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# ME6224-AERODYNAMICS

## Dr. TJS. Jothi

Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
National Institute of Technology Calicut
Books followed/Materials referred
Introduction to Mechanics by Fox and
McDonald
Fundamental to Aerodynamics by John D
Anderson Jr.
Fluid Mechanics by Frank M White
Open internet sources
Points to ponder
Why aerodynamics?
How different from fluid dynamics
Aerodynamics study
Structures/bridges

Aerodynamics study

Bluff bodies
Streamlined bodies
Wind-mills
IC Engines
F1 race cars!
Course Content

References
A. M. Kuethe and C. Y. Chow, Foundations of
Aerodynamics (5th ed. 1997);
D. Anderson and S. Eberhardt, Understanding
Flight (2001);
Anderson, John D. (2007). Fundamentals of
Aerodynamics . 4th, McGraw-Hill.
Bertin, J. J.; Smith, M. L. (2001). Aerodynamics for
Engineers . 4th, Prentice Hall.
Smith, Hubert C. (1991). Illustrated Guide to
Aerodynamics . 2nd, McGraw-Hill.
Craig, Gale (2003). Introduction to Aerodynamics.
Regenerative Press.
Evaluation Pattern
Test 1 15 marks
Test 2 20 marks
Assignment/Project 15 marks
Final Exam 50 marks
Total 100 marks
Importance of Aerodynamics
Importantly to reduce drag force
Ex. Streamlined bodies
Give an example where drag force should be max!
Designing of
Aircrafts/space crafts
Re-entry vehicles
Rockets
Buildings/bridges/structures etc.
Automobiles/race cars
Hydrodynamics to design ship hull and bow.
Fluid
Difference between fluid and solid.
Fluid-continuous deformation on application
of shear stress.

Governing Flow Equations
Continuity equation (conservation law)
Should understand Concept of Continuum
Knudsen number.
Momentum equation
Derived from Newtons second law (ma = EF) : The
change of momentum equals the sum of forces on a
fluid particle.
Complete set of equation are called Navier-Stokes
equation.
Energy conservation (First law of thermodynamics) : Rate
of change of energy equals the sum of rate of heat
addition to and work done on fluid particle.

Concept of Continuum
Only for Fluids flows?
When can a fluid be
considered to be in continuum.
Kn << 1.
Ex: considered a minimum possible diameter
tube that can be fabricated ~ 10
-4
m
Mean free path ~ 10
-8
m
Kn ~ 10
-4
<< 1
Mostly in all cases continuum gets satisfied
Exceptional cases?
Lagrangian and Eulerian description
In Lagrangian description, fluid
particles which have mass,
momentum, internal energy, and
other properties. Mathematical
laws can then be written for each
fluid particle. This is the
Lagrangian description of fluid
motion.

In the Eulerian description of fluid
motion, we consider how flow
properties change at a fluid
element that is fixed in space and
time (x,y,z,t), rather than
following individual fluid
particles.
Governing equations can be derived using each
method and converted to the other form.
13
Fluid element and properties
The behavior of the fluid is described in
terms of macroscopic properties:
Velocity u.
Pressure p.
Density .
Temperature T.
Energy E.
Properties are averages of a sufficiently
large number of molecules.
A fluid element can be thought of as
the smallest volume for which the
continuum assumption is valid.
x
y
z
oy
ox
oz
(x,y,z)
Fluid element for
conservation laws
Faces are labeled North,
East, West, South, Top and
Bottom
1 1
2 2
W E
p p
p p x p p x
x x
o o
c c
= = +
c c
Properties at faces are expressed as first
two terms of a Taylor series expansion,
e.g. for p: and
14
Mass balance
Rate of increase of mass in fluid element equals the
net rate of flow of mass into element.
Rate of increase is:
The inflows (positive) and outflows (negative) are
shown here:
z y x
t
z y x
t
o o o

o o o
c
c
=
c
c
) (
x
y
z
( ) 1
.
2
w
w z x y
z

o o o
c
| |
+
|
c
\ .
( ) 1
.
2
v
v y x z
y

o o o
| | c
+
|
c
\ .
z y x
x
u
u o o o

|
.
|

\
|
c
c

2
1
.
) (
z x y
y
v
v o o o

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

2
1
.
) (
y x z
z
w
w o o o

|
.
|

\
|
c
c

2
1
.
) (
( ) 1
.
2
u
u x y z
x

o o o
c
| |
+
|
c
\ .
Continuity equation
0
) ( ) ( ) (
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z
w
y
v
x
u
t

0 ) ( div
t
= +
c
c
u

In Vector Form
3D, unsteady equation for all flows
For incompressible flow 0
t
=
c
c
0 ) ( div = u
0
z
w
y
v
x
u
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
Net flow of mass across boundaries
Change in density term
Rate of change for a fluid particle
Terminology: fluid element is a volume stationary in space, and a
fluid particle is a volume of fluid moving with the flow.
A moving fluid particle experiences two rates of changes:
Change due to changes in the fluid as a function of time.
Change due to the fact that it moves to a different location in the fluid
with different conditions.
The sum of these two rates of changes for a property per unit mass
| is called the total or substantive derivative D| /Dt:

