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Verb Forms

There are up to 5 forms for each verb: base, third-person singular, present participle, past, and past
participle.
Root
The root form of the verb is the absolute base form; from here, the verb cant get any smaller. There are
no endings, and nothing in front of it. The root form is usually the easiest form to figure out: its the
infinitive form with to removed:
To see: see
To be: be
To wear: wear
To go: go
The root form is used to create most other forms of verbs.
I am going to school.
What did you do yesterday
The girl showed her mother the picture she did in school.
!e had eaten three hamburgers.
Third person singular
The third person singular "he#she#it#one$ is the one which tends to be different from other con%ugations.
The regular verbs end in &s "or possibly &es$.
!e sees
'he watches
It thin(s
)ne does
The main irregular verb to be concerned with for this form is the verb to be.
I am, you are, he is, she is, it is, we are, you are, they are.
Present participle
The present participle is the root word * &ing. Its used in the past, present, and future progressive
tenses.
+ome: coming, ,raw: drawing, Wash: washing, 'wear: swearing
What are we doing today
-ndrew is meeting with the professor after class.
Theyve been living in +olumbia for three years.
.e/t month, the company will be merging with their former competitor.
Past and Past participle
- past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the 'ed' form as it is formed
by adding d or ed, to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for
irregular verbs. It can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.
For example:-
I have learnt English. (Learnt is part of the verb phrase 'have learnt')
It can be used to form the passive voice.
For example:-
er hair !as !ell brushed.
It can also be used as an ad%ective.
For example:-
"s an ad#ective: e had a broken arm. (Broken is used here as an ad#ective.$
The past and past participle for regular verbs is the root word * &ed. Its only used with the past tenses.
0oo(: loo(ed, Touch: touched, +lean: cleaned, +oo(: coo(ed
We shopped for hours on 'aturday afternoon.
The boo(s were stac(ed on the shelf.
!e had played computer games for the whole wee(end.
Irregular verbs: The past participle can be difficult to determine for some irregular verbs. Its best to
loo( these ones up in a dictionary if youre at all unsure of the past participle. !ere is a list of irregular
verbs:
I had forgiven him for his un(ind words.
We made paper flowers to decorate the walls.
'imon had lit candles all around the room.