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Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M.

. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning Analytics

Martin Ebner, Christoph Prettenthaler
Social Learning
Graz University of Technology
Graz, Austria,
Mohamed Hamada
The University of Aizu,
Fukushima, JAPAN

AbstractBuilding a cloud-based e-learning platform using the
approach of the research field of learning analytics is the
overall goal of this research study. With the strengths of a
cloud service it is possible to add value to the learning process
for all stakeholders. With such a solution, the process of
collecting, analyzing and interpreting data becomes rather
This research study aims to introduce a novel platform to
generate interactive e-books. In order to create digitalized
forms of exercise books for primary school children, additional
features have to be added to gain acceptance by such an idea.
The evolution of new e-book standards as EPUB in its version
3.0 makes it possible to generate those additional features.
The developments of the platform as well as each interactive
exercise, which can be done are described in detail. Finally the
weakness and the strength of the approach is discussed. The
study concluded that the approach offers huge potential for
tomorrows learning behaviors
Keywords learning analytics, cloud based, information
system, ebooks
The number of cloud-based services and appropriate
appliances are growing and the idea to grant users access to
hosted centralized data centers with thin clients is usable for
a great range of applications [1]. Between those different
types of applications, the cloud-based approach is of course
also interesting for the broad of technology enhanced
learning. As the relatively new research field of learning
analytics arises, the need for cloud services inevitable. Phil
Long and George Siemens stated [11] that the most
dramatic factor shaping the future of higher education is
something that we cant actually touch or see: big data and
analytics. The main purpose of learning analytics is to get a
better understanding of the learning process itself and to
increase the effectiveness of this process [2]. For example a
couple of research studies have been done at Graz University
of Technology with the idea to enhance learning math for
primary school children offering appropriated web-based
applications [5] [6] [7] [10].
Of course the main question addressed by Erik Duval [8]
is about what exactly should be measured to get a deeper
understanding of how learning takes place. Taraghi et al.
complemented this by indicating that an essential part of the
overall process is the intervention of the teachers in an
appropriate pedagogical manner [9].
A. Why cloud based services?
From a technical perspective the process applied by this
research study starts with the collection of data during the
learning process. In order to fulfill this, a centralized location
of data persistence is needed. This is the point, where a
cloud-based approach comes into action for the first time. A
cloud-based service offers the solution to this problem, as it
provides such a centralized data center needed to store the
necessary information, generated during the learning process.
The next steps when applying a learning analytics approach,
is to analyze and interpret this data [2]. This can be done
using the computational power a cloud-based solution has to
offer. The analyses and the interpretations do not need to be
executed on every client separately this is a task that should
be performed by servers in the cloud, which are designed to
do this. In order to make use of those interpreted results of
the analysis such a platform needs to distribute the
information to the involved stakeholders. This is the point
where another strength of a cloud-based solution can be
utilized, the usage of a thin client to interact with the system,
without the need for much computational power on the
client-side. A client can access the interpreted results using a
simple tool and can make use of this information to support
the future learning process of the students.
B. E-Books
The evolution of books from a paper-based form into a
digital version brings up the idea to digitalize exercise books
for students in order to access these e-Books with modern
solutions. But digitalizing an exercise book is not enough,
one has to add value to a digital exercise book in order to
receive acceptance of such a solution. With new e-book
formats evolving, new features are available and the
possibility of adding new values to electronic exercise books
can definitely influence the learning process of the future
[11]. Today, e-books are available in different formats, but
beside all other formats, the EPUB format stands out
( - last access 2014-03-10). Since the
release of the latest version of the free e-book standard
EPUB - EPUB 3, it is possible integrate a large range of
interactive features to e-books [12]. These new possibilities
can also be used to enhance digital exercise books and to
bring in the necessary value to obtain a greater acceptance of
Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
such a solution. New types of exercises can be implemented
which where not possible before, and which are also not
possible with the paper-based exercise book.
C. Research Question
The combination of the method and tools the research
area learning analytics has to offer together with a cloud-
based service as well as new features coming with the more
interactive e-book standard will bring a serious increase of
effectiveness of the learning process. Furthermore it can
help students, teachers and scientists to better understand
learning itself. With this consideration in mind, the research
question we like to deal within this publication is:
How has a prototype look like of a cloud-based system
creating interactive e-Books?
The system offers a cloud service, for creating and
managing exercises, which are then published as e-book. The
results of these created exercises are stored within the cloud
and are analyzed and interpreted for further investigation for
all stakeholders. This prototype is meant to be used by
students as well as teachers in order to use new technologies
to increase the effectiveness of learning. The prototype is
