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ABSTRACT

In almost all processes exist in the industry utilizes process control loop systems to ensure

better control and safety of the process. A typical control loop in a process is made up of four

basic control blocks namely the sensor, process, controller and final control element. An open

control loop is where controller is set to manual and closed loop is when controller is in auto

mode. The Automatic control uses algorithm consisting of proportional, integral and derivative.

The objective of the lab work is to perform open loop test, closed loop test, Load disturbance

test and set point test using Foxboro and Emerson controllers systems. The processes which

these test are conducted on are pressure control, level control and flow control. The open loop

curve is obtained and the values of P,I and D are calculated using Ziegler Nichols and cohen

coons tuning rules. The P, I and D values are then used for closed loop test, load disturbance

and set point test. It is found that there still oscillations occur and the value of P needs to be

change to prevent oscillations.

2

CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Process control relates to statistics and engineering used for maintaining the output of a certain

process within the desired range. The term control refers to the regulation of the process.

Process control includes designing process system, identifying instrumentations and also

determining the right parameters for controllers. Types of control system include feedback,

cascade, feed forward and also ratio. In specifying instrumentation, the process is identified

whether involves flow, level, temperature or pressure. Specifying instrumentation also involves

the identification of control valves and also control signals. Selecting right parameters however

involves in either to adjust the proportional (P), integral (I) or the derivative (D) of the control

system. Implementation of process control has the potential to reduce defective products and

also provide precise measurement and control. However, the implementation of process control

requires high cost of instrumentation and not to forget highly trained workers in automation.

Some basic terminologies related to process control are controlled variable or process variable

PV, manipulated variable (MV), set point (SP) and also disturbance or load variable. Process

variable refers to the variable that must be maintained at desired value whereas manipulated

variable refers to the variable used in order to maintain the process variable. Set point refers to

the desired value of process variable. On the other hand, load variable is defined as any

variable that causes the process variable to diverge from its set point. A process control loop

consists of four blocks. The four blocks are controller, final control element, process and sensor.

The controller acts as a brain of the control loop. It performs decision in the control system.

Final control element such as control valve implements the decision performed by the controller.

Sensor acts by transmitting signals obtained from process to the controller.

A feedback control involves a process in which the outcome of an action is fed back to the

controller for corrective measures. On the other hand, cascade control involves inner loop and

outer loop. This type of control functions by the inner loop controller receives its set point from

outer loop controller. Cascade control is mainly used to eliminate effect of disturbance. A feed

forward control is described as a method of control that is based on process model. Its objective

is to deal with disturbance before they affect the controlled variable.

3

As mentioned earlier, a process control loop consists of four control blocks which are controller,

final control element, sensor and process. A system is considered as closed loop system when

all of the four control blocks are connected. This means that, the controller will compare the

controlled variable outcome with the desired set point and will makes necessary changes for

corrective action to the final control element such as control valve. The advantage is that

production can be maximized through the application of automatic closed loop control. Other

than that, the automatic closed loop control can also produce the products at desired standards.

Closed loop system is as shown by the Figure 1.1 below:

Figure 1.1: Closed loop control

However, if any one of the four control blocks is disconnected, the process control loop is the

called open loop system. In an open loop system, the correction of final control element is done

manually by an operator which indicates that the controller has no control over the final control

element. Figure 1.2 below shows an open loop system:

Controller

Final

Control

Element

Process

Sensor

SP

P

PV

MV PV

Sensor

PV

Controller

Final

Control

Element

Process

Operator

SP

P

MV PV

Figure 1.2 : Open loop control

4

PID controller is one of the most common forms of closed loop control. The term PID stands for

proportional, integral and derivative. The controller takes a measured value from a certain

process and compares it with the set point value. The difference between the measured value

and the set point or also known as error signal is then used to adjust the input to the process

so that the measured value will be at the desired set point. Outputs of process can be adjusted

based on history and rate of change of error signal by using PID. PID controllers can be easily

tuned to the desired application. The common PID control equation also referred to independent

gain algorithm is shown below:

CO = K

P

.E + K

I

+ K

D

Where,

CO = Controller Output,

K

P

= Proportional Constant,

K

I

= Integral Constant,

K

D

= Differential Constant,

t = Time

and the error, E is defined as

E = (Process Variable Set Point) (direct action) or,

E = (Set Point Process Variable) (reverse action)

5

An increase in the process measurement of direct acting control loop will cause an increase in

the controller output. Besides the equation shown above, there is another form of PID equation

called the ideal algorithm. The equation for ideal algorithm is as shown below:

