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Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Justification
1.1.1 Hospital Bed in Bangladesh
Hospital bed is used in hospital and designed for patients and others in need of some form of
health care. Hospital beds and other similar types of beds are used not only in hospitals, but
in other health care facilities and settings, such as nursing homes, assisted living facilities,
outpatient clinics, and in home health care. Every patient, regardless of care setting, deserves
a safe and comfortable sleeping and bed environment. Hospital bed needed to design in such
a way that both the patient and health care workers feel comfort, safe and convenience.
Improper design of medical bed is responsible for many types of psychological and physical
problems like back pain and it hampers to sleep. In the developed countries middle-edged
people who suffer from backache often report that their backache started when they were in
their twenties, the period when many of them are still attending university (Watson et al.
2002). Our health is directly influenced by the way we sleep. It is a common truth that quality
of life depends on quality of sleep. An adequate comfortable sleep can significantly extend
your life. Improper sleep may cause a lot of problems and even diseases like osteochndrosis,
radiculities, arthritis, blood supply disturbance, insomnia, allergy, asthma, etc.
Hospital beds are different from other beds, and Bangladeshi hospital beds are different from
other hospital beds. Here, hospital beds are reffered as beds to people. In some hospitals
one hundred beds are placed in rows with a gap of only a few feet and without any bed
curtains, the patient can hardly maintain any space for themselves. Even a bed sheet or a
mattress placed on the floor has come to be considered a bed. The distance between the beds
is generally four or five feet at the most. The patients who get a corner bed, with a wall on
one side get too less space. The extra patients are placed on the floor with only a mattress or
even just a sheet to lie on. Patients considered their hospital bed as a kind of prison.
Moreover, attending relatives are occupants of the patients hospital bed. Because the
relatives are integral, albeit informal, part of hospital organization the hospital authorities
allow the relatives to use hospital facilities including beds.
Beds are generally a private space, but they become public in hospital ward that is certainly
true in a Bangladeshi hospital ward. This is to note that the hospital is a public one where
mainly poorer people of the community go for treatment, which is more or less free of
charge. Without a doubt, the bed takes on a specific personality in a Bangladeshi hospital. It
reflects the feature of Bangladeshi society. It shows the proverty and social inequality in the
country and the crucial role of family members in an individuals life. An ordinary piece of
furniture, the bed, has become a portrait of a society at large.
There has more variations in the design of hospital bed and no one is designed with
considering anthropometric data of Bangladesh. There has a less number of Industrial or
Human Factor Engineer in our country. As a result, the concept of ergonomics or human
factor engineering is poor in Industry. For this reason, Industries cannot imagine that
ergonomics approach can change their productivity and mental satisfaction dramatically.

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1.1.2 Ergonomics
The word "Ergonomics" comes from two Greek words "ergon," meaning work, and "nomos"
meaning laws (Bridger 1995). Ergonomics is the interaction among man, machine and
environment which focuses on the interactions between the works demand and worker
capabilities. It is the study of designing or arranging workplaces, products and system
concerned with finding ways to keep people safe, comfortable, and productive while they
perform tasks at workstation and home. It is concerned with the design of systems in which
people carry out work. So that it fits the people who use them.
The practice of ergonomics requires that knowledge about human anatomy, physiology, and
psychology be applied to the design of work systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the
design of the human-machine interface to ensure increased safety and usability of equipment
and the removal of harmful stressors. There are two ways in which ergonomics has an impact
upon systems design in practice. First many ergonomists work in research organizations or
universities and carry out basic research to discover the characteristic of people that need to
be allowed for in design. This research often leads, directly and indirectly, to the drafting of
standards, legislation, and design guidelines. Second, many ergonomists work in a
consultancy capacity either privately or in an organization. They work as a part of a design
team and contribute their knowledge to the design of the human-machine interactions in work
systems. This work often involves the application of standards, guidelines, and knowledge to
specify particular characteristics of the system.
Ergonomics aims to ensure that human needs for safe and efficient working are met in the
design of work systems. Ergonomics come about as a consequence of the design and
operational problems presented by the new work systems which have involved with the
advance of technology. It owes its development to the same historical processes which give
rise to other work system disciplines such as industrial engineering and occupational
medicine.
Modern ergonomics contributes to the design and evaluation of work systems and products.
Unlike the earlier times, when an engineer designed a whole machine or product, design is a
team effort nowadays. The ergonomists usually has an important role to play both the
conceptual phase and in detailed design as well as in prototyping and the evaluation of
existing products and facilities. Modern ergonomics contributes in a number of ways to the
design of work system. These activities should be seen as an integral part of the design and
management of systems rather than as optional extras.
The design of hospital bed should not be dependent on the esthetic views consideration but
also should be dependent on the different dimensions of users body structure and postures.
So the size and dimension of hospital bed will be different for people live in different region
as human body dimension varies with region to region. Not only hospital bed, any furniture
and work place should be designed with considering ergonomics.
1.1.3 Anthropometry
Anthropometry is one of the basic parts of ergonomics that refers to the measurement of
human body. It is derived from the Greek words anthropos means man and metron
means measure (Bridger 1995). Anthropometric data are used in ergonomics to specify the
physical dimensions of workspaces, equipment, furniture and clothing to fit the task to the
man (Grandjean 1980) and to ensure that the physical mistakes between the dimensions of
equipment and products and the corresponding user dimensions are avoided.
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Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human
body, primarily dimensional descriptors of body size and shape. Anthropologist have been
measuring humans for hundreds of years, but for only the last 50years or so have the
dimensions been used in an organized fashion to improve the design and sizing of the things
we use in everyday life (Bhattacharya & McGlothlin 1996). Often the problem with the
application of anthropometry to a design problem will be the lack of certain necessary
measurements or the need to accommodate a wide range in size and shape variability into a
single, often inflexible design. Applied anthropometry-that is, the use of anthropometric data
in the design and construction of a wide variety of items from clothing to spacecraft-is a
relatively new discipline whose practitioners are still learning to cope with the exponential
character of technology and its impact on the kinds of information needed to describe the
physical and biological characteristics of our species. It grew out of physical anthropology,
which traditionally studies body size and function with the goal of resolving our ancestry and
identifying the existing varieties of Homo sapiens.
The natural variation of human populations has implications for the way almost all products
and devices are designed. Anthropometric data can be used to optimize the dimensions of a
diverse range of items-the length of toothbrush handles, the depth and diameter of screwtops
on jars and bottles, the size of tools in tool kits supplied with automobiles, medical tools and
equipments and almost all manual controls, such as those that are found on television,
videocassette recorders, radios etc.
1.1.4 Hospital Bed Parameters Related to Anthropometric Measurements.
1.1.4.1 Bed Length
The bed length is the horizontal distance between two remotest edges of the bed surface.
Users want to accommodate their full body in the bed with average 20cm clearance. So,
mismatch occurs when the bed length is less than Stature + 20 cm clearance (Hossain &
Ahmed 2010).

Figure 1.1: Vertical grip reach and stature

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1.1.4.2 Bed Width
The bed width is the horizontal distance between two nearest but opposite edges of the bed
surface. The bed the mismatch situation has been considered to be happened when the bed
width is less than Elbow Span + 10 cm clearance (Hossain & Ahmed 2010).

Figure 1.2: Elbow span
1.1.4.3 Bed Height
The bed height is the vertical distance from the floor to the highest point on the seat of the
bed. A mismatch of popliteal and seat height was defined as any seat height that is either
>95% or <88% of the popliteal height (Hossain & Ahmed 2010).