developed to assist students aged from 6 to 10 in primary
The resulting prototype uses a cloud-based approach as
mentioned in the introduction to increase the learning
process. The implementation basically consists of two
different parts: The web-based implementation of the server-
side and the implementation of the, locally executed,
different types of exercises. The prototype makes use of the
user management system of the learning apps of the
Technical University of Graz ( - last access
2014-03-20), which is used by different learning applications
developed at the Technical University of Graz [5]. This user
management system makes a distinction between two types
of users, teachers and students and also comprises students to
classes and refers these classes to the corresponding teachers.
This distinction and reference is necessary, in order to
provide a useful cloud-based service in an educational
A. General Implementation
The web-based part of the prototype was implemented
using PHP, in order to process user requests and generate the
necessary responses. It allows teachers to create, manage and
publish electronic exercise books and to examine the
students' results. The implementation makes use of the
Model-View-Controller design pattern to distinguish
between the presentation, the logic and the persistence of
The server-side implementation uses the user
management system of the learning apps of the Technical
University of Graz and is only usable when a user is created.
Afterwards this user is able to login with his/her credentials.
Otherwise the usage of the web interfaces is forbidden and
he/she is not able to view exercise results or manage e-books
in a case of a teachers role. The structure of the web-based
implementation is divided into different kinds of modules for
different purposes. The most important modules are the e-
book, exercises and the results module. The e-book and
exercises modules are necessary to create, manage and
publish an electronic exercise book and are only available to
teachers. It gives the teacher an overview of all of his/her
personal e-books, as well as the e-books shared by other
teachers. Finally he/she has the possibility to edit these and
also to create new ones. The prototype offers HTML based
forms to enter the necessary data.
The exercise module, which is also only available to
teachers, is used to create single exercises for a
corresponding e-book. At the moment there are seven
different exercise types implemented. Each of them requires
different data in order to create the corresponding exercise in
the e-book later. This means, there are also different input
forms, specially designed for the type of exercise. The
information, basically, consists of the exercise's meta-data,
like title and description and an arbitrary number of answers.
In order to make the electronic exercise book more
customizable, it is possible to change the order of exercises,
after their creation.
B. Exercise Module
The e-books are implemented using the new EPUB 3
standard. Through this standard it is possible to use HTML5,
JavaScript and CSS3 within the implementation of e-books.
This gives the developer the opportunity to make use of a lot
of different interactive and dynamic features within an e-
book. This fact makes it also possible to implement a variety
of different types of exercises with very interactive character.
The basic concept of an exercise is similar to the concept
of implementing a dynamic website, due to the equal
technologies that can be utilized. Each exercise consists of
one XHTML file containing the static information entered by
the teacher in the web interface. This XHTML file is
differently structured according to the exercise type. For
each type of exercise there is also an individual JavaScript
file, which is responsible for the interactivity of the
corresponding type of exercise. A second JavaScript file is
used for the common logic and features utilized by all
exercises, for instance the process of sending the results to
the server. The multimedia resources linked to each exercise
are stored in a separate folder inside the EPUB archive. To
represent the e-book with a consistent style, one single CSS
file is included into the e-book to apply the consistent
formatting to every exercise displayed.
Any existing user from the user management database as
well as any anonymous user can use each generated e-book
in general. The disadvantage of an anonymous user is, that
he/she is not possible to save the results of the performed
exercises. This feature is only meaningful for practice or for
teachers to get an overview of the different exercise result
inside an e-book of his/her students. When using an e-book
as registered student, the logic behind the exercises, logs the
time the student needs to absolve each exercise and reports
the time together with the result to the server. The logic for
parsing the necessary data from the result can be found in the
JavaScript files for each exercise type. Through the
Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
differences between the exercise types, these logics vary
from exercise to exercise. The result of a finished exercise is
then converted into JSON data and sent to the server using
an AJAX request.
Although the exercises are not always supported by the
different reader software on different devices, the exercises
are meant to be performed on different systems and different
end devices. Especially the use on mobile devices requires
special handling when it comes to network connection. For
example a developer cannot rely on a working network
connection throughout the total use of the e-book. Due to this
fact, the software makes use of another new feature available
in the EPUB3 standard: The possibility of the usage of the
HTML5 feature to provide local storage, with the idea to
persist data throughout all sessions of an e-book on one
device. This is used by the prototype in order to handle
network errors and is achieved by storing the results, which
could not be transmitted to the server due to a network error,
in the HTML5 local storage. After finishing the next
exercise, the logic in the background retries to send the
previously failed to send results to the cloud. This will be
executed regardless, if the logged in user changed in-

