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VVR 120 Fluid VVR 120 Fluid Mechanics Mechanics

13. Pipe flow I (6.1-6.4, 6.6)


Energy losses in pipe flow
Local energy losses
Pipes connected in series
Exercises: D13, D14, and (D15)
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PIPE FLOW
Flow of water, oil and gas in pipes is of immense
importance in civil engineering:
Distribution of water from source to consumers (private,
municipal, process industries)
Transport of waste water and storm water to recipient via
treatment plant
Transport of oil and gas from source to refineries (oil) or into
distribution networks (gas) via pipelines
Some data from Sweden:
Average water consumption: 330 liters/(person and day)
Purchase cost (Anskaffningsvrde) for water and waste
water pipes: 250 billion SEK
Length of all water pipes put together: 67000 km
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TWO FACTORS OF IMPORTANCE IN DESIGN
OF PIPES
1) Hydraulic transport capacity of the pipe
In a pressurized system the hydraulic transport capacity is a
function of the fall of pressure along the pipe. The fall of pressure is
caused by energy losses in the pipe:
- Energy losses due to friction due to shear stresses along pipe
walls
- Local losses that arises at pipe bends, valves, enlargements,
contractions, etc
2) Strength of pipe usually determined on basis of high and low
pressures in conjunction with flow changes (closing of valve or
pump stop)
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(tryckniv) (tryckniv)
(total energi) (total energi)
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ENERGY LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW
Energy equation:
The objective is to determine a relation between energy losses and
mean velocity in a pipe:
h
friction
= f(V) and h
local
= f(V)
losses
h
g
V
z
p
g
V
z
p
+ + + = + +
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1

local
h
friction
h
losses
h + =
w w
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Energy losses due to friction
Calculated using Darcy Weisbachs formula
(general friction formula for both laminar and turbulent flow;
Eq. 6.12):
h
f
energy loss due to friction over a distance, L (m), along the pipe
f pipe friction factor [f=f(Re, Pipe wall roughness); Fig. 6.10
Moody diagram, laminar flow f = 64/Re; Re = VD/]
D Pipe diameter (m)
V average velocity in the pipe (m/s)
Q flowrate in the pipe (m
3
/s)
2
2
5
2
2
16
2 g
Q
D
L
f h or
g
V
D
L
f h
f f
= =
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D13 Calculate the smallest reliable flowrate that can be pumped
through this pipeline. D = 25 mm, f = 0.020, L = 2 x 45 m,
Vertical distances are 7.5 m and 15 m respectively. Assume
atmospheric pressure 101.3 kPa.
2 2
1 1
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Local energy losses
Minor head losses in pipelines occur at pipe bends, valves
(ventiler), enlargement and contraction of pipe sections, junctions
(knutpunkter) etc.
In long pipelines these local head losses are often minor in
comparison with energy losses due to friction and may be
neglected.
In short pipes, however, they may be greater than frictional losses
and should be accounted for.
Local losses usually result from abrupt changes in velocity leading
to eddy formation which extract energy from the mean flow.
Increase of velocity is associated with small head (energy) losses
and decrease of velocity with large head losses
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Local energy losses (cont.)
Usually it is possible to write local energy losses in pipe flow using the
following formula:
h
local
= local energy loss
K
local
= local loss coefficient (different for different types of losses)
V
2
/(2g) =kinetic energy (velocity head)
g
V
local
K
local
h
2
2
=
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LOCAL ENERGY LOSS - ENLARGEMENT
:
D
2
/D
1
1.5 2.0 2.5 5 10
K
L
0.31 0.56 0.71 0.92 0.98
Loss coefficient, K
L
, for sudden enlargement (V=V
1
):
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ENERGY LOSS FOR OUTFLOW IN RESERVOIR
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LOCAL ENERGY LOSS - CONTRACTION
Loss coefficient
for sudden
contraction
(Franzini and
Finnemore,
1997, V = V
2
):
D
2
/D
1
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
K
L
0.50 0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.28 0.22 0.15 0.06 0.00
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Head loss coefficient for different types of pipe
entrances
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Head loss at smooth pipe bends
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Loss coefficients at right angle bends
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Pipe systems pipes in series
Solution
Energy equation Total head, H = z = h
f1
+ h
f2
+ h
local
Continuity equation Q = Q
1
= Q
2
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D14 Water is flowing. Calculate the gage reading
when V300 is 2.4 m/s. (NOTE El. = elevation)
2 2
1 1
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D15 Calculate magnitude and direction of
manometer reading.