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Democratic reform of police any

lessons for Kenya from South Africa?

David Bruce, Centre for the Study of Violence and
Reconciliation, Johannesur!

April #$$%
"& 'ntroduction
a) This paper attempts to put forward some lessons for democratic reform
of the police in Kenya. While the paper draws on international literature
on the subject it is grounded in the South African experience following
the election of South Africas first democratic goernment in April !""#.
#& Key elements of police reform in South Africa
a) $n South Africa the new police serice was created out of !! police
serices established in terms of apartheid policy
and this re&uired that
&uestions of integration and reorganising command structures and
personnel be gien priority. 'ther (ey aspects of the reform process
i) Addressing issues to do with the demographic representiity of the
police serice in terms of representation of different population
groups as well as of men and women*
ii) The introduction of a new system of labour relations*
iii) $mproing accountability and the regulation of police conduct
including proision for parliamentary oersight+ the creation of
national and proincial secretariats+ and the creation of an ciilian
oersight agency+ the $ndependent ,omplains -irectorate*
i) Addressing community hostility to police through the creation of
community policing forums and the adoption of community policing
as the operational philosophy of the South African .olice Serice*
) ,hanging police symbols such as the ran( system+ uniforms+
insignia and the colour of police ehicles*
i) $mproing access to police serices particularly in communities that
had preiously been discriminated against under apartheid.
ii) 'ther measures included) the introduction of a new selection
system* the reision of the basic training curriculum* introduction of
a human rights training programme* introduction of a code of
conduct* deelopment and introduction of an anti/torture policy* the
Note of acknowledgement: The paper draws on the insights of many people, some of their names
reflected in the papers listed in the short bibliography at the end. Special thanks also to Antony
Altbeker and Gareth Newham who have provided valuable insights at various points and also provided
comments on an earlier draft.

!oughly "#$ %about 11 ###& of the police incorporated in the new police service were from the
South African 'olice while the remainder %roughly ( ###& were from 1# homeland police services
%!auch, 1((", appendi)&.
reorganisation and retraining of public order police* introduction of
new weaponry.
%& Democratic reform
a) -emocratic reform is essentially the deelopment and implementation
of reform measures which support the creation of a police serice
which 0i) is orientated towards meeting the needs of ciilians and
institutions in a democratic society for policing serices of a high
standard* and 0ii) is guided by principles of accountability+ integrity+
respect for human rights+ non/discrimination+ impartiality+ fairness and
b) Key to the process of democratic reform is to focus the police on
understanding the needs of the general public in terms of the proision
of policing serices+ and motiating and supporting police in meeting
these needs. This focus is different from that under an authoritarian
system where police are compromised by political interference and by
the expectation that they will sere certain sectional interests.
-emocratic reform therefore inoles freeing the police from politics
and supporting them in becoming responsie to the broad needs of the
c) -emocratic reform re&uires not only that police conform to new norms
but also that they learn new ways of doing their wor(. $t is absolutely
essential that reforms which support adherence to human rights are
integrated with measures to assist police to learn the s(ills which will
enable them to do their wor( effectiely within the constraints imposed
by human rights standards. $f this is not done the police will reert to
their old way or they will simply become de/motiated and ineffectual.
(& )he dan!er of an over*amitious reform a!enda
a) 'ne of the biggest dangers is that oerseas models will simply be used
as a template for reform. The difficulty with this is that it ta(es no
account of the current economic and social realities of the country and
police agency in &uestion.
b) 1eform measures therefore need to be based on an assessment of 0i)
the current status+ performance and capacity of the police serice and
of other bodies which perform a policing role* 0ii) the potential of
personnel within the agency to change and improe their practise* 0iii)
the aailable capacity in the police and more broadly to support the
process of change 0i) other social or political factors which are
c) A reform programme should be deeloped with an understanding of the
possibilities and constraints imposed by the aboe factors and should
incorporate both 0i) short term measures which will build confidence

amongst the police and public* and 0ii) more systemic longer term
measures aimed at oerall reform of the policing system.
