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SUBMITTED DATE: 25/09/2014





As more and more of our lives are being spent online,it seems natural that we should start
shifting our academic lives online too. But are there tangible benefits for using online websites
and took to help us learn, revise and prepare for exam? Absolutly, and heres why
This tends to be a term thats bandied about when discussing better learning, but its hard to
find someone who doesnt argue with the premise that individuals learn in different ways.Some
of us learn better by visualising things,whereas others can benifits from reading in a structured,
ordered text. The recent accessiblity of audio books provides another learning medium. Online
study can provide the ability for the students to learn in the manner that best suits their needs.


e- Twinning
e Twinning action is an initiative of Europeon commission that aims to encourage European
schools to collaborate using information and communication Technologies (ICT) by providing
the necessary infrastructure (onlline tools, services, support). Therefore teachers registered in
the eTwinning action are enabled to form partnerships and develop collaborative, pedagogical
scchool projects in any subject area with the sole requirements to employ ICT to develop their
project and collaborate with teachers from two different European countries. ( atleast two
teachers from two different European countries aare needed).The primary workspace for the e
Twinning action,is the e Twinning Portal ( and it is available in twentyfive
languages. Teachers registered in the eTwinning action, also called eTwinners, find each other,
communicate share resources and collaborate throught the e Twinning platform. This growing
and active community enforced the change in the motto of eTwinning from School
partnerships in Europe to the community for schools in Europe.

The project was born in d2005 under the European Uunioons e learning programme and it has
been integrated in the life part of comenius , the EU programme for Schools.
The etwinning action was launched in January 2005. Its main objecltives coplied dwith the
decision by the Barcelona European council in March 2002 to promote awareness of the
multicultural European model of society.More than 13000 schools were involved in eTwinning
within first year. In falll 2008 over 50000teachers and 4000 projects have been registered.
While a new eTwinning platform was launched in early d2000 the eTwinning motto has

changed from School partnerships in Europe to The community for schools in Europe. In
June 2009 the eTwinning community consisted of nearly 65000 members. In 2011 nearly 30000
projects have been regiestered, to total member of registered teachers has increased
dramatically to 130000, and the member of restered schools has been 90000. Currently more
than 20000 projects have been developed between two or more schools acriss Europe, the
total number of registered teachers are close to 170000 and the number of involved schools is
more than 90000.
The main concept behind eTwinning is that schools are paired with another school elsewhere in
the Europe and they collaboratively develop a project, also known as eTwinning project. The
two schools then communicate using the internet (for example , by email or videl conferencing
to collaborate share and learn from each other.eTwinning encourages and develops ICT skills as
the main activities inberently use information technology. Being twinned with a foreign school
also encourages cross cultural exchanges of knowledge, fosters, students Intercultural exchange
awareness,and improves their communication skills. eTwinning projects last for any length of
time ranging from only a week, to months, up to creating permanent relationships between
schools. School`s (both primary and secondary) within the European union member states can
participate in the eTwinningproject, in addition to school from Turkey, Norway and Iceland.
In contrast with other European programme such as the comeniusprogramme, all
communication is held via the internet and therefore there is no need for grants. Along the
same lines, face to face meetings between parners schools are not required , though they are
not prohibited and some schools organise face to face meeting.



Online educaton is defined as the creation and proliferation of the personal computer, the
globalization of ideas and other human acts,and the use of technologyin exchanging ideas and
providing access to more people. Audio, video, computer and networking technologies are
often combined to create a multifaced instructional delivery system. The fundamental method
to unite the distance learning instruct or with the distance learner is the network.Networks
suitable for distance learning implementations include satellite, cable modem, digital subscriber
lines DSL) and wireless cable, Greenberg (1998) defines contemporary distance learning as a
planned teaching /learning experience that uses a wide spectrum of technologies to reach
learners at distance and is designed to encourage learner interaction and certificationof
learning. Teaster and Blieszner( 1999)say the tern distance learning has been appllied to many
instructonal methods: however, its primary distinction is that thhe teacher and the learner are
separate in space and possibly tine. Desmond icegan(1995)provides another definition. He
states that distance education and training result from the technological separation of teacher
and learner which frees the student from the necessity of traveling to a fixed place, at a fixed
time, to meet afixed person, in order to be trained. From theses definitions we can see that
the student and teacher are separated by space,but not necesssarily by tine.
Tere are mmany terms for kon-line education. Some of them are virtual education, internet-
based education, web-based education,education via computer-mediated communication. The
web-eduproject uses a definition of online education that is based on Desmond keegans (1988)
definition. It is by
1)The separation of teachers and learners which distinguishes it from face-to-face education;

2)The influence of an educational organization which distinguishes it form self-study and
privaate tutoring.
3)The use of a computer network to present or distribute some edudcational content; and
4)The provision of two-way communication via a computer network so that students may
benafit from communication with each other, teachers and staff.
A few years ago, online education was unthinkable; now its is a reality and it has edpanded
beyond imagination. The internet has allowed us to cross boundariles that took a long tine to
cross; technology has allowed us to learn and grow with people from around the world. sIt has
given access to new opportunities in work, learning and in socializing. We are now witnessing
atransformation in the way people learn. The future of deucation in general, and college
education in particular, willbe of more access, more educational choices, and new fields in
educational research.
The roots of the internet lie in 1957, when the advanced research projects Agency was created
withe the Defence Department . In 1969 ARPA created a computer network called ARPANET.
In the last 20 years, with the advanced in technology, independent study has become more
accessible for distane education students. The case with which modern communications
technologies can link educational institutions to homes, work sites, and community centres
has made college, adult education and life long learning matters of national policy.
At the sme time time, the loads and respon sibilities of adults have become of interst to experts
and educators in distance learning.Feasley(1983) stated that individuals who must learn at a
distance have ongoing onligations such as employment, family responsiblities, handicaps, or
live in geographically isolated area. The 1970s abd 1980s introduced the related concept
distace education which posed new challenges to traditional independent study, forcing a
reexamination and redefinition of the place of independent study in this new international
In the late 1970s cable and satellite television came into use as a delivemedium for distance
education courses. During 1980s many quality telecourse offerings were available by using and
satellite delvery. But as Munshi (1980) said Unfortunately, systematic efforts to evaluate
telecourses have been the exception rather than the rule. In the fakk if 1991, eighteen insti
tutions, including the University of Californioa, the University of Oklaboma, Penn state, and
Washington state used the Mind Extension University (MEU) Educational Net work of deliver
video course materials for independent study courses. Womens desire and participation in
distance education in the 1980s and 1990s.

Online learning advantages.
1) Improved open access to edu including access to full degree programs.
2) Better integration for non-full times students partucularity in continucing edu.
3) Improved interactons studients and instructures
4) Provision of toos to enable students to independently solved plm.
5) Acquisition of technological skills through pravtise with tools and computers.
6) No age based restrictions on difficulty level, students can go at their own pace.
1. Ease of cheating.
2. Teachers lack of knowledge and experience to manage virtual virtual teacher- student
As companies become more globally focused,co workers are more likely to work in
different places,if not on different continents. Online learning can help prepare
employees to excel in todys scattered,virtual office. Online learning is a still a relatively
young industry, promissing a rich future of breakthroughs.New models of teaching are
already emerging that have the potential to take online learning to even greater