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# What is a heat exchanger?

## Classification of heat exchangers

Regenerators
Open-type heat exchangers
Closed-type heat exchangers
Classification of recuperators
Single-pass vs multi-pass
Parallel flow, counterflow, and crossflow
Temperature profiles for single-pass heat
exchangers
LMTD and AMTD
Sample problems
Exercises

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A heat exchanger is a device whose
primary purpose is the transfer of
energy between two fluids.
Examples:
- Evaporator
- Condenser
- boiler
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1. regenerators
2. open-type heat exchangers
3. closed-type heat exchangers
or recuperators
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Regenerators are exchangers in
which hot and cold fluids flow
alternately through the same
space with as little physical
mixing between the two streams
as possible.
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Open-type heat exchangers are
devices wherein physical
mixing of the two fluid streams
actually occurs.
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Recuperators are devices wherein
the hot and cold fluid streams do
not come into direct contact with
each other but are separated by a
tube wall or a surface that may
be flat or curved in some manner.
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1. single-pass heat exchanger
- parallel flow
- counterflow
- crossflow
2. multi-pass heat exchanger

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Single-pass heat exchanger is one
in which each fluid flows through
the exchanger only once.

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Parallel low heat exchangers is one in which
the fluids flow in the same direction.

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Counterflow heat exchanger is one in which the
fluids flow in opposite direction.
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Crossflow heat exchanger is one in which the fluids
flow at right angles to one another.
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In order to accomplish as much transfer of
energy in as little space as possible, it is
desirable to utilize multiple passes of one or
both fluids. A common configuration is the
shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

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Where LMTD = Log Mean Temperature Difference

1
= maximum temperature difference

2
= minimum temperature difference

NOTE: If
1
and
1
are nearly the same use the Arithmetic-
Mean Temperature Difference (AMTD)
AMTD =

1
+
2
2

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q = UA (LMTD)

Where q = the heat tranfer between fluids, kJ or kW
U = the overall heat transfer coefficient, kJ (or kW)/m
2
K
A = surface area of the tube
LMTD = Log Mean Temperature Difference

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A hot process stream being cooled from 100
o
C to 60
o
C by a cooling
water stream that is heated from 15
o
C to 30
o
C. What temperature
driving force (LMTD) should be used to calculate the required area?
Solution:

1
= 100 15 = 85C

2
= 60 30 = 30C
=

1

2

=
8530

85
30
= 52. 81 (ans)

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1. A liquid to liquid counterflow heat exchanger is used to heat a cold
fluid from 120F to 310F. Assuming that the hot fluid enters at 500F
and leaves at 400F, calculate the log-mean temperature difference of
the heat exchanger.
Ans. LMTD = 232F

2. A turbo-generator, 16 cylinder, V type Diesel engine has an air
consumption of 3000 kg/hr per cylinder at rated load and speed. This
air is drawn in through a filter by a centrifugal compressor directly
connected to the exhaust gas turbine. The temperature of the air from
the compressor is 145C and a counterflow air cooler reduces the air
temperature to 45C before it goes to the engine suction header.
Cooling water enters air cooler at 30C and leaves at 38C. Calculate
the arithmetic-mean temperature difference.
Ans. 61C

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3. Exhaust steam at 7 kPa at the rate of 75 kg/s enters a single pass
condenser containing 5,780 pieces of copper tubes with a total surface
area of 2950 m
2
. The steam has a moisture content of 10% and the
condensate leaves saturated liquid at a steam temperature. The
cooling water flow rate is 4,413 liters per second entering at 20C. Size
of tubes, 25 mm O.D. by 3 mm thick wall. Find the overall heat-
transfer coefficient.
Ans. U = 4275 W/m
2
K
4. An oil having a specific heat of 1880 J/kg K enters a single-pass
counterflow heat exchanger at a rate of 2 kg/s and a temperature of
400 K. It is to be cooled to 350 K. Water is available to cool the oil at a
rate of 2 kg/s and a temperature of 280 K. Determine the surface area
required if the overall heattransfer coefficient is 230W/m
2
K.
[Note: specific heat of water is 4.80 J/kgK]
Ans. A = 9.85 m
2

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5. Onehundred thousand pounds per hour ofwater are to pass
through a heat exchanger, which is to raise the water
temperature from 140 to 200F. Combustion products having a
specific heat of 0.24 Btu/lbmF are available at 800F. The
overall heat-transfer coefficient is 12 Btu/h ft
2
F. If 100,000
lbm/h of the combustion products are available, determine
a. the exit temperature of the flue gas;
b. the required heat-transfer area for a counterflow
exchanger.

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