+& Depoliticisin! the police service
a) .olice leadership must commit themseles to the principles that police
will support democracy whilst remaining outside of+ and not interfering
with+ politics.
b) Support for democracy incorporates) 0i) Supporting and protecting
rights to freedom of speech+ thought and assembly and to peaceful
protest* 0ii) full accountability to goernment and to the people ia
representatie and other structures* 0iii) the use of police powers
against political groups only when there is eidence that they are
inoled in iolence+ or conspiracies to commit acts of iolence+ and
subject to reiew of police actions by an independent judiciary.
c) 2oernments primary control oer the police should be the law. $t
should also hae the authority to re&uire conformity by the police to
specific publicly announced policies arried at through a process of

d) 'ther than in ways outlined in the preious two paragraphs the police
need to be protected from political interference and from being used to
sere party political interests+ and should be forbidden from prejudicing
legitimate political party interests+ or furthering such interests+ in the
performance of their duties+ and from holding office in political
e) The chief of police should hae operational command of the police. $n
return for their relatie autonomy the police must obsere a high leel
of accountability.
f) 3oth police leadership and senior politicians must support the need for
depoliticising the police serice.
g) A joint parliamentary committee should hae oersight oer all
intelligence and undercoer actiity to ensure that this is not used for
partisan political purposes.
h) The constitution and legislation should support freedom of assembly
and association. A (ey tas( of the police 0public order policing function)
should be that of supporting the holding of peaceful demonstrations.
,& -.uity and /on*discrimination
a) $n so far as the police are not representaties of the broad public+ this
will undermine their chances of establishing legitimacy+ and public trust+
and may affect their ability to act in an impartial manner. -ealing with
the composition of the police serice is therefore important+ in terms of
a commitment to the principle of non/discrimination+ on a symbolic
leel+ and in ensuring the deelopment of an ethos of professionalism.
b) 4uestions of e&uity and non/discrimination need to be addressed both
in relation to the legacy of discrimination against racial5ethnic groups
and gender discrimination and the legacy of discrimination needs to be
addressed both 0a) internally+ in terms of employment and promotion
practises and 0b) externally by means of ensuring that police serices
are proided in a manner which is e&uitable and non/discriminatory.
c) $f the police serice has historically discriminated in faour of certain
groups+ it will not be possible to find short term solutions to imbalances+
especially amongst the higher ran(s of the serice.
d) ,orrectie measures should include a combination of 0i) a firm
commitment to non/discrimination in employment and promotion
practices* 0ii) deelopmental support to selected police officers from
groups preiously discriminated against to enhance their prospects for
e) There should be oersight of employment and promotion practise by a
non/partisan multi/party committee.
0& 1ersonnel
a) There are essentially two options in terms of personnel. 6ither to retain
personnel or to recruit new personnel.
b) 1elying on old personnel has the conse&uence that the potential for
reform is limited by the capacity of these personnel to learn and apply
new lessons. $t is also li(ely that some of these personnel will resist
change and continue to adhere to old norms and standards.
c) $f there is a long history of corruption+ the retention of old personnel will
carry the ris( that corruption permeates all leels of the organisation.
d) 1elying on new personnel has the conse&uence that at the point where
the reform process is initiated the police serice is constituted by
inexperienced personnel*
e) Some (ind of combination of these two approaches is needed.
.referably this should at least incorporate 0i) 1eselection or etting so
that those strongly implicated in corruption and brutality+ and those
incapable of performing police duties+ are excluded+ and 0ii) A
systematic approach to new recruitment based on deelopment of the
training system.
2& Development of the trainin! system
a) A more deelopmental approach aimed at ensuring the &uality of newly
recruited personnel is to deelop and strengthen the 0i) recruitment and
0ii) basic training system.
b) The objectie should be)
i) To deelop a basic training system which has the capacity to
proide good &uality training to a modest number of carefully
selected new recruits on an annual basis. The objectie should be
to impact on the composition of the police serice oer roughly a
decade rather than to change the composition of the police serice
ii) $n addition the training system should support the emergence of
suitably s(illed managers and superisors in terms of a similar
deelopmental approach.
iii) The capacity of the training system also needs to be enhanced in
order for it to proide in serice training to existing members of the
serice regarding the performance of police duties.