With dx/dt=u, dy/dt=v, dz/dt=w, this results in:
dt
dz
z dt
dy
y dt
dx
x t Dt
D
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
| | | | |
|
| |
t Dt
D
. u +
c
c
=
form on Conservati
form al Differenti
t
0 ) ( = V +
c
c
U

## form on conservati Non

form al Differenti
Dt
D

= V + 0 U

Eulerian
approach
Lagrangian
approach
Navier-Stokes Equation
Navier-Stokes Equation
Reynolds Transport Theorem
Let B be any Extensive property of fluid, then
be an intensive property
Rate of
change of
property in a
system
Rate of
change of
property with
in the control
volume
Net flux of
the property
across the
control
surface
B can be mass, momentum, Energy or any other
property of the fluid
Reynolds Transport Theorem-
Continuity Equation
For mass conservation, B = m; = 1
Reynolds Transport Theorem-
Momentum Equation
Let B = mV, then = V
Flow lines/patterns

Stream lines
Instantaneous line drawn tangentially to the velocity
vector
Path lines
Line drawn along the movement of fluid particle
Streak lines
Locus of fluid particles that have earlier passed
through a prescribed point
Time lines
-- Instantaneous line formed with a set of fluid particles
Stream lines, Path lines, Streak lines, and Time
lines are identical in steady flow
Stream Function()
Stream line lines drawn in flow field such
that at any instant they are tangent to the
direction of flow at every point
Stream Function() a mathematical
description

Along the streamline
Define a stream function (Purely a mathematical term) ,
such that
d = udy
and d = -vdx
u=d /dy
v= -d /dx
On joining the locus of constant stream functions - Stream lines
0
y
v
x
u
=
c
c
+
c
c
Stream functions are defied for two dimensional flows only
Assume steady and 2D, Continuity is
u=d /dy
v= -d /dx
Substitute
Continuity becomes
u=d /dy
v= -d /dx
Substitute
Flow rate across the streamlines
Flow rate across the AB
X = constant along AB
Flow rate across the BC
Y = constant along BC
Fluid Rotation
=
=
Fluid Rotation
=
=
Angular velocity of fluid element
Fluid Rotation along other planes
Fluid Circulation
Relation between circular and vorticity
For Closed element oacb
s d

C
Consider rectilinear flow in the x direction with velocity U.
Velocity (u, v, w) = (U, 0, 0).
The circuit has length L in the x direction and length H in the y direction.
The circulation around the circuit is:
U
L
0 0 ) UL ( 0 UL
s d u s d u s d u s d u
s d u
4 3 2 1
C
= + + +
= + + +
= = I
} } } }
}

s d

s d

s d

s d

## Thus the is no circulation around a circuit in

rectilinear flow.
Vorticity becomes
x
y
Fluid Circulation illustration
c
0
y
u
x
v
2 =
c
c

c
c
= e =
No rotation
Now we consider the case of plane Couette flow with

Note that u = 0 where y = 0 and u = U where y = H. Now
H
U
1
2
3
4
L
UL 0 ) UL ( 0 0
s d u s d u s d u s d u
s d u
4 3 2 1
C
= + + +
= + + +
= = I
} } } }
}

s d

s d

s d

s d

## Thus there is circulation, and it is negative

(i.e. directed in the clockwise direction).
Vorticity becomes
|
.
|

\
|
= 0 , 0 ,
H
y
U ) w , v , u (
x
y
Fluid Circulation illustration
H
U
y
u
x
v
2 =
c
c

c
c
= e =
Fluid Rotation
is clockwise
If the fluid element has no rotation,
angular velocity is zero, = 0
= 2 = = 0
Flow with zero angular velocity (or zero
vorticity) are called Irrotational flows
For Irrotational flows
0
y
u
x
v
2 =
c
c

c
c
= = e
u=d /dy v= -d /dx
Substitute for stream function
Problem #1: Consider the flow field given by
= ax
2
-ay
2

where a = 3 s
-1
. Show that the
flow is irrotational by different possible
methods. Is the flow incompressible?

Problem #2: If V = Ax i Ay j. Determine the
stream function ().

Velocity Potential
For an Irrotational flow:
Fundamental mathematical identify: A vector with
zero curl must be the gradient of a scalar function

If is a scalar function then
For Irrotational Flows
Velocity = gradient (scalar function, )
Vorticity = curl (gradient ) = 0

is called velocity potential studied as Potential
Flow Theory
In Cartesian system
In Cylindrical system
Prove that the slope of constant lines at any
point is negative reciprocal of the slope of
constant lines
Stream functions () in cylindrical coordinates
Potential functions () in cylindrical coordinates
V
r
V

## - Velocity in angular dn.

Concept of FORCED VORTEX (Rigid body motion)
and FREE VORTEX (Irrotational motion)
Consider purely a tangential fluid motion
V
r
= 0 and V

= fn(r)
Find the value of rotation(), Vorticity () and
Circulation () in case of forced vortex
In r plane, Vorticity is
For rigid body rotation, V