1) Types of exercise
This section explains the different implementations of the
different exercise types. All different types of exercises are
created without any information about the correct answers.
Answers to each exercise are recorded separately from the
generated exercises to prevent unintentional disclosure. This
was done intentionally to prevent any cheating throughout all
exercises. This is also the reason for the need of a continuous
network connection after each performed exercise, to store
and evaluate the result of an exercise.

[Insert Fig. 1]
Figure 1. A word search exercise, displayed with the Google Chrome
Readium plugin

The fixed content, which is the same for every type of
exercise, contains the title and the description of the exercise.
Every other content is specific for the different types of
The different types of exercises are based on a previous
research [3] and were chosen according to the reasonableness
and the possibility of implementation. A preliminary study to
this work examines different textbooks for students in
primary schools. Afterwards all kinds of exercise are
collected and summarized to categories [13]. The categories
resulted in seven different types of exercises.

2) True-False exercise
This exercise comprises a number of statements, which
have to be evaluated as correct or incorrect (see Fig 2). This
type of exercise is a very simple one to handle. It consists
just of one HTML form containing the statements and radio
buttons for each of them, for the answer, true or false. The
evaluation of the given answers is also a simple task, as it is
just a comparison between the given answer and the stored
correct answer on the server. Any statement, which was not
answered as true or false, will be rated as false answer.

Figure 2. Example of a true-false exercise

3) Word search exercise
The template for this exercise type is basically a
crossword puzzle. On creation, the width and height of the
crossword grid and the hidden words are entered. When
publishing a word search exercise, the system places the
answer words on randomly chosen positions, with a random
direction (horizontally or vertically). All the other cells in the
crossword grid are filled out with random letters. This
resulting grid is stored to the XHTML file of the exercise.
When loading this page in the e-book, the logic uses these
values to generate a grid with the HTML5 canvas element.
The coordinates of the marked letters by the students will be
stored temporarily in memory in order to relate to them later
for the evaluation of the given answer. The implementation
uses a second canvas element on top of the canvas element
with the grid (with the same size) to make it possible to draw
on it and to connect letters to words (see Fig. 1). Through
this it is also possible to delete drawn lines without altering
the grid of letters. After completion, the coordinates of the
drawn lines are related to the matching letters in the grid. For
connected lines, the letters also get connected together into a
word. These resulting words are used as result of the exercise
and get sent to the server for further evaluation of
correctness. The drawing of the free-hand lines is possible on
desktop PCs as well as on touch-based devices using
different user interaction events (using touch events instead
of mouse click and move events). This makes it possible to
use this type of exercise throughout different types of end

4) Mark word exercises
For this type of exercise, a user has to determine the
incorrect words within a given statement. The creation of
such an exercise comprises the input of the statements and
the selection of the incorrect word. This is done through a
text field and a dynamic drop down field. The drop down
field updates according to the changes in the text field. The
inputted text is split into single words, which are then
available through the drop down.
When publishing such an exercise, the statement is again
split into single words. A HTML span tag in the XHTML
output file surrounds these words. That makes is possible to
handle each word separately in the JavaScript logic. The
logic itself changes, on mouse click, the style of the
Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
corresponding span tag to present the word with or without a
border (for selected or deselected - see Fig. 3). After
completion of the exercise, the selected words are transferred
to the server for further evaluation. These words are then
compared to the previously, during the creation process,
chosen words.