Figure1.3: Popliteal height

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1.1.4.4 Bed Stand Height
The bed stand height is the vertical distance from the floor to the highest point of the
mosquito stand of the bed. So, the mismatch occurs when the Bed Stand height is greater than
the Overhead Grip Reach (Standing).
1.2 Methods Used For Mathematical Calculation
Chi-square distribution
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Regression Analysis
1.2.1 Chi-square distribution
The following information about chi square distribution is given from Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi-square_distribution).
In probability theory and statistics, the chi-square distribution (also chi-squared or-
distribution) with k degrees of freedom is the distribution of a sum of the squares
of k independent standard normal random variables. It is one of the most widely
used probability distributions in inferential statistics, e.g., in hypothesis testing or in
construction of confidence intervals. When there is a need to contrast it with the non-central
chi-square distribution, this distribution is sometimes called the central chi-square
distribution.
The chi-square distribution is used in the common chi-square tests for goodness of an
observed distribution to a theoretical one, the independence of two criteria of classification
of qualitative data, and in confidence estimation for a population standard deviation of a
normal distribution from a sample standard deviation. Many other statistical tests also use this
distribution, like Friedman's analysis of variance by ranks.
The chi-square distribution is a special case of the gamma distribution.
1.2.1.1 Definition
If Z
1
... Z
k
are independent, standard normal random variables, then the sum of their squares,


is distributed according to the chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom. This is
usually denoted as
Q ~
2
(k) or Q ~
k
2
The chi-square distribution has one parameter: k (also denoted as ); a positive integer that
specifies the number of degrees of freedom
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1.2.1.2 Statistic of chi square distribution:
(


The statistic also can be written as-
(o
i
e
i
)
2
/e
i
(i=1 to )
Where
X
i
= o
i =
observed frequency

i
= e
i
= expected frequency
1.2.1.3 Characteristics curves


Figure 1.4: probability density function (pdf) of chi square distribution


Figure 1.5: cumulative distribution (cdf) function of chi square distribution
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

f
(
x
)

x
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

F
(
x
)

x
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Table 1.1: characteristics of chi square distribution
notation:
or
parameters: k N
1
degrees of freedom
support: x [0, +)
pdf:

cdf:

mean: k
median:

mode: max{k 2, 0}
variance: 2k
skewness:

ex.kurtosis: 12/k
entropy:

mgf: (1 2t)
k/2
for t <
cf: (1 2it)
k/2


1.2.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is systematic approach for selecting alternatives.
People deal with complex decisions- rather than prescribing a "correct" decision, the AHP
helps people to determine one. Based on mathematics and human psychology, it was
developed by Thomas L. Saaty in the 1970s and has been extensively studied and refined
since then. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) is a decision-making method for
prioritizing alternatives when multiple criteria must be considered and allows the decision
maker to structure complex problems in the form of a hierarchy, or a set of integrated levels.

A hierarchy is a system of ranking and organizing people, things, ideas, etc., where each
element of the system, except for the top one, is subordinate to one or more other elements.
Human organizations are often structured as hierarchies, where the hierarchical system is
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used for assigning responsibilities, exercising leadership, and facilitating communication.
When we approach a complex decision problem, we can use a hierarchy to integrate large
amounts of information into our understanding of the situation. As we build this information
structure, we form a better and better picture of the problem as a whole.
Table 1.2: Level of preference weight

Level of
preference
weights
Definition Explanation
1 Equally Preferred
Two activities contribute equally to the objective
3 Moderately
Experience and judgment slightly favor one activity
over another
5 Strong importance
Experience and judgment strongly or essentially
favor one activity over another
7
Noticeable
dominance
An activity is strongly favored over another and its
dominance demonstrated in practice
9 Extreme importance
The evidence favoring one activity over another is of
the highest degree possible of affirmation
2,4,6,8 Intermediate values
Used to represent compromise between the
preferences listed above
Reciprocals Reciprocals for inverse comparison

1.2.3 Regression analysis:
Regression analysis is the focus on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or
more independent variable .Regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value
of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variable is varied, while
the other independent variables are held fixed. Most commonly, regression analysis estimates
the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the impendent variable.
Regression analysis carried out the various techniques and developed the large body. A
simple liner regression technique is one of them. Simple linear regression is a technique in
parametric statistics thats commonly used for analyzing mean response of a variable Y
which chances according to the magnitude of an intervention variable X. It forms the basis of
the one of the more important forms of inferential statistical analysis. In regression analysis
there is usually the independent variable and a dependent or response variable.
The relationship between two variables is best observed by means of a scatter plot. Then a
straight line is drawn which would provide the best estimate of the observed trend. In other
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word, the line describes the relationship in the best possible manner. Even then for any given
value of X there is variability in the values of Y. this is because of the inherent variability
between individuals. The line drawn is therefore the line of means. Thus, it expresses the
mean of all values of Y corresponding to a given value of X.


Y-Axis





Figure 1.3: The regression line
Where the line of means cuts the Y-axis we get the intercept. The intercept is the value of Y
corresponding to X=0. Its units are the units of the Y variable. The line has a slope. The slope
measures the change in the value of Y corresponding to a unit change in the value of X.
Now it is clear that the line of means is an important parameter, its mathematical
representation Y= a + b X is called the regression equation, and a & b are the regression
coefficients.

1.2.4 One sided confidence bonds
The confidence intervals and resulting confidence bounds discussed thus far are two-sided in
nature (i.e., both upper and lower bounds are given). However, there are many applications in
which only one bound is sought. For example, if the measurement of interest is strength, the
engineer receives more information from a lower bound only. This bound communicates the
worst case scenario. On the hand, if the measurement is something for which a relatively
large value of is not profitable or desirable, then an upper confidence bound is of interest.
An example would be a case in which inference need to be made concerning the mean
mercury composition in a river. An upper bound is very informative in this case. One-sided
confidence bounds are developed in the same fashion as two-sided intervals. However, the is
a one-sided probability statement that makes use of the central limit theorem
P (

)=1-
One can then manipulate the probability statement much like before and obtain
P (>X-z

/n) =1-
Slope
Intercept
X- Axis
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Similar manipulation of P (