= r

rotation()
Vorticity ()
Circulation ()

= fn(r)

Rotation and Vorticity are zero for Irrotational flow
Circulation ()
Difference between Forced and Free vortex flows
Elementary Flows

1. Uniform Flow
2. Source Flow
3. Sink Flow
4. Doublet Flow
5. Irrotational Vortex Flow
Elementary Flow - Uniform Flow
Rectilinear
flow Velocity
u= d /dy= U
v= -d /dx = 0
= Uy + f(x)
= const + f(y)
= Uy
u= d /dx= U
v= d /dy= 0
= Ux + f(y)
= const+ f(x)
= Ux
Inclined flow
Velocity
u = U cos
v = U sin
Elementary Flow - Source Flow
q is the strength of the source flow
which is the volume flow rate per
unit depth.
At any r, V
r
= q/2r and V

= 0
=
=
(q/2)
(q/2)lnr
Origin is a Singular point
Elementary Flow Sink Flow
q is the strength of the source flow
which is the volume flow rate per
unit depth.
At any r, V
r
= -q/2r and V

= 0
=
=
(-q/2)
(q/2)lnr
Origin is a Singular point
Elementary Flow Free Vortex Flow
Elementary Flow Doublet (Source and Sink pair)
r
b
x
l
2 1
= (q/2)1
For Source
source
= l* q is called the strength of the doublet
= -(q/2)2
For sink
At point P, when source and
sink is separated by l
= (q/2)(1-2)
P
Important: As l approaches zero, the strength q increases,
however the product l* q = constant a special flow
pattern called doublet is obtained.
As l approaches zero, q approaches infinity
q
-q
l* q
q
-q
P
Limiting case of doublet
= l q = Const
From the figure, using trigonometric relations
for infinitesimal d
(1)
Substitute in (1)
Superposition of Elementary Flows
1. Uniform flow + source (flow past half body)
= U rSin = (q/2)
= U rsin + (q/2)

HB
=
UF
+
So
(superposition of solutions)
= U Cos + q/2r
= -U Sin
Stagnation points in the flow field can be obtained by equating
velocities to zero
V
r
= U Cos + q/2r = 0
V

= -U Sin = 0
(r, ) = (q/2U, )
Stagnation point at B in figure
To get the value of stream line function passing stagnation point
= U rsin + (q/2)
= U (q/2U )sin + (q/2) = Const
= q/2 = Const
Superposition of Elementary Flows
2. Uniform flow + Source + Sink(flow past Rankine oval)
= U rsin + (q/2)
1
- (q/2)
2

HB
=
UF
+
So
+
Si

= U rsin + (q/2)(
1
-
2
)
Find the velocity and stagnation
points.
Superposition of Elementary Flows
3. Uniform flow + clockwise vortex
Superposition of Elementary Flows
4. Uniform flow + doublet (flow past cylinder)
(will be discussed in detail later)
Superposition of Elementary Flows
5. Uniform flow + doublet + vortex (flow past rotating cylinder)
(will be discussed in detail later)
Superposition of Elementary Flows
6. Source + vortex (spiral vortex)
7. Sink + vortex
Superposition of Elementary Flows
8. vortex pair (Equal K, opposite rotation, separated by 2a)
Group Project #1
Using any software (Matlab, Scilab) or code, generate the flow net
of five discussed elementary flows for different stream functions
and velocity potentials. Show the simulation of a velocity vector in
their flow fields. Neatly typed group report should be submitted.
The group has to present the work for 10 minutes on their work.
Group Members
1.B090138
2.B090191
3.B090350
4.B090126
5.B090320
Group Project #2
Using any software (Matlab, Scilab) or code, generate the flow net
of superposition of discussed elementary flows (totally 8) for
different stream functions and velocity potentials. Show the
simulation of a velocity vector in their flow fields. Neatly typed
group report should be submitted. The group has to present the
work for 15 minutes on their work.
Group Members
1.ME120294
2.120127
3.120306
4.120257
5.120126
6.120138
7. 120183
8.120197
Problems
1. A two dimensional flow represented by V = (Ax-By)t I (Bx+Ay)t j,
where A = 1 s
-2
, B =2s
-2
, t in s, coordinates in meters. Find (a) Flow is
incompressible? (b) Flow is steady? (c) Flow is Irrotational? (d) derive
stream function and velocity potential
2. Flow field represented by = (Ax
2
-By
3
), where A = 1 m
-1
s
-1
, B =
1/3 m
-1
s
-1
, coordinates in meters. Find velocity potential
3. Flow field represented by = (Ax
2
+ Bxy Ay
2
) where A = 1 m
-1
s
-1
,
B = 1/3 m
-1
s
-1
, coordinates in meters. Verify (a) Flow is
incompressible? (b) Flow is steady? (c) Flow is Irrotational? (d) derive
stream function
Flow over cylinder (Uniform flow + doublet)
Two dimensional, incompressible, Irrotational flow, the superposition of a doublet
and uniform flow represents flow around a circular cylinder. Obtain the stream
function and velocity potential for this flow pattern. Find velocity field, stagnation
points location on cylinder surface, pressure distribution on cylinder surface. Obtain
the drag and lift forces on the circular cylinder.
Stream function
Velocity potential
Velocity components
Velocity field
For stagnation points, V = 0 (V
r
= 0; V