3& 4uman Ri!hts

a) 7nless the introduction of a human rights framewor( is directly
integrated with measures to support police in improing performance of
their duties while obsering human rights standards+ human rights will
largely be seen as impeding the police.
b) 1ather than proiding training in the theory of human rights the best
way to improe the capacity of the police to do their wor( in terms of a
human rights framewor( is to 0i) support them in learning how basic
policing is carried out in a manner consistent with human rights+ and 0ii)
hold managers and superisors accountable for ensuring that they are
doing this.
c) Key components of the support which should be proided to them
should include)
i) Training around the basic responsibilities of 0i) charge office and
custodial personnel* 0ii) patrol personnel* 0iii) detecties* and 0i)
public order police+ in policing in a democratic system.
ii) .romoting learning and personal growth amongst police in
interpersonal s(ills and communication along with the practical
(nowledge on community policing+ good practise in wor(ing with
witnesses+ ictim sensitiity+ statement ta(ing and the dynamics of
interpersonal conflict*
iii) Support around the exercise of police authority and the use of force
which promotes learning and improing practise in this regard 0this
includes addressing &uestions of police safety)*
"$& )he ran5 structure and system
a) The ran( structure is potentially one of the biggest long term obstacles
to establishing an effectie police serice. .erhaps the most aluable
reform measure that could be introduced in terms of the potential to
deelop a police system which operates effectiely is to create a
system where ran( is related purely to the function which one performs
in the organisation.
b) This means that improements in conditions of serice related to good
performance and length of serice need to be separated from
promotions in terms of the ran( structure.
c) 7nless this happens the police reform process will become paralysed
and trapped as a result of confusion and conflict oer lines of authority
and responsibility+ and managers and superisors will be unable to
assert their authority.
d) This will also enable police who enjoy policing wor( to continue to wor(
in the field rather than being forced to become managers if they wish to
improe their remuneration.
""& Development of the mana!ement and supervisory levels
a) 3eing able to proide training+ support and assistance to managers and
superisors depends partly on whether one is able to clearly identify
people who are performing managerial and superisory roles. The
types of training and support which can potentially be of most benefit to
them include)
i) $n the case of managers 8 basic organisational s(ills including the
productie use of management meetings* improing the &uality and
use of crime information to improe police strategies* community
relations and community policing* proactie management to
improe police integrity+ conduct and performance.
ii) $n the case of superisors 8 basic superisory s(ills in policing*
proactie discipline management.
"#& )he disciplinary system
a) 'ne of the conse&uences of reform is often that changes need to be
made to the disciplinary system to bring this in line with other reforms
in the labour field.
b) 9oweer these reforms hae the potential to drag out oer an extended
period of time particularly if a series of changes are made to the
disciplinary framewor(.
c) As a conse&uence one of the side/effects of reform may be a collapse
in discipline 0een in a context where the existing disciplinary system
leaes a lot to be desired) manifested in a further proliferation of
d) The framewor( for the disciplinary system should be consolidated early
on in the reform process in order to minimise this effect.
e) 6en if this is achieed howeer a lot of wor( will still need to be done
to empower police managers and superisors to implement discipline+
and to hold them accountable for this.
"%& Accountaility and transparency
a) Accountability needs to address issues both of 0i) police performance*
and 0ii) police conduct and adherence to human rights standards.
b) 6nhancing accountability includes 0i) improing the capacity of
goernment institutions to hold police accountable* 0ii) improing the
capacity of the police to collect and analyse information* 0iii)
establishing an oersight body to ensure that possible or alleged
wrongdoing by police is inestigated effectiely and 0i) supporting the
deelopment of research capacity and research access in relation to
the actiities of the police.
c) 2oernmental structures may find it difficult to hold the police
accountable. This is partly because of 0i) the difficulty and complexity in
ealuating the performance of the police and the tendency to focus on
recorded crime as a way of ealuating this 0ii) the goernmental culture
in which officials and members of parliament are often unwilling to as(
probing &uestions or be critical of goernment departments.
d) $n addition to these factors a major obstacle to this is the absence of
internal accountability in police organisations. .olice managers often
do not (now what police are doing and their ability to collect and
analyse information about the police is often ery poor.
e) .oliticians may also be reluctant to hold the police accountable in
relation to human rights standards+ as they may be afraid of losing
public support. .olice leaders therefore need to commit themseles to
human rights standards irrespectie of whether there is pressure from
politicians for them to adhere to these standards or not.
f) 9oweer despite the difficulties of ealuating their performance it is
imperatie that the police be re&uired to open themseles to scrutiny by
other structures of goernment+ including parliamentary structures and
the courts.
g) Key issues for scrutiny also need to include 0i) intelligence and
undercoer actiities and 0ii) employment and promotion practises.