Figure 3. Example of a mark words exercise (one word marked)

5) Match letter exercise
When performing this kind of exercise, the user has to
find hidden keywords using a given alphabet. In this
alphabet one character or digit stands for a letter in the
normal alphabet. For example A = 10, B = 11, C = 12 and so
on (see Fig. 4). The keywords to find are encoded using this
modified alphabet.
The creation process of this exercise type includes
choosing the necessary characters and digits for each letter of
the alphabet and the input of one or more keywords the user
has to find out. This is achieved by a simple HTML form
with text input fields for each letter. After publishing this
kind of exercise, a table with the letters of the alphabet and
the corresponding characters and digits, together with an
input field for each letter for each keyword, is presented to
the user. For evaluation, the entered keywords are compared.

Figure 4. Example of a match letter exercise with an alphabet starting from
10 (=A) to 25 (=Z)
6) Drag and drop exercise
Drag and drop, refers, as the name says, to the process of
dragging an, in this case graphical user interface element,
onto another. The goal of this exercise type is to drag images
onto a background image and find the correct positions (see
Fig. 5). The drag and drop interaction both, during the
creation as well as during performing the exercise, is
achieved using the jQuery extension jQueryUI
( - last access 2014-03-11). This extension
supports the dragging and dropping of HTML elements.
When creating such an exercise, first of all, the teacher
has to select a background image. This image is then
uploaded to the server. After this the teacher can upload
several other images, which are meant to be positioned onto
the background image. The teacher has to specify an area on
the background image using drag and drop, where the correct
position of this image lies. The server stores the coordinates
and size in the cloud. These values are later referred, when
evaluating a student's result. The resulting XHTML for the e-
book then consists of the background image and the result
images, simply using an image tag.
When performing a drag and drop exercise, the exercise
makes use of the jQueryUI drag and drop feature and lets the
user do the positioning of the HTML elements, containing
the images, on the background image. Upon finishing the
exercise, the JavaScript logic calculates the coordinates of
the positioned image elements and sends this information to
the server.
The server uses the coordinates and size of the images
from the result as well as the stored coordinates and sizes for
the correct positions in order to evaluate the result. The
correct result is achieved by calculating the intersection of
the resulting rectangles. This type of exercise is a good
example of what is possible by the interactivity offered by
these new technologies.

[Insert Fig. 5]

Figure 5. The drag and drop exercise showing an image with 2 tiles to

7) Cloze exercise
The cloze exercise contains of statements with gaps in-
between. These gaps need to be filled out by the user, when
performing such an exercise (see Fig. 6).
The creation process is similar to the word search
exercise. The user has to input a statement and has to choose
the gaps with a dynamic drop down field. This field contains
the word from the split statement.
When the learner accomplishes this kind of exercise, the
previously specified gaps are presented using a HTML form
with text input fields. The student has to fill out these fields
correctly in order to successfully complete this exercise.
After completing such an exercise, the filled out text is
transmitted to the server for evaluation and the server logic
compares these answers with the correct answers specified
during creation.

Figure 6. An example of the cloze exercise with definite articles to fill in.

Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
8) Multimedia exercise
The multimedia exercise is the only exercise type, which
has no correct answer and will therefore not be evaluated.
The main purpose of this type of exercise is to give the
student information about a subject or to give a reading or
listening exercise before another exercise.
The multimedia exercise uses the open source software
CKEditor ( - last access 2014-03-12).
This software allows teachers to create HTML code using a
WYSIWYG editor and can be embedded in any HTML
page. For the creation of this exercise, the teacher is able to
enter and format text and multimedia content such as videos,
audio files and images using this editor. The multimedia files
are uploaded to the server and the, in the background, created
HTML code is stored.
During the publishing process, the generated HTML code
and the referred multimedia files are used to create the
corresponding exercise. The only fact mentionable for this
case is that all paths to these referred multimedia files need
to be updated. This is necessary because this files have to be
placed inside the EPUB archive after publishing it and this
path is different from the path, where the files are stored on
the server.
If anyone is viewing the e-book, the multimedia exercise
is presented with the corresponding multimedia content. This
content is shown using the according HTML tags for the
different media type (see Fig. 7). For instance a video tag is
used for video files.
C. Data Pesistence
In order to provide a cloud-based solution for e-learning
under the aspects of learning analytics, all collected,
analyzed and interpreted data needs to be stored centralized.
This is the precondition to use the most important advantage
of such a solution: to access data from nearly everywhere.
The implementation of the prototype uses a database, located
on the server for data persistence. The type of database is a
MySQL database, which is known to offer an easy to use
interface for PHP based software solutions.
This database stores any information entered during the
creation process of an e-book by the teachers as well as the
information generated when performing an exercise by the
learners. Due to the different requirements for the different
exercise types, each type has its own database table for
storing data, which is not common for all exercise types.
This not only applies to the data generated when creating an
exercise, but also to the data created when a learner performs
an exercise. The results differ and therefore also require extra
database tables for persistence. The tables also include the
unique identifiers for the corresponding teacher and learner.

Figure 7. An example of a multimedia exercise containing an image and
formatted text.

D. Results module
1) Actions
The next step, after the teacher is finished with the
creation of his exercises, is to publish the e-book and make it
accessible for his/her students. For this purpose, the
prototype makes use of the data stored for the exercises and
creates the corresponding XHTML files. Afterwards the
necessary folder structure and files used to generate a valid
EPUB 3 e-book are generated. Additionally to the necessary
files for the different exercises and the required files to
describe the EPUB file and its contents, a navigational
document is created based on the different exercise entries.
Through this document the user has the possibility to
navigate to every exercise and to get an overview of all
exercises the e-book contains. Since the content of an EPUB
File is basically a ZIP archive containing XHTML files and
their related resources, the prototype uses again PHP
combined with templates for the corresponding exercises and
other necessary files, in order to create the desirable output
files. These generated files and the associated folder
structure, is then packed into an archive and stored on the
web server. After this process, the implementation offers a
download link to EPUB file respectively the e-book.
To utilize the advantages of digital books over printed
books, it is possible to edit e-books, even after their
exposure. This is done in background by copying all
necessary data from the published e-book and creating a new
e-book with it. Afterwards the teacher is able to edit, add and
delete exercises, just as he/she had created the e-book
manually. Now it is possible again to publish the duplicated
e-book without loosing the original version of it.

2) Objective/Purpose
The primary objective of learning analytics is to collect,
analyze and interpret data generated during the learning
process and to use this interpreted data to help teachers and
students increasing the effectiveness of learning [14]. The
results module of the prototype does the part of interpreting
and presenting the data in order to increase the effectiveness.
It uses the analyzed data generated by a student respectively
his/her done exercises, in order to create a learners interface,
mainly for teachers to view the interpretation of the results.
Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
The exercise results are summarized by the number of
correct and incorrect results and also using the percentages
of the correct and incorrect results in relation to the total
number of exercises performed.
The main purpose of the evaluation module is to show
the final exercise results to the corresponding learner. Any
learner has the possibility to view his/her results of the
exercises and how he/she has performed. The module
displays an overview of all exercises as well as detailed
information on the performance on different e-books and the
associated exercises. Thereby a learner can always keep
track of his/her own performance. Beside the information for
learners, teachers need to get information about how his/her
classes and students are performing.

Figure 8. Result module showing the overview of the results of a class. The
color indicates the performance of each student.