= 0)
Thus stagnation points are (r,) = (a,0), (a,)
Pressure distribution over cylinder surface
Apply Bernoulis theorem between far away point and
on the surface to obtain pressure distribution
Along the cylinder surface, r = a, V
r
= 0
where
Drag force-component parallel to the flow stream acting in the flow
direction
Flow over rotating cylinder (Uniform flow + doublet + vortex)
Two dimensional, incompressible, Irrotational flow, the superposition of a doublet
and uniform flow, and vortex represents flow around a rotating circular cylinder.
Obtain the stream function and velocity potential for this flow pattern. Find velocity
field, stagnation points location on cylinder surface, pressure distribution on cylinder
surface. Obtain the drag and life forces on the circular cylinder.
Stream function
Velocity potential
Velocity components
Velocity field
For stagnation points, V = 0 (V
r
= 0; V

= 0)
Velocity V

at r= a
When Velocity V

be 0 ?
Thus,
Hence when K = 0 (no free vortex), the stagnation points become (a, 0 or )
How many stagnation points?
can vary from 0 to 1
When K < 4Ua, will be in third and fourth quadrant, 2 stagnation
points
When K = 4Ua, will be /2, only one stagnation point
Pressure distribution along cylinder surface
Pressure distribution along surface at r = a, V
r
= 0
Drag force F
d
When expressed in terms of circulation which is defined as
Therefore Lift force becomes
Lift is directly proportional to the circulation.
This is called Kutta-Joukowski theorem
In general, an aerodynamic force generated normal to the angular
velocity of the body is termed as Magnus effect
Flow over a cylinder
From Fundamental of Aerodynamics by John D Anderson JR
Flow over a spinning cylinder
V

= 3U
V

= 6U
From Fundamental of Aerodynamics by John D Anderson JR
Kutta Joukowski Lift Theorem
Conformal Mapping
L = V I
Lift = ?
A conformal mapping is the transformation of a complex
function from one coordinate system to another using a
transformation function.
Conformal Mapping
transfer function w(z) = sqrt(z)
Introduction to complex numbers
Conformal mapping relies entirely on complex
mathematics.
A complex number z is a sum of a real and
imaginary part;
z = real + iimaginary
The term i, refers to the complex number
so that;
z = real + iimaginary = x + iy

1 i , i i , 1 i , 1 i
4 3 2
= = = =
y, imaginary
x, real
A complex number can be written in polar form
using Euler's equation;
z = x + iy = re
iu
= r(cosu + isinu)
where r
2
= x
2
+ y
2

Complex multiplication:
z
1
z
2
= (x
1
+iy
1
)(x
2
+iy
2
) = (x
1
x
2
- y
1
y
2
) + i(x
1
y
2
+ y
1
x
2
)

) ( i
2 1
i
2
i
1
2 1 2 1
e r r e r e r
u u u u +
= =
Complex representation of potential flows
w(z) = | + i = (velocity potential) + i(stream function)

Complex representation of Uniform flow
w(z) = V

z = | + i = V

(x+iy) = V

x + V

y
as seen previously,
| = V

x = V

rcosu
= V

y = V

rsinu

Complex representation of a Source
u
t t
u
t t
|
t
u
2
i ) r ln(
2
) i ) r (ln(
2
) re ln(
2
i ) z ln(
2
w
i
A
+
A
= +
A
=
A
= + =
A
=
Complex representation of a Vortex
) r ln(
2
i
2
) i ) r (ln(
2
i ) re ln(
2
i i ) z ln(
2
i w
i
t
u
t
u
t t
|
t
u
I
+
I
= +
I
=
I
= + =
I
=
Complex representation of a Doublet
) sin i (cos
r
1
2
k
e
r
1
2
k
re
1
2
k
i
z
1
2
k
w
i
i
u u
t t t
|
t
u
u
=
|
.
|

\
|
= = + = =

To obtain velocity components from
Complex form
Re-write the expression from the complex variable z form into
its separate real and complex components. The form of this
expression will be w = | + i. The individual velocity
components are found by completing the appropriate
differentiation on | or . to obtain u or v.
As an example consider the complex form of the source flow;

0
2
2
) ln(
2
) ln(
2
=
c
c
=
A
=
c
c
=
A
+
A
= + =
A
=
u
|
t
|
u
t t
|
t
u
V
r r
V
i r i z w
r
To obtain velocity components from
Complex form
An alternative method would be to differentiate on the
complex expression directly and then separate the real and
complex portions to obtain the velocity components
according to;

iv u
dz
dw
=
Conformal mapping in Aerodynamics
For aerodynamics applications, the JOUKOWSKI
TRANSFORM is the most commonly used transform

z
b
z w
2
+ =
Here, b is a constant. Graphically, a conformal mapping will
transform a complex plane in z (z = x+iy) into a complex plane in a
new variable w (w = +i,).
Uniform flow in the z plane is transformed into an equivalent
form in the w plane using a transform of the form w = f(z).
= C
1