CO = K

C

(E +

+ T

D

)

Where,

K

C

= Controller Gain

T

I

= Reset Time

T

D

= Rate Time

Even though the independent gain algorithm equation uses the second time domain whereas

the ideal algorithm equation uses minute time domain, both of the equation are actually the

same with the following conversion:

K

P

= K

C

K

I

= K

C

/ (T

I

. 60)

K

D

= K

C

. T

D

. 60

However, there is another type of PID equation which is shown by the following equation:

CO = K

C

(E +

)(1 + T

D

)

Proportional and integral modes commonly are used as single control modes. However, a

derivative mode is rarely used as single control mode in a control system. Some of the popular

combinations in practical systems are PI and PD control.

6

When parameters of an existing controller have to be tuned, there will be a problem in the

identification of PID controller. Controller structure has to be determined since manufacturers do

not provide data on controller structure whether serial or parallel. Manual tuning of controller

parameters had to be done if they are changed with time. Other than that, manual tuning of

controller parameters also had to be done when change in process parameters occurred.

Manual parameter tuning can be done using trial and error and if rules shown in the table below:

Parameter Speed of Response Stability Accuracy

Increasing K Increases Deteriorate Improves

Increasing K

i

Decreases Deteriorate Improves

Increasing K

d

increases Improves No effect

Table 1.1 : Parameter of K

Unfortunately, if it is not possible to tune the controller parameters using trial and error method,

then it is important to know the controller structure. The controller structure can be identified

using a certain type of reference signal on the controller input and measuring response on the

controller output.

7

CHAPTER 2

2.1 THEORY

2.1.1 Graphical Tangent Method

This method is used in the calculation to find RR and graphically find Td. RR and Td is found on

a process curve graph.

Figure 2.1 : Graphical Tangent Method

Dead time (Td) is the time between the beginning of the open loop test to the foot of the

triangle. The dead time is measured directly on the graph (using ruler).

For Tangent Method, t is equal to Tc which is the time constant of the process. It is from the

front foot of the triangle (after the end of Td) towards the end of the triangle as shown on Figure

2.1. Like Td, Tc is measured the same way on the graph.

PV

i

PV

f

PV

Tangent Line

T

d

t

Time

Time

MV

i

MV

f

MV

8

The response rate, RR is calculated by:

RR = (PV/t)/ MV

Where,

PV = PV

f

PV

i

MV = MV

f

MV

i

2.1.2 Reformulated Tangent Method

Figure 2.2 : Reformulated Tangent Method

PV

i

PV

f

PV

Tangent Line

T

d

t

Time

Time

MV

i

MV

f

MV

a

b

9

Reformulated Tangent Method is an alternative to tangent method and is quite similar. Instead

of calculating the RR using distance by a ruler, reformulated tangent method allows the

calculation in forms of trigonometric functions.

Based on figure 2.2, There are angles and and on the both of the axis there are b and a. b

and a are scaling factors to be used in the calculation of RR.

Dead time, Td is calculated by,

Td(time) = Td(length by ruler) x b

Where,

b = (increment of time on the axis scale)/(length of each interval)

The response rate, RR is,

RR= ((tan )/MV)(a/b)

Time constant, Tc is,

Tc(time) = Tc(length) x b

10

2.1.3 Discrete Tangent Method

Figure 2.3 : Discrete Tangent Method

Some data are in the forms of numerical and tables. In discrete tangent method, calculation of

response rate RR, dead time Td and time constant Tc to be calculated for numerical data. This

numerical method requires no measuring on graphs but requires numerical calculation from the

data tables obtained from the process. Figure 2.3 shows what the graph looks like if plotted from

the data tables.

To calculate response rate,

RR = (PV

1

PV

-1

)/2hMV

The time constant, Tc,

Tc = 2h [(PV

f

PV

i

)/(PV

1

-PV

-1

)]

The dead time Td,

Td = t

1

2h [(PV

1

PV

i

)/(PV

1

-PV

-1

)]

PV

i

PV

f

Time

(T

d

, PV

i

)

(T

d

, PV

i

)

Tangent

Line

h

PV-

1

PV

o

PV

1

t

-1

t

-o

t

1

11

2.1.4 Ziegler-Nichols Tuning rules

In Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules, only requires values of RR and Td. These values are the ones

calculated from tangent, reformulated tangent or discrete tangent method. Performance tests

are in terms of set point and load disturbance.

Below is a table for calculating respective values of P,I and D.

