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Josu Gavilanes

Machining Process
7/02/2011
Homework Assignment 4
1. Name three modes of tool failure in machining
Fracture Failure
Temperature Failure
Gradual wear

2. Identify the mechanisms by which cutting tools wear during machining.
Abrasion
Adhesion
Diffusion
Chemical reactions
Plastic deformation

3. In addition to cutting speed, what other cutting variables are included in the expanded
version of the Taylor tool life equation?
Feed
Depth of cut
Work material hardness

4. What are the principal alloying ingredients in high-speed steel?
Tungsten-type
Molybdenum-type
Carbon
Vanadium
Chromium
5. Name the seven elements of tool geometry for a single-point cutting tool.
Back and rake angle
Side rake angle
End relief angle
Side relief angle
End cutting edge angle
Side cutting edge angle
Nose radius

6. Why are ceramic cutting tools generally designed with negative rake angles?
Because this kind of material has higher hardness and lower toughness than HSS, also, their
shear and tensile strengths are low relative to their compressive strengths, and their properties
cannot be manipulated trough heat treatment like those of HSS.
7. Steel-cutting grades of cemented carbides are typically characterized by which
ingredients?
Steel-cutting grades contain TiC and TaC plus WC-Co.

8. If you had to select a cemented carbide for an application involving finish turning of
steel, which C-grade would you select?
C7 or C8, because the ANSIC-grade classification system for cemented carbides sets that for a
process where the work material is steel, and we need a good finishing we need use this kind of
cemented carbides.
9. Which cutting condition has the greatest effect on tool wear?
The cutting speed.

10. Which geometry of cemented carbide inserts generates greater power and temperature
during a machining process?
Round inserts.
























1) Flank wear data were collected in a series of turning tests using a coated carbide tool on
hardened alloy steel at a feed of 0.30 mm/rev and a depth of 4.0 mm. At a speed of 125
m/min, flank wear = 0.12 mm at 1 min, 0.27 mm at 5 min, 0.45 mm at 11 min, 0.58 mm
at 15 min, 0.73 mm at 20 min, and 0.97 mm at 25 min. At a speed of 165 m/min, flank
wear = 0.22 mm at 1 min, 0.47 mm at 5 min, 0.70 mm at 9 min, 0.80 mm at 11 min, and
0.99 mm at 13 min. The last value in each case is when final tool failure occurred.
Answer the following questions.
Plot flank wear as a function of time using MATLAB with straight scale and
coordinates, for each of the two speeds of the turning tests. Using 0.75 mm of flank
wear as the criterion of tool failure, determine the tool lives for the two cutting speeds.
b. Plot the data obtained from Part (a) in a log-log scale using MATLAB. From the log-
log plot, determine the values of n and C of the Taylor Tool Life equation.
c. As a comparison, calculate the values of n and C in the Taylor equation by solving
simultaneous equations. Are the resulting n and C values the same?




















2) Experiments were conducted to find the parameters of the Taylors tool life equation. It
was recorded that when the speeds of machining are 235m/min and 125m/min, the
tool lasted for 52 min and 115 min, respectively, before the failure due to the flank wear.
What is the Taylor tool life equation?

























3) The Taylors equation is often used when considering tool life. The data obtained from
a series of five experiments with different machining speeds and tool lives of a tool are
tabulated in the following:



Write a program (e.g., in MATLAB) to implement the least-squares fit algorithm to obtain the
coefficient and exponent of the Taylors tool life equation for the tool considered here. Do both
un-weighted and weighted LS best fit. (cf. handout)
b. Discuss the differences between the results of the un-weighted and weighted LS best fit.
c. Plot the resulting Taylors equation in a log-log plot with the data points clearly labeled.
d. What most likely is the tool made of?
e. Based on your results, estimate the tool life for a turning operation with spindle speed of N =
500 rpm working on a stock material with a diameter of D = 0.08m?

Program:
%Para una matriz de nxn
n = input('Cantidad de filas de
A:');
m = input('Cantidad de columnas de
A:');
k = input('Cantidad de filas de
Y:');
l = input('Cantidad de columnas de
Y:');
o = input('Cantidad de filas de
W:');
q = input('Cantidad de columnas de
W:');
A = zeros(n, m);
for i = 1:n
for j = 1:m
A(i,j) = input('Elemento de
A (i,j):');
end
end
Y = zeros(k, l);
for i = 1:k
for j = 1:l
Y(i,j) = input('Elemento de
Y (i,j):');
end
end
W = zeros(o, q);
for i = 1:o
for j = 1:q
W(i,j) = input('Elemento de
W (i,j):');
end
end
disp(A);
disp(Y);
disp(W)
Z=W*A
D=((inv(Z'*Z))*Z')
R=W*Y
X=D*R































4) The outside diameter of a roll for a steel rolling mill is to be turned. In the final pass, the
starting diameter = 35.28 in and the length = 52.0 in. The cutting conditions will be: feed
= 0.0138 in/rev, and depth of cut = 0.235 in. A cemented carbide cutting tool is to be
used and the parameters of the Taylor tool life equation for this setup are: n = 0.25 and
C = 1300. Units for the Taylor equation are min for tool life and ft/min for cutting
speed. It is desirable to operate at a cutting speed so that the tool will not need to be
changed during the cut. Determine the cutting speed which will make the tool life equal
to the time required to complete the turning operation.
























5) A turning operation is performed on a steel shaft with diameter = 6.7 in and length = 32
in. A slot or keyway has been milled along its entire length. The turning operation
reduces the shaft diameter. For each of the following tool materials, indicate whether it
is a reasonable candidate to use in the operation (a) plain carbon steel, (b) high-speed
steel, (c) cemented carbide, (d) ceramic, and (e) sintered polycrystalline diamond. For
each material that is not a good candidate, give the reason why it is not.