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Karnataka J.Agric.Sci.,18 (3):(811-813) 2005


Chilli, a spice crop grown as sole crop
as well as inter crop throughout the Karnataka
and India. Proper crop stand establishment and
efficient productivity, seed germination and
seedling vigour are the basic requirement. The
di ffi cul ty i n obtai ni ng (Mehata and
Ramakrishnana, 1988; Schultheis and Cantuliffe,
1988) proper emergence in chilli crop under field
conditions has been reported. Fruit maturity at
the time of seed extraction is an important factor
that affects chilli seed germination and quality.
Cavero et al. (1995) observed that seeds from
fully ripe fruits had greater germination rates than
those obtained from half ripe or orange coloured
fruits. Post harvest ripening could be interesting
in augmenting seed quality when fruits were not
harvested at fully ripe stage (Quagliotti et al.,
1981).
Therefore, the present study was under
taken to know the effect of fruit maturity on seed
quality in chilli cv. Byadgi dabbi and also to know
improvement by post harvest ripening of the fruits
picked at different stages.
The experiment was conducted at ARS,
Hanumanamtti, Karnataka during kharif 1999.
Fruits (about 20kg) were picked for each ripening
stage (turning to red, half red and fully red-Ripe).
Fruits from each maturity stage were divided into
two lots. In one lot the seed from the fruits were
immediately extracted. Fruits in the second lot
were allowed to ripe at ambient temperature (15
days after picking). The control (over-ripe)
consisted for seeds from fruits picked at fully ripe
(red) consisted of seeds from fruits picked at fully
ripe (red) stage and allowed to over ripe of a month.
Seeds from the fruits were extracted by
manually and were dried in shade followed by
mechanical drying (25
0
C, 35% RH) and then
Influence of Fruit Maturity and Post Harvest Ripening on
Seed Quality of Chilli
stored in moisture impervious enveloped in a low
temperature storage chamber (15
0
C, 30 % RH)
until germination was evaluated.
The germination was studied as per
recommended methods (Anon., 1996) in two
temperature (13
0
C and 25
0
C) usi ng
environmentally controlled cabinet. Seeds treated
with captan @ 2g kg were placed in petridishes
over two sheets of filter paper moistened with
distilled water. Germinated seeds were counted
daily and final counting was taken after 14 days.
Four replications of 100 seeds each were used
for each treatment field emergence were recorded
in the field by sowing seeds on the raised beds
as per standard procedure. Seedling fresh weight
dry weight root length and shoot length were
recorded for 10 seedlings per replicate at 25
0
C.
Vigour index was computed following the method
suggested by Abdul-Baki and Anderson (1973)
as vigour index I= (Seedling shoot+ root length in
cm) x per centage of germination and vigour index
II= seedling dry wt. x percentage of germination.
The seeds from full red -ripe showed
higher germination than those extracted from
turning to red and half red fruits (Table 1). Cavero
et al. (1995) concluded that seeds from half-ripe
fruits had a poor germination than those from fully
ripe fruits.
Seeds taken from turning to red and half-
red stage showed lower field emergence, seedling
fresh weight and vigour index than those fully red
ripe fruits. Krishnamurthy (1995) reported higher
laboratory germination, field emergence, shoot
length, root length and vigour index when chilli
fruits were harvested after obtaining 100% red
color than those harvested earlier. Seed quality
in capsicum depended on the extent of fruit
maturity and reddening of fruit (Lysenko and
812
Butkevich, 1980). In general, the laboratory
germination improved by 6% at 13
0
C as compared
to 25
0
C and related more closely to the per cent
field emergence.
The ripening process of the fruits picked
at half red stage improved seed germination by
30% at 13
0
C. This improvement in germination is
in agreement with the result of Quagliotti et al.
(1981). The seedling fresh weight and vigour index
were also improved with post harvest ripening of
half-red fruits in chilli cv. Byadgi dabbi field
emerence of seeds extracted from half red fruits
can be improved by 22% with 15 days post harvest
ripening. There fore, it could be concluded that
the germination, vigour and field emergence of
seeds from fruits that are picked at half red stage
improves only if the post harvest ripening of seed
occurs within the berry. Sanchez et al. (1993)
indicated that when seeds were allowed to remain
within fruits for 14 days post harvest maturation,
the germination percentage were significantly
increased. Under tropical condition, chilli seed
extracted from fruits picked at full red ripe stage
and allowed 15 days post harvest ripening had
better germination (both in 13
0
C and 25
0
C), field
emergence and seedling vigour than over ripe
control. In case by error, if fruits are picked at
half red stage, a 15 day post harvest ripening
within the berry is required for improving seed
germination and quality.
Table 1. Effect of different stages of fruit maturity and post harvest ripening on chilli seed germination,
field emergence and vigour
Treatments Germination % Field Seedling Vigour Vigour
13
0
C 25
0
C emergence fresh (mg) Index I Index II
Maturity stages
Turning to red 17e 13d 20.00c 19.8d 92.1c 20.6e
Half red 64c 48b 61.5b 21.5c 262.1b 63.9d
Full red ripe 94ab 96a 84.0a 22.5bc 622.7a 166.2c
Post harvest ripening
Turning to red 31d 26c 22.0c 21.1cd 135.8c 45.2e
Half red 94ba 92a 83.5a 25.2a 584.4a 227.9ab
Full red ripe 97a 97a 84.0a 23.8ab 615.7a 240.0a
Over ripe (control) 90b 92a 82.5a 21.8c 567.5a 198.2bc
L.S.D (p= 0.05) 5.6 6.1 5.2 1.5 52.8 39.7
Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different
Separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 18 (3), 2005
813
Agricultural Research Station R.B. JOLLI
Hanumanamatti - 581 135 S.D. EKBOTE
(Received : January, 2004)
References
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Influence of Fruit Maturity .. .. . . . . . .. . .