"(& )he la6 and professional standards
a) Accountability to the law means that the police enforce the law e&ually
in terms of a uniform set of standards rather than being directed by the
whims of politicians+ or ethnic or other biases. $t also means that they
can be held accountable if they iolate the law.
b) While the idea of accountability to the law is important in relation to the
need for police to treat people e&ually+ the law is something of blunt
instrument. Seeral legal concepts such as the concept of :reasonable
suspicion which are directly releant to the wor( of the police+ are
difficult to define and to hold the police accountable to. $n addition the
the exercise of police discretion is necessary for effectie policing and
cannot be regulated by law.
c) The standards set by the law are in some ways &uite low. .rofessions
such as the medical or teaching profession set their own standards on
the basis of ideas of professional conduct. -eeloping a policing
system based on pride and respect for what the police stand for+
re&uires deeloping a set of professional standards which represent
good practise on the part of the police+ and in terms of which the law
merely represents the minimum standards which police must adhere
"+& 7versi!ht mechanisms
a) While politicians may struggle to be effectie in holding the police
accountable+ the creation of an oersight agency can considerably
strengthen the reform process and gie teeth to efforts to hold police
accountable to new standards.
b) The primary job of the oersight agency is 0i) to promote improements
in internal systems of control 0ii) to ensure that steps are ta(en if the
internal systems are not doing their wor(+ and 0iii) to motiate police to
ensure that this is done. This is not only for pragmatic reasons
0particularly in a deeloping country it is unrealistic to expect that there
will be massie resources aailable to finance ciilian oersight) but
primarily for reasons to do with effectie management of the police
0managers cannot manage an organisation effectiely if the systems of
internal control are ta(en out of their hands).
c) The oersight agency will howeer only be able to fulfil its role
effectiely if it has strong inestigatie+ monitoring and audit powers
and capacity as well as proper resourcing. Without ade&uate powers
and capacity the oersight agency will be unable to properly scrutinise
police or promote their accountability. 9oweer the reason for proiding
it with these powers is so that it can interene if the police are not
willing to exercise proper internal control. The purpose is not to ta(e
oer responsibility for the internal control functions which includes
receiing complaints+ inestigation+ and discipline.
d) The oersight agency should therefore hae the legal authority to
interene and ta(e oer internal inestigations. $f it has this power this
will sere to motiate police to improe internal systems.
e) ,reation of strong oersight therefore needs to be accompanied by
efforts to create5strengthen internal systems of control within the police
i) While the oersight agency should inite members of the public to
lodge complaints with it+ it should simultaneously ensure that the
police improe their own complaints reception facilities.
ii) $n addition the police should deelop a strong internal inestigatie
diision. $t is imperatie that high standards be applied in selecting
the membership and leadership of this diision. $ts inestigations
must be subject to scrutiny by the oersight agency.
iii) 1egarding the disciplinary system see also section !% aboe.
f) The oersight agency should hae the authority to designate
categories 0e.g. shootings where people are (illed or injured+ deaths in
custody+ deaths as a result of police action+ allegations of torture or
other assaults) in terms of which prompt reporting by the police to the
oersight agency is mandatory. 3reach of mandatory reporting
re&uirements should be a disciplinary offence.
g) The police agency must also report to the oersight agency on a
regular basis regarding the wor( of the internal inestigatie and
disciplinary systems.
h) $ssues to do with the location of the oersight agency should be dealt
with in the process of constitutional and legislatie reform. .roision
should be made for the oersight agency to be autonomous relatie to
the police.
",& )he need for a research capacity
a) ;or goernmental structures to be able to hold police accountable in a
meaningful way and to engage effectiely in &uestions of policy relating
to the police they will need to be supported by a policy research
capacity. This may be located in goernment but researchers from
uniersities and ciil society can also assist goernment in holding the
police accountable.
b) The tendency of police+ and een goernment+ may be to restrict
research access. 2oernment and the police should rather find ways of
interacting with researchers so that the relationship is mutually
beneficial and the access of researchers to the police is enhanced.
c) The oersight agency may be well positioned to ma(e policy
recommendations. 9oweer in order to do so it will also need to
deelop a research capacity.
d) $n addressing the structure of systems of accountability and oersight
attention should also be gien to &uestions of the location and
deelopment of a policy and research capacity.