= C
2

= C
3

= K
1
= K
3

,

z plane
x
y
w plane
= C
3

= C
2

= K
3

JOUKOWSKI TRANSFORM
x
y
b
u

,
z plane
w plane
2b
-2b
z
b
z w
2
+ =
0 ) cos( 2
2
i b be be
be
b
be w
i i
i
i
+ = + = + =

u
u u
u
u
z = be
iu

z = ae
iu
, with a > b,
iy x
a
b
a i
a
b
a
ae
b
ae
z
b
z w
i
i
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + = + = ) sin( ) cos(
2 2 2 2
u u
u
u
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
a
b
a
y
a
b
a
x
Which can be written as
x
y
2b -2b
JOUKOWSKI TRANSFORM
b
a
eb
-2b 2b
x
y

,
z plane
w plane
z
b
z w
2
+ =
z = ae
iu
-eb where the constant e is a small
number
JOUKOWSKI TRANSFORM FOR AEROFOIL
b
a
eb
-2b 2b
x
y

,
z plane
w plane
z
b
z w
2
+ =
A
|
B
B
A
JOUKOWSKI TRANSFORM FOR UNSYMMETRIC
AEROFOIL
Assignment #3
There is an uniform flow is over a cylinder of unit radius. Using
Joukowski transformation, transform this flow field in to a (use Matlab
coding)
(1) flow field over a flat plate with 5
o
AoA and estimate lift in it.
(2) flow field over an ellipse with (10% and 20% camber)
(3) flow field over an symmetric aerofoil and 5
o
AoA
(4) flow field over an unsymmetric aerofoil
Members
1. b090588ME Navneeth (1)
2. Bo90937ME Vikash (1)
3. Bo90476ME Chaithanya (3)
4. B090114ME Swathy (3)
5. Vijaya krishnan (3)
6. M120416ME Sourabh (2,4)
7. M120414ME Shivam (2,4)
8. M120124ME-Dhanraj (2,4)
9. M120118ME Jaison (2,4)
10. M120254ME Ajeet (2,4)

Airfoil theory - Nomenclature
Airfoil is a cut Section of a finite wing
1. Mean camber line: Locus of points halfway between the upper and lower
surfaces as measured perpendicular to mean camber.
2. Chord line: The straight line connecting the leading and trailing edge.
3. Camber: Maximum distance between the chord and mean camber line,
measured perpendicular to chord.
4. Thickness: Distance between the upper and lower surface
Aeronautics) Airfoils and Test Data
4 - Digit Series
5 - Digit Series
6 - digit Series
8 - digit series
NACA 4 digit series
NACA four-digit wing sections.
First digit describing maximum camber as percentage of
the chord.
Second digit describing the distance of maximum camber
from an airfoil leading edge in tens of percent's of the
chord.
Third and fourth digits describing maximum thickness of
the airfoil as percent of the chord.
For example, the NACA 2412 airfoil has a maximum camber of
2% located 40% (0.4 chords) from the leading edge with a
maximum thickness of 12% of the chord.
The NACA 0015 airfoil is symmetrical, the 00 indicating that it
has no camber. The 15 indicates that the airfoil has a 15%
thickness to chord length ratio: it is 15% as thick as it is long.

NACA 5 digit series
The NACA five-digit series describes complex
airfoil shapes.
The first digit, when multiplied by 0.15, gives the
designed coefficient of lift (C
L
).
Second and third digits, when divided by 2, gives the
distance of maximum camber from the leading edge
(as per cent of chord).
Fourth and fifth digits give the maximum thickness of
the airfoil (as per cent of the chord).
For example, the NACA 12018 airfoil would give an
airfoil with maximum thickness of 18% chord,
maximum camber located at 10% chord, with a design
lift coefficient of 0.15

Airfoil characteristics
Stalled Airfoil
Pressure Distribution
99500
99550
99600
99650
99700
99750
99800
99850
99900
99950
100000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Chordwise Distance, x, m
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

P
r
e
s
s
u
e
,

P
,

N
/
s
q

m
Net Normal Force
Upper Surface Pressure
Lower Surface Pressure
n P P dx
l
c
u
=
}
( )
0
Pressure Coefficient Distribution
0
2
2
1
=