>-z

) =1-
P (<X+z

/n) =1-
If

is the mean of a random sample of size n from a population with variance


2
, the one-
sided
100(1-) % for is given by:
Upper one-sided bond: ( + z

)/
Lower one-sided bond: ( - z

)/




















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Chapter 2
Literature Review
Chou & Haiao (2005) have used two-dimensional anthropometric data for developing an
electric scooter in Taiwan. The developed electric scooter resulted in a significant
improvement in its appearance and ergonomic performance. The hierarchical estimation
method was applied to 60 anthropometric variables by using the 1988 US Army
anthropometric survey data and used to design an occupant package layout in a passenger car
(You & Ryu 2005).In 2006 Sebo et al have collected anthropometric data that were
performed by 12 primary care physicians on 24 adult volunteers in Geneva, Switzerland and
that was published in 2008.
Anthropometric data must contain at least some valuable information about certain aspect of
welfare if growth reflects a persons diet and health. Cvrcek (2006) have explained that the
height and weight variation of adolescent boys exhibit a pattern that is inconsistent with that
for a normal healthy population.
For ergonomic product design with better safety, comfort and health consideration three-
dimensional anthropometry is very important as it gather rich information. Chang et al.
(2007) have used three-dimensional anthropometric measurements that offer much more
surface information than traditional dimension measurement and proposed methods for low
cost portable hand-hell laser scanner along with a piece of glass used as a hand support to
reduce scanning shadow areas.
Engineering design is a strong determinant of workplace ergonomics. A survey among 680
engineers in 20 Danish enterprises indicated that engineers are not aware that they influence
the work environment of other people (Broberg 2007). Ergonomics had a low rating among
engineers, perhaps because neither management nor safety organizations expressed any
expectations in that area. The study further indicated that the effects of ergonomics training in
engineering schools were very limited.
The anthropometric measurement can be used as a basis for the design of workstations and
personal protective equipments that can make work environments safer and more users
friendly. Currently, there is increasing demand for this kind of information among those who
develop measures to prevent occupational injuries and increase the level of satisfaction.
Anthropometric measurements among 1805 Filipino workers in 31 manufacturing industries
showed data for standing, sitting, hand and foot dimensions, breadth and circumference of
various body part and grip strength that was the first ever comprehensive anthropometric
measurement of Filipino manufacturing workers in the country which is seen as a significant
contribution to the Filipino labor force who are increasingly employed by both domestic and
foreign multinationals and was published in 2007 (Pardo-Lu 2007). This study helps Filipino
working population for the economic design of workstations, personal protective equipments,
tools, furniture and interface systems that aid in providing a safer, effective, more productive
and user friendly workplace.
Das, Shikdar & Winters (2007) demonstrated the beneficial effect of a combined work design
and ergonomics approach, specially for the redesign of a workstation for a repetitive drill
press operation that increase both the production output and operator satisfaction. The result
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showed significant improvement in production quantity (22%) and quality (50%) output as a
consequence of applying work design and ergonomics principles.
In Turkey, the static anthropometric measurements of 13 dimensions from 1049 students
were obtained while they were standing and sitting that was published in 2008 (Tunay &
Melemez 2008). To be used in classroom and laboratory design the necessary anthropometric
data was analyzed to determine the limit value. Existing dimensions of desks and chairs were
compared with the students anthropometric measurements. It was observed that there was a
mismatch between popliteal height and seat height, knee height and desk clearance, buttock
to popliteal length and seat depth. Comparing Turkish students and other nations student the
result showed that there was significant difference in anthropometric measurements.
Like increased workload, flexibility efforts and productivity requirements, musculoskeletal
disorders show noticeable impacts on the workers health in their own professional
environment. Lanfranchi & Duveau (2008) have presented a predictive model on
musculoskeletal pain in relation to maneuver margin, workload and work recognition.
Metha et al. (2008) have designed seat dimensions for tractor operators based on
anthropometric data of 5434 Indian male agricultural workers considering comfort ability of
operators as if the operators seat is not comfortable, his work performance may be poor and
there is also a possibility of accidents. Another anthropometric survey was carried out by
Dewangan, Owary & Datta (2008) for female agriculture workers (age ranged 18-60 years) of
two north eastern (NE) hill states of India, namely Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
Collected data were statistically analyzed and also compared with those of American, British,
Chinese, Egyptian, Japanese, Korean, Maxican and Taiwanese female workers that showed in
stature, Indian women are shorter by 9.27 cm as compared to American women.
Daneshmandi, Isanezhad & Hematinezhad (2008) have shown the effect of classroom
furniture on back pain, neck, and lumber and lag fatigue when the students used them. A total
of 203 male students from 32 classes of 8 different schools of the urban community were
randomly selected in this study. The investigation showed a significant relationship between
the tired fillings of the subjects with every dispositional condition of the classroom.
Necessary standards during manufacturing the equipments of schools according to
anthropometric specifications and ergonomics consideration reduce tired feelings and pain of
the students that increases learning and concentration.
Some students of Industrial Engineering in Maxico complained that the activities of tutors
create fatigue, neck and back pain after classes (Hernandez, Quiroga & Bustillos 2009).
After that, a research of 52 students, 46 males and 6 females between 19 to 23 years old, have
estimated the anthropometric parameters of popliteal height, buttock-popliteal length, sitting
elbow and wide of the hip of students as well as the dimensions of the desk and calculated
relations between them and compared it with international recommendations. The research
demonstrated that the desk type used by the study population have mismatches with
anthropometric measures of the users and probably are the cause of fatigue and muscle aches
cited. They recommended that it is required to meet students health problem, to acquire
adjustable desks or at least desks of different dimensions according to the anthropometric
measurements of male and female users.
Niu, Li, & Salvendy (2009) have analyzed 510 head samples of Chinese young men that help
to analyze human body surfaces, sizing of shape-fitting wearing items, clinical practice.
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Braking and steering-assistance features of hospital bed have direct effects on task efficiency
and physical demand. Thus appropriate selection of specific designs able to improve
productivity and contribute to a reduction in work related musculoskeletal disorders risk
among healthcare workers. Kim et al (2009) have done a repeated measure experimental
study considering work related musculoskeletal disorders aimed to increase effectiveness of
hospital bed design features (brake pedal location and steering-assistance) in terms of
physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks.
Iseri & Arslan (2009) have done a large survey of 4205 civilians (2263 males and 1942
female) in the year of 2007 to estimate the anthropometric characteristic of the Turkish
population by geographic region, age and gender which showed 37 measurements that are
commonly used in industry.
Husein et al (2010) have studied on facial anthropometry and aesthetic measurements to
compare Indian American women with North American white women. In this study the
researchers obtains 30 anthropometric measurements of 102 Indian American women and the
result showed significant difference in 25 of 30 facial measurements.
Laios & Giannatsis (2010) have employed virtual modeling technique and the method of
principle component analysis for ergonomic evaluation and redesign of children bicycles
based on anthropometric data. In Greece the redesigned bicycles are now in full Production
and distribution is underway in many commercial outlets as proper fitting increases cycling
performance, efficiency, and comfort and injury prevention.
Unsafe medical care leads to the suffering of millions of patients every year. Human Factors
and Ergonomics (HFE) is that scientific discipline which provides unique approach for
examining complex socio-technical systems. System approach, roles and methods of human
factors and ergonomics have been studied by Carayon & Buckle (2010).
The system approach carefully developed by human factors and ergonomics specialists over
the past 50 years has a vital role to play in addressing healthcare challenges (Carayon &
Buckle 2010).
Hossain & Ahmed (2010) present 36 linear and static anthropometric dimensions and weight
of 88 male students living in three residential halls of Bangladesh University of Engineering
and Technology (BUET) for the design of five mostly used residential hall furniture (Bed,
Chair, Desk table, Book shelf and Locker). They showed the different percentages of
mismatches between furniture dimensions and corresponding body dimensions of individual
users.
Anthropometric data varies from region to region. Chuan, Hartono and Kumar (2010) were
collected anthropometric data of the Singaporean and Indonesian populations. The data were
mainly from university students. In total, 245 male and 132 female subjects from Indonesia
and 206 male and 109 female subjects from Singapore were measured. This study used 36
measurement dimensions. The authors made a comparison with previous anthropometric data
collected in 1990 of over a thousand Singaporeans. Statistical analysis showed that
Singaporeans both male and female tend to have larger dimensions than Indonesians in
general. In addition, the data reveal the current sample to be significantly larger on more than
50 percent of the dimension measured, for both males and females.
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Hafizi et al. (2010) have run a large anthropometric study on primary school children in Iran
that explained negative impact on human health if the use of furniture fails to fulfill
anthropometric data of its users. Gathering data about anthropometric dimensions are
important as anthropometric data can change by time. In many communities anthropometric
data have been measured especially among school, college and university students. Study was
designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children aged 7-11 years and data
were obtained on 2030 primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females) in Yazd of
Iran. Study showed a descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static
anthropometric data. The result showed some difference in anthropometric data with other
studies and significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. In order to create a
data bank for furniture design a study was run in Iran which measured anthropometric
dimensions of Iranian university students (Mirmohammadi et al. 2011). They measured 20
anthropometric dimensions of 911 university students (475 males and 436 females), aged 18-
25 years, that showed a significant difference between anthropometric dimensions of their
populations with others population. Except for buttock-knee all dimensions measured were
significantly different between two genders.
Hedge, James & Pavlovic-Veselinovic (2011) have optimized the implementation of
healthcare information technology considering risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders
in ways that will benefit user performance while minimizing their injury risks.
In the patient transportation study, the use of a steering lock reduced the number of
adjustments and decreased perceived physical demands during bed maneuvering.
Additionally, the adjustable push height reduced shoulder moments during an in-room bed
start-up task. The contour feature reduced patient sliding distance with repeated bed
raising/lowering, which can potentially reduce the demands placed on healthcare workers to
reposition them. Metha et al. (2011) have suggested that proactive ergonomic considerations
in hospital bed design can reduce physical demands placed on healthcare workers.
International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee has been formed due to the
concern of increasing prevalence and role of information and technology in the lives of
children as well as the incident of back pain and heavy loads children carry in back packs
(Bennett& Tien 2012). A survey was sent to Ergonomics for Children and Educational
Environments to describe a cross-section of international efforts to address the health and the
future of children. It is possible to analyze and predict with an applied ergonomics that is
sensitive to the social complexities of workplace, including power, gender, hierarchy and
fuzzy system boundaries (Dekker 2012).
Widanarko et al. (2011) have described the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in New
Zealand where a sample of 3003 men and women aged 20-64 were randomly selected.
Musculoskeletal symptoms experienced during 12 months in 10 body regions were assessed
in telephone interviews using a modified version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal
Questionnaires. The highest prevalence was for low back (54%), neck (43%), and shoulder
(42%). Females reported a statically significantly higher prevalence of musculoskeletal
symptoms in the neck, shoulder, wrist/hands, upper back and hips/thighs/buttocks regions
compared to males while males reported more symptoms of elbows, low back and knees.
There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence among age groups.
Dianat et al. (2012) have evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture
dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls,
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480 boys), aged 15 to 18 years. The mismatch was varied between the high-school grade
levels and between genders, indicated their special requirements and possible problems.