Mode P I D

P 3.33RRTd

PI 111.1RRTd 3.33Td

PID 83.3RRTd 2Td 0.5Td

Table 2.1 : PID tunes

2.1.5 Cohen-Coon Tuning Rules

Another Tuning rule is Cohen-Coon Tuning rules. For this tuning rules require values of RR, Td

and Tc. Performance test is in terms of load disturbance variable.

Mode P I D

P [100/(1+/3)]RRTd

PI [100/(1+/11)]RRTd 3.33[(1+/11)/(1+11/5)]Td

PID [100/1.35(1+/5)]RRTd 2.5[(1+/5)/(1+3/5)]Td 0.37Td/(1+/5)

Table 2.2 : PID tunes

12

2.2 PROCEDURE

2.2.1 DCS Delta-V Emerson (FLOW)

2.2.1.1 Liquid Flow Plant

Open Loop Test for FIC21

1. The Liquid Flow Plant, FIC21 was selected.

2. After the overall diagram of the plant has opened, the controller of FIC21 was double

clicked to open the faceplate.

3. The Process History View was clicked to see the trend of the process.

4. The process need to be stabilized in manual.

5. The initial value of MV was recorded and the step change of 10% was taken.

6. After the response has reached the steady state, the response graph was printed and

calculation for obtaining the RR, t

d

and t

c

.

7. The calculated value of PI controller was obtained by using Ziegler-Nichols and Cohen-

Coon method.

Closed Loop Test for FIC21

1. The controller was set to auto mode.

2. The detail icon was clicked at the faceplate in order to set the controller setting.

3. The calculated value of Gain, K

c

and Reset, I was entered in the detail.

4. After the response has reached the steady state, the value of the optimum PI controller

was recorded.

5. Load disturbance test was done by turn the process into Manual mode and make a step

change of MV by 10% for three second and change into Auto mode again.

6. After the process has stabilized, the process response after changed the MV was

observed.

7. The set point test was done by adding the previous set point with 10% from total value

which is 0.6m

3

/h.

8. After the process response has reached the steady state, the response was observed.

9. Both graph for load disturbance test and set point test was printed.

13

2.1.1.2 Gas Pressure Control Plant

Open Loop Test for PIC92

1. The Liquid Flow Plant, PIC92 was selected.

2. After the overall diagram of the plant has opened, the controller of PIC92 was double

clicked to open the faceplate.

3. The Process History View was clicked to see the trend of the process.

4. The process need to be stabilized in manual.

5. The initial value of MV was recorded and the step change of 10% was taken.

6. After the response has reached the steady state, the response graph was printed and

calculation for obtaining the RR, t

d

and t

c

.

7. The calculated value of PI controller was obtained by using Ziegler-Nichols and Cohen-

Coon method.

Closed Loop Test for FIC21

1. The controller was set to auto mode.

2. The detail icon was clicked at the faceplate in order to set the controller setting.

3. The calculated value of Gain, K

c

and Reset, I was entered in the detail.

4. After the response has reached the steady state, the value of the optimum PI controller

was recorded.

5. Load disturbance test was done by turn the process into Manual mode and make a step

change of MV by 10% for three second and change into Auto mode again.

6. After the process has stabilized, the process response after changed the MV was

observed.

7. The set point test was done by adding the previous set point with 10% from total value

which is 2.5 psig

8. After the process response has reached the steady state, the response was observed.

9. Both graph for load disturbance test and set point test was printed.

2.1.2 DCS FOXBORO

Open Loop Test for LIC31

1. The Level Control Plant, (WLF922) was selected.

2. LIC31 was selected for the control loops.

14

3. For viewing the trending, the step are by clicking the File>Additional FoxView>Change

Env(The environment was change to operator).

4. Double clicked at the controller at the new windows of WLF922, then trend button was

clicked.

5. The process response was stabilized by setting the process in Auto mode.

6. The initial value of MV was recorded.

7. The process was changed to manual mode and step change of 10% of MV from the

initial was done.

8. After the slope can be calculated, the process was changed to Auto mode again.

9. The data for the process was printed by selecting the AIM Historian Data Display and

desired data was tagged which are SP, PV and MV.

10. Numerical analysis was done to obtain the data of RR, t

d

and t

c

.

11. The determination of PI controller setting was calculated using the Ziegler-Nichols

method.

Closed Loop Test for LIC31

1. After the calculated value of PI was done, the value then were inserted into the controller

setting of PB and I.

