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SETTLEMENTMARKERS

Thesettlementmarkerisusedtomeasurealocalisedsettlementorheaveofroads,slopes,
embankments,utilitypipesandcables.

INSTALLATIONANDMONITORING

ConcreteNail
ConcreteNail
Painting
ConcreteStructure
5
0
m
m

Schematicdiagramofinstalledsettlementmarkerinsoil
Schematicdiagramof installedsettlement
markeronconcrete
Crosssectionof
Utilities/Services 10cms
Backfillsoil
75mmdiaHeavyduty
PVCpipewithCap
16mmdiamildsteelrod
50x50x4mmsteelplate
V
a
r
i
e
d

L
e
n
g
t
h

Backfill
soil
Schematicdiagramofinstalledsettlementmarkeronutility
SettlementMarkeronConcrete
InstalledonaPavement
SettlementMarkerfor Utility
services
SettlementMarkerinGround
Themonitoringofsettlementmarkeriscarriedoutbylevelingsurveyandreadingsaretakenatregularintervalsto
checkanysettlementorheave.
8
0
0

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

100PVCor
SteelTube
ConvexEnd
SandFill
75mmholefilledwith
cementgroutafter
placinginthesteelrod.
25Steelrod
Concretetobe
paintedinyellow
Concrete
GROUNDWATERSTANDPIPE
Measuresfluctuationofgroundwaterlevel.Itisusedaspartofasystemforearlydetection
ofwaterlossthatcouldcausegroundsettlement.

INSTALLATION

MONITORING

Schematicdiagramofgroundwaterstandpipe
BottomCap
GroundLevel
Protective
Cover
CoarseGrainSand
BentonitePellets
PerforatedPVCPipe
Waterlevelindicator
A cap and protective box is placed
over the water standpipe tube
openingtopreventdisturbance.

Groundwaterlevelismeasuredbyusingwaterlevelindicator.Theprobeofwaterlevelindicatorislowereddowninto
thewaterstandpipeuntillightorbuzzerindicatescontactwiththewater.Depthtowaterlevelismeasuredfromthe
measuringtapeattachedtotheindicator.

VIBRATINGWIREPEIZOMETER
Measureschangesinthegroundwaterpressureatdifferentdepths.Itisusedaspartofa
systemforearlydetectionofchangeinwaterpressurethatcouldcausegroundsettlement.
INSTALLATION

Toterminal
CoarseGrain
Sand

Ground Level

Grout
Bentonite
Pellets

ElectricCable
Vibratingwire
Piezometertip

Vibratingwirepiezometertip

Schematicdiagram

Theboreholewithvibrating wirepiezometerinstallediskeptinaprotectivemetalboxtoprevent
damage&disturbancetotheinstrument.

MONITORING

Vibratingwirepiezometer
datalogger

Thevibratingwire piezometerisconnectedtothereadoutunitandthe
groundwaterpressurereadingsarerecordedandstoredinthedatalogger

INCLINOMETER
Measureslateralmovementsoftheground,retainingwallsandpilesforearlydetectionof
anydisturbanceoreffecttostructuresandpropertyduetoconstructionactivity.

INSTALLATION

MONITORING

Theinclinometerprobeislowereddownintothecasingandatevery0.5mintervalsitrecordsthelateralmovement.The
rawdataobtainedistransmittedfromtheinclinometerprobetoareadoutoraPDAbyBluetoothtechnology.

After the installation of


inclinometercasinginthe
hole, the casing top is
capped to prevent the
entryofforeignparticles.

Metal protective boxes


areusedtopreventthe
instruments from being
disturbed. Instrument
identification is affixed
ontothebox.
Schematicdiagramofinclinometercasing
Grout
Protective
cover
GroundLevel
Bottom
Inclinometer
casing
Inclinometerprobe
Crosssectionviewofinclinometerprobeinsidethecasingduringmonitoringworks

MAGNETICEXTENSOMETER
Measuressettlementofthegroundatvariousdepthsforearlydetectionofanydisturbance
oreffectduetoconstructionactivity.

INSTALLATION

MONITORING

Themagneticextensometerprobeislowereddownintothecasinguntilllightorbuzzerindicatesthecontactwiththespider
magnet.Depthofthemagnetismeasuredfromthemeasuringtapeattachedtotheprobe.

Installedcasingiscappedandkeptinaprotective
metalboxtopreventdamage&disturbance

Schematicdiagramofmagneticextensometer
Magneticextensometerprobe&spidermagnet