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Maslow pyramide of needs: some more approaches

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his

1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation."
Maslow subsequently extended the idea to
include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories
of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in
humans. Maslow use the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, and
Self-Actualization needs to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move
Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams,
Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing
that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a
cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy."
Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the
college student population.
Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.
Note that Maslow never personally used a pyramid to describe these levels in any of his
writings on the subject.
A Life Well-Lived: a Guide to Self-Actualisation
Many of us are pursuing activities that directly or indirectly we hope will take
us to new levels of fulfilment. ut how can we set ourselves up to achieve
fulfilment in our chosen field! and in our lives generally"
#ulfilment might also $e called Self-Actualisation or e%pressing ones full
potential. According to A$raham Maslow it is intrinsic growth of what is
already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is. &Maslow
was an American psychologist whose theories have $een influential in '(th
century thought.)
Maslow $elieved we have a hierarchy of needs! $eginning with &a) $asic
needs for food! shelter! then &$) needs for safety and security! &c) needs for
love and $elonging! &d) the need for self esteem! and &e) the need for self-
actualisation. We cannot meet the higher-order needs until the lower ones are
met. A hungry or fearful person will not recognise yet their need for self
*ow do we characterise Self-Actualised &SA) people"
Generally they are realistically oriented with an efficient perception of
reality e%tending into all areas of their life. SA persons are
unthreatened and unfrightened $y the unknown. +hey usually have a
superior a$ility to reason! to see the truth.
SA people accept themselves! others and the natural
world the way they are. Sees human nature as is! have rid themselves
of crippling guilt or shame! en,oy themselves without regret or apology!
and have no unnecessary inhi$itions.
Spontaneous in their inner life! thoughts and impulses!
SA people are unhampered $y convention. +heir ethics is autonomous!
they are individuals! and are motivated towards continual improvement.
Focus on problems outside themselves. SA people tend
to have a mission in life re-uiring much energy! and their mission is
their reason for e%istence. +hey are usually serene and worry-free as
they pursue their mission with unshakea$le determination.
Detachment! the need for privacy. Alone $ut not lonely!
unflappa$le! retain dignity amid confusion and personal misfortunes!
o$,ective. SA people are self starters! responsi$le for themselves! own
their $ehaviour.
Autonomous! independent of culture and environment.
SA.s rely on inner self for satisfaction. /esilient and sta$le in the face
of hard knocks! they are self contained! independent from love and
respect of others.
Freshness of appreciation. *ave a fresh rather than
stereotyped appreciation of people and things. Moment to moment
living is thrilling! transcending and spiritual. SAs live the present
moment to the fullest.
Peak experiences. 0#eelings of limitless hori1ons opening
up to the vision! the feeling of $eing simultaneously more powerful and
also more helpless than one ever was $efore! the feeling of ecstasy
and wonder and awe! the loss of placement in time and space with!
finally! the conviction that something e%tremely important and valua$le
had happened! so that the su$,ect was to some e%tent transformed and
strengthened even in his daily life $y such e%periences.0 A$raham
Maslow. 2lick here for an e%ample from my own e%perience.
Eight Ways To Self Actualize
Work towards meeting and satisfying the lower-order needs &food! shelter!
then safety and security! then love and $elonging! and then self esteem).
3nce you have done this! and 4 acknowledge that it may $e difficult and time-
consuming! you will $e a$le to make progress with the following:
11 5%perience things fully! vividly! selflessly. +hrow yourself into the
e%periencing of something: concentrate on it fully! let it totally a$sor$
11 Life is a moment-$y-moment choice $etween safety &out of fear and
need for defence) and risk &for the sake of progress and growth):
2onsciously make the growth choice many times a day.
11 Let your true self emerge. +ry to go $eyond socially-defined modes of
thinking and feeling! let your inner e%perience tell you what you truly
11 When in dou$t! $e honest. 4t may take some courage! $ut look honestly
at yourself and take responsi$ility for who you are and what happens to
you. Self-delusion is the enemy of self-actualisation.
11 Listen to your own tastes. e prepared to $e unpopular if necessary.
11 6se your intelligence! work to do well the things you want to do! no
matter how insignificant they seem.
11 Make peak e%periencing more likely: get rid of illusions and false
notions. Learn what you are good at and conversely what you are not
good at.
11 7now thyself. Who are you! what are you! what is good and what is
$ad for you! where you are going! what is your mission" 3pening
yourself up to yourself in this way means recogni1ing ones defenses--
and then finding the courage to give them up.
Good luck!
8avid +uffley