In Bangladesh the use of ergonomics is very fewer in hospital and others workplace. The
objectives of this study is to show the relationship with physical demand (back pain, fatigue,
blood circulation problem, comfort and sleep) with anthropometric factors for hospital bed
and to build an anthropometric database for Bangladeshi patient to find correlation among
some pairs of these anthropometric factors.

2.1 Objectives
The objectives of this thesis are:

1. To show the relationship of physical demand (back pain, fatigue, blood circulation
problem, comfort and sleep) with anthropometric factors for normal hospital bed (Stature,
Elbow span, Political Height, Vertical grip reach) in Bangladesh.
2. To build an anthropometric database for Bangladeshi patient and redesign hospital bed
based on anthropometric data.


2.2 Methodology

The goal of the thesis was to find out the major WMSDs such as back pain, fatigue, blood
circulation problem, sleep and comfort .The hospital bed are responsible for above the
problem and risk factors. The anthropometries parameter of the human dimension is
responsible for WMSDs problem. The dimension of the hospital bed should be proper design.
In doing so the steps we have followed are shown in flows chart below:












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Phase 1
Analysis the terms
Ergonomics and
Anthropometrics
Studying the related
articles
Fixed goal of the
thesis

Visiting the
Rajshahi Medical
College as trial
Prepare the
questionnaires
Visiting the
Rajshahi Medical
College for collect
the data
Asking the patient
and doctor about
their problems
and details
according to
questionnaire
Felling up the
questionnaire
Creating a data
bank
Phase 1
complete Phase 2
Data analysis
Test for independence of
The collected data by chi-
square test
Required
calculations for
attaining the goal
such as AHP,
Regression analysis
Result
Phase 2
complete
Phase 3
Anthropometric
date collection
from RUET
Regression
analysis
Result Phase 3
complete
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Chapter 3
Case Study & Data Collection
The objective of case study is to perform the steps required to meet the thesis goal. For that,
several steps had been taken. A short list of the steps is shown below:
The steps have been taken are:
At first, we have prepared some questionnaires for doctors and patients. Then we have visited
Rajshahi Medical Collage Hospital to collect data from doctors and patients. We have
analyzed data after the answer of the questionnaires had taken. After that anthropometric data
of students have collected from Rajshahi University of engineering and Technology (RUET).
Finally, anthropometric data have analyzed and appropriate methods have used for
mathematical calculations.
To collect data we have visited Rajshahi Medical College & Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
A short description on Rajshahi Medical College is given below.
Rajshahi Medical College & Hospital, located in Rajshahi, Bangladesh which is affiliated
with the Rajshahi University. It was established in 1958, the second such institution in
erstwhile East Pakistan after Dhaka Medical College. It has a large hospital that is central
provider for a advanced healthcare in the northern part of Bangladesh. It admits 175 students
every year for its M.B.B.S. program. Its dental unit admits a further 50 students. Students are
admitted in these programs after high school and get a gegree after 5 years of study and 1
year internship in the Government owned public hospital.
A handful number of enthusiastic and philanthropic people started a Medical School in
Rajshahi city in 1954. A four year course was started leading to diploma called LMF
(Licentiate of Medical Faculty) offered by the State Medical Faculty, Dhaka. A total of eighty
students were admitted in the very first year of its inception. In 1954, the then East Pakistan
Government converted it into a government Institute, Rajshahi Medical School. Later on, the
government decided to start a five year course leading to MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and
Bachelor of Surgery) degree and as such in 1958 Rajshahi Medical School emerged as
Rajshahi Medical College. At the beginning, the Medical College was housed in a small
building of the Barendra Museum. It was later shifted to the present college building. Forty
two native and two foreign students were admitted in the first batch.
Since then, the college has been continuing its steady progress. The number of admitted
students is now increased to 175 which is equal in 8 old government medical colleges of
Bangladesh. Foreign students of SAARC countries are being admitted in this Institution
every year. Other hospitals situated in the city like Infectious Disease Hospital founded in
1962, Hospital for Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases founded in 1966, Leprosy Control Center
founded in 1968 are all affiliated with this college. A Nuclear Medicine Center was also
established within the campus in 1970. Following the war of liberation in 1971, the Medical
College and hospital have made considerable improvements in many aspects such as
extension of the college buildings, student's accommodation, number of hospital beds, and
establishment of a modern Auditorium etc. There has been addition of new departments like
Coronary Care Unit, Nephrology, Neurosurgery, Radiotherapy and Gastroenterology.
Page | 18

Recently the hospital is equipped with CT scan, MRI, angiogram and renal haemodialysis
machine. There have been a few recent additions in the College too like establishment of a
beautiful mosque at the college premises, modernization and beautification of college main
gate and premises, extension of the conference room with modern audio-visual facilities. At
present besides undergraduate MBBS and BDS courses, postgraduate MD, MS, M.Phil, MPH
and Diploma degrees are being awarded in 18 disciplines at Rajshahi Medical College.
After all of these there have a lot of problems in Rajshahi Medical College. The hospital beds
and other furnitures are not designed considering ergonomics and anthropometric data of
Bangladeshi people. As a result patient suffers a lot of problems in times of having medical
service. Number of beds also less than the number of patients coming every day. And extra
patients are takes place on the floor which is also considered as beds. So, solving these
problems is very important for patient safety, comfort and proper service.
For this article, I have kept the Chinese proverb in mind, A picture is more powerful than a
thousand words. The figure expresses the present condition of Rajshahi Medical College.