"0& Corruption
a) While there are a range of abuses associated with the police the most
important abuses which need to be monitored and tac(led are police
corruption and brutality*
b) .olice corruption ta(es a wide ariety of forms and is particularly
difficult to monitor because it is often :consensual. ;urthermore when
extorting money from people+ the police tend to focus on marginal
people who hae no influence in society. Statistics on reports of police
corruption are meaningless as an indicator of leels of corruption. $t is
therefore necessary to use research and intelligence gathering
techni&ues to expand understanding on the nature and occurrence of
c) While improing internal and external systems of inestigation and
discipline are important to tac(ling corruption+ these need to be
complemented by other measures including 0i) proactie alues
management within the police* and 0ii) promoting attitudes and
practises amongst community members which support police integrity.
d) .roactie alues management incorporates 0i) consistently sending a
clear message to police about the standards of conduct which they
must adhere to+ and 0ii) supporting adherence to these standards
through management and superisory conduct and practise.
"2& Brutality and torture
a) While brutality often goes hand in hand with corruption+ police who are
not corrupt and are dedicated to their wor( are often also brutal 0i.e.
consciously and deliberately use unlawful iolence against suspects).
b) This partly reflects the problem that doing police wor( in a committed
and effectie manner within the framewor( set by human rights
standards and law re&uires high leels of s(ill+ and that many police are
ill/e&uipped to wor( in this (ind of way*
c) 3rutality is often also associated with the belief that the only way to get
the job done is through extra/legal means. The difficulty in the context
of a police serice emerging from an authoritarian past is that this type
of belief may perade not only the lower ran(s of the police but also the
management leels+ as well as influential sections of goernment.
d) There therefore needs to be a strong emphasis on supporting police in
deeloping s(ills and understanding which will enable police to brea(
from the habit of relying on brutality and torture. This can be
accomplished both through the training system and through an
approach from superisors and managers which encourages police to
learn from examples of good practise.
e) Support to police in improing their ability to use witness eidence+
which includes general improements in practise in wor(ing with
ictims and witnesses+ is important in enabling police to improe their
practise in crime inestigation and moe away from the use of torture.
f) 6nsuring that the legislatie framewor( proides ery clear definition as
to legitimate grounds for the use of lethal force for purposes of arrest is
integral to addressing a legacy of police iolence.
g) $n addition police leaders+ managers and superisors should ensure
that principles around the use of force are clearly communicated to
police members. ;or this purpose there may also be benefit in
deeloping an organisational statement of principles relating to the use
of force by the police.
"3& Respondin! to crime reports
a) The Western model of rapid response is not achieable in a deeloping
country context where there are major resource constraints.
b) $n addition rapid response does not achiee much in most cases
reported to the police. A rapid response capacity can be useful in a
ery small proportion of cases. 9oweer in order for these cases to be
identified the radio control room 0if there is one) needs to be able to
identify these cases.
c) 9oweer the police should aim for reliability in their response to crime.
This should incorporate 0i) identifying categories of crime where the
police will underta(e to report to crime scenes* 0ii) a radio room which
responds to crime calls promptly and courteously 0iii) proiding details
to callers as to the time which it will ta(e for the police to arrie at the
scene 0i) informing callers as to any steps which they should ta(e prior
to the arrial of the police.
#$& Community policin! and partnerships
a) ,ommunity liaison strategies can be one way of enabling community
members to feel that their concerns are being heard by the police.
.olice should see these both as a way of informing themseles about
community perceptions and concerns+ but also as a way of
communicating their concerns and perceptions to people+ and
addressing unrealistic expectations of the police.
b) 1e&uiring that the police set up a community consultation forum can be
one way of bridging gaps between the police and community members.
9oweer these can easily become static and bureaucratic structures
which do little to promote communication between police and
community members. .olice should therefore find different ways of
communicating with community members such as targeted meetings
with identified groups in the community+ and encouraging police officers
to establish contact and rapport with community members in areas
where they are deployed.
c) ;ocusing on relationships with the community is important+ and if
handled in the right way+ can yield benefits in terms of improed public
cooperation with the police. 9oweer improements in public attitudes
and cooperation will also depend on broader improements in the
&uality of serice proided by the police.
d) $mproing standards in dealing with complainants5ictims and
witnesses are also part of improing community relations+ and will
complement other community orientated measures.
e) 1eaching out to the community can proide the building bloc(s for
partnerships which can proide support and assistance for the police.
9oweer there is a ris( that these relationships may also become
relationships of patronage so there must also be clarity about the
ethical parameters of these relationships.
