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Types of Welding Processes

The links to the topics below are the best informational articles that I
could find on each of the subjects.

• Carbon Arc Gouging

Carbon Arc Gouging or Air Arc Gouging is not a welding

process, but is an effective process to quickly remove base or
weld metal where needed. A copper coated carbon electrode is
placed into a gouging rig that is designed for that purpose. A high
voltage and amperage power source coupled with an air source
of about 80-100 psi melts the metal and expels the molten metal
from the work piece. The process is loud, smokey, and sprays
molten metal in the direction that the air jet is pointed at. The
process is normally used for weld repairs, back gouging the back
side of full penetration welds, beveling plate edges, and removing
excess weld.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Cold welding

Cold or contact welding was first recognized as a general

materials phenomenon in the 1940s. It was then discovered that
two clean, flat surfaces of similar metal would strongly adhere if
brought into contact under vacuum. It is now known that the
force of adhesion following first contact can be augmented by
pressing the metals tightly together, increasing the duration of
contact, raising the temperature of the work pieces, or any
combination of the preceding.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Electron beam welding

Electron beam welding is a welding process where the energy

to melt the material is applied by an electron beam. To avoid
dispersion of the electron beam, the workpiece is typically placed
in a vacuum chamber, although electron beam welding under
atmospheric pressure is attempted too. Electron beam welding is
an established branch of Electron Beam Technology.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Explosive welding

Explosive welding uses the force of a controlled detonation to

atomically fuse one metal object to another. The process is
popular for the joining of dissimilar metals. Explosive welding is
considered a cold welding process that allows metals to be joined
without losing their pre-welded metalurgical properties. This
process allows the joining of different metals that would be
impossible by any other welding process.
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• Forge welding

Forge welding , the oldest known form of welding, is a welding

process of heating two or more pieces of wrought iron or steel
until their surfaces are malleable and then hammering them
together. Often a flux is used to keep the welding surfaces from
oxidizing and producing a poor quality weld. A simple flux can be
made from borax, sometimes with the addition of iron filings.
Care must be taken to avoid "burning" the metal, which is
overheating to the point that it gives off sparks from rapid
..... Click the link for more information.

• Friction welding

Friction welding Rotary friction welding was the first of the

friction welding methods to be developed and commercially used.
There are two method variations: continuous drive rotary friction
welding and stored energy friction welding. In the first method, a
piece is rotated at a set speed while the joining stationary piece
is fed into it at a pre-determined pressure until the metal in the
joint area reaches a temperature high enough to melt it. The
other method, also known as inertia welding adds a flywheel to
the rotating piece and power is cut as the two pieces are forced
together with the same end result-a welded joint. Parts with a
non-rotational geometry can be joined by linear reciprocating
frictional welding which is similar in form to a reciprocating saw.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Friction-stir welding

Friction-stir welding was invented and experimentally proven

by Wayne Thomas and a team of his colleagues at the TWI
Welding Institute, U. K., in December 1991. TWI holds a patent for
the process. In FSW, a cylindrical-shouldered tool, with a profiled
threaded / unthreaded probe (nib) is rotated at a constant speed
and fed at a constant traverse rate into the joint line between two
..... Click the link for more information.

• Fusion welding

Fusion welding is any welding process that uses a heat source

to weld a material and also usually uses a protective shield from
the atmosphere by a gas shield or flux or both. This would include
gas, stick, mig, tig, sub-arc, laser, orbital, plasma, spot, stud,
thermite, and electron beam welding.
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• Gas welding

In gas welding, the heat energy and high temperature needed

to melt the metal is obtained by the combustion of a fuel gas with
oxygen. Gas Fuels--The most commonly used fuel gas is
acetylene. Other gases used are liquified petroleum gas (LPG),
natural gas, hydrogen and MAPP gas. Acetylene is obtained from
the action of water upon calcium carbide. Calcium carbide and
water combine to yield acetylene gas and lime as a by-product.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Induction welding

Induction welding is a form of welding that uses

electromagnetic induction to heat the workpiece. The welding
apparatus contains an induction coil that is energized with a
radio-frequency electric current. This generates a high-frequency
electromagnetic field that acts on either an electrically
conductive or a ferromagnetic workpiece. In an electrically
conductive workpiece, such as steel, the main heating effect is
resistive heating, which is due to magnetically induced currents
called eddy currents. Nonmagnetic materials such as plastics can
be induction-welded by implanting them with metallic or ferro-
magnetic compounds called susceptors, that absorb the
electromagnetic energy from the induction coil, become hot, and
lose their heat energy to the surrounding material by thermal
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• Laser welding
Laser welding was in its infancy 20 years ago. Today, laser
welding is an integral part of the plastics and metal working
industries. A wide variety of cutting and welding operations can
be performed on a variety of hard to weld and dissimilar
materials with this process. A benefit of laser cutting is the ability
to cut a wide range of materials such as metal, polymers,
ceramics, wood, leather, cloth, and more. Cladding, heat-treating
and hard-surfacing can also be accomplished with laser welding.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Manual Metal Arc Welding

Manual Metal Arc welding, also known as stick or SMAW-

Shielded Metal Arc Welding is one of the most common and
reliable forms of welding. An electric current (either alternating
current or direct current) is used to form an arc between an
electrode coated in flux and the metals to be joined. The flux
gives off gases to prevent oxygen reacting with the weld metal.
The flux then solidifies to form slag on top of the weld. Once cool
the slag can easily be chipped off provided that the weld is
properly applied.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Gas Metal Arc Welding