Figure 3.1: Rajshahi Medical College & Hospital


Page | 19

3.1 Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET)
Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology formerly known as BIT, Rajshahi, is the
second oldest engineering university in Bangladesh. It was founded in 1964 as a faculty of
Engineering under the University of Rajshahi providing four years Bachelor degree in Civil,
Electrical and Electronic, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering and Industrial and Production Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering,
Glass and Ceramic Engineering, Urbanization & Regional Planning. It is widely reputed as
one of the best engineering universities in Bangladesh. About 2000 students are enrolled in
Undergraduate and Postgraduate Engineering and Science with over 200 teachers. This
university has a reputation for having a very good relationship between students and teachers.
RUET has continued to expand with the construction of new academic buildings, auditorium
complex, halls of residence, etc.
RUET is located on the north side of Rajshahi-Natore-Dhaka road at Kazla, 5 kilometers east
of Rajshahi city, on 152 acres (0.62 km
2
) of land. Known as green campus with a large
variety of trees, the campus is laid out with a picturesque landscape by the side of famous
Padma River and Rajshahi University.
The campus presents a spectacular harmony of architecture and natural beauty. The campus
area has been divided into function zones: residence for students, residential zones of faculty
and other supporting staff, academic zone for academic buildings and
laboratories/workshops, and cultural-cum-social and recreation zones for students. A bank
branch, post office, modern cafeteria, auditorium and medical center are on the campus. In
RUET there is a very big play ground and a central common room with a gymnasium for the
students. A secondary school and colleges are located in RUET to teach the children of
university employees.
Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology (RUET) was founded in 1964 as a faculty
of engineering under the University of Rajshahi providing four-year Bachelor degrees in
Civil, Electrical and Electronic and Mechanical Engineering. However, the institution could
not achieve its goal because of the complicated management system: The administration was
controlled by the Ministry of Education; academic curriculum by the University of Rajshahi;
and the infrastructural development and maintenance by the Public Works Department. To
circumvent these problems, several committees and commissions were formed since 1973.
On the recommendation of these committees/commissions and having considered the
practical aspects, autonomy was given to the four engineering colleges to make them centers
of excellence of technology. A 15-member high-powered committee was formed, headed by
Professor Dr. Wahid Uddin Ahmed, the then vice chancellor of BUET.
The consistent effort of this committee ultimately led to the establishment of four engineering
colleges to Bangladesh Institute of Technology (BIT) in July 1986. But due to limited
autonomy and some constitutional inadequacies of the BIT ordinance, the expected progress
of the institutions could not be achieved. This ultimately necessitates re-framing the institutes
as full-fledged universities. Due to the development of Engineering Education it was the
appropriate steps to convert the four BITs to engineering and technological universities. The
parliament passed the university bill and that ultimately paved the way to commence the
Page | 20

activities of university from September 1, 2002. The name of the BIT became Rajshahi
University of Engineering & Technology (RUET).
RUET is shown to be 316th (in Engineering & Technology sector) at "The World Top
University Ranking" searched in QS World Rankings 2011/12. However, It keeps 3rd Place
in Bangladesh IT sector while BUET is 271th, CUET 300th and KUET is 373th position
(http://www.topuniversities.com/).
3.1.1 Student Health Service in RUET
An on-campus medical center provides primary and basic health care facilities to the students
free of charges. Two full-time MBBS doctors and other staffs provide these facilities. For
specialized consultation on complicated cases, the center refers the patients to specialist
consultants. There are a number of beds thats not designed with considering anthropometric
data of RUET students which is necessary for RUET students.
3.2 Questionnaires
The questionnaires we have prepared is shown below:
Date:
Name: Age:
Gender: Male Female Occupation:

1. Did each problem occur in your? Have you experienced any recurring symptoms such as
pain, aching, numbness or any other symptom when you treat a patient?
Did each problem occur? Did this occur in the part of your body?
1. Neck Yes No Left Right Middle
2. Shoulder? Yes No Left Right Middle
3. Elbow? Yes No Left Right Middle
4. Hand/wrist? Yes No Left Right Middle
5. Back? Yes No Left Right Middle
6. Hip? Yes No Left Right Middle
7. Knee? Yes No Left Right Middle
8. Ankle? Yes No Left Right Middle
2. Do you feel any problem for the height of the bad?
Yes
No; Height is ok.
If yes, then more height less height
Page | 21

3. Do you feel any problem for the length of the bed?
Yes No
If yes, then shorter length larger length
4. Do you feel any problem for the wide of the bed?
Yes No
If yes, then shorter wide longer wide

5. Do you feel any problem for stand height?
Yes No
If yes; then stand height is more stand height is less than standard.

6. Have you satisfied by using this bed?
Very satisfied somewhat satisfied Not too satisfied Not at all satisfied
7. In hospital what kinds of facility do you want from the hospital bed?
Ans.

8. For the following problems what factors of bed/anthropometry is responsible? Rank it like
1,2,3,4.

Factors
Problems
Bed
length/Stature
Bed wide/Elbow
span
Bed
height/Popliteal
height
Bed stand
height/Vertical
grip reach
1.Back pain
2. Fatigue
3. Blood
circulation
problem

4. Comfort
5. Sleep


Page | 22

3.3 Data collection
Collected data from doctors and patients
Factors

Problems
Bed length/
Stature
Bed width/
Elbow span
Bed height/
Political
Height
Bed Stand
Height/Vertical
grip reach
Total
Back pain 58 23 0 0 81
Fatigue 37 21 51 11 120
Blood circulation
problem
32 29 43 21 125
Comfort 61 55 45 36 197
Sleep 59 48 2 7 116
Total 247 176 141 75 639





















Page | 23

Chapter 4
Result Analysis & Discussion
4.1 Result obtained by using Independent Test
1. H
0
= Problems are not related to anthropometric factors
2. H
1
= Problems are related to anthropometric factors
3. Level of significance, = 0.05, 0.01
4. Degree of freedom, = 12
5.
2
actual
= 144.154
6.
2
0.05, 12
= 21.026 >
2
actual
7.
2
0.01, 12
= 26.217 >
2
actual
8. Decision: H
0
is rejected.
That means, problems are related to anthropometric factors.
4.2 Result obtained by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Table 4.1: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Anthropometric
parameter
Attributes & their Weights Composite
weight
Rank
Back
pain
(0.468)
Fatigue
(0.330)
Blood
circulation
problem
(0.106)
Sleep
(0.096)
Vertical grip reach
(Bed stand height)
0.110 0.096 0.200 0.070 0.172 3
Elbow span (Bed
width)
0.190 0.096 0.062 0.050 0.132 4
Popliteal Height (Bed
Height )
0.190 0.250 0.062 0.210 0.198 2
Stature (Bed length) 0.510 0.560 0.670 0.660 0.557 1

1. Result shows that for back pain, fatigue, blood circulation problem and sleep of patient bed
length is most responsible which is related to anthropometric factor stature.
2. After that, bed width is responsible which is related to anthropometric factor elbow span.
3. Then, bed height is responsible which is related to anthropometric factor popliteal height.
4. At last, Bed stand height is responsible which is related to anthropometric factor Vertical
grip reach.
Page | 24

4.3 Result obtained by using Regression Analysis
Table 4.2: Mean and Standard deviation of anthropometric data
Stature (cm) Elbow span(cm) Popliteal height
(cm)
Vertical grip
reach
(cm)
Mean 167.3141 88.33078 43.74369 201.8814
Standard
deviation
10.6542 3.8495 1.6215 14.2085

Table 4.3: Summary of the correlation analysis while taking independent variable x = stature
Dependent variables (Y) Prediction equation
Elbow span Y=0.850467x-52.4467
Popliteal height Y= 33.39599+0.05979x
Vertical grip reach Y=157.94156+0.2476x

From these equations if anyone give his stature height he will have proper dimension of
hospital bed.