#"& Reserve policin!
a) ,ommunity policing and partnerships with the community should not be
confused with the inolement of community members in policing
actiities as a resere police.
b) 1esere policing may appear to be a cost effectie way of expanding
the numbers of police. 9oweer unless there is full deelopment of
management and superisory systems in the police+ the police will not
be able to exert proper authority and control oer resere structures.
##& )he police and crime prevention
a) -uring the reform process there may be pressure for the police to ta(e
on a more :crime preention orientated role*
b) The main way in which the police can preent crime is through targeted
operations based on good &uality information about the nature of the
crime problem. These operations will usually also inole a law
enforcement dimension*
c) The police role in and responsibility for crime preention should not be
confused with the broader need for :social crime preention measures+
such as programmes for youth+ which are best implemented through
agencies other than the police.
#%& )he le!itimacy of the reform process
a) The police reform process will &uic(ly loose legitimacy unless it
incorporates measures which will improe police morale+ and public
confidence in the police+ in the short term.
b) $mproing police morale will re&uire some attention to the conditions of
serice of police. 9oweer improements in conditions of serice need
to be lin(ed to improement in serice to the community.
c) $mproements in public respect and attitudes+ lin(ed to improements
in the serice proided to the public+ will also contribute to improing
police morale.
d) An initial modest framewor( for improing police serice to the
community is through)
i) -eeloping+ publicising and putting into action a realistic framewor(
for the responsibilities of 0i) charge office and custodial personnel*
0ii) patrol personnel* 0iii) detecties* and 0i) public order police.
ii) Teaching police to behae in a manner which is respectful of
peoples dignity 8 this applies to the public generally+ including
crime suspects+ but particular emphasis should be gien to ensuring
that police engage with ictims and witnesses in a respectful
iii) When police are called or approached by members of the public 8
they should proide clear information to people about whether and
how the police can assist them*
i) $mproing police capacity to respond to crime reports and to ta(e
the basic appropriate steps at the locations which they are called to*
) 6nsuring that police ta(e forms of iolence against the person+
including iolence against women+ seriously 0see also < 0=e)
i) Targeted and isible anti/crime operations.
e) ;orms of support to the police which focus on addressing the stresses
which they are exposed to in their wor(+ as well as the stresses
resulting from the process of reform and change+ can also be of alue.
#(& 8easurin! police performance
a) Seeral factors including 0i) improed public confidence in the police
and greater reporting of crime+ 0ii) possible increases in crime+ and 0iii)
improed police practise in recording crime+ hae the potential to
contribute to increased leels of recorded crime.
b) $f the main way in which the performance of the police is ealuated is in
relation to reducing crime+ increases in recorded crime will therefore
create the impression that police reform is failing.
c) ,riticism of the police which is focused on recorded crime will also
encourage police not to record crime.
d) Arrest leels are also in themseles not a good measure of police
performance. .ressure on the police to improe performance may
simply lead to an increased number of arbitrary or petty arrests if this is
one of the primary ways in which police performance is measured.
e) 1ather than recorded crime and oerall arrest leels it is therefore
imperatie that from the start other+ more meaningful+ measures of
police performance be emphasised 0see >eggett+ %??@).
#+& 1rioritisin! and tar!etin!
a) ,rime will tend to be concentrated in certain areas. $nitially it ma(es
sense to identify :high crime areas and focus on enhancing police
capacity to tac(le (ey crime problems in these areas*
b) 6ffectie targeting of anti/crime operations re&uires that the police
ma(e good use of information to identify crime problems which most
contribute to feelings of insecurity. $n order for police to do this they
need to improe their capacity to collect+ record and analyse crime
c) $f steps are being ta(en to improe the capacity of police to collect
crime information+ it may be worthwhile to motiate the public to report
crime. 9oweer this re&uires that) 0i) police and goernment leaders
are willing to engage with the public about what appear to be increases
in leels of crime* 0ii) the police create ways for people to report crime
which are :user friendly* 0iii) the police be willing to be honest with
community members about their ability to deal with cases and the
li(elihood of cases being :soled* 0i) community members be
motiated to report crime out of a sense of ciic duty and not only
where they thin( they will benefit in some way.
d) ,ommunity liaison strategies 0such as the use of consultatie forums)
are one way of enabling community members to feel that their
concerns are being heard by police. 9oweer the police need to ma(e
use of a broader range of sources of information in order to generate
good &uality information about crime.
e) While police need to improe their serices in dealing with iolence
against women initially this can only be done through ensuring that
ictims are treated in a respectful manner and by responding promptly
to reports. $mproing the ability of police to tac(le the problems of
domestic iolence and rape in a more rigorous manner can only be
underta(en as part of a long term programme to improe oerall
policing s(ills. ;urthermore these problems also need to be tac(led
through other social awareness programmes which fall outside of the
domain of the police+ and possibly through law reforms.
f) 'ther crime problems such as street robbery 0mugging)+ which
contribute significantly to feeling of insecurity+ are easier to tac(le in
terms of orthodox police strategies+ and may be worthwhile targets for
anti/crime operations early in the reform process.
