
In this paper this latter method is used in combination with
the constant time step algorithm, shown in last section, as
follows
 231 
a) Once the velocity field has been obtained for a blank position,
a record is kept of the spatial velocity field in that
particular Dosition which is taken as "initial" in the
following updatings of the blank.
b) The blank geometry is updated using the spatial velocity
field with a constant time step. After each updating the
geometry of the blank is checked and modified so that it
follows the tooling and punch profiles.
c) Step b) is repeated a few times using the same spatial velocity
field. However, after a number the time steps the new con
verged velocity field must be computed for a more precise
evaluation of punch force and blank strains.
a)
J
to
rodius (mm)
Punch trovei
 25mm
   30mm
b) radius of point in configuration
at 25 rrm trmel
_to
Punch travel
 25mm
 :7Jmm
Fig. 7 : Radial velocity of material of blank. a) velocity field
b) Material velocity field for pcnch POSitionS 5 apart.
5.5. Strain hardening effects.
The change of yield strenght with the deformation process is
easily included in the calculation. In most cases the yield
stress is a function of the total effective strain invariant.
For Lagrangian (material) coordinates computation of can be
 232 
found by direct integration of the corresponding rate E defined
by
Thus, at each stage of the deformation the value of E can be
simply evaluated as
I
t +lIt
Et + t lit
and the yield stress appropiately updated.
6. Membrane axisymmetric viscous shell formulation.
The membrane formulation can be easily derived from the general
e presented in sections 5.1 and 5.2 simply neglecting in all
expressions the bending and shear terms. Thus, the relevant
matrices are now defined as
generalized strain rate vector: E C
o. 01 T
E
r
, Ee
stress vector:
[Or' oeJ
T
constitutive matrix:
p = \l
The element stiffness matrix can be obtained as
1
1 (e)
= 2n
o
(33)
where B is a 2 x 2 matrix which terms correspond with terms
11, 12, 21 and 22 of matrix of eq.(21).
Note that in eq. (33) numerical integration across the thickness
is avoided due to the constant value of the viscosity in the
thickness direction. Finally, if linear elements are used,one
Gauss point sufficess for the correct evaluation of (33) and
we obtain
K
7) = 2 n [ ( e) ] T  (e)   (e)  (e) (e)
t P r I
where the bar indicates values at the element mid point. Note
that B(7) can be directly deduced from eq.(26).
 233 
7. Examples.
The efficiency of the formulation presented in previous sections
is checked with two well known examples of hemispherical stret
ching and deep drawing of circular isotropic sheets for which
experimental results provided by Woo are available [21], [22].
Hemispherical punch stretching
The geometrical configuration of the problem is shown in Fig. 8.
The uniaxial stresseffective strain curve of the material is
given by
5.4+27.8 (E)O.504 tons/in
2
, E"<0.36
5.4+24.4 ('E)O.375 tons/in
2
, E">0.36
The operative coefficient of friction assumed by Woo was V=0.04.
In Fig. 8 the punch/displacement curves for various friction
coefficients are shown. A mesh of 24 linear elements was used
for this analysis. It can be seen that coincidence between ex
perimental and numerical results obtained for V = 0.04 is good.
It is worth also noting, that the peak load obtained numerically
increases with friction. This also coincides with experimental
and numerical work reported for this type of problem [3].
To test the efficiency of the linear viscous shell element, an
analysis of the same problem was performed using a mesh of only
10 elements. Numerical results obtained for the punch 
ment curve for the full friction case (V = ro) are shown in Fig. 9.
Results obtained are quite good disregarding the small oscilla
tions due to the coarseness of the mesh which, obviously, implies
a less graduate contact between blank and tooling regions. It
can also be seen in Ficr. 9a that the peak load has a faster
decrease. This is due to the high stretching of the relatively
large elements in the free region at high deformation stages.
This causes the rapid thinning of the elements with the cor
responding reduction in rigidity and decrease of the punch force.
This phenomenon can be clearly seen in Fig. 9b where the thick
ness strain for this case has been plotted. Note the strain peak
at high punch travels which causes a rapid thinning in a small
localized area. A plot of the blank geometry at various
tion stages is shown in Fig. 9c where the different thinning
areas are clearly differentiated. Also, the thickness strain
2.5
2.0
..
.e
'
Q
1.5
g
oS?
..c::
0
Q.
1.0
0.5
o
 234 
........ .
.. .".. '.
JII
1
' Experimental lp=QOO""
l 0 jj=o.O ]
f x jj=o.04 .
lit _ _  0.20 Present analysIs