Page | 25

Chapter 5
Calculations
5.1 Independent Test:
Table 5.1: Collected data from doctors and patients
Factors

Problems
Bed length/
Stature
Bed width/
Elbow span
Bed height/
Political
Height
Bed Stand
Height/Vertical
grip reach
Total
Back pain 58 23 0 0 81
Fatigue 37 21 51 11 120
Blood circulation
problem
32 29 43 21 125
Comfort 61 55 45 36 197
Sleep 59 48 2 7 116
Total 247 176 141 75 639

Let,
L= Bed length
W= Bed width
H= Bed height
Sh= Bed Stand Height
P= Back pain
F= Fatigue
B= Blood circulation problem
C= Comfort
S= Sleep
By using the marginal frequencies, we can list the following probability estimates:
P(L)= 247/639= 0.387
P(W)= 176/639= 0.275
P(H)= 141/639= 0.221
P(Sh)= 75/639= 0.117
P(P)= 81/639= 0.127
P(F)= 120/639= 0.188
P(B)= 125/639= 0.195
Page | 26

P(C)= 197/639= 0.308
P(S)= 116/639= 0.182
Now, if H
0
is true, that is problems are independent of anthropometric factors, we should
have,
P(LP) = P(L)P(P) = 0.3870.127 = 0.049
P(LF) = P(L)P(F) = 0.073
P(LB) = P(L)P(B) = 0.075
P(LC) = P(L)P(C) = 0.119
P(LS) = P(L)P(S) = 0.070
P(WP) = P(W)P(P) = 0.035
P(WF) = P(W)P(F) = 0.052
P(WB) = P(W)P(B) = 0.053
P(WC) = P(W)P(C) = 0.085
P(WS) = P(W)P(S) = 0.050
P(HP) = P(H)P(P) = 0.028
P(HF) = P(H)P(F) = 0.042
P(HB) = P(H)P(B) = 0.043
P(HC) = P(H)P(C) = 0.068
P(HS) = P(H)P(S) = 0.040
P(ShP) = P(Sh)P(P) = 0.015
P(ShF) = P(Sh)P(F) = 0.022
P(ShB) = P(Sh)P(B) = 0.023
P(ShC) = P(Sh)P(C) = 0.036
P(ShS) = P(Sh)P(S) = 0.021
The expected frequencies are obtained by multiplying each cell probability by the total
number of observations. When H
o
is true, the general rule for obtaining the expected
frequency of any cell is given by the following formula:
Expected frequency = (column total) (row total)/ (grand total)
Thus, the expected numbers of frequency of bed length (L) that are not related to back pain
(P) are:
Page | 27

(

) (

) ()
The expected frequency for each cell is recorded in parentheses beside the actual observed
value in the following table:
Table 5.2: Expected and observed value
Factors

Problems
Bed length/
Stature
Bed width/
Elbow span
Bed height/
Political
Height
Bed Stand
Height/Vertical
grip reach
Total
Back pain 58(31.310) 23(22.310) 0(17.873) 0(9.507) 81
Fatigue 37(46.385) 21(33.051) 51(26.478) 11(14.085) 120
Blood circulation
problem
32(48.318) 29(34.429) 43(27.582) 21(14.671) 125
Comfort 61(76.148) 55(54.260) 45(43.469) 36(23.122) 197
Sleep 59(44.838) 48(31.950) 2(25.596) 7(13.615) 116
Total 247 176 141 75 639

Degree of freedom, = (row1)(column1)
= (5-1)(4-1)
= 43
= 12
Know,

2
actual
= (o
i
-e
i
)
2
/e
i
e
i
= expected frequency
o
i
= observed frequency

2
actual
=
22.75+0.021+17.873+9.507+1.899+3.253+22.710+0.675+5.511+0.856+8.618+2.730+3.013+
0.010+0.054+7.173+4.473+8.062+21.752+3.214

2
actual
= 144.154
Solution:
1. H
0
= Problems are not related to anthropometric factors
2. H
1
= Problems are related to anthropometric factors
3. Level of significance = 0.05, 0.01
4. Degree of freedom, = 12
5.
2
actual
= 144.154
Page | 28

6.
2
0.05, 12
= 21.026 >
2
actual
7.
2
0.01, 12
= 26.217 >
2
actual
8. Decision: H
0
is rejected.
That means, problems are related to anthropometric factors.

5.2 Study of approach under analytic hierarchy process

Table 5.3: Level of preference weight

Level of preference
weights
Definition Explanation
1 Equally Preferred Two activities contribute equally to the objective
3 Moderately Experience and judgment slightly favor one
activity over another
5 Strong
importance
Experience and judgment strongly or essentially
favor one activity over another
7 Noticeable
dominance
An activity is strongly favored over another and
its dominance demonstrated in practice
9 Extreme
importance
The evidence favoring one activity over another
is of the highest degree possible of affirmation
2,4,6,8 Intermediate
values
Used to represent compromise between the
preferences listed above
Reciprocals Reciprocals for inverse comparison












Figure 5.1: Analytic hierarchy process
Goal
Back pain
(C1)



Fatigue (C2) Blood
circulation
problem (C3)
Sleep (C4)
Stature (bed
length)
Elbow span
(bed wide)
Popliteal height
(Bed height)
Vertical height
(Bed stand)
Page | 29

Table 5.4: Evaluation at level 1
Attribute C1 C2 C3 C4 Geometric
mean
Normalized
weight
C1 1 2 5 3 2.34 0.468
C2 1 5 3 1.65 0.330
C3 1/5 1/5 1 2 0.53 0.106
C4 1/3 1/3 1 0.48 0.096
Total 2.03 3.53 11.5 9 5

Geometric mean for back pain, (1*2*5*3) ^ (1/4) =2.34

max
= (Normalized weight of each row*sum of respective column)
=0.468*2.03+0.33*3.53+0.106*11.5+0.096*9=4.197
Consistency Index (C.I) = (
max
-n)/ (n-1) = 0.0659 for n=4; R.I= 0.89
Consistency Ratio (C.R) = C.I/R.I = 0.0659/0.89=0.074= 7.41 %< 10%, so acceptable.


Table 5.5: Average Random Index (RI) based on matrix size (adapted by Saaty)

N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RCI 0 0 0.52 0.89 1.11 1.25 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.49

Table 5.6: Evaluation for attribute for back pain
Parameter Stature
(bed
length)
Elbow
Height
Popliteal
height
Vertical
grip reach
Geometric
mean
Normalized
weight
Vertical
grip reach
1 1/2 1/2 1/4 0.5 0.11
Elbow
height
2 1 1 1/3 0.9 0.19
Popliteal
height
2 1 1 1/3 0.9 0.19
Stature
(Bed
length)
4 3 3 1 2.45 0.51
Total 9 5.5 5.5 1.91 4.75

Geometric mean for vertical grip reaches (Stand height) = (1*1/2*1/2*1/4) ^ (1/4) =.50
For Elbow Height = 0.90
For Popliteal height = 0.90
Page | 30

Similarly calculation for Stature (Bed length)

Eigenvector,
max
=

(Normalized weight of each row* sum of respective column)
= (9*0.110+5.5*0.190+5.50*0.190+0.510*0.191)
= 4.0541
From Table 2 Random index for (n=4) = 0.89, Consistency Index CI= (
max
n)/ (n1) =0.018
Consistency ratio CR=CI/RI=0.018/0.89=2.27%<10% so acceptable
Table 5.7: Evaluation for attribute For Fatigue
Parameter Stature
(bed
length)
Elbow
Height
Popliteal
height
Vertical
grip reach
Geometric
mean
Normalized
weight
Vertical
grip reach
1 1 1/3 1/5 0.51 0.096
Elbow
height
1 1 1/3 1/5 0.51 0.096
Popliteal
height
3 3 1 1/3 1.32 0.250
Stature (bed
length)
5 5 3 1 2.94 0.56
Total 10.00 10.00 4.67 1.73 5.28

Geometric mean for Vertical grip reach = (1*1*1/3*1*5) ^ (1/4) =0.51
For Elbow Height = 0.51
For Popliteal height = 1.32
Similarly calculations for Stature (Bed length)
Eigenvector,
max
=

(Normalized weight of each row* sum of respective column)
= (10*0.096+0.096*10+0.25*4.67+0.56*1.73)
= 4.056
From Table 2 Random index for (n=4) = 0.89, Consistency Index CI= (
max
n)/ (n1) =0.019
consistency ratio CR=CI/RI=0.019/0.89=2.10%<10% so acceptable.