Metal Inert Gas or MIG welding, also known as gas metal arc
welding, is a type of welding which utilizes a welding gun through
which a continuous wire electrode and a shielding gas is fed. The
wires used in the electrodes are typically 0.7, 1.0, 1.2 or 1.6 mm
diameter, either solid or 'flux' filled. To prevent nitrogen and
oxygen contaminating the weld, an inert shielding gas is fed
around the arc, either argon or helium.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Plasma welding

Plasma welding
is a process that utilizes a stream of ionized particles. It
originated in 1955 as an aluminum cutting process and used as
such until the first successful welds were produced in 1963. The
plasma torch uses a water-cooled copper nozzle and tungsten
electrode. An electric arc is produced between the electrode and
copper nozzle while a gas suchas helium or hydrogen is forced
through the arc. The gas becomes super-heated and ionizes into
a plasma stream. Click the link for more information.

• Resistance Welding

Resistance Spot Welding is a quick and simple method of

welding metal. It uses two large electrodes which are placed on
either side of the surface to be welded, and passes a large
electrical current through them that heats up the metal in-
between. The result is a small "spot" that is quickly heated to the
melting point, forming a small dot of welded metal. Applying the
current for too long can burn a hole right through the material.
..... Click the link for more information.

• Stud welding

Stud welding is an electric arc process for attaching studs and

other fasteners to steel and other surfaces. Stud welding
eliminates the need for drilling or punching holes in the structure.
A special collet on the stud gun holds a ceramic ferrule in place
around the stud. This ferrule holds the molten metal in place and
helps form the fillet weld as the stud cools after it is shot onto the
structure. Click the link for more information.
• Submerged arc welding Submerged arc welding is a type of
welding which utilises a large diameter wire electrode, typically 3
or 4mm diameter. The electode is fed into the arc at a controlled
rate. The arc is shielded by a granular flux which is poured to
form a pile of flux surrounding the arc. Unlike other types of arc
welding, eye protection is not required, since the arc is covered
by the flux. Some of the flux is converted to slag by the arc,
which protects the weld as it cools. The slag can easily be
chipped off the weld when cool. Surplus flux is collected for re-
..... Click the link for more information.
• Thermite

A thermite or thermit reaction is one in which aluminum metal

is oxidized by an oxide of another metal, most commonly that of
iron. (The name thermite is also used to refer to a mixture of
two such chemicals.) The products are aluminium oxide, free
elemental metal and a great deal of heat. The reactants are
commonly powdered and mixed with a binder to keep the
material solid and prevent separation.
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• Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

Tungsten inert gas welding or TIG is also known as gas

tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or HELIARC, a trade name of Linde.
A fixed tungsten electrode protected by a shielding gas is used to
create an arc that melts the metal of the parts to be joined. As
there is no continuous feed wire electrode as with MIG welding, a
filler rod is dipped in the puddle of molten metal to join the two
..... Click the link for more information.


• Ultrasonic welding In ultrasonic welding, energy is delivered to

the joint area in the form of high-power ultrasound. This type of
welding is used to build assemblies that are too small, complex,
or delicate for more common welding techniques to be
appropriate. It is also used to weld plastics and materials that are
dissimilar. For joining complex injection molded parts, ultrasonic
welding requires expensive custom equipment specially designed
for the parts being welded. The parts are sandwiched between
shaped mandrel and the horn. One of the plastic parts has a
spiked energy director which contacts the second plastic part.
The ultrasonic energy melts the point contact between and the
parts and they are joined. This process replaces a glued joint.
..... Click the link for more information.
• Underwater SMAW Welding In underwater SMAW welding, a
coated welding electrode along with an insulated electrode holder
is used to make sound welds. This type of welding is used to weld
assemblies that are impractical or too expensive to move above
water. Specific techniques are used to insure a sound weld.
..... Click the link for more information.

Welding differs from soldering Soldering is a method of applying a

lower melting point metal to join other metal parts using solder.
Soldering can be performed in a number of ways, including bulk
liquification, or by using a point source such as an electric soldering
iron or brazing torch. One application of soldering is making
connections between electronic parts and printed circuit boards,
another is in plumbing.
..... Click the link for more information. brazing Brazing is a joining
process whereby a non-ferrous filler metal and an alloy are heated to
melting temperature (above 450 °C) and distributed between two or
more close-fitting parts by capillary attraction. At its liquidus
temperature, the molten filler metal interacts with a thin layer of the
base metal, cooling to form an exceptionally strong, sealed joint due to
grain structure interaction. The brazed joint becomes a sandwich of
different layers, each metallurgicaly linked to each other. If silver alloy
is used, brazing can be referred to as Silver Brazing or Sil-brazing.
Colloquially, the inaccurate terms "Silver Soldering" or "Hard Soldering"
are used.
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Silver (Brazing) Soldering uses a material called silver solder. A solder

is a metal alloy (often of silver, tin and lead), usually with a low melting
point, that is melted and used to join metallic surfaces, especially in the
fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. In
electronics, tin/lead solders are normally 60/40 by weight in order to
produce a near-eutectic mixture (lowest melting point - below 190°C).
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