V
p p
c
p

2
2
1

V
p p
c
p

1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
0
0
=

V
V
V
p p
c
p

In free-stream:
At stagnation point (V=0):
Positive Cp means the pressure is higher than the free-stream
(atmospheric) pressure, and negative Cp means suction relative
to free-stream pressure. The maximum, which occurs at the
stagnation point, is always 1.
Boundary Layer Flow Separation
When flow separation occurs,
there is also pressure drag.
Aerodynamic Forces
Forces acting on a body kept in a flow field
Resultant force and Moment
Splitting Resultant Force
Force Components
Two preferred choice of axis
1. Free stream Axes
2. Body Axes
Relation between the two axes forces
If force for one axes is
known, it is easy to find
force for the other.
is angle of attack
Force acting over entire airfoil
UPPER
Surface (u)
LOWER
Surface (l)
is considered positive in clockwise
direction from the axes
Force and Moment calculation over airfoil
Consider an airfoil which is extended along the span of unit length
Elemental normal and axial forces acting on UPPER elemental surface
N

and A

are
the forces per
unit span length
Elemental normal and axial forces acting on LOWER elemental surface
Total normal force (integrating the elemental normal force from LE to TE
Total drag force (integrating the elemental shear force from LE to TE
Aerodynamic Moment
1. Depends upon on point at which the moment is taken.
2. Moment is positive if it increases the angle of attack (pitch up)
3. Moment is negative if it decreases the angle of attack (pitch
down)
Moment = Force x displacement (only that helps in rotation)
Centre of Pressure
From previous discussions it is aware that the loads (Pressure
and shear stress) are distributed over an airfoil.
Where the resultant of these loads to be placed in a airfoil?
Place at Any Location that create the same effect as
That is if the load distribution creates the moment (M
LE
) at
leading edge, the resultant also should create a same M
LE

at
The moment depends upon the location (reference point).
If M
ref

is the moment at reference,

At one particular reference location x
cp
, called the centre
of pressure, the moment is defined to be zero.
Thus it is advantageous to you standard locations for
moment reference point. Generally used moment
reference point is quarter chord location, x
ref
= c/4
as L approaches zero
Fixing the moment
reference point
For airfoil
For finite wing
How to model lift over an airfoil?
Real case is the following
Lift is directly proportional to the circulation.
This is called Kutta-Joukowski theorem
Philosophy of theoretical solutions
Free Vortex Flow
Vortex filament
Vortex sheet
Let s be me distance measure
along the vortex sheet.
Thus the strength at infinitesimal length ds of sheet is
Consider point P (x,z) located at r from ds
is defined as volume flow rate per unit depth per unit length along S
The local jump in tangential
velocity across the vortex
sheet is equal to the local
sheet strength
Consider vortex sheet for elementary distance ds
Circulation is given as
Approaching to
vortex sheet
SUMMARY
Modeling of lift over airfoil in inviscid, incompressible flows:

1. Consider an airfoil of arbitrary shape and thickness in a free stream
with velocity V
2. Replace the airfoil surface with a vortex sheet of variable strength
(s).
3. Calculate the variation of as a function of s
4. Calculate the circulation and lift over the airfoil using following
relation
Kutta Condition
By Kutta Joukowski theorem, derived from flow over rotating
cylinder
Depending upon value of , numerous values of lift is possible
At a given angle of attack and free stream velocity, whether
an airfoil can have numerous value of ?
The answer is Theoretically YES but Practically NO.
This is explained by Kutta condition.
Potential flow over an airfoil
1 and 2 are stagnation points. Left airfoil has
1
and right
airfoil has
2
Real case of flow over airfoil
Flow starting over
an airfoil (initial
stage)
Intermediate
stage
Condition (flow
leaves smoothly)
Circulation

1
Circulation

2
Kutta condition in theoretical analysis
Finite angle trailing edge Cusped trailing edge
Trailing edge a should be a
stagnation point.
The Pressure P
a

should be finite
and same for both flow.

Applying Bernoulis Eqn. on top
and bottom of TE point a

Kutta condition applying to vortex sheet
At the trailing edge
From
Kelvins Circulation Theorem
Consider inviscid and incompressible flow.
By Kelvins Circulation theorem
Kelvins Circulation Theorem in airfoil
Thin Airfoil Theory
Thin Airfoil can be simulated as vortex placed along camber line
Objectives:
1. To estimate lift using the following.
2. Estimate (s) such that camber line becomes one streamline
and Kutta condition is satisfied (TE) = 0.
3. Estimate the circulation over an entire airfoil.
4. Calculate the Lift using Kutta Joukowski throrem.

Thin Airfoil Theory
w Component of
velocity normal to
camber line induced by
vortex sheet.
w = w(s)
Assumption!!
Since the camber is at close distance to chord in thin airfoils, the vortex sheet can
be taken to fall on the chord line!!
Re-modifications in this case:
1. = (x) such that the camber line is still treated as a streamline
2. (c) = 0 to be satisfied (Kutta Condition)
(1)
For camber line to be streamline, the normal velocity component of
the camber line should be zero.
Normal component of
free stream velocity
Normal component of velocity
induced by vortex sheet
(2)
(3)
(4)
Approximations!!
One velocity component (V
n
) is found. Solving for the other component (w(s)).
Recall w(s) is the velocity component induced by the vortex sheet normal to camber
line.
Let w(x) denote the velocity component normal to chord line.
Recall the velocity induced by a vortex can be given by following relation
(5)
w(x) is calculated as follows
Consider d as the strength of the vortex at distance . The velocity dw
induced at point x by this d is given an
Velocity induced at point x by all elemental vortices along chord line
(6)
(1)
On combining all the obtained velocity terms
(7)
This is known as fundamental equation of airfoil theory.
This equation is common for both symmetric and asymmetric
airfoils. However only applicable for THIN airfoils.
Treatment for symmetric airfoils
For symmetric airfoils camber lines coincides with chord line.
Therefore dz/dx = 0
(9)
Transforming the coordinates from (linear) to coordinates (angular)
in order to solve the integrals
(8)
(10)
At fixed point x, say =
0
(12)
Substituting Eq.(9,10,11) in Eq. (8)