Page | 31

Table 5.8: Evaluation for attribute for blood circulation problem
Parameter Stature
(bed
length)
Elbow
Height
Popliteal
height
Vertical
grip reach
Geometric
mean
Normalized
weight
Vertical
grip reach
1 4 4 1/5 1.34 0.20
Elbow
height
1/4 1 1 1/9 0.41 0.062
Popliteal
height
1/4 1 1 1/9 0.41 0.062
Stature
(bed
length)
5 9 9 1 4.49 0.67
Total 6.5 15 15 1.42 6.65

Geometric mean for vertical grip reach (Stand height), (1*4*4*1/5) ^ (1/4) =1.34
Eigenvector
max
= (Normalized weight of each row*sum of respective column)
=0.2*6.5+0.062*15+0.062*15+0.67*1.42=4.11
Consistency Index (C.I) = (
max
-n)/(n-1) = 0.0367 For n=4; R.I= 0.89.Consistency Ratio
(C.R) = C.I/R.I = 0.0367/0.89=0.0412=4.12 %< 10%, so acceptable.

Table 5.9: Evaluation for attribute for sleep
Parameter Stature
(bed
length)
Elbow
Height
Popliteal
height
Vertical
grip reach
Geometric
mean
Normalized
weight
Vertical
grip reach
1 2 1/5 1/8 0.47 0.07
Elbow
height
1/2 1 1/4 1/9 0.34 0.05
Popliteal
height
5 4 1 1/5 1.41 0.21
Stature
(bed
length)
8 9 5 1 4.35 0.66
Total 14.5 16 6.45 1.44 6.57

Geometric mean for Vertical grip reach (Stand height) = (1*2*1/5*1/8) ^ (1/4)
=0.47
Eigenvector
max
= (Normalized weight of each row*sum of respective column)
= (0.07*14.5+0.05*16+0.21*6.45+0.66*1.44)
=4.12
Consistency Index (CI) = (
max
-n)/(n-1) = 0.04 For n=4; R.I= 0.89
Consistency Ratio (C.R) = C.I/R.I = 0.04/0.89=0.045=4.5 %< 10%, so acceptable


Page | 32

Table 5.10: AHP for final evaluation

Anthropometric
parameter
Attributes & their Weights Composite
weight
Rank
Back
pain
(0.468)
Fatigue
(0.330)
Blood
circulation
problem
(0.106)
Sleep
(0.096)
Vertical
grip
reach
(stand height)
0.110 0.096 0.200 0.070 0.172 3
Elbow span (Bed
width)
0.190 0.096 0.062 0.050 0.132 4
Popliteal Height (Bed
Height )
0.190 0.250 0.062 0.210 0.198 2
Stature (Bed length) 0.510 0.560 0.670 0.660 0.557 1

Sample calculation:
Composite weight for Vertical grip reach (Stand height)
=0.468*0.110+0.096*0.330+.2*0.106+0.070*0.096=0.172
Composite weight for Elbow span (Bed width)
=0.468*0.190+0.096*0.330+0.062*0.106+0.050*0.096=0.132
Composite weight for Popliteal height (Bed height)
=.468*0.190+0.250*0.330+0.062*0.106+0.096*0.210=0.198
Composite weight for Stature (Bed
length)=0.4680*.510+0.560*0.330+0.670*0.106+0.660*0.096=0.557
5.3 One sided confidence bonds:
If

is the mean of a random sample of size n from a population with variance


2
, the one-
sided
100(1-) % for is given by:
Upper one-sided bond: ( + z

)/
Lower one-sided bond: ( - z

)/
5.4 Regression Analysis:
Mean, =


Variance = (

i
-)
2
/n

Standard deviation, = Variance
Page | 33


A reasonable form of a relationship between the response Y and the regressor x is the linear
relationship
Y= a+bx
Where,
x= Independent variable or regressor
Y= Dependent variable or responses
a= Intercept
b= Slope
b= (

i
-) (y
i
-)/ (

i
-)
2

a= (

i
-b

i
)/n = -b
Due to patient safety for bed length, wide and height we have considered One sided
confidence bonds.
5.4.1 x = Stature and Y= Elbow span
= 0.05
Here, = (+ z

)/ = 167.3141+ (1.64510.6542)/ = 177.4630


= (+ z

)/ = 88.33078+ (1.6453.8495)/ = 98.4797


b= (

i
- ) (y
i
-)/ (

i
- )
2
= 11870.7/13957.86 = 0.0850467
a= -b = 98.4797-0.850467177.4630 = -52.4467
Y= a+bx
Y= 0.850467x 52.4467
This is the required equation shows relationship between strature and elbow span.
5.4.2. x = Stature and Y= Popliteal height
= 0.05
= (+ z

)/ = 167.3141+ (1.64510.6542)/ = 177.4630


= (+ z

)/ = 43.74369 (-1.645 1.6215)/ = 44.0065


b= (

i
- ) (y
i
-)/ (

i
- )
2
= 834.6079/13957.86 = 0.05979
a= -b = 44.0065-0.05979177.4630 = 33.39599
Y= a+bx
Page | 34

Y= 33.39599 + 0.05979 x
This is the required equation shows relationship between strature and popliteal height.

5.4.3 x = Stature and Y= Vertical grip reach (standing)
= (+ z

)/ = 167.3141+ (1.64510.6542)/ = 177.4630


y = = 201.8814
b= (

i
- ) (y
i
-)/ (

i
- )
2
= 3455.973/13957.86 = 0.2476
a= -b = 201.8814 0.2476177.4630 = 157.94156
Y= a+bx
Y= 157.94156 + 0.2476 x
This is the required equation shows relationship between strature and vertical grip reach.

















Page | 35

Chapter 6
Recommendations and Future Work
Patient safety is a global issue that affects at all level of development. The design of hospital
bed should not be dependent on the esthetic views consideration but also should be dependent
on the different dimensions of users body structure and postures. So the size and dimensions
of hospital bed will be different for people live in different region as human body dimension
varies with region to region. The integrated applications of esthetic view and anthropometric
data are critical factors for industrial designers in order to develop a satisfying product. More
anthropometric data will increase the accuracy of the model. In our case study we have only
used anthropometric data of 103 person and all are male. In future more anthropometric data
of both male and female will be helpful for the design of hospital bed. Also, there are various
types of hospital bed that should be design considering ergonomics and anthropometric data
of Bangladeshi people. Not only hospital bed, any furniture and work place should be
designed with considering ergonomics in order to increase productivity and human
satisfaction.



















Page | 36

Chapter 7
Conclusion
Every patient deserves a safe and comfortable sleeping and bed environment. Hospital bed
needed to design in such a way that both the patient and health care workers feel comfort,
safe and convenience. Ergonomics or human factors are very important for the design of
hospital bed and other furniture. Our case study shows the relationship of hospital bed with
patient various problems like back pain, blood circulation problem, fatigue, sleep and comfort
and what factors are responsible at most. This study gives a better solution for Bangladeshi
people to design hospital bed according to anthropometric data of this regional people. This
will increase patient safety and comfort for Bangladeshi people.






