2. After the response has reached the steady state, the optimum controller setting were

recorded.

3. The load disturbance test was done by changing the process response into Manual

mode and change 10% of the current value was done for three seconds and set to Auto

again.

4. The response was observed until it stabilized.

5. The set point test was done by adding the previous value set point with 10% of total

value which is 80m

3

/h.

6. The response was observed until it stabilized.

7. The process response than was printed by following the step

START>Program>HyperSnap-DX>HyperSnap-DX>Capture>Active Window.

8. The trending active window was selected and then the image was inverted to black and

white. The process response than was printed.

15

CHAPTER 3

3.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1.1 Flow controller

Td

Time constant, Tc

Tc =

Response rate, RR

RR =

=

3.1.1.1 Optimum controller setting ( Ziegler-Nichols method)

P = 111.1 RR Td

= 111.1 0.792 0.6

= 52.795 %

I = 3.33 Td

= 3.33 0.6

= 1.998 s

MV

i

: 60 % PV

i

: 64.5 %

MV

f

: 65 % PV

f

: 74 %

MV : 5 % PV : 9.5 %

a : 5 %/14 mm b : 60 s/50 mm

16

3.1.1.2 Optimum controller setting ( Cohen-Coon method)

P =

= 46.46 %

I = [

]

= [

]

= 2.03 s

3.1.1.3 Open loop test

For flow control, the system is self regulating. This means that the system must be carried in

MAN mode. After the process has been stabilized, change to MAN mode and make a step

change to the MV value. In this case, the MV is changed from 60 % to 65 %. P+I mode is

chosen because the process is fast and no further adjustments need to be made. The process

slope can be used to calculate the time constant, dead time and response rate. These values

are important for calculation of P and I in closed loop test.

Figure 3.1: Open Loop

17

3.1.1.4 Closed loop test

The closed loop test is done by using the value of P and I calculated from two methods, Ziegler-

Nichols and Cohen Coon method.

Figure 3.2 : Ziegler-Nichols method

Figure 3.3 : Ziegler-Nichols method

18

- Ziegler-Nichols

o For Delta-V Emerson model, Kc value is used instead of P value. Kc value can

be calculated by Kc=100/P.

o After the Kc and I value are inserted, the process looks oscillatory and the value

of Kc need to be changed. The value of Kc is reduced 4 times by dividing the

value by 4 each time. Then, the process starts to move towards set point.

o The load disturbance test is done in MAN mode and quickly back into AUTO

mode after changing the MV value. The response is fast and moving towards set

point because the value of Kc and I are accurate.

o The same goes for set point test and shown no oscillations or errors.

Figure 3.4 : Cohen coon method

Figure 3.5 : Cohen coon method

19

- Cohen-Coon

o After the value of Kc and I are inserted, there is one oscillation and the process

moving right towards the set point after that. This shown that there is no need to

change the value of Kc and I because the process has stabilized quite fast.

o The load disturbance test shown that the process response oscillates once

before it move towards the set point.

o The set point test shown that the process oscillates a few times but it is normal

because the set point is changed and the original values of Kc and I for previous

set point is not the same as the new one. Every set point has its own Kc and I

values.

20

3.1.2 Pressure Controller

MV

i

: 65 % PV

i

: 76 %

MV

f

: 70 % PV

f

: 82 %

MV : 5 % PV : 9.5 %

a : 10%/17 mm b : 15 s/11 mm

t

d

= 2mm x 15s/11mm t

c

= 9mm x 15s/11mm

= 2.723 s = 12.273 s

By using tangent method, t

c

= t

RR =

= 0.0978 s

-1

3.1.2.1 Optimum Controller Setting Based on Ziegler-Nichols

P = 111.1RRt

d

= (111.1)(0.0978 s

-1

)(2.723 s)

= 29.587

I = 3.33t

d

= (3.33)(2.723 s)

= 9.068 s

3.1.2.2 Optimum Controller Setting Based on Cohen-Coon

= t

d

/t

c

= 2.723 / 12.273

= 0.222

P =

= 26.137 I = 3.33(

)(t

d

) = 6.224 s

21

3.1.2.3 Open Loop Test

For this test, the controller has no effect towards the final control element where the adjustment

must be done by the operator in order to see the differences. For gas pressure, the process

behaviour is self-regulating and fast response which means that it can stabilize by itself and

have the final steady state fast.

The P+I mode was choose due to the fast response of the process. Thus, the calculation for P

and I must be done for fine tuning process in closed loop test and the manipulated variable, MV

was change to + 10% because to get the optimum PID calculation.