Integration limits:
= 0 at = 0
= at = c
Substituting Eq. 12 in Eq. 14

(13)
(14)
(15)
Substituting above Eq. Kutta Jowkowski theorem

(16)
The lift coefficient is

(17)
Substituting Eq. 16 in Eq. 17

(18)
(19)
-1
Eq. 19
Project
Create a solid streamline flat plate body using the following
equations (Using Vortex panel method)

Members
1. M120089ME
2. M120283ME
3. M120171ME
4. M120110ME
5. M120106ME

Project
Using Mathematica/Matlab solve the following equation

Members
1. M120085ME
2. M120472ME
3. M120473ME
4. M120319ME
5. M120076ME

Importance of c
l
(Lift Coefficient) and c
d

(Drag Coefficient)

We need to generate lift that can overcome weight of aircraft
(L=W). Produce thrust to over come drag (T=D).

Characteristics of airfoil

For an airfoil the
c
l
is expected to be
maximum and c
d
should
be minimum.

Do we require c
l
to be
maximum always?
What happens to V at for
various c
l
and c
d
.

Importance of c
l
(Lift Coefficient) and c
d

(Drag Coefficient)

The minimum velocity and the maximum velocity of an
airplane is dictated by force coefficients c
l
and c
d
Importance of c
l
(Lift Coefficient) and c
d

(Drag Coefficient)

Aerodynamic efficiency of a body
Project

13122N
16.16m
2

1.225 kg/m
3

20 and 70 m/s
Members

1. M120259ME
2.M120148ME
3.M120156ME
4.M120511ME
5.M120091ME
Drag coefficients of different bodies
Type of flows over airfoils
Aerodynamics of re-entry vehicles
Whether the c
d
and c
l
of an airfoil same as that of wing?

Important points:
Flow over an airfoil is two dimensional.
Flow over an finite wing is three dimensional.
There will be a flow happening along the spanwise direction
of the finite wing.
This changes the aerodynamics properties of a finite wing.
Aerodynamics of a FINITE wing

Flow over a finite wing

Wing-tip vortices

Wing tip vortices in airplanes studied by NASA

Source: Wikipedia.org

Effect of Wing tip vortices in Finite Wings

1. Wingtip vortices induces a small downward component of
air velocity in the neighborhood of wing.
2. This downward velocity component is called downwash
(w).
3. W combines with the free stream velocity (V) and local
relative wind gets tilted at the vicinity of wing leading
edge.

Downwash and Induced drag

Profile drag
Induced drag
Total drag
Biot - Savart Law
Velocity induced at point P
by a filament of segment dl
Velocity induced by entire
filament
Biot - Savart Law for straight filaments
Solving for cross product
Biot - Savart Law for semi infinite vortex filaments
The concept of vortex filaments was found by Von Helmholtz
and proposed Helmholtzs vortex theorems:

1. The strength of vortex filament is constant along its
length.
2. A vortex filament can not end in a fluid. It must extend to
the boundaries of the fluid (plus or minus infinity) or form
a closed path
Problems in finite wing theory
Consider a finite wing of span b.
At any span y1, consider the lift as L(y1)
At any other span y2, whether the Lift will be same as L(y1)
what if the angle of attack is continuously varying with span
length? called Geometrical twist.
If AOA at wingtip is smaller than at root washout
If AOA at wingtip is larger than at root washin

what if the airfoil shape changes along the span length?
Aerodynamic twist.

By considering all above parameters L(y2) can not be same as
L(y1). Therefore the Lift force is distributed along span length
y. L = L(y).

Thus the circulation is also a function of Y, = (y).
Thus finding (y), L(y) and D
i

forms the main objective of
finite wing theory.

Lift generation becomes zero at wingtips. Why?

Project

Generate the profile of symmetric NACA airfoils.
Code should be extendable to other 4 digit symmetric
airfoils.
Member: 1. M120428ME
Generate the profile of asymmetric 4 digit NACA
airfoils. Code should be extendable to other 4 digit
asymmetric airfoils.
Members:
1. M120337ME
2. M120463ME
3. M120169ME
Generate the profile of NACA 24012 (5 digit) airfoils.
Code should be extendable to other 5 digit airfoils.
Members:
1. M120119ME
2. M120520ME
3. M120071ME
4. M120466ME
5. M120166ME
Submission date of all the project reports: 09/04/2013.
The group should demonstrate the program output to the instructor
before the commence of exam.