Page | 37

Chapter 8
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Page | 40

Appendix
Anthropometric data
SL.No Name Stature
(cm)
Elbow span
(cm)
Poplited
Height (cm)
Vertical
Grip reach
(cm)
01 Md.Arif Uddin 170.18 89.00 41.40 202.30
02 Papon kumar paul 167.64 84.30 41.90 195.50
03 Faisal Rashed 167.64 93.00 43.00 207.60
04 Md.AR Rafiul Faisal 165.10 85.60 40.30 194.50
05 Md.Asaduzzaman 165.00 84.80 40.30 191.90
06 Md.Shahadat Hossain 165.10 85.00 43.30 197.10
07 Salim Mollah 170.18 87.80 45.30 203.10
08 Md.Shohel rana 170.18 91.10 41.50 207.10
09 Md.Idris Ali 167.64 82.50 41.80 202.00
10 Rifat alam munna 162.56 81.10 43.50 190.50
11 Md.Ariful Islam 171.00 92.90 44.40 205.40
12 Muradul Islam 167.70 91.40 42.80 200.80
13 Debashahi kumar roy 163.83 86.90 41.20 196.70
14 Md.Ahahsan Habib 165.00 81.00 44.60 195.50
15 Md.Sojauddla 174.90 84.40 44.80 209.20
16 Md.Imran Hossain 171.90 89.50 43.60 209.30
17 Ali Ahsan Bappy 179.50 93.30 44.00 206.50
18 Ahasanul Haque Tarif 177.50 87.80 44.50 206.50
19 Shahed Mahuud 177.60 89.00 43.40 214.90
20 Md.Nashir Uddin 165.10 86.80 44.40 198.70
21 Md.Mostafizur 173.00 93.60 45.50 212.70
22 Md.Nazmul Hasan 160.00 85.80 41.70 196.50
23 Md.Rakibul Hasan 171.00 92.50 42.80 213.20
24 Md.Habibbur Rahman 170.18 85.50 44.90 209.20
25 Md.Abulmunger 170.20 90.30 43.80 202.20
26 Md.Abu Raihan 177.80 91.70 47.60 215.40
27 Khandaker Marsus 163.83 87.40 45.00 204.10
28 Md.Ershed Ali 171.45 92.20 45.00 208.20
29 Md.Mahedi Hasan 165.10 90.20 44.70 200.10
30 Md.Asaduzzaman 149.00 78.40 40.80 178.40
31 Md.Hafiz Farukh 180.34 99.30 46.00 207.30
32 Iraj Ahmed 167.64 98.00 42.80 201.00
33 Md.Azizur Rahman 167.20 93.30 44.70 200.70
34 Md.Shahdat 162.56 87.00 41.00 195.00
35 Md.Sohel rana 162.56 91.40 41.90 202.20
36 Md.Hasan Sheikh 156.50 84.40 41.30 187.30
37 Md.Mahafujul Alam 168.90 88.40 44.30 203.20
38 Bipul kumar 172.20 94.80 46.00 201.70
39 Md.Asadul Haque 173.50 90.50 43.60 221.00
40 Md.Imam Hossain 161.30 85.60 44.90 198.20
41 Md.Mamun Hossain 165.10 86.10 43.20 200.40
Page | 41


SL.No Name Stature
(cm)
Elbow span
(cm)
Poplited
Height (cm)
Vertical
Grip reach
(cm)
42 Md.Abul Kalam Azad 178.00 96.10 44.20 206.90
43 Md.Sultan Mahmd 161.00 86.00 42.00 194.40
44 Utpal Goswami 166.60 87.40 43.60 197.80
45 Nd.Enamul haque 161.90 91.60 43.80 198.00
46 Mahbibur Rahman 167.00 92.80 45.10 203.40
47 Masum saha badhon 168.00 90.00 44.70 205.20
48 Nasmus Sakib Khan 164.00 90.60 43.10 202.20
49 Tariful Islam 164.20 85.80 40.40 195.90
50 Md.Ali hasan 170.00 87.70 45.10 210.10
51 Ehsanul Haque 165.60 89.40 43.30 201.30
52 S.M.Nakib Hasan 163.50 86.10 41.80 196.50
53 Robiul Hasan 166.80 87.30 43.80 201.60
54 Md.Mahfuzul shekh 171.70 92.00 46.30 211.10
55 Md.Mesuk Ahmed 166.20 87.40 44.10 201.60
56 Md.Manik Hossain 161.60 84.02 44.70 191.80
57 S.M.Showyull Islam 172.30 88.80 44.80 209.80
58 Md.Monjur Bllahi 169.80 83.20 42.80 202.60
59 Md.Shafiqul Bari 164.50 84.10 43.30 200.70
60 Md.Sohel rana 175.60 92.10 45.90 213.70
61 Golam Mawla Newton 167.60 85.20 43.40 198.80
62 Md.Nurul Islam 157.20 83.80 41.10 191.20
63 Md.Akteruzzaman 177.70 96.30 45.70 218.80
64 Md.Habibbur Rahman 168.80 84.50 44.50 190.00
65 Mobarak Hossain 170.20 91.00 45.40 207.60
66 Md.Rohidul Islam 167.10 90.40 43.10 202.40
67 Jafor Iqbal 157.70 86.60 43.30 198.90
68 Suaibur Rahman 179.00 95.00 47.00 219.20
69 Md.Al-Amin 159.20 87.20 42.10 190.20
70 Mamun Hossain Khan 169.20 87.50 42.50 202.40
71 Shaha Alam 163.40 86.20 43.20 194.88
72 Md.Muzahidul islam 161.20 89.40 44.60 198.50
73 Romanul-Ferdosh 163.80 85.40 44.70 201.20
74 Shakawall Hossain 159.50 86.20 42.90 192.80
75 Md .Aminul Islam 159.30 87.20 42.20 195.60
76 Kumaresh biswas 161.40 92.50 42.60 195.10
77 Md.Feroz Ali 166.40 91.60 47.50 208.70
78 Md.Zillur Rahman 172.40 91.60 45.70 207.60
79 Shajedul Islam 169.80 93.70 44.10 204.70
80 Ripon Kumer saha 165.20 86.10 43.60 200.80
81 Dipu Bishwas 162.80 88.30 42.80 195.70
82 Tanvir Ahmed 166.40 87.90 43.00 203.50

Page | 42

SL.No Name Stature
(cm)
Elbow span
(cm)
Poplited
Height (cm)
Vertical Grip
reach
(cm)
83 Alinur rahman 164.30 88.80 45.40 200.80
84 Md.Fariduddin 157.90 83.80 42.40 190.20
85 Md.Feroz Ahmed 176.30 86.80 46.30 202.20
86 Kamrulzzaman 172.60 87.10 46.70 207.30
87 Ali haider 169.80 87.40 43.00 200.50
88 Md .Liton ali 156.90 80.40 42.30 190.20
89 Md.Tariqul Islam 169.00 90.20 43.90 208.80
90 Aminul Islam 171.70 94.10 45.70 210.10
91 Md.Robiul Islam 164.40 86.70 43.60 204.10
92 Md.Rasal 171.20 83.80 45.00 204.90
93 Karim Ahmed 166.20 87.30 45.00 201.50
94 Salim Reza 173.30 93.40 44.20 201.20
95 Faruk Hossain 162.50 85.60 42.80 198.80
96 Abu Taher 162.20 83.90 41.80 199.20
97 Atiar Rahman 167.00 89.20 42.70 200.00
98 Shahin Alam 176.80 91.00 45.20 213.10
99 Nazmul Islam Nahid 169.80 86.10 45.80 204.20
100 H.M.Kamal 170.00 83.80 45.60 203.10
101 Ram Prosad Halder 165.60 86.30 45.10 196.20
102 Md. Nuruzzaman 165.00 92.10 45.10 205.50
103 Md. Asadujjaman 162.60 84.30 42.00 202.20