The analysing for the response rate, RR, dead time, t

d

, and constant time, t

c

, were done

because these three are the important parameter for optimum controller setting.

Figure 3.6 : Open Loop

22

3.1.2.4 Closed Loop Test

In the closed loop test, the parameter that been change is the gain, K

c

and the derivative, I. K

c

was obtain from 100/P.

Figure 3.7 : Ziegler-Nichols method

Figure 3.8 : Ziegler-Nichols method

23

- Ziegler-Nichols

o No fine tuning need to be done because the calculated K

c

and I make the process

move towards set point.

o The load disturbance test required by changing the MV to 10% for three seconds

which is from 42% to 52%. The response was underdamped before it moves toward

the set point. The time taken for it to stabilize at the set point was fast and shows that

the calculated K

c

and I were right because short time was taken to stabilize the

response and move towards set point.

o The set point test was done two times because the change in the first set point test

was small. The changes of the set point should be done by 10% of total of set point

which is 25 psig. The changes for the first set point test did not give difference

between before the set point test done. Thus, second set point test was done from

11 to 13.5 psig. The response shows that the PV was oscillate around the set point

line. This shows presence value of K

c

and I was not suitable for the new set point

thus new value of K

c

and I need to be calculated.

Figure 3.9 : Cohen Coon method

24

Figure 3.10 : Cohen Coon method

- Cohen-Coon

o Fine tuning was done for the process the response was oscillate rapidly where

the value of K

c

were divided 4 three time before it reach the set point.

o The load disturbance test where 10% difference of MV which is from 55% to 65%

shown that the response underdamped before it move towards the set point. The

length of time taken for the response to settle at the set point was about 1 minute

and 20 seconds. This is because, the response is self-regulated and stabilise by

itself.

o The set point test was done by change 10% from the total set point which is 6

m3/h. The response show same condition when using the Ziegler-Nichols

calculation to calculate the P and I. The process oscillate when the set point was

changed and it done not stabilize at the set point. Though the response is self-

regulated, the entered value of K

c

and I did not move the response towards set

point. This shows that new value of K

c

and I need to be obtained for the process

to become stable at the set point.

25

3.1.3 Level controller

Time (s) MV (%) PV (mm) PV (%) Response

rate (s

-1

)

0 24.09 426.88 53.36

0

1 34.00 425.17 53.15

-0.042

2 34.00 423.53 52.94

-0.031

3 34.00 422.73 52.84

-0.003

4 34.00 423.28 52.91

0.012

5 34.00 423.69 52.96

0.011

6 34.00 424.16 53.02

0.009

7 34.00 424.38 53.05

0.012

8 34.00 425.11 53.14

0.012

9 34.00 425.36 53.17

0.011

10 34.00 425.98 53.25

0.008

11 34.00 425.98 53.25

0.011

12 34.00 426.88 53.36

0.02

13 34.00 427.56 53.45

0.013

14 34.00 427.92 53.49

0.006

15 34.00 428.05 53.51

0.009

16 34.00 428.64 53.58

0.014

17 34.00 429.23 53.65

0.013

18 34.00 429.66 53.71

0.006

19 34.00 429.66 53.71

0.009

20 34.00 430.41 53.80

0.015

21 34.00 430.84 53.86

0.013

22 34.00 431.45 53.93

0.011

23 34.00 431.77 53.97

0.013

24 34.00 432.50 54.06

0.018

25 34.00 433.22 54.15

0.014

26 34.00 433.56 54.20

0.006

27 34.00 433.69 54.21

-5.42

26

To change PV (mm) to PV (%)

=

Response rate, RR

RR =

RR

1

=

= -0.042

From the table, notice that RR increases until time = 8 s, then it keeps decreasing. Response

rate for this process is taken at maximum RR

RR

max

= RR

4

= 0.012 s

-1

Dead time, Td

Td = [

]

= [

]

= 11.67 s

MV

i

: 24.09 % SP : 400 mm

MV

f

: 34.00 % PV

T

: 800 mm

MV : 9.91 % PVi : 53.36 %

h : 1 s PVf : 54.21 %

27

Time constant, Tc

Tc = [

]

= [

]

= 14.17 s

3.1.3.1 Optimum controller setting ( Ziegler-Nichols method)

P = 111.1 RR Td

= 111.1 0.012 11.67

= 15.56 %

I = 3.33 Td

= 3.33 11.67

= 38.86 s

3.1.3.2 Open loop test

For level control, the system is a non self regulating. So to stabilize the process, it must be

changed to MAN mode. Once the process stabilized, change the MV and in our case the MV is

changed from 24 % to 34 %. Short time after that, change the process back to AUTO mode.