Prandtls classical Lifting Line theory
Assignment
C
L
, C
D
estimation in finite wings using
for elliptical and general lift distribution
Prandtls classical lifting line theory
Prediction of characteristics of a finite wing airfoil.
Still widely used for preliminary calculations.
Prandtls theory
1. A bound vortex which is at fixed location will experience
lift force.
2. Bound vortex will replace a finite wing of span b extending
from b/2 to b/2.
3. Bound vortex can not end (due to Helmholtz theorem).
Therefore assume bound vortex continues a two free
vortices trailing downstream. This combination of vortices
is called horseshoe vortex.
Replacement of finite wing with horseshoe vortex
The horseshoe vortex will induce a downwash velocity component
along the bound vortex from b/2 to b/2.
However bound vortex does not induce no velocity component itself.
Only the two free trailing vortex contribute to induced velocity.
Downwash distribution along bound vortex
W (downwash velocity) is in negative
direction
w at any point y along bound vortex induced by semi-
infinite free trailing vortices (by Biot Savart law)
Left trailing vortex Right trailing vortex
Difficulties:
w approaches - as y approaches b/2 or b/2. Thus single horseshoe
vortex was not considered to be realistic representation of finite wing.
This difficulty is overcome by representing the finite wing by
superimposing large number of horseshoe vortex instead of a single
horseshoe vortex in such a way that all the bound vortex coincide in a
single line called lifting line.
Superimposing of finite number of horseshoe vortex along the
lifting line
3 superimposed horseshoe vortex are considered.
1. Horseshoe vortex of d1 bound vortex spans from A to F
2. Horseshoe vortex of d2 - bound vortex spans from B to E
3. Horseshoe vortex of d3 - bound vortex spans from C to D

Extrapolating the number of horseshoe vortices
Consider infinite number of horseshoe vortices of strength d
superimposed along the lifting line.
becomes continuous as a function = (y) along the lifting line.
Let at origin the circulation
o
.
Consider some location y
Consider small length dy in the lifting line.
Circulation at y is (y).
Change is circulation over segment dy = (d/dy).
Therefore Circulation d = (d/dy)dy
Strength of trailing vortex at y = change in circulation along
lifting line = d
Consider the trailing vortex at the segment dy
Consider some arbitrary location y
0

By Biot-Savart law any segment in trailing vortex (dx) will
induce a velocity component at y
0
.

Therefore dw induced at y
0
by semi-infinite trailing vortex at y
is given as
The total velocity induced at y
0
by entire trailing vortex sheet
This gives the downwash along the lifting line.
Assume the following airfoil section at a distance y
0

The induced angle
i
For small
i

(w << V)

Substitute

in

This expression gives the induced angle of attack variation
along the wing as a function of

Consider effective angle of attack (
eff
)

eff
= f(
i
) so
eff

=
eff

(y
0
)

According to airfoil theory c
l
= 2.

Thus c
l
at y
0
is given as
Due to aerodynamic
twist
From Lift definition and Kutta Joukowski theorem
Only unknown in above equation is (y
0
)
Geometric AOA = Effective AOA + Induced AOA
After calculating (y
0
), following can be estimated
Getting solution to Prandtl lifting line theory is difficult.

Thus a few special cases are considered
Characteristics of above equation
What are the finite wing characteristics if such elliptic
lift distribution equation is considered?
Calculate the following:
1. downwash
2. Induced angle of attack
3. Total Lift over the span
4. Circulation at y = 0
5. Induced C
d

6. Lift

per unit span length
7. Chord length variation with span
1. Downwash
Integration can be done by transforming the co-ordinates
Solution of such integrals
Downwash w becomes a constant!!
It does not show any variation with wing span for elliptic lift
distribution!!
Induced angle of attack is also constant along the wing span
for elliptic lift distribution
Requires the estimation of
0
Substitute

Induced Drag Coefficient

Substitute for
i
and
0
Very important relation!

Interesting property of Elliptical Lift Distribution

Consider finite wing with no geometric twist ( = Const),
and no aerodynamic twist (
L=0
= Constant) along the span

Since L(y) varies elliptically, c(y) also varies elliptically along
the wing span.

Wing with elliptical Lift distribution has
1. Constant downwash
2. Constant induced angle of attack
3. Elliptic planform
Airfoils in compressible flows- Review
If the flow over airfoil has compressibility effects, the
following equations become essential.
1. Continuity
2. Momentum
3. Energy
4. Gas dynamics/thermodynamics equations/Eqn. of state
What is compressibility
Gas/air is a compressible fluid.
But air flow need not be compressible.
is very small in case of liquids, large for gases.
Governing equations for inviscid compressible flows
Continuity
Momentum
Energy
3 eqns. 5 unknowns(P, Velocity, T, e, ). Following
eqns are used.
Flow Similarity and Model Studies
Geometric Similarity
Model and prototype have same shape
Linear dimensions on model and prototype correspond
within constant scale factor
Kinematic Similarity
Velocities at corresponding points on model and prototype
differ only by a constant scale factor
Dynamic Similarity
Forces on model and prototype differ only by a constant
scale factor

Flow Similarity and Model Studies
Example: Drag on a Sphere
dynamic similarity
Type of flows over airfoils