3) Implications
When a teacher logs into the evaluation module, an
overview of all classes he/she is teaching is shown. Based on
those listings it is possible to compare the summarized
results of each class and get a quick general overview about
how each class is performing. From this view on a teacher is
able to navigate to a specific class and gets displayed a list of
all students attending this class with all corresponding
results. In this view the system analyzes the results of each
student and marks them with different colors according to
the overall performance of the student. Therefore a teacher is
able to quickly distinguish between students with good
performance and those who may have problems during
exercises. This assists teachers to recognize those students,
which require support for the upcoming exercises in order to
increase their learning results. A teacher has also the
possibility to get detailed information about the performance
of each student for different e-books and exercises to detect
patterns on where the student is performing good or not so
good. Therefore it is achievable to identify problems in an
early stage of the learning process and there may be enough
time to interfere and support the future process.
Beside the overview of all results ever performed in each
view, it is also possible to apply different kind of filters in
order to get a more granular view on the performed
exercises. These filters are time-based filters and limit the
results for different time spans. For example there is a filter
to include only results of exercises performed in the last
month. This lets learners track the different performances in
a shorter period in order to detect recent changes on the
learning process.
E. Discussion
Finally we like to discuss some important issues:
Learning Analytics can help to improve the learning
process through individualization. For the first time
in mankind each student is able to get an
individualized record and teachers will be able to
assist the learning process individually.
Learning Analytics means data, more exactly really
big data. Nevertheless we have to bear in mind data
security of all personalized data to any time.
The implementation of the electronic exercise books
is based on the EPUB 3 standard and relies on the
support of this standard on the according reading
device. Although most of reading software program
claim to support this standard, it may no be
supported perfectly. For instance the by Apple
developed reading software iBooks officially
supports EPUB 3, but is basically not usable for e-
books generated by the prototype. This is due to the
fact, that iBooks disallows connections to remote
hosts, and therefore will no allow requests to store
results of exercises to the server. The investigation
of the support for EPUB 3 was not part of the
development of this prototype and should be
evaluated in further research.
The new features of the EPUB 3 standard makes it
possible to create interactive exercises for students in nearly
real time. Furthermore the prototype pointed out that the
creation of such an electronic exercise book can be achieved
in a user-friendly way. Therefore it is possible to reach a
wide range of teachers with different professions. Under the
approach of learning analytics in a cloud-based service, the
output of such a solution can help, teachers and students, to
experience learning in a new way.
The prototype is meant to be supported by all reader
software, which support the EPUB 3 standard. It was tested
using the reference implementation of the International
Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF; - last access
2014-03-12), the Google Chrome plugin Readium. Further
tests with different other reader software were not performed
during the implementation of the prototype.
A. Further research work
One aspect for additional work regarding the resulting
prototype would be to evaluate the support on different e-
book readers and reader software. Especially the support of
mobile e-book reading devices would increase the broaden
field of application of the implemented prototype. The usage
of electronic exercise books on tablets and other mobile
devices in classroom would be a good example of use.
Beside this issue, the prototype should also be extended
with additional exercise types. New exercise types with
Draft Originally published in: Ebner, M., Prettenthaler, C., Hamada, M. (2014) Cloud-based service for eBooks using EPUB under the Aspect of Learning
Analytics, Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Symposium on Embedded Multicore/Manycore SoCs, pp. 116-122
interactive behavior could add value to the prototype and can
make it more attractive for the stakeholders.
Furthermore other additional features would be
conceivable, such as providing published exercise books in
another format like a web-based version in HTML. Adding
configurable CSS files or making it possible to choose
between several CSS files can achieve a more individual
look and feel of the resulting exercise book.
Other extensions related to the social interactivity of the
prototype would bring benefits to the system. The possibility
to share e-books with other users can be extended and adding
ratings, comments to e-books and exercises would also add
an extra value to the solution.
Finally the cloud-based system will be brought into
practice and evaluated with teachers as well as learners. It
should be used in different (inter-)national schools with
different teachers. Due to the fact that every teacher is able to
share his/her eBooks with other teachers we expect that the
amount of data will increase over time for further analysis.

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