#,& )he prosecutorial system, courts and diversion
a) 7nless reforms are also made aimed at improing the capacity of the
prosecutorial system and the courts+ as well as improing the capacity
of prisons and the use of forms of diersion 0particularly for young
offenders)+ improements in the functioning of the police may simply
lead to bottlenec(s in the system.
#0& Startin! ane6
a) -emocratic reform depends on a police leadership which is committed
to the reform process and on support from national political leadership.
b) ,reating a new police serice out of an old one is a difficult and lengthy
process. $t inoles ma(ing a commitment in good faith to change+
being willing to learn from successes and failures+ and being committed
to pursuing the reform process despite resistance and conflict.
c) ,hanges at the symbolic leel li(e the adoption of new uniforms+ or a
new name for the serice+ or een the use of new colouring on police
ehicles can be an important step in signifying a brea( with the past.
d) 6en if a certain amount of effort is made to cleanse the police serice
of personnel who are tarnished by extensie inolement in corruption
and brutality there will still be officers who are not completely :clean
who will be admitted to the new serice.
e) .olice and goernment leaders must be emphatic regarding the fact
that a new police serice is being established+ that the new serice will
place its emphasis on building public confidence and respect for the
police+ and that this re&uires that members obsere new standards of
conduct+ that they will be held accountable for this+ and must commit
themseles to upholding these new standards.
Select ilio!raphy
3ayley+ -.+ 0%??!) -emocratising the .olice Abroad) What to -o and 9ow to
-o it. Aational $nstitute of Bustice+ 'ffice of Bustice programmes. 7.S.
-epartment of Bustice) Washington -. ,.
,entre for the Study of Ciolence and 1econciliation. 0!"""). A New Day?
Controlling Police Violence and Corruption. $n Crime and Conflict+ Ao. !D+
Summer. E
Kloc(ars+ ,.3. 0!""F) A Theory of 6xcessie ;orce and $ts ,ontrol. $n 2eller+
W.A. G Toch+ 9. 06ds.) .olice Ciolence) 7nderstanding and ,ontrolling .olice
Abuse of ;orce. 0pp. !/%%) Aew 9aen) Hale 7niersity .ress.

>eggett+ T 0%??@) What do the police doI .erformance measurement and the
SA.S. $SS .aper FF. $nstitute for Security Studies.
Aeild+ 1 0%???) :-emocratic police reforms in war/torn societies. ,onflict+
Security and -eelopment. Col !+ Ao. !. pp. %! 8#@.
Aewham+ 2. 0%??%). Tac(ling .olice ,orruption in South Africa. -raft ,hapter
for Police Integrity and Transformation+ a forthcoming boo( from the ,entre
for the Study of Ciolence and 1econciliation+ Bune.
Atuli+ S. and 3ruce+ -. 0%??%) Witnesses in the ,riminal Bustice System 8 a
report on focus groups with detecties and prosecutors at Joro(a police
station and .rotea magistrates court in Soweto. ,entre for the Study of
Ciolence and 1econciliation.
1auch+ B. 0!""D) .olice 1eform and South Africas Transition. ,ase Study
written for the Aorthern $reland .rogramme at the Kennedy School of
2oernment+ 9arard 7niersity+ 7SA.

Sanders+ A and Houng+ 1 0%???).,riminal Bustice. %nd edition.
S(olnic(+ B. G ;yfe+ B. 0!""@) Aboe the >aw) .olice and the 6xcessie 7se of
;orce. Aew Hor() The ;ree .ress.
Syed+ T. and 3ruce+ -. 0!""D) K$nside and outside the boundaries of police
corruptionL in African Security 1eiew+ Col M Ao %.
Wal(er+ S 0%??!) .olice Accountability) The 1ole of ,itiNen 'ersight.
3elmont) Wadsworth.