The set of data from the time of change of the MV is collected for further calculations. From the

numerical data, dead time (Td), response rate (RR) and time constant (Tc) can be calculated.

The maximum response rate is obtained at time, T: 4 seconds. This means that after 4 seconds

the process slope move downwards for the first time after moving upwards.

28

Figure 3.11 : Open Loop

29

3.1.3.3 Closed loop test

The closed loop test is done by using Ziegler-Nichols method to find the value of proportional, P

and integral, I. The Cohen-Coon method is not used for closed loop test in Foxboro model. For

Foxboro model, the P value can be directly inserted because Kc value is not used. After the

value of P and I have been inserted, the process shown no oscillations and directly stabilized.

This means the value of P and I are accurate for the process and no further adjustments

needed. For set point and load disturbance test, the process is not oscillatory and move towards

set point.

Figure 3.11

30

CHAPTER 4

4.1 CONCLUSION

Based on the tests for open loop, self regulating system must be run in manual mode and left to

become stable in order to calculate time constant, dead time and response rate. Self regulating

systems are pressure and flow. For non-self regulating system which is the level controller, the

system is left in manual mode until slope can be calculated from the graph. Basically, Open loop

test helps to determine values P and I for the closed loop test.

After the closed loop tests, it was found that there are still oscillations occur even after the P and

I values are calculated using different tuning rules. The oscillations can be reduced by

manipulating the values of P and I. This is called fine tuning. The value of P is decreased by

dividing by 4 until the oscillations reduced. The Value of I is increased by multiplying by 4 to

further decrease the oscillations. Level and pressure control in this test have no oscillations from

the P and I calculated while flow does have oscillations and require fine tuning.

For Load Disturbance test, Level and flow controller process have no oscillations occur which

shows correct values of P and I. Pressure controller however, appears to be underdamped

before process reaches set point therefore, the P and I values may not be accurate. From Set

point tests, flow and level have no oscillations but pressure have oscillation and its Kc must be

changed.

31

4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Calculation of RR should be four or more decimal places. This may give more accurate

data and leads to better values of P, I and D.

2. The eyes position when measuring the distance on the graph for Td and Tc must be

perpendicular to the ruler to avoid parallax error.

3. While fine tuning, if process oscillates, adjust the P (by dividing by 4). If oscillation

persists, keep reducing the P.

4. It is recommended to adjust P and I values one by one not simultaneously. Adjusting P

and I simultaneously can lead to worst oscillation of the process or even leads to offset.

5. There are other methods for RR and Td calculation for the open loop such as

Reformulated Tangent Method. These methods could also be used and compared with

the current method used in this experiment so that the data could be more feasible

32

REFERENCES

Abdul Aziz Ishak & Zalizawati Abdullah. (2014). PID TUNING Fundamental Concepts

and Application. UITM Press.

H. Bischoff*, D.Hoffmann*, E.V.Terzi. (1997). Process Control System, Control of

Temperature, Flow and Filling Level. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

Basso, Christophe (2012). "Designing Control Loops for Linear and Switching Power

Supplies: A Tutorial Guide". Artech House, ISBN 978-1608075577

Liu, Jie; Wang, Golnaraghi, Kubica (2010). "A novel fuzzy framework for nonlinear

system control".Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (21): 2746 2759.doi: 10.1016/j.

fss.2010.04.009

Blanke, M.; Kinnaert, M.; Lunze, J.; Staroswiecki, M. (2006), Diagnosis and

Fault-Tolerant Control (2nd ed.), Springer

Bennett, Stuart (1993). A history of control engineering, 1930-1955. IET. p. p. 48.

ISBN 978-0-86341-299-8.

Salgado, Graham C. Goodwin, Stefan F. Graebe, Mario E. (2001). Control System

Design. Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice Hall. p. 21. ISBN 0139586539.

Avery, P. (2009). Introduction to PID control. Retrieved at May 20, 2014 from

http://machinedesign.com/sensors/introduction-pid-control

Richie, G. (2011). The Process Control Loop. Retrieved at May 24, 2014 from

http://proconsol.wordpress.com/category/final-control-element/

Ishak, A. A. (n.d). Chemical Process Control. Retrieved at May 27, 2014 from

http://aabi.uitm.edu.my/cpe562/

33

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